Chapter Three

The New World

Again, my thanks to all of those sources provided by the Internet and used in this chapter.

La Influencia de España has been in North America for several centuries. Yet, most Americans know little of Spain’s role in the settling of the Spanish New World. The exploration of these lands and their settlement were but a few of the contributions made by Spain and its people. One can only surmise that this is due to Spanish history being so long neglected in the United States. Unfortunately, it may also be due to the Anglophile nature of its people who for so long have admired Britain, its people, and culture and celebrated it to the near exclusion of all others.

Before we proceed with our discussion of the New World we must stop and reflect upon how these Old World Iberians, soon to become Spaniards, evolved. Around 2000 BC the first people to appear in the Iberian Peninsula were called Iberians. Originally they came from the south of Africa (Libya). These are accepted by historians as the native people of what is now called Spain.

Next to arrive in Iberia were the Celts from around 900 to 500 B.C. They were a typically Aryan people. These moved into Spain during the 8th to 6th centuries B.C. Before the expansions of Ancient Rome and the Germanic tribes, a significant part of Europe was dominated by Celtic culture.

They were followed by the Phoenicians. These came from the Eastern Shore of the Mediterranean Sea, modern day Lebanon. Their land was arid and inhospitable for farming. So they turned to the sea for food and eventually commerce. They became the greatest travelers and traders of their time. Phoenicians extended their influence across North Africa and settled Carthage in the modern nation of Tunisia.

Then the Greek settlers came in 350 B.C. to what they called Hesperia (to the west), later Spain. They founded several towns including Rosas, Ampurias and Sagunto. Ancient Greece was one of the largest contributors to present-day civilization. Democracy, philosophy, astrology, biology, mathematics, physics, and theatres are only a few of its contributions to us.

The Carthaginians arrived in Iberia before 238B.C. Carthage would eventually fight and lose three brutal wars against its rival, the city of Rome, Italy. These wars were known as the Punic Wars because Punica was the Roman name for Carthage. Once entering Spania, as they called Spain, the Phoenicians struggling against the Greeks. As a result, they called upon their Carthaginian brothers. Earlier these had lost the First Punic War against Rome when the Roman navy surprised that sea trading people in 238B.C. Stripped of its land and rights in Sicily, Carthage sought a place to expand, Iberia was that place.

The Roman presence in Iberia (Hispania) would last for seven centuries (218 B.C.-410 A.D.) During this time the basic frontiers of the Peninsula in relation to other European countries would be shaped. Many permanent towns were established in Iberia for its retired soldiers and their families. The Romans left a legacy of social and cultural characters such as the family, language, religion, law and municipal government, and the assimilation of which definitively placed the Peninsula within the Greco-Latin and later the Judeo-Christian worlds.

The Roman presence in the Peninsula followed the route of the Greek commercial bases; however, it commenced with a struggle between itself and Carthage for the control of the western Mediterranean during the 2nd Century B.C. In any case, it was at that time that the Peninsula would enter as an entity in the international political circuit then in existence, and from then on became a coveted strategic objective due to its singular geographic position between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and also for its agricultural and mineral wealth in its southern areas.

Rome and her great power inevitably conqueror Iberia. It took them 200 years (218 19 B.C.) to conquer all of Spain. Hispania (Spain) was subdued by Rome in the 1st and 2nd centuries B.C.

By 209 B.C., with the decline of Hannibal's army in Italy began the great Roman conquest of Spain. Rome annexes the country and divides it into two provinces:

  • Hispania Citerior
  • Hispania Ulterior

For the most part, Rome conquered Iberia by 206 B.C. After that time, only a few northern Iberian tribes remained free. She would defeat the remaining warrior tribes by the time most of Spain was conquered. The peoples of note left to be defeated were the Proto-Celts and Galicians.

By 409 A.D., the Germanic tribes conquered the Romans and held the Iberian Peninsula for three hundred years. They overcame all of the other tribes that had been long established on the Peninsula before them. The most notable, the Visigoths, traced their origins to the ancient Gothic homelands in Scandinavia and northern Poland. These were a strong and fierce people. Their legacy in Iberia was the Visigothic code of law, the Liber iudiciorum, which served, among other things, as the basis for court procedure in most of Christian Iberia until the Late-Middle Ages, centuries after the demise of the kingdom. As the centuries past the Visigoths integrated the other tribes into their sphere of power and culture. The Spanish Christian kingdoms recognize their beginnings them. It is from the far northern reaches of Iberia that the future Conquistadores would come. First, they would reconquer Iberia and then conquer the New World. But first the Germanic tribes would have to meet their betters.

By now it must be clear to the reader that a Spaniard is not simply the result of one homogeneous Iberian group or tribe. Instead, these future Spaniards were comprised of many separate Iberian pre-Spain geographic tribes. Each had its own physical appearance (Height, eye, skin, and hair color, etc.), different cultures, and ethos. They had arrived on the Peninsula at different times and morphed over generations into what one calls a Spaniard today. This transformation took many, many centuries. The Iberians to this point in time were regionalized peoples composed of tribes which had undergone little cross-tribal integration. Each had its own geography, weather conditions, fauna, commerce, travel routes, natural resources, and unique set of problems of governance. And given the technology of the period little travel was done by the average Iberian. They knew only their village and possibly the safety of a precious few miles surrounding that place.

Over a period of centuries the Germanic Visigoths emerged as the leading tribe of the Peninsula. In 710 A.D., a part of the Visigothic aristocracy violently raised Roderic King of the Visigoths to the throne, triggering a civil war with the supporters of King Wittiza and his sons. The enemies of King Roderic invited a Muslim army to cross the Straits of Gibraltar and face him at the Battle of Guadalete. The defeat was the end of Roderic and of the Visigothic rule of the Peninsula. This would have profound consequences for the whole of the Iberian Peninsula.

By 711, the Rise of African Moors and Islam in Iberia had begun. These Muslim peoples of North Africa (Arabs and Berbers) invaders were troops with a great deal of religious fervor. After crossing the Strait of Gibraltar and defeating the Christian Visigoths at the battle of Guadalete they slowly pushed them back toward the mountains of north and northwest Spain. As a result, Visigothic power survived only in the northern independent Christian kingdom of Asturias, Spain. Separated from its surroundings by the Cantabrian Mountains, the autonomous region of Asturias remained isolated and independent from the rest of Spain.

The Moors then began to digest almost the complete peninsula. It is important to remember that once the Islamic hordes swept out of Africa from across the Gibraltar straits, within seven years these Africans had conquered all but the northwest Spanish coastal region. These same invaders marched across the Pyrenees into France until finally being halted by Christian warriors. Spain and all Christianity found itself under siege and warring with a fierce and well-trained army of religious fanatics bent on the complete destruction of Christian Europe. These Moors were a determined lot, having entered Spain to stay and make slaves of the Christian Iberian peoples of that day.

It was from these northern Christian kingdoms that the Iberian eventually became the Spaniard. The Kingdom of Asturias flourished until the 10th Century and later became the base for the 800 year complete Iberian Christian reconquest of Spain in 1492. The Christian kingdoms rallied against overwhelming odds, fought for almost eight centuries, and were ultimately victorious over the Africans. With each successive victory, the extreme end of the Christian Kingdoms expanded into an enlarged Christian Iberia. The Christians would then repopulate each of the areas taken in order to once again consolidate control.

The Spanish character was formed by the almost constant bloody warfare with the Africans and the slavery of Christians that Islam brought about. Make no mistake about it, Islam was and is a religion of non-tolerance. By virtue of its Koran it knows only war, bloodshed, conquest, and demands the complete submission of all Non-Muslims. In the end, it kills and/or enslaves all who resist. The Christian Iberians knew and understood this above all else. This was the driving force behind the Christian reconquest of Iberia. It was either be victorious over the African Muslims or be enslaved by them. With Islam, there could be no middle ground for tolerance or understanding of other religions.

The Reconquista of Iberia in the 8th-15th centuries in great part helped form the Spanish Psyche, however, the idea of the Reconquista as a single process spanning eight centuries would be historically naive. It should be understood that the Christian realms in northern Spain and France warred against one another for the purpose of consolidation of power and dominance on the Peninsula while they also fought against the African Muslims to remove them from Spain.

Why is this important? It is the history of that place, Spain, which left an indelible mark upon the psyche of these Reconquistadores, their culture, and institutions. It is these finely etched beliefs and world view which they would later transplant from the Old World to the New World.

Here it should be noted that as modern citizens of nation-states, we find it difficult to understand such religious fervor. We view conflicts primarily as disagreements between nations not personalities or religions. The fact remains that how we view a conflict and what actually underpins it are not necessarily based upon our understanding or logic. Religion can be a very powerful force and at times overshadow all other aspects of normal human disagreement. In fact, it can become the embodiment of those disagreements to the extent that it is the major disagreement. This became the case on the Iberian Peninsula. African Islam made its way to European Iberia to dominate, enslave, and eradicate Christianity.

What the Spaniards lacked for many hundreds of years was national unity. The very end of the 15th Century saw the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon united under Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon establishing a joint rule. They worked to consolidate the power of the monarchy at the expense of the resistant Spanish nobility. During their reign, the castles of many nobles (symbols of aristocratic independence from the monarchy) were demolished and a system of regular taxation was established. With political and economic controls established, they were ready for their next task.

Despite the infighting among and within the Spanish Christian kingdoms, the Spanish monarchs had managed to drive the African Moors from their lands. Roman Catholic religious purity for Spain was the next goal for the "Catholic Monarchs" (Reyes Católicos). Under their rule and those that followed the Jews and Muslims were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula and conditions were set for a one-religion Spanish kingdom and peninsula. As a result of their single-minded efforts, Ferdinand and Isabella had established the basis for the unification of Spain. It was politically, economically, and religiously one kingdom.

By this time, Aragon was already an important maritime power in the Mediterranean and Castile was in competition with Portugal for domination of the Atlantic Ocean. Spain had some knowledge of the sea and it wanted to reach the riches of Asia by a sea route. The Monarchs would rather do this than depend on the dangerous, costly, and lengthy ancient land-based trade routes through the hostile Islamic Middle East. There Islam was continuing its purge and subjugation of Christians. The basis for exploration was set by these conditions.

Portugal had begun exploring, charting, and sailing in the open Atlantic Ocean via the use of nautical instruments, in the early-15th Century (Around 4010). When Spain finally made its first voyage of exploration Portugal had already explored and charted the whole of the African west coast. It had discovered dozens of islands in the North and South Atlantic (Well before the 1400's Portuguese ships had discovered the Azores which are halfway to America). They had reached as far west as the Sargasso Sea (A few hundred miles from America). By 1488, Bartolomeu Dias discovered and revealed to the World that it was possible to sail around Africa, opening the sea route to Asia, which Portugal was to control over the next 150 years. Thus, the race for control of the seas was on.

The newly minted Spaniards were still a disparate lot. Most viewed themselves as regional entities of Iberia, geographically and culturally different and apart. Thus, those who entered the service of the Monarchs to travel to the New World came from many parts of a newly created Spain.

It is believed by many that the majority of Spanish New World explorers came from the Extremadura region in the western part of Spain, although this is not the case. However, many of its leaders were from there. Extremadura is from Latin words meaning literally "outermost hard", the outermost secure border (the march) of an occupied territory. Extremadura is an autonomous community of western Spain whose capital city is Mérida. Its component provinces are Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by Portugal to the west. To the north it borders Castile and León (provinces of Salamanca and Ávila); to the south, it borders Andalusia (provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba); and to the east, it borders Castile–La Mancha (provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real). Its official language is Spanish.

Today's Autonomous Community of Extremadura was part of Lusitania, an ancient Roman province. It approximately includes current day Portugal (except for the northern area today known as Norte Region) and a central western portion of the current day Spain. The Romans expanded this kingdom westward, the territory containing some of what is now Portugal and western Spain, including Extremadura. Its strategic location was of such importance to the Empire that a great many structures were erected throughout the various provinces. Mérida (Now capital of Extremadura) was built around 30 B.C. when the legions occupied the city and the rest of Western Europe and is relatively well preserved. It became the capital of the Roman province of Lusitania, and one of the most important cities in the Roman Empire.

At one time it was part of an important province of the ancient Roman Empire; Extremadura Spain is now the home of an immense number of Roman ruins in Spain, especially in Merida, the capital city of the region. Originally founded by the Romans, Caceres Spain is the capital city of the province of the same name within Extremadura.

The Romans founded and settled Mérida in 25 B.C. with the name of Emerita Augusta by Emperor Octavian Augustus. Augustus invited his retired emeritus soldiers discharged from the Roman army to settle at Augusta Emerita. The Latin term meaning emeritus "retired" and referred to the soldiers retired with honor. Its citizens were assigned to the tribe Papiria. Thus began a period of great splendor reflected in their magnificent buildings, the theater, amphitheater, circus, temples, bridges and aqueducts. These were two veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars: Legio V Alaudae and Legio X Gemina. These legions were located in the existing pre-Roman village in exchange for giving them the status of Roman citizens to the old settlers. The city was the capital of the Roman province of Lusitania. For centuries and until the fall of Western Roman Empire, Merida was a center of legal, economic, military, cultural and one of the most flourishing towns in Roman times, that Ausonius cataloged ninth among the most prominent of the Empire (including but ahead of Athens) and in the 3rd Century it became the capital of the Diocese Hispaniarum.

Merida was created especially for these soldiers of the Roman Empire to stay there in order to secure the Roman occupancy in Western Europe. Visiting Merida truly feels like travelling through the time. Merida is history revived due to the ancient archaeological excavations. You can walk the long way from the amphitheatre to the Roman theatre. Sculptures of former emperors were all headless, so they just needed to build the head for the statue of the next emperor who had died. A 17 meter high stage area encloses the backstage room. It is erected in marble that originated from Portugal. At this place 2,000 years ago, actors performed comedies for the Roman legionnaires sitting comfortably in the auditorium.

The climate of Extremadura is Mediterranean, except to the north, where it is continental, and to the west, where the influence of the Atlantic makes the climate milder. In general, it’s characterized by its very hot and dry summers, with great droughts, and its long and mild winters due to the oceanic influence because of its proximity to the Atlantic coast of Portugal.

The yearly temperature fluctuates between an average minimum of 4 °C and an average maximum of 33 °C. In the north of Extremadura, the average temperatures are lower than those in the south, with temperatures gradually rising south towards the Sierra Morena, where they drop because of the altitude. During the summer, the average temperature in July is greater than 26 °C, at times reaching 40 °C. The winters are mild with the lowest temperatures being registered in the mountainous regions, with an average temperature of 7.5 °C. The average snowfall is 40 cm mainly occurring in January and February.

During the Andalusian period as of 711, present-day Extremadura was on the north-western marches. It was part of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba, but after its definite collapse in 1031 the Caliphate fragmented into small regional kingdoms, and the lands of Extremadura were included in the Taifa of Badajoz on two taifa periods. The kingdom in turn broke up twice under Almoravid and Almohad push (1094 and 1151). After the Almohad disaster in Navas de Tolosa (1212), Extremadura fell to the Spanish troops led by Alfonso IX of León in approx. 1230.

King Ferdinand II of Aragon died in the village of Madrigalejo, Cáceres, in 1516. Pedro de Valdivia founded numerous cities in Chile (The New World) with names from small villages in Extremadura, such as Valdivia and La Serena. The capital Santiago de Chile was founded as "Santiago de Nueva Extremadura" (Santiago of New Extremadura).

The Extremaduran population, according to the 1591 census of the provinces of the Kingdom of Castile, was around 540,000 people, making up 8% of the total population of Spain. No other census was performed until 1717, when 326,358 people were counted as living in Extremadura.

While the influence of the Extremadurans was strong and undeniable, it should be noted that only 19 percent of the New World conquistadors were from the Extremadura while a larger part were from Andalusia. The makeup of each expedition was similar, with an average of 30 percent from the southern Spanish kingdom of Andalusia, 19 percent from the Extremadura, 24 percent from the core kingdoms of Old and New Castile, and the remainder from other regions in the Iberian Peninsula. Other Europeans were restricted to the odd Portuguese, Genoese, Flemish, or Greek man.

Extremadura was and is, the least favored economically of the Spanish regions. For centuries, the lack of opportunities turned this land into a source of emigrants to other Spanish regions and to the rest of the world. For many years, the Extremadura region was the border region between Christian and Moorish Spain. As a result, their inhabitants were quite literally "living on the edge." As a result, they produced a large number of so-called "desperado" type conquerors. One could suggest that America's most renowned Indian fighters (e.g. Buffalo Bill Cody or George A. Custer) were products of the American west and southwest and that the most renowned fighters against Mexico like Davy Crockett were Texans, rather than the Atlantic seaboard. This thought should be explored.

It is suggested that after the conquest of Granada in1492 many of the reconquistadores went home to the north. However, the more local Extremadurans being closer to ongoing historical changes were tempted to try something new as opposed to their more comfortable cousins who had gone back to the north to be at court to remain in favor with their lords.

To be sure the Extremadura was the source of many of the initial Spanish conquerors (Spanish explorers) and settlers in America. Hernán Cortés, Francisco Pizarro, Gonzalo Pizarro, Juan Pizarro, Hernando Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, Pedro de Alvarado, Pedro de Valdivia, Inés Suárez, Alonso de Sotomayor, Francisco de Orellana, Pedro Gómez Duran y Chaves, and Vasco Núñez de Balboa were all born in Extremadura, and many towns and cities in America carry a name from their homeland: Mérida is the name of the administrative capital of Extremadura, and also of important cities in Mexico and Venezuela; Medellín is now a little town in Extremadura, but also the name of the second largest city in Colombia; Albuquerque is the largest city in New Mexico and its name is due to a transcription mistake of Alburquerque, another town in Extremadura.

Trujillo, about 28 miles east of Cáceres is nicknamed "Cradle of the Conquistadors." For more than 2,500 years, it has been a hilltop fortress which stood in the middle ages. In the center of the vast main square, called the Plaza Mayor, is a huge equestrian statue of Francisco Pizarro, Trujillo's most famous, or infamous, son. With about 200 soldiers, he captured Atahualpa, the Inca ruler of what is now Peru, and had Atahuallpa killed. Pizarro, in turn, was killed by his Spanish enemies.

Pizarro's birth was not recorded, but it's estimated that he came into this world between 1471 and 1478. Local legends claim he was either abandoned as an infant on the steps of a Trujillo church or raised with swine and suckled by a pig.


 Historians claim that, local color aside, Francisco's father was a military man and his mother was probably a servant. They never married.

Whatever his origins, Pizarro probably worked as a swineherd, and escaped the grinding poverty of Extremadura by joining the army and nursing dreams of becoming fabulously wealthy. Francisco had many sisters and brothers, some of whom were involved in the conquest of Peru.

In the warren of today's preserved medieval streets beyond the main plaza, rats, trash and open sewers greeted Pizarro every day of his young life. At the front of the stone house where he was born; a coat of arms with two pigs is carved over the door.

Pizarro was not the only conquistador to hail from Trujillo. The town also claims Francisco de Orellana, the first explorer of the Amazon, and Diego García de Paredes, who was known as the Samson of Extremadura because he took on whole armies with his mighty sword. The graceful, multistoried stone Palacio de la Conquista on the Plaza Mayor in Trujillo, with its escutcheons, balconies and interior walkways, was built by half-brother Hernando Pizarro who married Francisco's half-Inca daughter and settled here.

Others returned home with indigenous New World brides in tow. Princess Isabel Montezuma and conquistador Juan Cano had a son. Their son married Doña Maríana -- thus blending Aztec and Spanish bloodlines, and the two constructed a costly palace in Cáceres. This family is an example of those who returned. Juan de Toledo Montezuma (a descendant of Juan Cano de Saavedra and Isabel de Montezuma, daughter of the emperor) and Doña Maríana de Carvajal y Toledo married and a 16th Century palace and buildings were constructed by them and that is where they lived.

The New World, how did it all begin? In 1492, Cristobal Colon, probably Jewish on a Spanish-financed expedition, discovered the New World on behalf of Spain. He traveled with two Spanish captains as the captains of the Niña and the Pinta. Martin Alonzo Pinzon sailed as captain of the Pinta, but he was also the co-owner of the Niña and the Pinta. His brother, Vincente Yáñez Pinzon, sailed as captain of the Niña. Vincente Pinzon later made additional explorations in South and Central America.

This journey began with the discovery of the New World and continues today with the contributions of Hispanic-Americans made on behalf of this great nation, the United States. This chapter provides a brief historical primer and thumbnail sketch of the early founding and history of the Spanish New World colonies and their original colonizers, some of whom were my ancestors.

The accidental discovery of the "New World" in 1492 began a historic era of Spanish exploration, colonization, and settlement. Its discoverer, Christopher Columbus the sailor from Genoa, set forth in the name of Spain. Columbus' goal was to reach the Orient by crossing the Atlantic.


Columbus Expeditionary Flag

His patrons were the monarchs of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella. He arrived in the West Indies in 1492, flying the flag with an "F" for Ferdinand and a "Y" for Ysabella (correct spelling). Vexillologists (people who study flags) consider this the first true flag to fly in the Americas.

Spanish Royal Standard

At San Salvador, on October 12, 1492, once ashore, Columbus broke out this flag with which to claim the New World for Spain, hence it became the first flag to fly over soil in the Americas. The flag represents a Spain newly united under the royal houses of Aragon (the rampant lions) and Castile (the castles).


Munster, [Basle, 1540 - 1554], Tabularum Nouarum Insnlarum ..., 34 x 27 cms. Woodblock Uncolored


The greatest winner of Columbus' discovery of New World, including the Americas, was the Spanish Crown, whose involvement in the New World would create and support a vast empire for centuries to come. Columbus' plans did not account for the great obstacle in his westward path, the Americas. After over two months at sea, Columbus' three-ship expedition sighted land.

The island of San Salvador in the Bahamas is commonly regarded as the first land sighted by Columbus' crew. He would return the following year with seventeen ships and well over a thousand Spanish settlers.

On Columbus' second voyage to the Americas in 1494, the Spanish brought twenty-four stallions, ten mares, and an unspecified number of sheep and pigs to the island of Hispaniola. Few have understood the importance of this introduction of Old World animals and how they would shape the cultural landscape of the New World lands and people. There the animals thrived in preparation for their move to the North American continent.

The "Admiral of the High Seas" would return to the New World twice more, but before his fourth and final crossing. He was stripped of his title of Viceroy of the Indies for his inability to properly administer the new Spanish territories. The Monarchs took very seriously the control of their newly found empire.

Map 1802 A7 Spanish dominations in North America Neg 5814 Arrowsmith 1802

By 1496, Santo Domingo (modern capital of the Dominican Republic) was established as the first municipality in the New World. From this island base, and later Havana and Santiago de Cuba, the Spaniards proceeded to explore the mainland of North, South, and Central America.



The following is a New World timeline of the period of 16th Century through the first two decades of the 20th Century. It is used in an effort to provide a broader context for Spain’s contributions to the exploration and settlement of the New World as opposed to the emphasis placed upon Spain’s conquering tendencies by Anglo-American, Northern European historians, and those of Spain’s former colonies. It also highlights those de Riberas who were in the service of the Spanish Crown in the New World.

The timeline provides an ongoing narrative including information about what the Spanish did as explorers and settlers not only as conquistadors. History as told by the winners of wars with Spain (Britain and the United States) was by necessity told from the perspective of the conqueror. This in retrospect provided the positive aspects of Anglo-European colonization and settlement in contrast to that of their competitor, Spain, and its gold hungry, Indian civilization destroying, exploitation. Unfortunately, I find it necessary to stress again that the picture painted by non-Spanish, European and Anglo-American historians is by and large one dimensional. I’m sure as time passes and historians begin to soften on the issue of the Black Legend, there will be an enlightened explanation of the Spanish New World and its more positive attributes. Now let’s put on our big boy underpants and take a grown up view of Spanish history. So let us begin.


16th Century



The 15th Century Empire expansion turned Spain into the first transcontinental superpower during the 16th and 17th centuries and helped shape much of the modern world. Built on military might and naval ingenuity, and maintained by trade and the mining of gold and silver, this period is appropriately known as the Golden Age of Spain. The Spanish imperial age had profound repercussions in Europe and especially in the conquered regions. The destruction of ancient civilizations, the decimation of indigenous populations by European disease and warfare, and the introduction of slavery rank among the worst consequences. However, the expansion also increased trade, spurred development, and allowed the transplanting of European technologies and the adoption of new crops. At its greatest extent, the empire included most of Central and South America, as well as important areas in North America, Africa, Asia, and in Oceania.

1500s: The enterprise of raising cattle in the New World became a main Franciscan mission occupation of the 1500's and accelerated greatly in the 1600's.

1508: From Hispaniola, Ponce de León settled Puerto Rico in 1508.

1509: Intense immigration continued and by 1509 some 10,000 Spaniards lived on Hispaniola. From the early 16th Century, Spaniards also used the major Caribbean islands as a base for expeditions to mainland Central America and to explore the Guelfo de la Nueva España (Gulf of Mexico). In the first half on the 16th Century, the New World became a stage of intense expeditionary activity, with Spaniards launching multiple incursions by sail, horse, and foot into the unknown territories. These expeditions were prepared and led by a legion of hardened men, each a blend of navigator, explorer, and warrior, called the conquistadores (conquerors). These men, some veteran of the Iberian reconquest, came enticed by promises of great wealth and glory and mythical places, such as the Seven Cities of Cíbola or the Fountain of Youth. These prospects also attracted able Portuguese and Italian navigators to the service of the Spanish Crown. The Spanish explorers advanced through Central and South America taking treasure and territory for Spain while evangelizing the natives, thus winning recognition from the king and approval from the Church.



1510: In 1510 Vasco Núñez de Balboa founded the first colony on the mainland in Darién, in today’s Panama. Three years later, his men crossed the Central American isthmus and became the first Europeans to see the Pacific Ocean.

1510: In 1510, Ponce de León sailed northward, encountering the Gulf Stream and landing in Florida.

1511: By 1511, a Spanish colony was established in Cuba, others were soon to follow. New Spain (Mexico - inclusive of modern day New Mexico), Puerto Rico, and Jamaica came in quick succession. Old World livestock was introduced into each of these New World settlements.

1511: Diego Velázquez conquered Cuba in 1511.

1513-1565: There were many failed attempts to explore and settle the Southeastern United States between 1513 and 1565.

1513: Juan Ponce de León’s exploratory expedition was sent from the island of Puerto Rico in search of the fabled island of Bimini, and accidentally resulted in the discovery of the landmass that Ponce named "Florida" in honor of the day of its discovery (Easter, or "Pascua Florida"). He became the first European to land in Florida. The expedition visited the middle and lower Atlantic coast of Florida, and rounded the Florida Keys to visit the Charlotte Harbor vicinity of Southwest Florida before returning to Puerto Rico. At the time, he was also the first governor of Puerto Rico. On an earlier expedition, he encountered the Gulf Stream. This current became very important for Spanish trips from Europe to the Americas.

1514-1516: Pedro de Salazar (ca.) took on an exploratory expedition sailing to the island of Hispaniola in search of new sources of American Indian slaves, and resulted in the capture of as many as 500 Native-Americans from an island along the Atlantic coastline subsequently known as the "Island of Giants." Though few survived long after their return, the information gathered on this voyage set the stage for later Atlantic exploration.

1516: Beginning in 1516, Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Habsburg dynasty. The Habsburg rulers (Chiefly Charles I and Philip II) reached the zenith of their influence and power, controlling territory, including the Americas, the East Indies, the Low Countries and territories now in France and Germany in Europe, the Portuguese Empire from 1580 to 1640, and various other territories such as small enclaves like Ceuta and Oran in North Africa. Altogether, Habsburg Spain was for well over a century, the world's greatest power. Consequently, this period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the "Age of Expansion".

Under the Habsburgs, Spain dominated Europe politically and militarily for much of the 16th and 17th centuries but experienced a gradual decline of influence in the second half of the 17th Century under the later Habsburg kings.

The House of Habsburg, also spelled Hapsburg, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England (King Consort), Kingdom of France (Queen Consort), Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Empire of Russia, Kingdom of Croatia, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, and Habsburg Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities.

Maximilian's rule (1493–1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son, Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair), married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile, Aragon and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (including their colonies in America), Southern Italy, Austria and the Low Countries. Fortunately for Spain some of its original "Spanishness" was to remain due to this union and during the reign of the Hapsburgs.

In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty.




During this period, Spain’s continuing financial problems resulting from its many European wars left her with little money to adequately support and supply her New World settlements. Changes in Spain’s monarchy from its Spanish origins to the German Hapsburgs and later (After 1700) to the French Bourbons left Spain and her people with uncertainty as to their national identity. All of these factors caused great difficulty for those at the extreme ends (Colonies) of the New World portion of the Empire. These New World residents included my progenitors, the de Riberas.


1516: Diego Miruelo’s exploratory expedition of 1516 is very poorly documented, but may have been launched from Cuba in search of slaves along the western coast of Florida. The expedition documented and named at least one large bay along the northern Gulf coastline, though several later expeditions had great difficulty in identifying it. The following year Juan Ponce de León was engaged in a lawsuit against Cuban governor Diego Velázquez del Cuellar for having allowed 300 Florida Indians to be captured and brought illegally to Cuba, and this might possibly have resulted from Miruelo's expedition.

1518: In November of 1518, Hernán Cortés sailed from the port of Santiago de Cuba to carry out the conquest of Mexico. In the spring of 1519, a runner reported to the Emperor Moctezuma that "two floating mountains" and strangely dressed men had appeared on the coast of Mexico. The Aztec emperor, Moctezuma, sent gifts meant to appease the Spaniards and turn them back. Attracted by bountiful gifts, Cortés and his six-hundred men stayed on to found the port of La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz.

From there an expedition marched on to the highland heart of the Aztec Empire, Tenochtitlan, present day Mexico City. The expedition was forced to retreat. Cortés later returned to the capital with numerous Spanish reinforcements and Indian allies. After a five-month siege, he defeated the new Aztec leader Cuauhtémoc. The stage was set for the establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and the colonization of what is today, Mexico.

1519-1521: Hernán Cortés invaded and subdued Mexico from 1519-1521, and colonization began.

1519: Captain Alonso Alvarez de Pineda’s 1519 exploratory expedition was sent by Jamaica governor Francisco de Garay in order to explore and chart the coastline between Ponce de León's Florida and Hernán Cortés' New Spain (Mexico). The four-ship exploratory expedition charted the entire northern Gulf of Mexico, resulting in the first map showing the Gulf. The information gathered on this trip foreshadowed the subsequent expedition. De Pineda and his crew were the first Europeans in Texas, and claimed it for Spain.


1520s: Spreading across Micronesia, the Caroline Islands were first reached by Spaniards in the late 1520s and were claimed by Spain in the 1870s.

1520: The first herd of cattle introduced on the North American mainland was by Gregorio Villalobos in the year 1520. Their port of entry was the Paunco River near present day Tampico, Mexico. The animals flourished. The Spaniards also brought with them European farming and ranching methods that they would later blend with those of the New World. Older technology would be blended with the new to forge a life in these new lands. The European introduction of animals and technology would benefit the Spanish settlers. The benefits would also serve the needs of the native peoples.


1521: Spain’s presence in Asia and the Pacific Islands dates from Magellan’s attempt in 1521.

1521: In 1521, Spain’s navigators traveled to find a westward route to the Spice Islands, which resulted in the first circumnavigation of the globe.

1521: With aid from Amerindian allies and epidemics, in 1521 Hernán Cortés captured the capital of the Aztec Empire, Tenochtitlán, a sophisticated city of 200,000, and in its place erected Mexico City. Cortés tried to claim the area for himself, but instead it would become part of the colony of New Spain.

1521: Juan Ponce de León’s colonizing expedition was the first formal Spanish attempt to settle Florida, and involved a total of two ships with 200 colonists. The expedition landed somewhere in the vicinity of Fort Myers, Florida before being repulsed by a Calusa Indian attack which mortally wounded Ponce de León himself. Ponce withdrew the expedition and sailed to Cuba, where he died in the recently-established city of Havana. The expedition was abandoned thereafter.

1521: Francisco Gordillo and Pedro de Quejo’s exploratory/slaving expedition of 1521 sailed northwest from the Bahamas (the two independent ships from Hispaniola joined forces after meeting in the Bahamas) in search of the land that Pedro de Salazar had discovered on his earlier slave raid. They captured some 60 slaves from the lower Atlantic coastline before returning to Hispaniola together.

1522: In Hernando Cortés. Praeclara Ferdinandi Cortesii de Nova maris Hyspania narratio. [Norimbergae] [1524]. This map [Mexico City and the Gulf of Mexico, actually two separate maps on one sheet, one of Tenochtitlán (Mexico City) prepared by the Mexicas and presented to Cortés as a gift in the 1519-1521 period, and a map of the Gulf Coast region of Mexico and the southeastern part of the present-day United States, was prepared either by the Mexica peoples or by a contemporary Spanish explorer.] These maps appeared with the second letter of Hernando Cortés to Charles V, King of Spain. There is much in both of these maps to suggest that the drawings supplied to the Nuremberg engraver who prepared the printer's woodblock were based on Mexica (Aztec) originals.

Cortés, anxious to inform and to impress Charles V, sent his lieutenant Juan de Ribera in 1522 to deliver samples of Aztec objets d'art and treasure to the royal court. Ribera also carried maps of Mexica origin which were examined by Peter Martyr. Martyr described one Aztec map that was thirty feet long painted on white cotton cloth, and a smaller native painting representing the town of Temistitan (Tenochtitlán) with its temples, bridges, and lakes. The volume in which the maps appear is part of the spectacular collection of illuminated imprints presented to the Library by Lessing J. Rosenwald. (Rosenwald Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division)

1525: Pedro de Quejo’s exploratory expedition was specifically dispatched by Lúcas Vázquez de Ayllón as a reconnaissance expedition for his planned colonial attempt to the Atlantic coastline visited earlier by Gordillo and Quejo. Quejo sailed along much of the eastern coast of North America before returning with extensive intelligence about this region.

1526: Lúcas Vázquez de Ayllón’s colonizing expedition of 1526 was the second formal Spanish attempt to settle Florida, and involved six ships with 600 colonists. Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón was the first European colonizer of what is now South Carolina, although his colony failed. The expedition established the new town of San Miguel de Gualdape, possibly somewhere along the middle Georgia coastline, near the end of September. Nevertheless, Ayllón's subsequent death and a number of internal and external disputes doomed the colony to failure. The survivors fled by the end of October, though only a quarter of their number ever made it back to the Caribbean. He also explored Cape Fear.

1526: In 1526, Hernando de Soto and others further explored North America.

1527: A few years later, Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca was appointed to the Pánfilo de Narvaez expedition in 1527. Pánfilo de Narváez’ colonizing expedition was originally intended to settle along the northwestern Gulf coast just north of Cortés' New Spain colony. Severe storms drove the fleet to Tampa Bay on Florida's west coast where the members of the expedition tried in vain to discover Diego Miruelo's bay constructing improvised barges and attempting to skirt the northern Gulf coast toward northern Mexico. Eventually they marched overland to the land of the Apalachee Indians at modern Tallahassee although most died along the way.

The expedition came to a disastrous end in Florida after having traversed the unknown wilds of Florida. From there, the expedition’ Cabeza de Vaca and his three companions spent the next eight years crossing Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, looking for a Spanish settlement. They were the first Europeans to explore the Southwest, and the first to contact many Southwestern tribes. They were the only survivors to find their way back to Mexico. The marvelous tales of Cabeza de Vaca's wanderings caused much excitement and spurred the Spaniards on to new explorations.

1528-1536: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca explored Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. De Vaca published an account of his journey upon his return to New Spain.

1528: Don Diego de Montemayor was born in 1528 in Old Castile, the son of Juan de Montemayor' and Mayor Hernandez. He died in 1610 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.

He married first Ines Rodriguez and had a daughter, Ines, who married Balthazar de Sosa. His second wife was María de Esquivel; their son was Diego Montemayor, Jr. His third marriage was to Juana Porcayo de la Cerda, in 1569 at Mazapil; their daughter was Estefana de Montemayor.

Don Diego reached the New World in 1547 or 1548, entering the service of Don Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa.

When Carvajal took over his grant in 1578, he landed in Tampico, where he had operated before. He assuredly had known Don Diego, for he immediately recruited him as a top Captain and placed him in charge of his intended capital, Leon, later named Cerralvo. However, in all the records of Nueva Galicia and in the lists of Captains, Diego de Montemayor is not mentioned. This almost excludes him from service in Nueva Galicia; the adjacent jurisdiction of San Luís Potosi had to be his area of service. There Don Vasco was in charge when he first arrived and Luís Carvajal at a later date.

There is one account that has Don Diego in charge of an exploring party under the direction of Francisco de Urdinola in which he discovered the springs at Saltillo and also the springs at the future Monterrey site on the 1st day of September, 1555, returning to the springs at Saltillo on the 5th day of September, 1555. It would seem an impossibly short time to make the one hundred and ten mile round trip, but it could be done.

1528: Don Diego de Montemayor was born in 1528 in Old Castile, the son of Juan de Montemayor' and Mayor Hernandez. He died in 1610 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.

He married first Ines Rodriguez and had a daughter, Ines, who married Balthazar de Sosa. His second wife was María de Esquivel; their son was Diego Montemayor, Jr. His third marriage was to Juana Porcayo de la Cerda, in 1569 at Mazapil; their daughter was Estefana de Montemayor.

Don Diego reached the New World in 1547 or 1548, entering the service of Don Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa.

When Carvajal took over his grant in 1578, he landed in Tampico, where he had operated before. He assuredly had known Don Diego, for he immediately recruited him as a top Captain and placed him in charge of his intended capital, Leon, later named Cerralvo. However, in all the records of Nueva Galicia and in the lists of Captains, Diego de Montemayor is not mentioned. This almost excludes him from service in Nueva Galicia; the adjacent jurisdiction of San Luís Potosi had to be his area of service. There Don Vasco was in charge when he first arrived and Luís Carvajal at a later date.

There is one account that has Don Diego in charge of an exploring party under the direction of Francisco de Urdinola in which he discovered the springs at Saltillo and also the springs at the future Monterrey site on the 1st day of September, 1555, returning to the springs at Saltillo on the 5th day of September, 1555. It would seem an impossibly short time to make the one hundred and ten mile round trip, but it could be done.

The account has him leaving on the expedition on the 22nd day of August, 1555, so it is impossible for him to have gone past Monterrey on that trip -- he was on a well organized expedition under Francisco de Urdinola, first the father, then the son, and the short time interval made it impossible. There is another reason to doubt the further advance: the Urdinolas were working out of San Luís Potosi and had little to do with the affairs of Nueva Galicia -- at best they were on the verge of intrusion. This became doubly true with Nueva Vizcaya. Furthermore there is a well documented expedition under the elder Urdinola in 1554 in which Don Diego was Captain in charge of a party operating in the Zacatecas-Durango-Coahuila area -- or in the region that would be later represented by the three adjoining states.

Don Diego would have had to be a very effective and successful leader to have been entrusted with that expedition, for he was a Castilian, serving under a Basque and commanding mostly Basques. There was no love lost between the two peoples at that time or since -- that was one of the two things that hindered Don Diego. He had no financial backing and he was operating under the domination of Basques.



1530s: The conquest of the Yucatán and the Maya realm took longer and was less interesting for Spaniards, as the area had no gold or silver. The powerful Inca Empire had its capital in Cuzco (Now in Peru) and occupied a large swath of land along western South America. The heart of the empire was conquered in the early 1530s by Francisco Pizarro, and from Peru expeditions pushed north into Ecuador and Colombia and south into Chile.

1532: Conquistador Nicolás de Ribera y Laredo (Olvera, Spain, 1487 - Lima, 1563) was a Spanish conquistador and the first mayor of Lima.

Identity: The Last Conquistador..., p. 12, 188, 13

At the time of his [Mansio Serra de Leguizamón] arrival in the township [León, Nicaragua], armed possibly with little more than the letters of recommendation he carried from the Conde of Puñonrostro to his brother the governor, an expedition was being organized by Arias Dávila for the conquest of the westerly region of Veragua under the command of the captains Juan de Pánes and his treasurer the slave merchant Juan Téllez. The few facts to survive of the expedition, in which the by then seventeen-year-old Mansio had enlisted, record that its volunteers were devastated by the oppressive climate and disease. The hardship he undoubtedly endured in the three years he spent in Veragua was confirmed by his witness the Conquistador Nicolás de Ribera, who he had first met there:

Alfredo Castillero Calvo 'Origines Históricos de Veragua', in Revista de Indias, Madrid, Vol. 107.

Nicolás de Ribera had two years previously returned from an expedition led by Pizarro along the equatorial coast of the southern Pacific; the lands of which an earlier explorer, Pascual de Andagoya, had mistakenly called Peru. It had also been three years since Pizarro and his partner Diego de Almagro had reached an agreement with the priest Hernando de Luque to share in the conquest of the empire they knew to exist in the hinterland of its continent. It had been a contract to which Pánes, one of the commanders of the Veragua expedition, had been a signatory on behalf of the illiterate Pizarro, as recorded by Panama's notary:

I, Don Hernando de Luque, priest and vicar of the Holy Church of Panama, and the captains Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro, who are citizens of the city of Panama, declare our agreement to form a contract that will forever be binding: in as much as the said captains Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro, who have been granted permission by the Governor Pedro Arias Dávila, to discover and conquer the lands and provinces of the kingdoms known as Peru....


1530: Diego de Montemayor (c. 1530-1610) was a Spanish conquistador:
His son was Juan De Montemayor
: 1480 in España
: [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
Sibling(s) unknown
: of María Mayor Hernandez Hidalgo — married [date unknown] [location unknown]

Father of Diego De Montemayor
Died [date unknown] [location unknown]
Juan de Montemayor
date: 1504
place: Malaga, Andalusia, Spain
1611 in Spain
Immediate Family:
Son of (No Name)
Husband of María Mayor Hernandez
Father of Diego "El Viejo" de Montemayor, Gobernador del Nuevo Reino de León
Diego de Montemayor (c. 1530 – 1610) was a Spanish conquistador, explorer, officer, and the governor of Nuevo Reino de León.


Montemayor is credited with the founding of Monterrey, the capital of the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León, on September 20, 1596. The establishment was officially called Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey ("Metropolitan City of Our Lady of Monterrey," partly to curry favor from the Viceroy of the time, the Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey. Montemayor's founding was the third effort. The two previous ones bore the names Santa Lucia and San Luís Rey de Francia and were headed by Alberto del Canto, the future arch-enemy of Montemayor, and the second by Luís de Carabajal y Cueva. Montemayor brought forty people with him from Saltillo to populate Monterrey, mostly of Jewish descent — nine married couples, three men without families, fourteen boys, four girls, and one Indian named Domingo Manuel.

Montemayor served as governor of Nuevo León from 1588 to 1610. He was married three times. His wives were Inez Rodríguez, who came with him from Spain to the New World in 1548, María de Esquivel, and Juana Porcalla de la Cerda. Montemayor had three children, one from each of his wives. His children were Inez, Diego, and Estefanía.

He died about 1611 in Monterrey, and is believed to be buried in the Convento de San Francisco in Monterrey.

1536: On the eastern seaboard of South America, Spanish explorers founded Buenos Aires, in what is now Argentina, in 1536.

1537: Spanish explorers founded and Asunción, in present-day Paraguay, in 1537.

1539-1543: Hernando De Soto was the first European to explore Florida and the southeastern US. He had already explored Nicaragua and with Francisco Pizarro had won fame by toppling the Incan empire in Peru. Hernando de Soto’s expedition is perhaps best described as an expedition of conquest; since it was predominantly military in character, and pushed rapidly inland toward the mountainous region that Soto hoped would produce riches on the same scale as his previous experience under Francisco Pizarro in Peru.

The expedition sailed from Cuba with nine ships and about 600 people, mostly soldiers. Landing on the west coast of Florida in Tampa Bay, the expedition seems to have followed Narváez's initial trajectory, marching inland and northward toward Apalachee. From there the expedition pushed deep into the interior Southeast, establishing an anticipated rendezvous point at Pensacola Bay for future resupply expeditions from Cuba. Repeated Cuban attempts to establish contact with Soto's lost expedition failed, while the expedition wandered for more than three years across much of eastern North America. Only half of the expedition's members ultimately survived to sail out the Mississippi River and along the Gulf coastline to Mexico. He died near the Mississippi River.

1539: In 1539, a Spanish Franciscan friar named Father Marcos de Niza would set out with friendly Indians and Estevanico, the Black slave from the Narvaez Expedition party, to learn the secrets of the North. The Viceroy of New Spain sent Fray Marcos to accompany Estevan, a Moorish slave, who had traveled with Cabeza de Vaca, to find the fabled treasure houses. Niza would later claim to have traveled to the fabled "Seven Golden Cities of Cibola" during the summer of 1539. His own accounts of the expedition’s journey and the route of its travel have been contested by historians, but the effect of the expedition on future expeditions is significant to New Mexico. The expedition crossed into Arizona, turned east into New Mexico, and found Zuni Indians living in pueblos. After they moved north and discovered the city of Cibola, Estevanico traveled ahead and entered the Zuni town of Hawikuh. The tribesmen were hostile and he further provoked their anger by taking their women and turquoise. Zuni Indians, believed in sorcerers, spellbinders, and witches. They believed Estevanico to be a sorcerer so they killed him, cutting him into several pieces.

Some of the party survived and returned to tell Fray Marcos the news. Certain members of Marcos’ party threatened to kill him because of the deaths of their friends and relatives. Abandoning the search, the friar headed back to Mexico City. When the friar returned to Mexico from his journey, he falsely claimed to have seen one of the fabled rich cities. The friar’s news would lead to the expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado. Coronado’s expedition and all other Spanish expeditions to follow centered on the search for the fabled riches and lost cities.


In 1540, Francisco de Orellana traced the source of Amazon River to Atlantic Ocean.

1540: Gonzalo Pizarro explored the Amazon area in 1540.

1540: Garcia Lopez de Cardenas (as part of the Coronado expedition) discovered the Grand Canyon in 1540

1540: by 1540, in Central and South America Spanish explorers came upon civilizations wealthier and more advanced than the Caribbean cultures, such as the Maya and Aztec peoples in Mexico and the Incas in Peru. Their technology enabled abundant crops and successful settlement of inhospitable places. The Aztec ruled an area that stretched from central Mexico to Guatemala, as an empire where city-states dominated smaller communities and ethnicities.

1540: February 4, 1540 - Francisco de Ribera landed on and claimed the Falkland Islands for Spain.

1540-1542: Francisco Vasquez de Coronado searched for the Seven Golden Cities of Cibola for nearly three years, covering huge areas of Arizona, New Mexico, the Grand Canyon, the Texas panhandle, Kansas, and Colorado. In 1540, Coronado set off for Arizona accompanied by 292 men, 1,300 Indian allies, several friars, 1,000 horses, 600 pack animals and supplies. Coronado accompanied by Fray Marcos, led an expedition back to Cibola. When they entered the Zuni town of Hawikuh it was nothing like the friar described. Even though the friar’s reports had been filled with fabrications and lies Coronado continued his search in the area and discovered new territories. His men were the first to see the Grand Canyon, to explore Hopiland, and to penetrate as far east as Kansas.

1540: 1540, when the Hopi met Francisco Vasquez de Coronado’s lieutenants, they thought that the two faiths could be united into one religion leading to a better brotherhood. The New Mexico Pueblo Indian attitude toward Christianity was that religion was a means for establishing harmony with the universe. They liked the color and sound of the Catholic rituals. If learning the new religion would help establish this harmony, then the Indians were willing to learn its doctrine and integrate it into their own religious beliefs. In fact, St. James, Saint Isidore and Saint Rafael were included into the katchinas of the Indians. They relate the Christ of the Spaniards to Pohe-omo who was a similar cultural hero. The Rio Grande Pueblos had the same idea as the Hopi, but the Franciscan friars would not consider the union.

1540 to 1542: During 1540 to 1542, Francisco de Ulloa explored the western coast of Mexico and Juan Cabrillo sailed to California, his men reaching as far north as Oregon.

1541-1542: Francisco Coronado’s expedition spent the winter of 1541-1542 near present-day Bernalillo, New Mexico south of the great 1,200 room pueblo of Kuaua. The party penetrated inland as far as the Great Plains and sighted the Grand Canyon. After the Spaniards entered into armed conflict with the local Indians the Coronado expedition returned to Mexico.

1541-1542: Although the Amazon basin was first explored in 1541 and 1542 by Francisco de Orellana, who descended the river in search of the legendary chief El Dorado and his golden kingdom, Spanish explorers also ventured to the Guiana Highlands, where they generally established only isolated and often temporary outposts.

In Central and South America the explorers came upon civilizations wealthier and more advanced than the Caribbean cultures, such as the Maya and Aztec peoples in Mexico and the Incas in Peru. Their technology enabled abundant crops and successful settlement of inhospitable places. The Aztec ruled an area that stretched from central Mexico to Guatemala, as an empire where city-states dominated smaller communities and ethnicities.

In 1542, Spain reasserted claims to the Philippine Islands, which were named in honor of soon-to-be King Philip II.

1542: Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo sailed from Acapulco to southern California, claiming California for King Charles I of Spain. Cabrillo named San Diego Bay and Santa Barbara.

1545: Discovered in 1545, Potosí Bolivia, remained the world’s most important silver mine until the late 17th Century. The influx of America’s precious metals changed the European economies but Spain spent much of it on wars, luxuries for its nobility and for managing the huge empire.

1549: Luís Cancer’s expedition was as non-military as its predecessor had been military. Dominican missionary Fray Luís Cancer was granted permission to lead an expedition from Veracruz, Mexico consisting of four Dominican priests and one farmer in the attempt to establish a purely religious settlement along the Florida Gulf coastline, with the goal of spiritual conversion rather than military conquest. Though he cautioned the ship's pilot not to bring him near any place where Spaniards had already landed, the ship ultimately landed precisely where both Narváez and Soto had made landfall in the vicinity of Tampa Bay. Following the capture and murder of one priest and the farmer, Cancer himself was clubbed to death on the shore in sight of the ship, and the expedition withdrew in failure.


1552: In 1552, Bartolomé de Las Casas, formerly Bishop of Chiapas, began what became known as the "Black Legend" by publishing a powerful and lasting indictment of Spanish behavior toward Indian populations in the New World. At the Legend's core are two intertwined stereotypes. Firstly, Indians are depicted as peaceful, childlike, innocent victims of Spanish domination (Noble Savage). Secondly, that the Spanish acted as cruel, rapacious, self-serving masters of their Indian wards. What gave the Black Legend its strength and resiliency was not Las Casas himself, but the printing press. By the third quarter of the 16th Century, Las Casas's writings had been translated into French, Dutch, and English, while other accounts like that of Benzoni were also in circulation. The use of the printing press by Spain’s enemies ensured that the world would never forget the Black Legend and the need to defeat and replace Spain as the leading world empire.



This self-serving indictment of Spain by its competing European neighbors furthered their aims to destabilize a strong competitor in the game of world domination. The main Protestant competitor, England, had a vested interest in destroying the image of its strongest competitor. One must accept that she was marvelously successful in this endeavor.


1559-1561: Tristán de Luna y Arellano’s expedition was the first royally-financed colonial expedition to attempt the settlement of Florida, and also the first such colony to be staged from Mexico. With a total of eleven ships and 1,500 soldiers and colonists, it was also the largest to date. The expedition's ultimate goal was to head off an anticipated French settlement by establishing a Spanish colony at Santa Elena along the modern South Carolina coast (originally visited and named in the lead up to the Ayllón debacle). However, the strategy adopted was first to establish a colonial town along the northern Gulf coast at modern Pensacola Bay (then called Ochuse), and push inland to the famed Native-American chiefdom of Coosa visited by the Soto expedition, and finally eastward to Santa Elena on the Atlantic coast. Only five weeks after landing, however, the expedition's fleet (and much of its food onboard) was devastated by a hurricane, and the next two years were marked by attempts to stave off starvation, including the relocation of the bulk of the colonists inland to central Alabama, the dispatch of soldiers to Coosa in northwest Georgia in search of food, and multiple resupply expeditions from Veracruz. Most of the colony departed by the time Luna's replacement Angel de Villafañe sailed for Havana and Santa Elena, but the last remnants were finally withdrawn following the return of the failed Villafañe expedition below.



1561: Angel de Villafañe’s 1561 expedition departed from Havana with four ships and about 100 men (not counting an additional ship that sailed later), and briefly explored along the Atlantic coast in the vicinity of Santa Elena, in fulfillment of the original order for the Luna expedition. Beset by storms that sank two of the ships, the expedition failed to leave a Spanish presence at Santa Elena.

1562-1563: Jean Ribault’s 1562-1563 expedition was the first French exploratory expedition to Florida contained three ships cruised along the Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina coastlines before leaving a small garrison of 28 men in the newly-constructed Charlesfort at Santa Elena (Parris Island). The fort was abandoned in 1563 when the survivors decided to return to France.

1563-1565: Francisco de Ibarra explored New Mexico. He was a Spanish Basque explorer, founder of the city of Durango, and governor of the Spanish province of Nueva Vizcaya, in present-day Mexico. In 1562, Ibarra headed another expedition to push farther into northwest Mexico. In particular, he was searching for the fabled golden city of Copala (also called Cibola). He later entered into what is now New Mexico.

1564: The Hernando Manrique de Rojas’ 1564 Spanish exploratory expedition was sent north from Cuba in search of evidence of the rumored French settlement, and followed the Georgia and South Carolina coast during the summer before finding the ruins of Charlesfort at Santa Elena, along with a sole French survivor who would later act as an interpreter for Spanish settlers.

1564-1565: René de Laudonnière’s 1564-1565 French colonial expedition established a garrisoned fort near the mouth of the St. Johns River near modern Jacksonville, Florida, where Jean Ribault had visited two years previously. Three ships containing some 300 men landed in June, quickly constructing Fort Caroline along the river. Over the course of the next year, the colony interacted extensively with surrounding Native Americans, but lack of supplies left them in a precarious position by the time an English fleet traded badly-needed supplies for most of the French cannons. When French supplies and reinforcements finally arrived under Jean Ribault in August, Spanish forces under Pedro Menéndez had already landed to the south, ultimately leading to the elimination of the French colony.

1565: The Maríana Islands, named for Maríana of Austria, were also visited by Magellan in 1521 and claimed by Spain in 1565. Spain governed Guam from Manila and in the late 1700s the island became a regular stopping place for Spanish ships that sailed between Acapulco and Manila.

1565: Captain Pedro Menéndez de Avilés led the final (and only successful) Spanish expedition to colonize Florida was financed by both royal and private funds. Five ships and some 800 soldiers and colonists he explored the coastline of North America as far north as St. Helena Island, South Carolina, and had forts built along the coast for protection. He arrived along the northeast coast of Florida in late August, where they defeated and killed much of the French colonial force before establishing St. Augustine, which would become the first permanent European colonial city in Florida, making it the oldest European city in the U.S. From this port and administrative center, colonial Spanish Florida would grow over the course of the following decades.

1566: Pero Afan De Ribera y Gomez (1492-1577) Toledo, Castilla la Nueva Governor of Costa Rica dc Petronilla of Peace was the brother of the Duke of Alcalá and Marquis of Tarifa, Viceroy of Naples. Arrived in Honduras in 1527, where he took part in the conquest of Naco, serving under the orders of Andres Cereceda in several public posts; it is of the founders of the city of thanks to God in 1536 when he served under the command of Gonzalo de Alvarado, the brother of the conqueror of Guatemala. It was Lieutenant Governor in the port of Trujillo and also encomenderos of the place. Ruined the population in 1559 by the plunder by French privateers, vise in difficult situation, he asked reward for his services. The King appointed him in 1566 Governor of Costa Rica, to replace after his tragic death at Juan Vasquez de Coronado. He went by land with his family and soldiers recruited in Nicaragua. He entered by Nicoya and Chomes and there he founded Aranjuez and Puerto de la Ribera. He came to Carthage in March 1568, in time to rescue distressed Spaniards besieged in at the time by the local Indians.

1566: The oldest European settlement in the United States is Spanish Santa Elena (1566-1587), was founded in 1566. It was to be located in what is now South Carolina, close to Verrazzano’s finds. There were also three-successive Veracruz-based Spanish presidios at Pensacola Bay established after 1698.

1567: Marquis of San Juan of Rivera' Marcos Antonio de Rivera y Guzmán Governor of Colombia

At the current headquarters of the Governor of Cauca. On the right inner side, entering its headquarters, a plate refers to the origins of the property overlooking Hostel del Cauca Departmental Government since the great General Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera expropriating it for the hero of independence Manuel José Castrillón Quintana

"That this House - today duly restored - 'was acquired by the Marquis of San Juan of Rivera' Marcos Antonio de Rivera y Guzmán, grandson of Catalina de Rivera, sister de el Capitán Juan Taborda. Spanish that came from Spain with his family to the City of Antioch, with Marshal Don Jorge Robledo, in 1546. And to whom the January 22, 1567 was given the title of Lieutenant Governor of Popayán Colombia, a position he would occupy until his death on October 17, 1569.

As it reads in the book LOS AUSTRIAS under Antioch "Stephen de Rivera y Silva, son of Catherine and nephew of Captain Taborda, was ordinary mayor, Alderman perpetual and Lieutenant and justice major for Cáceres (Antioquia) of Governor Don Alonso Turrillo de Yebra in 1633 and Cáceres and Antioch of the Governor Don Juan Vélez Ladrón de Guevara of 1639-1643. It was attested in Cáceres in 1614 and he died on April 27, 1665. He was the father of seven sons, among them of Marcos Rivera y Guzmán, was the first Marquis of San Juan of Rivera and Viscount of the Vega del Portillo, accorded the title on April 3, 1715.

1568: Fourth Viceroy of New Spain, Martín Enríquez (1568-80), is generally credited with originating the presidios of the Southwest. He ordered the construction of Casas Fuertes or fortified houses, along the main road from Mexico City north to Zacatecas. Eventually the name was changed to presidio, from Latin praesidium, "garrisoned place".

1568: Luís De Carvajal Y De La Cueva, (ca. 1540–1590), governor, adventurer, slave trader was the first Spanish subject to enter Texas from Mexico across the lower Rio Grande. He was born in Mogodorio, Portugal, about 1540, the son of Gaspar de Carvajal and Francisca De León, Jewish converts to the Christian faith. As a young man he spent three years at Cape Verde as the King's accountant and treasurer in the black slave trade. Then he immigrated to Spain, traded in grain and wines at Seville, and about 1565 married Guiomar de Ribera, daughter of a Portuguese royal slave factor and a native of Lisbon. Two years later, driven by financial losses and marital discord, Carvajal sailed for New Spain with his own ship as admiral (Second in command) of the Spanish Indies fleet. Upon arrival he was accorded the viceroy's appointment as Alcalde Ordinario of Tampico.



1571: By 1571, the island of Luzon in the Philippines became an important port center where Spain’s American silver was traded for Chinese silks and porcelain, which were exported to Mexico and Europe. The main islands first developed as a source of gold and spices, but in the 19th Century, as Spain’s control over colonial trade declined, they began to specialize in a single export crop, such as sugar, indigo dye, rice, hemp, or tobacco.

Mid-1570's - Early Settlement by the mid-1570's in the rich mining district of Parral in southern Chihuahua (Mexico) had been settled and served as a staging area for future explorations.

1579: With the discovery of the New World many were the men and women crossed the Atlántico in search of new horizons. This is how the surname Ribera spread the family lineage in the Americas. In the Archivo General de Indias, Alonso de Rivera, natural, Bachelor, son of Juan Toro and Isabel Jaramillo, departed for the new kingdom (Americas), January 17, 1579.


1580: Francisco Sanchez Chamuscado explored New Mexico.

1581: In Santa Barbara in 1581, Fray Agustin Rodriguez heard of an advanced civilization to the north. Given official permission to evangelize, he set off with a small party under the command of Captain Francisco Sanchez Chamuscado. The party reached the vicinity of Socorro in August. For the following five months, they explored the Rio Grande pueblos. Leaving behind two priests to continue religious conversion, the main party returned in 1582.

1582-1583: Caught up in the excitement caused by the returning Chamuscado-Rodriguez expedition, the Spaniard Don Antonio de Espejo underwrote the costs of a second expedition. In 1582, he led a small group to explore New Mexico. Upon his arrival he learned that the friars he had hoped to succor had been killed. On their return to Mexico, reports written by Espejo and by expedition member, Diego Perez de Lujan, added to a growing knowledge about the pueblo people of New Mexico.

1583: Captain of the Spanish Royal Infantry Gabriel Ribera, saw action in the Philippines in 1583.

1583: In 1583, Gonzalo de Peñalosa died and was succeeded by his kinsman Diego Ronquillo. Shortly thereafter, Manila's (Philippines) first disastrous fire occurred. But the city was rebuilt, although with some difficulty.

1583: Captain Gabriel de Ribera, after an expedition to Borneo, was sent to Spain to consult the best interests of the islands. In consequence of Gabriel de Ribera's trip to Spain the Royal Audiencia of Manila was established with Santiago de Vera as its president and governor of the islands. Domingo de Salazar received his appointment as bishop, and was accompanied to the islands by Antonio Sedeño and Alonso Sanchez, the first Jesuits in the islands.

1588: While Philip II was monarch of Spain, Spain’s Naval Armada suffered a disastrous defeat by England. As a result of Spain’s large and extremely expensive naval armada’s defeat, Philip II was left in need of a second rich kingdom (One like Old Mexico) to replace the great fleet. He believed one existed on the northern frontier of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and with its conquest and colonization Spanish fortunes would be restored.

What he needed was a man to pacify and colonize this New Mexico just as Hernándo Cortés had conquered old Mexico in 1521, sixty-seven years earlier.

1588: Alonso Garcia Ramon Alfonso de Ribera de Luís Merlo de la Fuente Ruiz de Beteta was a Spanish colonial official who briefly served as the Royal Governor of Chile, in 1610-11. He was born in Valdepeñas, Spain to Luís Merlo de la Fuente and María Ruiz de Betena. He went to America, specifically Panama, in 1588 in the capacity of an oidor or judge, later travelling to Lima, Peru. From there the viceroy at the time, García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete, sent him to Santiago, Chile to judge the governor, Alonso de Sotomayor, for possible misconduct. He later traveled to Lima, Peru.



1590: By 1590, Philip II was still deciding on a course of action. Don Gaspar Castaño de Sosa, lieutenant-governor of Nuevo Leon in northeastern New Spain, also thought that great riches could be discovered in New Mexico. He sought out Indians who were known to have knowledge of great riches in that undiscovered area. While testing their ore, he took a silver cup and threw it in with the test ore. The rocks were found to have a high silver content. In 1590, the Portuguese adventurer, de Sosa, persuaded the entire population of the failing mining camp of Almaden (near Monclova, Coahuila) to follow him on his quest to the new land. He promised his followers that the land would be legally theirs. He and his 170 followers from Almaden believing the journey would be profitable, left for New Mexico.

As word spread of de Sosa's unauthorized departure, the Viceroy of New Spain sent Captain Juan Morlete in pursuit. Two and one-half months later, Morlete and fifty soldiers located the group. He promptly arrested de Sosa at Santo Domingo Pueblo and returned southward along the Rio Grande. De Sosa was taken back to New Spain and the expedition was a failure.

1590: In 1590, Don Gaspar Castaño de Sosa and his troop stopped to rest sixty miles west of Pecos, New Mexico at the Pueblo of Jemez. This is where they were told of a great pueblo in the mountain pass to the east. In the language of the Jemez it was called it Pe-kush. The Spanish heard the word as "Pecos."

1592: Juan de Fuca sailed up the western coast of North America from Mexico to Vancouver Island, looking for a passage from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. He believed the Strait of Juan de Fuca (Named for him 200 years later by Captain Vancouver) was the outlet of a mighty river which flowed through to the Atlantic Ocean.

1594-1596: Juan de Humana and Francisco Leiva Bonilla explored New Mexico and Colorado as far as the Purgatoire River.

1595: Sebastian Meléndez Rodríguez Cermenho sailed from the Philippines to California, and charted the coast from Point Reyes, north of San Francisco, south to Acapulco. After running aground near Point Reyes (north of San Francisco), Cermenho named the nearby bay San Francisco (it is now called Drakes Bay). They built a smaller boat from the wreckage and sailed to Acapulco, Mexico, charting the coastline all the while.

1595: By 1595, the Viceroy of New Spain (Today’s Mexico) was looking for a suitable leader to organize another expedition. The contest for the position of future governor and captain general of New Mexico was spirited, despite the Crown's requirement that the candidate bear most of the costs of the expedition.


The viceroy awarded the contract to Don Juan de Onate y Salazar, a wealthy and distinguished man who father had made a fortune from the silver mines of Zacatecas and whose wife was the granddaughter of Hernando Cortes and the great-granddaughter of Montezuma.  Onate, scion of a wealthy family and a seasoned soldier, hoped to discover new wealth and to enjoy a brillant future as its governor was officially granted the right to colonize.



Oñate was born in the New Spain (colonial México) city of Zacatecas to Spanish-Basque colonists and silver mine owners. His father was the conquistador—silver baron Cristóbal de Oñate, a descendant of the noble house of Haro, and his mother Doña Catalina Salazar y de la Cadena a descendant of a famous Jewish converso family the Ha-Levi's. His ancestor Cadena, in the year 1212, fought in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Al Andalus, and was the first to break the line of defense protecting Mohammad Ben Yacub. The family was granted a coat of arms, and thereafter was known as the Cadenas.

Oñate married Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma, granddaughter of Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of the Triple Alliance, and great granddaughter of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma Xocoyotzin.

Having been officially granted a request by King Philip II to colonize the northern frontier of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. His stated objective was to spread Roman Catholicism by establishing new missions in Nuevo México. He began the expedition in 1598, fording the Rio Grande (Río del Norte) near present day El Paso in late April.

1598: Don Juan de Oñate y Salazar’s expedition:

After many delays in getting the expedition assembled, in January 1598, Oñate was finally able to get his caravan of eighty-four heavily loaded wagons and carts to carry the baggage and provisions and a vast herd of seven thousand head of livestock sheep, goats, cattle, horses under way. Oñate lead the way for one hundred and twenty-nine men - many with their families and servants and a small group of ten Franciscans who joined later.

Among the family names were Abendano, Archuleta, Baca, Barrios, Bernal, Bustillo, Caceres, Cadimo, Carvajal, Chaves, Cruz, Duran, Escarramad, Garcia, Holgado, Godoy, Gonzalez, Jaramillo, Lobon, Griego, Gutierrez, Hernandez, Herrera, Hinojos, Holguin, Hurtado, Jimenez, Jorge, Holguin, Lopez, Luna, Mederos, Ocanto, Losada, Lucero, Madrid, Marquez, Martin, Serrano, Monroy, Montoya, Moran, Naranjo, Pedraza, Perez, Ramirez, del Rio, Robledo, Rodriguez, Salazar, Romero, Ruiz, Tapia, Torres, Varela, Vasquez. Many are my progenitors. My Ceballos (Ceballes) lines intermarried with several of these families and the Varelas were original settlers with this group.

Blazing a new route scouted by his nephew, Vicente de Zaldivar, Oñate’s expedition struggled northward from Santa Barbara along the upper Río Conchos across the Chihuahuan desert. Unlike previous expeditions, this one did not follow the Conchos to the Rio Grande, it headed straight across the sand dunes of the Chihuahua desert. A vanguard, after four days without water, reached the Rio Grande on April 20th. Six days later the colony of four hundred soldiers and the others was reunited. In celebration of its survival a great feast was held.

At one point in time the expedition was suffering from great thirst. Providentially they saved by a miraculous downpour "so heavy that very large pools were formed and more than seven thousand head of cattle and mares of all kinds drank."

The exhausted travelers finally reached the Rio Grande and ascended the river a distance. On April 30, 1598, Oñate in a formal ceremony took official possession of the entire territory drained by the Rio Grande for his monarch, Philip II of Spain, saying: "I claim these lands without limitations, including the mountains, the rivers, valleys, meadows, pastures, and waters ... pueblos, cities, towns, castles ... in the name of the King." This is a significant date in the history of the El Paso Southwest. The event, which took place at a site near that of present-day San Elizario, Texas (the river at that time ran several miles north of its present channel) which is called La Toma. The taking possession of it laid the foundation for more than two centuries of Spanish rule in the American Southwest.

Ascending the river, the expedition crossed it to the east side on May 4th, at a site just west of present downtown El Paso. Oñate called this operation "El Paso del Río del Norte," an early use of the name El Paso. Near the upper reaches of the river he established his headquarters, founded a church, and formally founded the province of New Mexico.

Passing through the narrows near San Felipe Pueblo, Governor Oñate arrived at the Pueblo of Santo Domingo and, on July 7th, held a council with the Indians of the surrounding country. It was assumed that the natives would be responsive to conversion in the country to the far north. In a Ceremony, the native leaders swore allegiance to the Spanish Crown and Church. Later expedition member Gaspar de Villagra wrote an epic poem about the conquest.

Don Juan de Oñate established the first capital of New Mexico at San Gabriel in 1598. First historic capital of New Mexico at San Gabriel is one of the oldest in the United States.

Sometime after this, in 1599, many of my progenitors arrived in the New Mexico seeking a new life and searching a place to call home. Almost one hundred years later, when the de Riberas finally arrived in the New World from Spain it was to find a better life. They came first as the Spanish soldiers, re-conquistadors of New Mexico. Later, they became explorers and settlers. Through the centuries they farmed, ranched, and became politicians in what is known today as Santa Fe, and later, Pecos.

During the period 1598-1608, Don Juan de Oñate y Salazar brought first colony to New Mexico and explored vast areas of New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas. He reached the South Sea in 1605, and signed his name at on Inscription Rock, now El Morro National Monument.

On April 30, 1598, Oñate claimed all of the territory across the river crossing to the north for the Spanish Empire.

That summer his party continued up the middle Rio Grande Valley to present day northern New Mexico, where he encamped among the Pueblo Indians. He founded the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, and was its first colonial governor. Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá, a captain of the expedition, chronicled Oñate’s conquest of New Mexico’s indigenous peoples in his epic Historia de la Nueva México in 1610.

The battle at Acoma gained Oñate a reputation as a stern ruler of both the Spanish colonists and the indigenous people. In October 1598, a skirmish erupted when Oñate's occupying Spanish military demanded supplies from the Acoma Pueblo people, demanding provisions that were essential for the Acoma to survive the oncoming winter. The Acoma resisted and 11 Spaniards were killed, amongst them Don Juan Oñate’s nephew. The battle began and in January 1599, Oñate retaliated for the loss of his nephew with the Acoma War. The retaliatory strike by Oñate left 800 villagers, including men, women, and children dead.

They enslaved the remaining 500, and by Don Juan’s decree, they amputated the left foot of every Acoma man over the age of twenty-five. Females were sent off to be slaves for twenty years. Eighty men had one of their feet amputated, though some commentator put the figure of those mutilated at "only" twenty-four.

In 1601, Oñate undertook a large expedition east to the Great Plains region of central North America. There were 130 Spanish soldiers and twelve Franciscan priests, similar to the expedition of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, and a retinue of 130 Indian soldiers and servants, and 350 horses and mules. Oñate journeyed across the plains eastward from New Mexico in a renewed search for Quivira, fabled "city of gold." As had the earlier Coronado Expedition in the 1540s, he encountered Apaches in the "Texas Panhandle" region. He proceeded eastward following the Canadian River into the "Oklahoma" region. Leaving the river behind in a sandy area where his ox carts could not pass, he went cross country, and the land became greener, with more water and groves of Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) and Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) trees.

Jusepe probably led Oñate on the same route he had taken on the Umana and Leyba expedition six years earlier. They found an encampment of native people that Oñate called the Escanjaques. He estimated the population at more than 5,000 living in 600 houses. The Escanjaques lived in round houses as large as 90 feet (27 m) in diameter and covered with tanned buffalo hides. They were hunters, according to Oñate, depending upon the buffalo for their subsistence and planting no crops.

The Escanjaques told Oñate that a large settlement of their enemies, the Rayado Indians, was located only about twenty miles away in a region called Etzanoa. Thus, it seems possible that the Escanjaques had gathered together in large numbers either out of fear of the Rayados or to undertake a war against them. They attempted to enlist the assistance of the Spanish and their firearms, alleging that the Rayados were responsible for the deaths of Humana and Leyva a few years before.

The Escanjaques guided Oñate to a large river a few miles away and he became the first European to describe the tallgrass prairie. He spoke of fertile land, much better than that through which he had previously passed, and pastures "so good that in many places the grass was high enough to conceal a horse." He tasted and found of good flavor a fruit that sounds like the Pawpaw.

Near the river, Oñate, the Spaniards, and their numerous Escanjaque guides saw three or four hundred Rayados on a hill. The Rayados advanced, throwing dirt into the air as a sign that they were ready for war. Oñate quickly indicated that he did not wish to fight and made peace with this group of Rayados, who proved to be friendly and generous. Oñate liked the Rayados more than he did the Escanjaques. They were "united, peaceful, and settled." They showed deference to their chief, named Caratax, whom Oñate detained as a guide and hostage, although "treating him well."

Caratax led Oñate and the Escanjaques across the river to a settlement on the eastern bank, one or two miles from the river. The settlement was deserted, the inhabitants having fled. It contained "about twelve hundred houses, all established along the bank of another good-sized river which flowed into the large one [the Arkansas].... the settlement of the Rayados seemed typical of those seen by Coronado in Quivira sixty years before.

Oñate's 1605 "signature graffiti" on Inscription Rock, in El Morro National Monument

The homesteads were dispersed; the houses round, thatched with grass, large enough to sleep ten persons each, and surrounded by large granaries to store the corn, beans, and squash they grew in their fields." With difficulty Oñate restrained the Escanjaques from looting the town and sent them home.

The next day Oñate expedition proceeded onward for another eight miles through heavily populated territory, although without seeing many Rayados. At this point, the Spaniard's courage deserted them. There were obviously many Rayados nearby and the Spaniards were warned that the Rayados were assembling an army.

Discretion seemed the better part of valor. Oñate estimated that three hundred Spanish soldiers would be needed to confront the Rayados, and he turned his soldiers around to return to New Mexico.

Oñate had worried about the Rayados hurting or attacking him, but it was instead the Escanjaques who attacked him as he was beginning his return to New Mexico. Oñate described a pitched battle with one thousand five hundred Escanjaques—probably an exaggeration—in which many Spaniards were wounded and many natives killed. After more than two hours of fighting, Oñate retired from the battlefield.

The Rayado chief, Caratax, was freed by a raid on the Spanish and Oñate freed several women captives, but he retained several boys at the request of the Spanish priests so that they could be instructed in the Catholic faith.

Oñate and his men returned to New Mexico, arriving there on November 24, 1601 without any further incidents of importance. The path of Oñate's expedition and the identity of the Escanjaques and the Rayados are much debated.

Most authorities believe his route led down the Canadian River from Texas to Oklahoma, cross-country to the Salt Fork, where he found the Escanjaque encampment, and then to the Arkansas River and its tributary, the Walnut River at Arkansas City, Kansas where the Rayado settlement was located. A minority view would be that the Escanjaque encampment was on the Ninnescah River and the Rayado village was on the site of present day Wichita, Kansas. Archaeological evidence favors the Walnut River site.

Oñate’s last major expedition went to the west, from New Mexico to the lower valley of the Colorado River. The party of about three dozen men set out from the Rio Grande valley in October 1604. They traveled by way of Zuñi, the Hopi pueblos, and the Bill Williams River to the Colorado River, and descended that river to its mouth in the Gulf of California in January 1605, before returning along the same route to New Mexico. The evident purpose of the expedition was to locate a port by which New Mexico could be supplied, as an alternative to the laborious 700 mile overland route from New Spain.

The expedition to the lower Colorado River was important as the only recorded European incursion into that region between the expeditions of Hernando de Alarcón and Melchior Díaz in 1540, and the visits of Eusebio Francisco Kino beginning in 1701. The explorers did not see evidence of prehistoric Lake Cahuilla, which must have arisen shortly afterwards in the Salton Sink. They mistakenly thought that the Gulf of California continued indefinitely to the northwest, giving rise to a belief that was common in the 17th Century that the western coasts of an Island of California were being seen by sailing expeditions in the Pacific.

Native groups observed living on the lower Colorado River, were, from north to south, the Amacava (Mohave), Bahacecha, Osera (Pima), at the confluence of the Gila River with the Colorado, in a location later occupied by the Quechan, Alebdoma.

Seen by Oñate below the Gila junction but subsequently reported upstream from there, in the area where Oñate had encountered the, Coguana, or Kahwans, Agalle, and Agalecquamaya, or Halyikwamai, and the Cocopah. Concerning areas that the explorers had not observed directly, they gave fantastic reports about races of human monsters and areas said to be rich in gold, silver, and pearls.

In 1606, Oñate was recalled to Mexico City (The Viceroyalty of New Spain) for a hearing into his conduct. After finishing plans for the founding of the town of Santa Fé, he resigned his post and was tried and convicted of cruelty to both natives and colonists. He was banished from Nuevo México, but on appeal was cleared of all charges.

Eventually Oñate went to Spain, where the king appointed him Head of all mining inspectors in Spain. He died in Spain in 1626. He is sometimes referred to as "the Last Conquistador." Oñate is honored by some for his exploratory ventures, but is vilified by others for his cruelty to the Keres of Acoma Pueblo.

1596: Juan de Zaldivar explored the San Luís Valley of Colorado.

1598: Juan de Archuleta explored Colorado as far as Kiowa County.

1598: The 1598 Disaster of Curalaba, in which the Spanish governor of Chile, Martín García Óñez de Loyola was killed in a surprise attack by Mapuche Indians in southern Chile, had led to the abandonment of the cities of Santa Cruz de Óñez, La Imperial, Valdivia, Osorno, Angol, Villarrica, and all the other Spanish positions south of the Biobío River. Even Chillán was temporarily depopulated, and the fort of Arauco and Concepción were besieged by Mapuches under Pelantaru.

The Spanish defense of the colony consisted mostly of a citizen militia, not considered adequate by the authorities. With the aim of improving the army, they wanted a governor with military experience. It was for this reason that Alonso de Ribera received the appointment, with the mandate of organizing a professional army.

After studying mathematics, Ribera joined the Spanish army in Flanders. It was the beginning of a long and successful military career. He fought in various battles in France with Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma. In addition, he was part of the Spanish Armada of 1588, and one of the followers of Cardinal Archduke Alberto, governor of the Netherlands.

His distinguished military service came to the attention of King Philip III. In 1599 the king named him Governor and Captain General of Chile, positions that he occupied from 1601 to 1605 and again from 1612 to 1617.



  The Iberian origins of New Mexico’s Community Acequias:


The American Southwest encompasses a vast territory rich in natural and mineral resources but short on water supply. When Spanish explorers first entered the region, known to them as Nueva España, they immediately realized that irrigation would be a necessary development in the establishment of permanent communities, whether presidios, missions, provincial government centers or civilian settlements. Due to the conditions of aridity, already familiar to Mediterranean dwellers, Spanish colonization policies required that officials of the crown, and settlers who accompanied them, must locate their communities in the vicinity of watercourses and other natural resources needed for permanent occupation. To sustain themselves, irrigation systems would have to be built far in excess of the water control, flood-water farming and other irrigation practices conducted at the time by some of the indigenous peoples encountered in the region.

During the Spanish colonial period (1598-1821), the irrigation method most commonly employed was gravity flow irrigation by way of earthen canals or "acequias." At various times, acequias were constructed in all of the southwestern states: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. For a variety of reasons, however, it was in La Provincia del Nuevo México that Spanish colonization policies were the most effective, particularly with regard to the establishment of civilian towns and agricultural colonies. From the outset, the plans to colonize Nuevo México included the introduction of not only soldiers (for the presidios) and friars (for the Indian missions) but hundreds and then successive waves of pobladores (civilian settlers).




At this juncture we must stop and explore what these New World Spaniards had become. As it relates to New Mexico beginning in 1599, it was used as a remote frontier outpost buffer against the encroaching French, English and Russian threats. The New Mexicans had little contact with the Spaniards of Mexico City, the capital of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The distance was over 700 miles away. Wagon trains traveled back and forth only every three years. After initial waves of settlers, few new arrivals came. This left the New Mexicans stranded in time and tied to old traditions and beliefs. The insular nature of New Mexico left its people isolated and almost totally dependent upon themselves for survival.


Alonso de Ribera de Pareja (1560-March 9, 1617) was born inÚbeda a town in the province of Jaén in Spain's autonomous community of Andalusia, he was the illegitimate son of hidalgo and Captain Jorge de Ribera Zambrana y Dávalos, who claimed descent from the kings of Aragon.


After studying mathematics, Ribera joined the Spanish army in Flanders. It was the beginning of a long and successful military career. He fought in various battles in France with Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma. In addition, he was part of the Spanish Armada of 1588, and one of the followers of Cardinal Archduke Alberto, governor of the Netherlands.

His distinguished military service came to the attention of King Philip III. In 1599 the king named him governor and captain general of Chile, positions that he occupied from 1601 to 1605 and again from 1612 to 1617.

17th Century




1600s: Early in the early 1600s, when the Partido System of government was enacted the Pueblo municipal governments handled minor political and judicial affairs. With the area then divided into pueblo governments and religious sections, governmental systems and religious structures were securely in place. New Mexico's division of seven religious sections with one Franciscan friar in charge of each district was how Church authority was delegated.


The hardy Corriente cattle are brought into New Mexico with the Spaniards and allowed to free range throughout the 1600's. These would evolve through the process of natural selection and some help by these Spanish ranchers in two hundred years into a breed, which is now, termed "Texas Longhorn."

1602: Sebastián Vizcaíno sailed up the coast of California, and named Monterey Bay, San Diego, San Clemente, Catalina, Santa Barbara, Point Concepcion, Carmel, Monterey, La Paz, and Ano Nuevo. Vizcaíno also tried unsuccessfully to colonize southern California.

1603: Chiguayante is a Chilean city and commune in Concepción Province, Biobío Region

Chiguayante is a Chilean city and commune in Concepción Province, Biobío Region. It is part of Greater Concepción. It was established December 24, 1603 by the Governor and Captain General of the Reyno de Chile Don Alonso de Ribera, and whose Foundation created in its outline the city of birth. 2nd half: in Golden field three strips of sinople which corresponds to those of the shield of arms of the Governor and Captain General Don Alonso de Rivera, founder of birth, recorded in the file of the orders military Madrid in 1515, on the occasion of the income to the military Santiago order in grade of Knight.

File:Escudo de Chiguayante.svgSpanish: Coat of arms of Chiguayante, Chile. The coat of arms according to the illustrious municipality of Chiguayante Description: The coat of arms is quarterly in Sotuer, i.e., divided into four fields, reading of the following manera:

1. Upper field: gules, a rising sun of gold, crossed by Silver cloud; it represents the indigenous voice "Chiguayante" (morning mist).

2. Campo left and right: silver, three waves of azure, representing the Bio Bio River.

3. Tip: sinople field symbolizing the Cordillera de la Costa with his imposing Cerro Manquimavida, representative of the city.

4. Sobre all: Blazon of arms de el Gobernador de Chile Don Alonso de Ribera, creator of the fortification, defence policy and registration of land in the region which lies Chiguayante.

5. Timbres: mural Gold Crown from mazonadas Poe of Sabre, which indicates the community range.

6. Ilusion: A golden legend Chiguayante fluttering Ribbon.  

1603: Don Alonso de Ribera Governor and Captain General of the Reyno de Chile 
Escudo de Nacimiento (Chile).svgSpanish: Shield of birth, Chile: shield Spanish party in Jaffa.

1st half: Chief, in silver field, a door gules whose windows and doors are cleared up in blue, in honor of the "strong's birth", established the day December 24, 1603 by the Governor and Captain General of the Reyno de Chile Don Alonso de Ribera, and whose Foundation created in its outline the city of birth.

2nd half: in Golden field three strips of sinople which corresponds to those of the shield of arms of the Governor and Captain General Don Alonso de Rivera, founder of birth, recorded in the file of the orders military Madrid in 1515, on the occasion of the income to the military Santiago order in grade of Knight.

Crown of strong, gold, eight towers of which four are in sight.

English: Coat of Arms of birth, Chile: Spanish Coat party in Jaffa gate. 1Or Half: In chief, in field of silver, a door of gules whose windows and doors are clarified of blue, in honor of the "strong of birth", which was established on December 24, 1603 by the Governor and Captain General of the Reyno de Chile Don Alonso de Ribera, and whose foundation created in his contour the city of birth.

2nd half: in the field of three gold stripes of sinople that corresponds to the of the Coat of Arms of the Governor and Captain General Don Alonso de Rivera, founder of birth, recorded in the file of the Military Orders of Madrid in 1515, with reason for admission to the Military Order of Santiago in the degree of Knight. Crown of strong, of gold, of eight towers of which four are in view.

Spanish: Shield (Escudo) of Birth, Chile: Spanish shield (escudo) divided in jafa. 1st Half: In chief, in silver field, a door of gules whose(which) windows and doors are clarified of blue, in honor to "Loudly of Birth", established on December 24, 1603 by the Governor and captain General del Reyno of Chile Don Alonso de Ribera, and whose (which) foundation created in its outline the city of Birth. 2nd half: in golden field three strips of sinople that corresponds (fits) to those of the Coat of arms of the Governor and Captain General Don Alonso de Rivera, founder of Birth, registered in the File of the Military Orders of Madrid in 1515, owing to (on the occasion of) the revenue to the Military Order of Santiago in the Gentleman's grade. It crowns of fortress, of gold, of eight towers of which four give at sight.

1605: Marshall Gabriel de Rivera - At the coming of the Spaniards to Batangas in 1570, the Malay settlements along the southern shores of Taal Lake at Tagbakin was inhabited by the warlike descendants of the two (2) datus called the Tagalogs. In 1605, after Marshall Gabriel de Rivera received the encomienda of Bombon, the Augustinian Fathers made Tagbakin the first settlement of the Lipeños and a mission center with the name of San Sebastian, perhaps after the installed Patron Saint, which continued to the present. The settlement was made a regular municipality in 1702 and a regular parish in 1716 with Fray Diego de Alday as the first curate.

1605: Bishop Salvador Ribera Avalos, O.P. †, Bishop of Quito, Ecuador (1605-1612) 

1607: First permanent British colony founded by Captain John Smith at Jamestown, VA.



1610: First historic capital of New Mexico at San Gabriel is one of the oldest in the United States. It was then moved over thirty miles south to the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains to Santa Fe in 1610.

1610: In Santa Fe, New Mexico, the Spanish built the block long adobe Palace of the Governors.

1610: Upon the illness of the governor, Alonso García de Ramón (Ribera), Merlo de la Fuente Ruiz de Beteta a Spanish colonial official briefly served as the Royal Governor of Chile, in 1610–11. He took command on September 2, 1610.




1630: Catalina De Rivera Spain
Born: 1630 in Sevilla, Seville, Andalucia, Spain
Daughter: of Francisco Miguel and María De Ortega
Siblings: unknown
Wife: of Anton Martin Matajudios — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Wife: of Diego Gallegos — married 1650 in New, Spain
Mother: of Juan DePadilla and Antonio Gallegos
Died: [date unknown] in New Mexico, USA

Francisco Miguel
Born: 1600 in New Mexico, USA
Son: of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
Siblings: Unknown
Husband of María De Ortega — married [date unknown] [location unknown]

Father of Catalina De Rivera
Died: Date unknown, Location unknown
María De Ortega
Born: 1600 [location unknown]
Daughter: of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
Siblings: Unknown

Wife: of Francisco Miguel — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Mother: of Catalina De Rivera
Died: [date unknown] [location unknown]

1636: Francisco de Ribera - In 1636, Captain Pedro Lucero de Godoy testified that he had known Ribera for twenty-one years, suggesting the possibility of the two coming to New Mexico together.



 1646: In 1646, there were 168,600 Spanish Criollos Colonists in the New World.

While the colonists were growing in number, the Indians were diminishing. Counted at 3.34 million in 1570, the Indians were counted at only 1.26 million in 1646. The diminishing numbers indicate hardship, but imported disease had killed many of them, and mining had taken some others. Some historians have charged Protestants and Spanish reformers with exaggerating cruelties against the Indians. Nevertheless, Indians under Spaniard control remained dependent upon work from the Spaniards for survival, and some Indians labored on the large farms of the Spaniards, not as slaves but kept in debt by their employers.

At the top were the families of authorities sent from Spain, called Peninsulares. Below them were the Criollos, those born in America claiming pure Spanish blood. The Criollos called themselves the decent people (gente decente). Below them were those they called Mestizos.

In 1570, the Peninsulares are said to have numbered 6.6 thousand and the Criollos 11 thousand. By 1646 the Peninsulares had risen to 13.8 thousand and the Criollos to 168.6 thousand. The Mestizos in 1570 are said to have numbered 2,437, and in 1646 to have risen to 109,042 – the authorities apparently trying to count them.

The Criollos called themselves the decent people (gente decente) while below them were those they called Mestizos. These were people of mixed blood. Daughters of Indian nobility had married into upper class white families early on. And with few white women available, common Spanish men had been taking native concubines or wives. And blacks were mixing with Indians. Across generations people of mixed blood were increasing in number, while Indians who dressed like whites and spoke Spanish were labeled Mestizo. In Asunción and Santiago, those with some European genetic heritage were considered fully European; while across Spanish America the genes of Indians and blacks were slowly entering into the DNA of some Criollo families who continued to claim an unmixed racial heritage.

Every Criollo community had its church, or churches, some of them Romanesque with a round dome, and some were of Italian Renaissance design. Criollo men and women prayed to their saints, and all of the religious festivals were celebrated. Many Criollos lived in fine houses and wore luxurious clothing, while below them a small middleclass was developing, made up of all races but predominately European.

People from different parts of Europe had been drifting into Spanish America, and some came from China and India. Many of those who arrived were deserters from ships that had touched on the continent. A few of these men had worked their way into the middleclass through trading – much of it contraband.

Criollo families sent their sons to a Jesuit university in Spanish America or perhaps to a university in Spain, and the Church was in control of education. Books by Jews, Muslims or Protestants were forbidden, so too, were books supporting any disrespect for established authority including books about spreading political power to common people. Church authorities in Spanish America were on guard against any smuggled books that might create doubts about the need for obedience.

The Inquisition, however, was less active in the Americas than it had been in Spain. Ideologically unreliable people had been denied legal passage to the Americas. In three hundred years of Spain's rule, in Mexico City only 41 heretics would be burned at the stake – and some of these were captured Protestants.

Among the Spanish in America, Protestants were despised. They called England's sailors Luteranos (Lutherans), and the Spaniards paraded their English prisoners of war through town streets, flogging them before joyful crowds of colonists.

Mid-1600s: Sieur de La Salle; born René Robert Cavelier, a French explorer to the New World arrived in Canada in the mid-1600s and earned a reputation as a successful fur trader. But he was not content to simply run a fur-trading business. Like many explorers of his day, La Salle hoped to find a water route to China and the Far East.


1659: Juan de Ribera, O.S.A. † Appointed Bishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia (1659-1666)

1659: Ana Manriquez de Reinoso (DNA Match)
Born: 1659 in Fresnillo, Nueva Espana
Died: 05/24/1727 in Santa Fe, NM
Married: Nicolas Ramos
Children: of Ana Manriquez de Reinoso and Nicolas Ramos are:
María Ramos, b. 1683, d. 02/20/1730, Santa Fe, NM.


1666: Francisco Fernández de la Cueva y de la Cueva, X Duque de Alburquerque, Marqués de Cuéllar y IV Marqués de C (1666-1724). Also known as, Francisco V Fernández de la Cueva y Fernández de la Cueva, (Genoa, Italy, November 17, 1666 Madrid, Spain, 28 June 1724) was the 10th Duke of Alburquerque, Grandee of Spain, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece since 1707, and viceroy of New Spain, Viceroy of Mexico, from November 27, 1702 to January 14, 1711.

He was the nephew of Francisco IV Fernández de la Cueva y Enríquez de Cabrera – Colonna, (* Barcelona, 1618/1619 – † Madrid, (Palacio Real) March 27, 1676), 8th Duque de Alburquerque and many other lesser titles, also a Viceroy of New Spain, (1653–1660), and Viceroy of Sicily, (1667-1670), and the son of the 9th Duke of Albuquerque, and many other lesser titles, the cadet brother of the 8th Duke, and inheritor of the titles, Melchor Fernández de la Cueva y Enríquez de Ribera-Colonna, (* Madrid, March 2, 1625 – Madrid October 12, 1686).

His father, Melchor, the 9th Duke, had married in 1665 his niece Ana Rosolea Fernández de la Cueva y Díaz de Aux, the 3rd marquise of Cadreita, Navarre, daughter of the 8th Duke of Albuquerque Francisco IV Fernández de la Cueva and Juana Francisca Díez de Aux y Armendáriz, herself daughter of Lope Díez de Armendáriz, Viceroy of Mexico (1635-1640).

This Spanish – Equatorian, Francisco Fernández de La Cueva y Fernandez de la Cueva, 10th Duke, was thus family connected through paternal and maternal links with two former Viceroys of New Spain, Viceroys of México, his uncle Francisco IV, the 8th Duke of Albuquerque and Lope Díez de Armendáriz. He was Captain General of the Kingdom of Granada and Captain General of the Coast of Andalusia.



1673: Payo Enríquez de Ribera Manrique, O.S.A. Bishop of Guatemala and Archbishop of Mexico December 13, 1673 to November 7, 1680.

1675: Salvadór Matías de Ribera
Ayudante (Adjutant; aide-de-camp, assistant, auxiliary, assistant, helper; adjutant, aide; contributor; companion; consultant; guardian and my Progenitor):
  • Born: 1659 or1675, Puerto de Santa María , España
  • Death: 1712 Santa Fe, Kingdom of New Mexico, Nueva España
  • Marriage: Juana de Sosa Canela(Born in España on 1663)

Dates & Events:

Salvadór Matías de Ribera was born in Santa María in Spain, and was 20 years old in 1695. Salvadór was described as a Spanish resident of Zacatecas, with an average physique, straight black hair, and twenty years old.

He and his family were recruited at Zacatecas by Juan Paez Hurtado, enlisting in the venture on January 4, 1695. He appeared on the Muster Roll of the Colonists who went to New Mexico in the census in 1695. They received payments of 360 pesos for their journey. He arrived in Santa Fe in 1695 with his wife and only known child was Juan Felipe de Rivera (Born in Zacatecas, New Spain (Mexico) on 1696.

In 1704, he lost his Vargas grant in the center of Santa Fe through a law-suit. His widow, Juana de Sosa Canela (Born in España, Iberia) and son were seeking other grants in the Torreon de la Cienega section of Santa Fe.

ONMF, pg. 267

1678: Artillery Captain Enrique Primo de Rivera began construction on the San Marcos de Apache Fort, Florida.

The history of San Marcos de Apache Fort dates back to 1528 when Panfilo de Narvaez arrived in the area with 300 men; however, the first fort was not built until 1679. Andrew Jackson occupied the fort for a brief time in the early 1800s.


1680: Pueblo Revolt of 1680, the Navajos or Apaches (Pueblo people) tired of harsh treatment and religious intolerance banded together under the leadership of a man named Pope and drove the Spanish from the New Mexico colonies and destroyed and defaced most of the Spanish churches.

1682: In 1682, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led the first expedition down the Mississippi River from New France to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the entire Mississippi River watershed for France as the new territory of Louisiana. He also claimed an area of New World wilderness of North America naming it Louisiana. This was the same Louisiana that de Gálvez was made governor of under Spain.

1683: by 1683, La Salle returned to France and proposed establishing a French colony at the mouth of the Mississippi, between Spanish Florida and New Spain. The colony would provide a base for promoting Christianity among the native peoples as well as a convenient location for attacking the Spanish province of Nueva Vizcaya and gaining control of its lucrative silver mines.

1684: On July 24, 1684, the expedition left La Rochelle for the New World with 300 people aboard 4 ships. The four-ship French transatlantic voyage and expedition was to be marred by poor navigation and a pirate attack on the St-François. The members included 100 soldiers, 6 missionaries, 8 merchants, over a dozen women and children, and artisans and craftsmen Fifty-eight days later, the expedition stopped at Santo Domingo (Saint-Domingue), where one of the ships, the St-François, which had been fully loaded with supplies, provisions, and tools for the colony, was captured by Spanish privateers.

La Salle's Expedition to Louisiana in 1684, painted in 1844 by Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin.   La Belle is on the left, Le Joly is in the middle, and L'Aimable is grounded on the right.


La Salle later stopped at Petit-Goâve, the French West Indies outpost, to acquire provisions, which were purchased with credit extended by the Duhaut brothers. The Duhauts were then given trading privileges and allowed space for merchandise on La Salle's ships that would have ordinarily been reserved for supplies for the colony.

In late November 1684, the three remaining ships continued their search for the Mississippi River delta. A combination of inaccurate maps, La Salle's previous miscalculation of the latitude of the mouth of the Mississippi River, and overcorrecting for the currents led the ships to be unable to find the Mississippi. Instead, they landed at Matagorda Bay in early 1685, 400 miles (644 km) west of the Mississippi.

By 1685, the remaining three ships landed on the Texas coast in February 1685. This was four hundred miles west of the intended destination. The expedition sought to establish a fortified trading port near the mouth of the Mississippi. Such a port would have given the French an advantage over the Spanish. Spates of ill fate continued in succession as La Salle's attempts by land to find the Mississippi failed, and then the Aimable, the largest ship carrying most of the would-be colony's supplies, sunk in Matagorda Bay.

To provide a temporary sanctuary and protection from the local Karankawa Indians, who did not take kindly to the French intrusion into their homeland, a small fort was established on the Texas coast in summer 1685 on the banks of Garcitas Creek above the head of Lavaca Bay.

The expedition was further weakened by the departure of the naval vessel, Joly, and it's collection of discontented colonists, soldiers, and crew.

La Salle continued widening his search, leaving a small detachment at Fort Saint Louis a French colony established in 1685 in present-day Texas near Arenosa Creek and Matagorda Bay.

He also left a few crewmen on the last remaining ship, the Belle at Matagorda Bay. The crew was dying of thirst, and the Karankawa had killed the ship's best sailors in a failed attempt to go ashore to get water.

On a cold winter day in 1686, the Belle flagship of the French explorer La Salle, part of the original four-ship expedition foundered in Matagorda Bay, the victim of a run of bad luck and a Blue Norther. That blustery cold day, with fierce winds pounding the small vessel, the ship's master pulled anchor to sail across Matagorda Bay to get help. Violating La Salle's orders, he lost control of the ship. When it capsized, crewmembers managed to salvage a few supplies, but most were lost. The ship gradually disappeared beneath the muddy bay waters.

In a brutal twist of fate, La Salle himself was murdered at the hand of one of his own men. The event led the Karankawa to sack Fort Saint Louis where he and his army had set up a headquarters and kill most of the remaining French settlers.

Indian attacks and epidemics forced the group to abandon the fort. This invasion was troubling to the Spanish even though the fort was deserted by the time it was discovered. Several survivors were living among Texas Indians were later taken prisoner by the Spanish were sent to Mexico City for interrogation. This was a warning to the Spanish that their northern territory was in jeopardy.


1688: The L'Archevêque/Archibeque family History

Jean L'Archevêque (1672–1720) was a French explorer, soldier and merchant-trader. One of the few survivors of the ill-fated French colony Fort Saint Louis (Texas), L'Archevêque, the son of a merchant-trader from Bayonne, France, indentured himself to merchant-trader Sieur Pierre Duhaut in order to participate in the expedition to find the colony. L'Archevêque is known to have been the decoy that led René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle into an ambush in which Duhaut shot La Salle. While Duhaut was killed by expedition members to avenge La Salle's murder, L'Archevêque escaped the same fate because he was viewed more favorably and was thought to be less guilty. L'Archevêque died in 1720 as part of the Villasur expedition.


La Salle's Expedition to Louisiana in 1684, painted in 1844 by Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin. La Belle is on the left, Le Joly is in the middle, and L'Aimable is grounded on the right.

L'Archevêque was born to Claude and Marie (d'Armagnac) L'Archevêque on September 30, 1672 in Bayonne, France. The L'Archevêque family was Catholic while in Bayonne, but the family had been bourgeois Huguenots (French Protestant Calvinists) in Bordeaux prior to the conversion of Pierre L'Archevêque, Jean L'Archevêque's paternal grandfather. The family relocated to Bayonne in the 1650s.

In 1684, aged twelve, L'Archevêque joined the expedition of René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle. Two years previously, La Salle had led the first expedition down the Mississippi River from New France to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the entire Mississippi River watershed for France as the new territory of Louisiana. La Salle returned to France and proposed establishing a French colony at the mouth of the Mississippi, between Spanish Florida and New Spain. The colony would provide a base for promoting Christianity among the native peoples as well as a convenient location for attacking the Spanish province of Nueva Vizcaya and gaining control of its lucrative silver mines.

On July 24, 1684, the expedition left La Rochelle for the New World with 300 people aboard 4 ships. The members included 100 soldiers, 6 missionaries, 8 merchants, over a dozen women and children, and artisans and craftsmen Fifty-eight days later, the expedition stopped at Santo Domingo (Saint-Domingue), where one of the ships, the St-François, which had been fully loaded with supplies, provisions, and tools for the colony, was captured by Spanish privateers. L'Archevêque joined the expedition with Pierre and Dominique Duhaut when La Salle stopped at Petit-Goâve, the French West Indies outpost, to acquire provisions, which were purchased with credit extended by the brothers Duhaut. The Duhauts were then given trading privileges and allowed space for merchandise on La Salle's ships that would have ordinarily been reserved for supplies for the colony. L'Archevêque had come to Petit-Goâve with his merchant-trader parents, and claimed kinship with the Duhaut brothers.

In late November 1684, the three remaining ships continued their search for the Mississippi River delta. A combination of inaccurate maps, La Salle's previous miscalculation of the latitude of the mouth of the Mississippi River, and overcorrecting for the currents led the ships to be unable to find the Mississippi. Instead, they landed at Matagorda Bay in early 1685, 400 miles (644 km) west of the Mississippi.

On February 20, the colonists finally reached shore, their first feel of land in the three months since leaving Santo Domingo. They set up a temporary camp near the location of the present-day Matagorda Island Lighthouse. While trying to navigate the shallow pass into the bay, one of the ships, L'Aimable, was grounded on a sandbar. For several days the men attempted to salvage the tools and provisions that had been loaded on the Aimable, but a bad storm prevented them from recovering more than food, cannons, powder, and a small amount of the merchandise. By March 7th, the ship had sunk.

The following week, the ship Le Joly, which had been loaned to La Salle by the Louis XIV, returned to France, leaving the colonists with only one ship, La Belle. Many of the colonists chose to return to France aboard Le Joly, leaving approximately 180 behind. La Salle searched for a more permanent settlement site and found Garcitas Creek, which had fresh water and fish, with good soil and timber along its banks, and named it Rivière aux Boeufs for the nearby buffalo herds. Fort Saint Louis would be constructed on a bluff overlooking the creek, 1.5 leagues from its mouth. The men found a source of salt nearby and constructed a community oven.

In early June, La Salle summoned the rest of the colonists to the new settlement site. Seventy people began the 50-mile (80 km) overland trek on June 12. All of the supplies had to be hauled from the Belle, a physically draining task that was finally completed by the middle of July. Although trees grew near the site, timber suitable for building was found several miles inland, and the trees were transported back to the new building site. Some timbers were even salvaged from the Aimable. By the end of July, over half of the settlers had died, most from a combination of scant rations and overwork.

With their permanent camp established, the colonists took several short trips within the next few months to further explore their surroundings. At the end of October La Salle decided to undertake a longer expedition from January until March 1686, La Salle and most of his men searched overland for the Mississippi River, traveling towards the Rio Grande, possibly as far west as modern-day Langtry. It is unknown whether L'Archevêque accompanied La Salle or remained behind.

While La Salle was gone, La Belle was wrecked in a storm. The destruction of their last ship left the settlers stranded on the Texas coast, with no hope of gaining assistance from the French colonies in the Caribbean.

By early January 1687, fewer than 45 people remained in the colony. La Salle believed that their only hope of survival lay in trekking overland to request assistance from New France, and sometime that month he led a final expedition to attempt to reach Illinois. Fewer than 20 people remained at Fort Saint Louis. Seventeen men were included on the expedition, including La Salle, his brother, two of his nephews, and L'Archevêque. While camping near present-day Navasota on March 18, several of the men quarreled over the division of buffalo meat. That night, one of La Salle's nephews and two other men were killed in their sleep by another expedition member. The following day, La Salle was shot by Pierre Duhaut while speaking to L'Archevêque as he was approaching the camp to investigate his nephew's disappearance.

Infighting led to the deaths of two other expedition members, including Pierre Duhaut, within a short time, and L'Archevêque was targeted but was spared at the insistence of the Recollect friar Father Anastasius Douay. Two of the surviving members, including L'Archevêque, did return to La Salle's camp and remained for two months, but later joined the Caddo after missing a rendezvous with members of La Salle's expedition that were heading to French Illinois Country. The remaining six men made their way to Illinois Country as quickly as possible and met several of Henri de Tonti's men near the Arkansas River. During their journey through Illinois to Canada, the men did not tell anyone that La Salle was dead. They reached France in summer 1688 and informed King Louis of La Salle's death and the horrible conditions in the colony. Louis did not send aid.

L'Archevêque quickly tired of his life with the Caddo. In 1689, he and his companion, Jacques Grollet [Grollet also Gurulé, was born in 1663 at La Rochelle, France is also one of my lines. His descendent María de la Cruz Gurulé a daughter of Jose Gurulé and María Rita Montoya married my progenitor Miguel Geronimo de Ribera (Son of Salvadór Rivera and Tomasa Rael) at La Castrensa in Santa Fe on April 20, 1784.], wrote a note asking for rescue. They gave the note to the Caddo, who passed it on to the Jumano Indians while trading. The Jumano were allied with the Spanish and brought a packet of documents to Spanish authorities in New Mexico. The documents included a parchment painting of the Joly, as well as a written message from L'Archeveque. The message read: "I do not know what sort of people you are. We are French; we are among the savages; we would like much to be Among the Christians such as we are. ... we are solely grieved to be among beasts like these who believe neither in God nor in anything. Gentlemen, if you are willing to take us away, you have only to send a message. We will deliver ourselves up to you."

Alonso De León rescued L'Archeveque and Grollet. On interrogation, the men maintained that over 100 of the French settlers had died of smallpox, and the others had been killed by the Karankawa. The only people known to have survived the final attack were the Talon children, who had been adopted by the Karankawa. According to the children, the Indians had attacked around Christmas in 1688, killing the remaining settlers.

L'Archevêque and Grollet were taken first to Mexico City. In the summer of 1689, they sailed with Captain Andrés de Pez as prisoners to Spain, and arrived in Madrid in January 1690. Five months later, they petitioned for a stipend of two Spanish reals per day, which was granted then they were forgotten in prison for almost two years.

In May 1692, L'Archevêque and Grollet petitioned to be released, arguing that they had committed no crimes against Spain. The Junta De Guerra de Indias war council reviewed the petition, but could not recommend they be set free outright because their knowledge of Spanish territory could have weakened Spain's position against France. However, the war council also could not recommend keeping then isolated in royal jail while at peace with France because Louis XIV would have had grounds for their repatriation.

After swearing an oath to Spain, the war council allowed the men to return to Spanish territory controlled by the Viceroy of New Spain Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza, 8th conde de Gelves, where they would be out of reach of the French, and granted them an additional stipend and a soldier's rations for the voyage. They departed from Cádiz to Veracruz with Admiral Andrés de Pez in 1692.

L'Archevêque became a soldier then joined a group of colonists led by Diego de Vargas and arrived in Santa Fe on June 22, 1694. Three years later he married a widow, Antonia Gutiérres, who bore him two children, Miguel and María.

It is likely that Antonia died in 1701. That year, L'Archevêque purchased an estate in Santa Fe, but continued to serve as a soldier. He served as a scout in 1704 under Juan de Ulibarri, and in 1714 he became a member of a junta. After retiring from the military, L'Archevêque became a merchant-trader. His sons, Miguel, and illegitimate son Agustin, assisted him with his business.

In 1719, he became a father again, as a servant girl gave birth to his illegitimate son. Later that year, on August 16, he married Manuela (Roybal), the daughter of alcalde Ignacio de Roybal, which was attended by the Spanish governor of New Mexico, Antonio Valverde y Cosío. The year following his marriage, L'Archevêque joined the Villasur expedition on an expedition against the Pawnees. The Pawnee force was supposed to be led by a Frenchmen, so L'Archevêque was to assist in interpreting letters from the Frenchman. The Pawnee attacked suddenly on August 20, 1720, and killed most of the Spanish, including L'Archevêque. His body was left on the banks of an unknown river.

By the time of L'Archevêque's death he had become known as Captain Juan de Archibeque. He was credited with honorable military service and had become a successful merchant-trader. His regular operations extended as far as Sonora with occasional business in Mexico City, and his notes of credit were accepted and endorsed by those connected to the government. He is the progenitor of the Archibeque family of New Mexico.


1687-1711: Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, a Jesuit priest, founded many missions and explored areas the Pimería Alta region of New Spain, including what are now northern Mexico, California, and Arizona. He founded his first mission in what is now Sonora, Mexico, and then spent 25 years exploring and mapping the lands along the Rio Grande, the Colorado River, and the Gila River, traveling as far as the headwaters for the Rio Grande and the Gila.

1689: Captain José Primo de Rivera built a military fort at the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in Coweta, near Columbus, Georgia.



1691-1695: Francisco de Vargas reconquered New Mexico and entered the San Luís Valley.

1691: In 1691, Don Diego de Vargas was selected to lead the reconquest of New Mexico. As one historian described him, de Vargas was "an aristocrat of aristocrats eager to perform great deeds" and he succeeded. He was the prominent and influential member of the Vargas family of Madrid.

1692: In 1692, the newly appointed royal governor of New Mexico, Don Diego de Vargas, led a Spanish army of three hundred soldiers up the Rio Grande from El Paso to reclaim the province.

1693: In 1693, Vargas returned to New Mexico with more soldiers, seventy families, and eighteen friars.

1693: The central point for the military defense of New Mexico garrison was established at Santa Fe in 1693.

1694: Juan Felipe de Ribera (Son of Salvador Matias, one of my progenitors)
Born: 1694, Zacatecas, Nueva España
Died: October 01, 1767 in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Marriage: María Estela Palomino Rendon on March 24, 1715 in Santa Fé, Nuevo Méjico, Nueva España
Died: 1 Oct 1767, Santa Fé, Nuevo Méjico, Nueva España at age 73

Ten children, as found in records, are:

    • Vicente De Ribera 1729-, 14 years old when killed by Apaches "en el monte," May 1743,
    • Francisca, who died while a girl, December 22, 1737, and was buried in the Conquistadora chapel;
    • Juana Lorenza De Ribera 1723- married Pablo Antonio Baca, May 24, 1743;
    • María de Loreto, wife of Juan Antonio Ortiz, Married 1755-1822
    • Juliana, married to José Rodriguez
    • Salvadór De Ribera 1720-(One of my Progenitors)
    • Luís Felipe De Ribera 1730-( Luís Felipe enlisted as a soldier in 1757)
    • José De Ribera
    • Antonio De Ribera 1728-1794
    • Vicente 1743
    • Ana María Ribera 1762-Unknown

ONMF pg. 267

1696: In 1696, a second New Mexico Pueblo Revolt occurs which was motivated by causes similar to the revolt in 1680, when De Vargas was able to swiftly end it.

Generation No. 1
1. YVON1 GROLET was born Unknown, and died Bef. 1699 in La Rochelle, Kingdom of France. He married MARIE ODOIN. She was born Unknown, and died Bef. 1699 in La Rochelle, Kingdom of France.
2. i. SANTIAGO2 GURULÉ, b. Abt. 1663, La Rochelle, Kingdom of France; d. Abt. 1712, Bernalillo, New Mexico.

Generation No. 2
2. Santiago2 Gurulé (Yvon1 Grolet) was born About 1663 in La Rochelle, Kingdom of France, and died About 1712 in Bernalillo, New Mexico. He married Elena Gallegos December 10, 1699 in Bernalillo, New Mexico. She was the daughter of Antonio Gallegos and María Baca. She was born About 1680 in Bernalillo, New Mexico, and died September 21, 1731 in Bernalillo, New Mexico.

3. i. ANTONIO3 GURULÉ, b. Bef. 2 Apr 1703, Bernalillo, New Mexico; d. 18 Apr 1761.

Generation No. 3
3. ANTONIO3 GURULÉ (SANTIAGO2, YVON1 GROLET) was born Bef. 2 Apr 1703 in Bernalillo, New Mexico, and died 18 Apr 1761. He married ANTONIA QUINTANA Abt. 1721. She was born Abt. 1705, and died Unknown.
4. i. MARÍA MANUELA4 GURULÉ, b. Abt. 1722; d. 15 Mar 1757, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
5. ii. TOMAS GURULÉ, b. Abt. 1725; d. 28 Dec 1786, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
6. iii. LUISA DE JESUS GURULÉ, b. Bef. 27 Jun 1731, Albuquerque, New Mexico; d. 10 Apr 1776, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
7. iv. JUAN ANTONIO GURULÉ, b. Bef. 1 Jun 1733, Albuquerque, New Mexico; d. Unknown, Las Huertas, New Mexico.
8. v. FABIANA GURULÉ, b. Bef. 22 Jan 1736, Albuquerque, New Mexico; d. Bef. 18 Jul 1779.
9. vi. SERAFINO GURULÉ, b. Abt. 1740; d. 8 Mar 1792, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
10. vii. ELENA GURULÉ, b. Abt. 1741, Bernalillo, New Mexico; d. Unknown.
11. viii. MARÍA FRANCISCA GURULÉ, b. 22 Jan 1743; d. Unknown.
12. ix. MANUELITA GURULÉ, b. Abt. 1746, Albuquerque, New Mexico; d. Unknown.

18th Century

At its greatest extent in the 18th Century, the Spanish Empire included most of Central and South America, as well as important areas in North America, Africa, Asia, and in Oceania. Previously, this vast Spanish Empire had been regionalized under viceroyalties. Each had its own native tribes (Both friendly and unfriendly), geography, weather conditions, flora and fauna, commerce, travel routes, natural resources, and unique set of problems of governance.

The house of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th Century and Spain’s monarch was about to change. The senior branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the French house of Bourbon. Spain, finding it had no immediate successor and being weak with financial problems attracted the enthusiastic attention of the other European rulers. This change would reflect a French orientation in governance and world view. Spain would no longer be a Spanish-centric kingdom.

The English had supported the claim of Austrian Archduke Charles while Cardinal Portocarrero and the French preferred their Bourbon rival in Prince Philip of Anjou. King Carlos II had the last word by naming as his heir to the Spanish throne the French Philip of Anjou who was duly crowned as Felipe V (1700-1724 & 1724-1746).

As the grandson of King Louis XIV of France, Felipe V took up his throne. As history shows he was lazy, moody, and preferred hunting over his duties as king. This was hardly a help to an Empire the size of Spain’s. It is safe to say that his heart was not in the work of a monarch and his mind was elsewhere. The work of the monarchy was left to the cunning French who were quick to increase their influence in Spanish affairs by the king's marriage to Maria Luisa of Saxony. Also, the Princess of Ursins was made lady-in-waiting to the new Queen. She was an ambitious natural intriguer. The stage was set for a French Vs English war at the expense of Spain.

The meddlesome English and traditional rivals of Spain had formed a pact with Holland and Austria to promote the claim of Archduke Charles, which fomented the Spanish War of Succession (1701-1713). Ignoring the Spanish, the Archduke was named the future King of Spain in an official ceremony in Vienna in 1703. He sailed for Lisbon with forces to establish his claim.

The battlefield victories of the English led by the Duke of Marlborough meant little. The French still won the day. An Anglo-Dutch fleet under Sir George Rooke failed to take Cádiz in 1702. It then sailed on to take Gibraltar and a Spanish treasure fleet in Vigo Bay. A Spanish-French fleet engaged the enemy off Málaga but was defeated. With the aid of the sympathetic Catalans and Arogonese the Archduke Charles made Barcelona his base of operations and marched on Madrid proclaiming himself as King Carlos III of Spain. This event caused France to join Spain as an ally.

In 1704, while the Spanish were once again invading Portugal an English fleet recaptured Gibraltar. A year later in 1705, The English led by Lord Peterborough recapture Barcelona in the name of the Pretender Carlos. By 1706, the Portuguese and English took Madrid for a period of four months before having to retreat back into Portugal.

The next two years favored the French controlled Spain. Then in 1709 the Austrians defeated the Spanish at Almenara and Saragossa and the Pretender Carlos was expelled from Madrid. Felipe V had remained via his French supporters during this period and the situation resolved itself by the sudden death of the brother of the Archduke Charles. This left him as heir to the more important throne of the Emperor.

In the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the English gained possession of a police station on the Iberian Peninsula at Gibraltar. They were also given a commitment that the Spanish and French thrones would never be united as a one State. The Kingdom of Spain was only then granted unquestionably to the Bourbon’s Felipe V. In short England and France received what they wanted and Spain paid the price. Spain would never be the undisputed world power she once was again. France thought she had gained control over England’s interventions in Continental Europe by using the threat of another Spanish war. England had once and for all ended her rival Spain’s dominance of the New World opening the opportunity for England’s dream of world dominance.

The Spanish Catalans to be punished for choosing the losing side in the war. The City of Barcelona fell to the King's forces in 1714. Felipe V immediately ordered a part of the town destroyed to build the La Ciudadela, a fortress which his forces could keep a watchful eye on the citizens. The king then prohibited any further use of the Catalan language in Spain.

Spain’s Queen Maria Luisa died in 1714. Princess of Ursins immediately sought a new bride for King Felipe. She enlisted an Italian priest by the name of Giulio Alberoni to assist in her plans. Princess Elizabeth Farnese from Italy was chosen as the new Queen. The Italian priest later outmaneuvered the Princess of Ursins by becoming the Queen's personal advisor and together the Queen spent the next forty years plotting Italian thrones for her sons.

Among their plots which failed was the scheme to place James III on the throne of Scotland. An invasion fleet was prepared but stormy seas made it turn back. Somewhere in the intrigue was a desire to create a real unification of the different kingdoms of Spain. A flag was chosen, a national anthem was composed, and most importantly a national regular army was formed.

In this period, Spain became a leader in its efforts of governmental centralization and unification in comparison to England and France. Aragón and Valencia became subject to the laws of Castile and had to adopt Castilian as an official language. Military governors replaced Viceroys and taxation was placed under centralized control and supervision of the crown. Bureaucrats loyal to the Crown took over the administration of Spain and the power of the nobles was slowly removed.

French and Italian knowledge and culture began to impact the in Spain. Spaniards were now encouraged to acquire skills and experience from abroad. A number of Academies were created to foster and inspire intellectuals to expand their horizons. King Felipe was bent on bringing Spain into the cultural movements to be found north of the Pyrenees further diminishing its "Spanishness".

By 1727, Spain was once more at war with England and blockaded Gibraltar. This however, only lasted one year until the signing of Convention of Prado which brought peace.

In 1728, the Treaty of Seville between Spain, England, France and Netherlands brought an agreement not to go to war and granted Don Carlos, the third son of King Filipe V, inheritance the thrones of Parma and Tuscany.

In the New World, in Paraguay the popular rebel leader Antequera was killed. This was a sign of the Spanish New World’s unraveling to come.

In 1734, the Spanish army defeated the Austrians and retook Sicily and Naples. The Spanish King Carlos IV was then recognized officially as their king.

In a political move King Felipe married his son in 1739 to the daughter of King Louis XV of France.

In 1743, Spain and England were engaged in war once again due to previous bickering over the colonies in America, nicknamed War of Jenkins Ear. This name is still used in history and is based on an incident relating to the removal of the ear from an Englishman by the name of Jenkins by a Spaniard. The story was used to create tidal wave of emotion and public opinion to cleverly manipulate the situation for international and political gain.

Felipe V was raised in the French court and found the very heavy atmosphere of the El Escorial Palace was not to his liking and so he created a smaller version of his beloved Versailles at La Granja near Segovia. In Madrid when the Alcazar was burned to the ground he took the opportunity to build an impressive Royal Palace. A further palace was built to the south of the capital at Aranjuez and the court was moved between the locations at his whim. In 1724, and possibly due to his constant desire to return to France he decided to pass his throne over to his son Luis I.

The new King only 16 years old enjoyed his new responsibilities for 6 months when he caught smallpox and died. King Felipe accepted the crown once more and ruled to his death in 1746. His wife went to considerable lengths to control his moods. A great Neapolitan singer was engaged to sing at court and he pleased the king so much that he had to sing the same four arias each night for the following ten years!

Towards the middle of the century foreigners with a very different world view looking at Spain saw a country that had made great strides (In their view) in righting itself, culturally, administratively and even military. Even so, the foreign intellectuals and writers still pointed their fingers at Spain and helped to continue its famed title as the Black Legend. This of course allowed these non-Spaniards the comfort of knowing that whatever they were doing to Spain was deserved. After all, according to the outsiders, the Spaniards were guilty of everything cited by the Black Legend. To the victors (England, France, the Netherlands, and others) go the spoils and history is written according to their needs and wants not that of the loser (Spain).

They accused the Spanish church of holding its people in ignorance to the more enlightened northern European manner of thinking. However, this accusation did not trouble the majority of Spanish as they remained in raptured with their religious devotion and Spanish traditions from which they were encouraged to direct their feelings. To the Spanish, God was the reason they had escaped the Islamic enslavement of almost eight hundred years. He was their deliverer and was to be thanked on a daily basis. The other Europeans hadn’t been placed in the same circumstance. Therefore, they couldn’t understand Spanish religious piety. Some 250,000 Spanish were priests or involved in religious orders.

It is to be noted that almost a half a million Spaniards claimed a noble family tree which was considered an acceptable and comfortable barrier. Minor gentry considered the trade of the warrior to be superior to that of the workman or merchant. This was problematic from an economic stand point. The true winners of the Spanish Empire’s New World wealth was England and the other European countries, as they supplied the majority of manufactured goods and even built the Spanish ships.

Fernando (Ferdinand) VI as the eldest son inherited the crown in 1746. Together with his Portuguese wife Barbara of Bragança ruled for 13 years. They were strong and moved to resolve some of the wrongs that then existed. On religion, they halted the dreaded auto de fé, persuaded the Pope to place the Spanish Church mainly royal control. As for the Court, they replaced previous French court advisors with Spaniards and presided over years of tranquility in Spanish social life. Unfortunately for the loving couple their world was shattered by the devastating earthquakes in 1755.

It partially destroyed Lisbon, damaging buildings throughout Spain and killing thousands of people. Fortunately, the economy of Spain began to improve with factories in Catalonia expanding and the shipyards of the Basques remaining constantly busy. By the end of the century the Catalan textile industry was the second busiest in Europe after England. This coastal boom affected a distinct split between developing Spanish society. Success of the countryside or that of the industrial coast was to later cause friction.

When King Fernando died in 1759 with no heir to the throne, the crown passed to his half-brother Carlos III. Fortunately for Spain, he arrived as few Spanish Kings did with knowledge of how to be a king. Previously, he had enjoyed power as the King of Naples. Carlos was not attractive. However, he made up for this lack of an attractive exterior by being an enlightened monarch.

By the time King Carlos III came to the Spanish throne the Seven Years War (1757-1763) between England and France and its ugly reality had to be dealt with. It had previously involved the support of Spain on the side of France. In relation to that conflict, when the Portuguese refused to close their ports to the English in 1761 the Spanish marched into Portugal. England retaliated by taking Cuba and sending defending forces into Portugal. Fortunately, the Treaty of Paris in 1763 was to bring a temporary peace.

Following the examples set by Portugal, France, and others in 1767, Spain found sufficient grounds to ban the Order of Jesuits from Spanish soil. The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire, France, the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma and the Spanish Empire was a result of a series of political moves by each rather than a theological controversy. Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political their power viewed the Jesuits as too international, too strongly allied to the papacy, and too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated. By the brief Dominus ac Redemptor (21 July 1773) Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits took refuge in non-Catholic nations, particularly in Prussia and Russia, where the order was ignored or formally rejected. The scholarly Jesuit Society of Bollandists moved from Antwerp to Brussels, where they continued their work in the monastery of the Coudenberg; in 1788. The Bollandist Society was later suppressed by the Austrian government of the Low Countries. By his actions, King Carlos III opened the door to other forms of European thinking in Spain which provided Spanish intellectuals with much needed liberalism of thought.

King Carlos III made many more changes. He ordered the building of a web of new roads improving the much needed communications. In 1768, a census of the population was taken which showed that the residents of Spain had increased to 10,200,000 people. He then instituted a law to bolster his armies and navies which required one in every five men to serve an eight-year term of military service. His laws attempting land reform were met with great resistance. Another area in which he was not able to make necessary changes was in foreign policy.

The Seven Years War between France and England had cost Spain several of its American possessions. As a result, friction developed between Spain and England over the latter’s possessions of Gibraltar, Menorca and the Falkland Islands (1770). In their ongoing struggle with Britain, both Spain and France sided with the 13 America Colonies in their revolution against the English. Their combined blockade of the English Channel caused a lack of supplies reaching Lord Cornwallis who was subsequently forced to surrender to the Americans. These actions marked the begging of the end for the British Empire, its slow undoing.

In 1779, the Spanish besieged Gibraltar. It managed to hold out for three years until the Spanish retired accepting failure. Gibraltar has remained a problem for English/Spanish relations ever since. The English did not want to relinquish its police station on what was once Spanish soil. The Spanish see the continued occupation of Gibraltar by the English as a personal and national affront.

An important sea battle was engaged between Spain and England in 1780 off Cape St Vincent and the English fleet was victorious. In the Treaty of Versailles in 1783, in return for England recognizing the independence of the United States, Spain recovered the island of Menorca in the Mediterranean and some of their pride. Spain was once again a power to be reckoned with.

However, Spain’s extensive land Empire in the Americas was becoming subject to problems increased by the new Independence of the American States and Spain’s continuing financial problems. European wars left her with little money to adequately support and supply her colonies. Changes in Spain’s monarchy from its Spanish origins to the German Hapsburgs and later to the French Bourbons, left Spain and her people with uncertainty as to their national identity. All of these factors caused great difficulty for those at the extreme ends of the Empire.

As an example, New Mexico, at the extreme northern end of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, was a remote frontier outpost used as a buffer against the encroaching French, English and Russian threats. The New Mexicans had little intercourse with the Spaniards of Mexico City, the capital of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The distance was over 700 miles away. Wagon trains traveled back and forth only every three years. After initial five waves of settlers, few new arrivals came. This left the New Mexicans stranded in time and tied to old traditions and beliefs. The insular nature of New Mexico left its people isolated and almost totally dependent upon themselves for survival.

In 1700, Philip V, the first Bourbon king of Spain, invaded Aragon with his army and forced the signature of the Nueva Planta decrees. This made Spain into a more centralized state and forced the use of Castilian language. Most former kingdoms in Spain had been progressively consolidated during the 16th and 17th centuries.

King Charles II of Spain had named Philip as his heir in his will. This move was well known to be a problem as the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe. This meant that other European powers would take steps to prevent it.

Inside Spain, the Crown of Castile supported Philip of France. On the other hand, the majority of the nobility of the Crown of Aragon supported Charles of Austria, son of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and claimant to the Spanish throne by right of his grandmother Maria Anna of Spain. Charles was even hailed as King of Aragon under the name Charles III.

The war was centered in Spain and west-central Europe (especially the Low Countries), with other important fighting in Germany and Italy. Prince Eugene of Savoy and the Duke of Marlborough distinguished themselves as military commanders in the Low Countries. In colonial North America, the conflict became known to the English colonists who fought against French and Spanish forces as Queen Anne's War. Over the course of the fighting, some 400,000 people were killed.

Philip's accession in Spain provoked the 14-year War of the Spanish Succession which continued until the Treaty of Utrecht strongly forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish thrones. After a long Royal Council meeting in France at which the Dauphin spoke up in favor of his son's rights, it was agreed that Philip would ascend the throne, but would forever renounce his claim to the throne of France for himself and his descendants.

After the Royal Council decided to accept the provisions of the will of Charles II naming Philip king of Spain, the Spanish ambassador was called in and introduced to his new king. The ambassador, along with his son, knelt before Philip and made a long speech in Spanish which Philip did not understand, although Louis XIV (the son and husband of Spanish princesses) did. Philip only later learned to speak Spanish.

Philip was the first member of the House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. Philip had the better genealogical claim to the Spanish throne, because his Spanish grandmother and great-grandmother were older than the ancestors of the Archduke Charles of Austria. However, the Austrian branch claimed that Philip's grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and her descendants as part of her marriage contract. This was countered by the French branch's claim that it was on the basis of a dowry that had never been paid. The sum of his two reigns, 45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history.

Beginning in 1707, Philip issued the Nueva Planta decrees, which centralized Spanish rule under the Castilian political and administrative model and in the process abolished the charters of all independently administered kingdoms within Spain—most notably the Crown of Aragon, which was had supporting Charles VI—except for the Kingdom of Navarre and the rest of the Basque region, who had supported Philip in the war for the Spanish throne, and retained their semi-autonomous self-government. The policy of centralization had as model the French State under Louis XIV and was strongly supported by politicians such as Joseph de Solís and the Sardinian-born political philosopher Vicente Bacallar.

It is safe to say that the "Spanishness" of the throne was diminished by a French king and his cronies. From that point on, Spain became a nation with a French political and philosophical orientation and little of its previous Spanish sense of New World religious mission. It instead was forced to spend its wealth on Old World (European) wars over control of European states and the opening up of its territories to other European powers.

During this period, Spain tried to monopolize commerce with the colonies. Spanish American societies became more complex and different from Spain’s, including rising numbers of creoles, people of Spanish descent who were born in the Americas, and mestizo, people of mixed European and indigenous ancestry.

In the late 18th Century, Spanish Americans increasingly exported tobacco, cotton, sugar, cocoa beans, and indigo dye, and also enjoyed higher output of gold and silver. Responding to growth and trying to improve its control over the colonies.

By the late 1700s, the Americas became an increasing focus of European national rivalries for control of commerce and the international balance of power. Piracy around the Caribbean Sea also intensified, and Spain’s contact with the empire decreased.

In the 18th Century, the population of Spanish America grew considerably, agricultural and mining production surged, and new towns were built. Spaniards founded settlements and missions in what are now California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.




1700s: By the 1700s, the New Mexico soldados protected the colonists and Indians from attack and destruction. The Jicarilla Apaches pursued buffalo and antelope through the region's grasslands. Later, the Comanches began their move into the area and the tribes fought each other for regional control.

Following 1700, settlers from New Spain flowed into New Mexico establishing farms, ranches, and towns. This made the people of the frontier society much more diverse.

1700-1703: List of Governors of Puerto Rico - Gabriel Suárez de Ribera 1700-1703

1702: In Mexico City, on December 8, 1702, the Duke of Alburquerque, Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva Enriquez arrived to assume duties as the 34th viceroy of New Spain.

1704: Diego de Vargas, the Re-conqueror of New Mexico dies in 1704, marking the passing of an era in New Mexico history.

1705: Francisco Lorenso De Casados was born About 1670 in Puerto de Cadiz, España, and died June 1729 in El Pueblo de El Paso del Rio del Norte, Nuevo Mejico. He married Ana Pacheco. She died about 1704.

1706: Juan de Ulibarri crossed Colorado as far as the Arkansas Valley into Kiowa County.

1709-1715: List of Governors of Puerto Rico - Colonel Juan de Ribera 1709-1715


Notes for Francisco Lorenso De Casados:

The muster roll on the New Mexico Resettlement Colonizing Expedition of November 16, 1693 taken at La Laguna, Zacatecas listed Francisco Lorenzo Casados, wife Ana Pacheco, and son Francisco Jose Casados. Forced (for some infraction of the law?) to go with the expedition to New Mexico for ten years by order of the Viceroy don Gaspar de Salvadór of Nueva España. Arrived in La Villa Real de la Santa Fe on June 23, 1694 (A nine month journey).  

On May 25, 1704, Capitan don Francisco Lorenso de Cadados purchased land at Santa Fe from Antiona Frequui. On September 19, 1705, de Cadados again purchased land for 20 pesos from Juan de Rivera and his wife, María Gregoria Garcia de Noriega. De Cadados purchased land from Juan Robledo on the north side of the Santa Fe River on September 22, 1713. By 1716, Francisco Lorenzo remarried but the name of his second wife is unknown or if he had additional children.


1717: Jacob Rodriguez Rivera
Birth: 1717
Death: Feb. 18, 1789, USA

Jacob Rodriguez Rivera (uncle and father-in-law of Aaron Lopez) hailed from a "Marrano" family from Seville, Spain. He arrived in Newport via Curacao in 1748 where he introduced the manufacture of spermaceti candle-making. Next to Aaron Lopez, Rivera occupied the highest position in the commercial, religious and social life of Newport's Jewish community. His daughter Sarah, married Aaron Lopez and his son Jacob owned a grand mansion on the Parade that is today located at 8 Washington Square.

1717: Captain Joseph Primo de Rivera

In 1717, on this site, the French began erecting Fort Crévecoeur within Spanish domain. On February 8, 1718, Jean-Baptiste Lèmoyne de Bienville, acting Governor of Louisiana, dispatched his brother, Lèmoyne de Cháteagué to complete this Fort. By May 12, the French occupied St. Joseph's Bay. Cháteagué reported to Bienville completion, on the mainland, opposite St. Joseph Point, the stockaded Fort Crévecoeur with four bastions and garrisoned. Simultaneously Jean Pedro Matamoros de Ysla, Governor of Spanish Florida, at Pensacola, indignantly protested this usurpation as St. Joseph's Bay belonged to Spain by earlier discover and previous settlement.

The French Colonial Council, with unanimous decision decided to burn Fort Crévecoeur and abandon St. Joseph's Bay. On August 20, Spanish Captain, Joseph Primo De Rivera, reported to the Spanish Governorship, at St. Augustine, the French had retired from their invasion. Rivera was ordered to command St. Joseph's Bay. By March 10, 1719, Don Gregorio de Salinas Varona had been transferred to the Spanish Governorship of St. Joseph's Bay.

St. Marks, showing the major role this location played in the development of Florida.

Don Juan Manuel Roka, a well-known Spanish captain, happened to be sailing along the coast and spotted a French cargo vessel in the bay of St. Joseph. Intent on investigating this vessel, he pulled his pirogue alongside and boarded the boat. He demanded to know what the captain (called Chatubuei) was doing there. The Frenchman replied that "a tempest had forced him into the harbor," and he was making repairs.

Roka knew that the area did not have a storm. He departed and went on west to anchor in St. Andrew Bay where he dispatched two men overland across the sand to spy on the Frenchmen. They reported that the foreign vessel remained anchored in the bay, and the French were moving about in boats, erecting stockade huts and trading stations (Fort Crevecouer).

Roka sailed immediately for Pensacola with the news. Don Juan Pedro dispatched an immediate order to Captain Joseph Primo de Rivera that he was to sail from St. Marks to St. Joseph Bay and order the French to leave. He was to remind the captain that the Mexican gulf belonged to the Crown of Spain.

When questioned again, Chatubuei explained that he was obeying the orders of Jean Baptiste Bienville, governor of Mobile, and doing as he was told. De Ribera thought they would leave, but found they were not in any rush to depart. Matamoros wrote the governor at Mobile about what had transpired. As to the supplies and food, those at San Marcos de Apalachee learned that the sloop loaded with provisions, which departed from Vera Cruz had been lost. The governor sent a pink (a ship with a narrow overhanging stern) to search for the sloop, but no trace of it was found. Another vessel was then sent, but this one also failed to reach St. Marks.

The missing sloop finally arrived at the port of San Marcos and unloaded the military supplies and foodstuffs.

1718 Captain Don Jose Primo de Ribera 1718 sent to erect a fort at St. Mark's, Florida.

Don Juan de Ayala was at this time governor of East Florida, and Don Gregorio de Salinas governor of Pensacola. Salinas was succeeded in 1717 by Don Juan Pedro Metamoras. The increasing settlements of the French in Louisiana had already occasioned much uneasiness to the governor of Pensacola, and he had represented to the Viceroy in Mexico the importance of strengthening the fortifications of Pensacola. These representations were acted upon, and the requisite instructions given to Don Pedro, the new governor.

At the instance of the chief of the Apalachee Indians, the governor of St. Augustine sent Captain Don Jose Primo de Ribera to erect a fort at St. Mark's, in March, 1718, which was named San Marcos de Apalache. During the same year a small fortification was erected at St. Joseph's Bay by the French, and called Fort Creveccsur, which seems to have been a favorite name with the French, although the heart of a Frenchman is not as easily broken as the name would seem to imply. The Spanish governor at Pensacola remonstrated against this occupation of the territory of Spain, and in a few months the fort was evacuated by the French. A Spanish fort was erected at the same place, but afterwards abandoned.

Don Antonio de Benavides was appointed to succeed Juan de Ayala as governor at St. Augustine.

Monsieur de Bienville, the French commander at Mobile, upon being informed that hostilities existed between France and Spain, fitted out an expedition against Pensacola, and, having sent a large force of Indians by land, embarked with his troops, on board of three vessels, to make a sudden descent, in the hope of capturing the fort by surprise. He landed upon the island of Santa Rosa, where an outpost was situated, the garrison of which he soon overpowered, and some of the French, putting on the Spanish uniform of their captives, awaited the arrival of a detachment sent down to relieve the post, and captured and disarmed them.

Taking the boat the Spaniards had brought, the French, still disguised, passed over to the fort, seized the sentinel on duty, and took possession of the guard-house and fort, making the commander a prisoner in his bed, and thus capturing the place without firing a shot. Such is the French account of the matter. The Spanish authorities confirm the statement of the surprise at the outpost at Point Siguenza, which was occupied by an officer and ten men only, but say that the fort was assaulted by four French frigates, which opened fire upon the Castle de San Carlos, and, after five hours of cannonading, the castle, being unable to reply effectively, and having only a garrison of one hundred and sixty effective men and provisions for fifteen days, and having sustained the loss of one man, agreed to capitulate, upon the following terms offered by Governor Metamoras.

1719: Antonio Valverde y Cosio explored Colorado as far as the Platte River, and explored Kansas.




1720: Pedro de Villasu explored Colorado and Nebraska.

1720: 1st Alferez (1st Ensign) Salvadór Rivera (One of my Progenitors) was born around 

1720. He was married on the July 7, 1747 in Santa Fe to Tomasa Rael de Aguilar. He enlisted November 4, 1749 in the Santa Fe Presidio, the only unit he ever served in. His military record states that he took part in thirty campaigns in his career, being wounded four times by the Comanches. "His advanced age demands his retirement" states his record (he was 67 years old) and his time of service, was more than thirty-nine years. Like many soldiers, his enlistment in the Presidio was preceded by several years of service in the local militia.

There is a New Mexican folk play of "Los Comanches" which is still performed on horseback in the village of Alcalde, NM. In the original transcripts of this play, which probably depicts a 1760-1779 battle of the Spanish military forces led by Don Carlos Fernandez against the Comanche Chief Cuerno Verde, Salvadór Rivera is one of the characters depicted. It is the oldest folk play, still performed which was written in New Mexico, by New Mexicans about an event which took place in New Mexico.

Enlistment of the Light Dragoon, Francisco Martin Torres, [Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Series II (SANM II), Microfilm Reel #21, Frame #0880. Dated 1 JULY 1779. Transcription of the above enlistment, by the applicant, Charles Martinez y Vigil. Translation of the above enlistment, by the applicant, Charles Martinez y Vigil. Record of Service for Vicente Troncoso. [Archivo General de Simancas; SGU, 7278, 8; Bloque 1, 12 Recto]

Decree from King Carlos II to the Viceroy of Mexico and Captain General of the Santa Fe Presidio naming Vicente Troncoso as 2nd Lieutenant of the Santa Fe Presidio. [Archivo General de Simancas; SGU, 7033, 1; Bloque 1, 9 Recto]

Record of Service for 1st Alferez Salvadór Rivera. [Archivo General de Simancas; SGU, 7278, 9; Bloque 1, 157 Recto]. Dated 31 DEC 1787. At this date, he is 67 years old, and has served 39 years, 9 months and 27 days. Son of Juan Felipe de Ribera

1722: Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto La Bahia del Espiritu Santo was established by Marques de Aquayo in 1722 on the site of LaSalle's Fort St. Louis on Garcitas Creek,

1726: Pedro Rivera made an inspection of the frontier posts of Texas.

1727: Gral. Pedro Rivera made a survey of all military posts in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.


1733: Pedro Rivera y Villalón Gobernador y Presidente de Guatemala 1733-1742


1742: Tomás Rivera y Santa Cruz Gobernador y Presidente de Guatemala 1742-1748

1742: Governor Pedro Rivera Villalón was appointed President of the Royal Audiencia and Captain General (Governor) of Guatemala in 1742. He wrote a detailed report to the King of Spain Dated November 23, 1742 of the problems with the settlements of Englishmen and the Miskitos on the Atlantic coast of Central America and on smuggling by the Spanish authorities themselves in the region. He tells it how they control the entire coast of the Caribbean and the large-scale smuggling in the Spanish settlements in Central America where inhabitants carried loaded Indigo, gold and silver and even cattle on foot that they sold to the English or exchanged for goods. The English protected their merchants, while the Spaniards were lazy or were involved in the business because they did very little to combat them and local governors and some priests entered into the business and were very productive.

1744: Sgt. Juan Felipe de Rivera

Thanks to the diplomacy of Étienne Véniard de Bourgmont among the Plains Apaches in 1724, the door to New Mexico lay open. But Bourgmont's return to France, Comanche-Apache warfare, and lingering resentment over the Villasur massacre intervened. Some illicit trade may have got through. For sure, in 1739, when Pierre and Paul Mallet and six or seven companions from the Illinois country dropped down via Taos to Santa Fe, they and their French contraband were cordially welcomed.Two of them, "Petit Jean" and Moreau, decided to stay, becoming Juan Bautista Alarí and Luís María Mona, the first a good citizen and the second an alleged rabble-rouser and sorcerer sentenced to die in the plaza of Santa Fe.

The others, after months of riotous hospitality, returned—several back to Illinois and several down the Canadian, the Arkansas, and the Mississippi to New Orleans. The latter, departing through Pecos late in the spring of 1740, carried a letter from a friend in Santa Fe, Don Santiago Roybal, the vicar, to his counterpart in Louisiana. Roybal wanted French goods badly, and he enclosed a list. He thought a lucrative trade could be got up between the two provinces across the plains "because we are not farther away than 200 leagues from a very rich mine, abounding in silver, called Chihuahua, where the inhabitants of this country often go to trade." That kind of talk excited the Sieur de Bienville, governor of French Louisiana.

The party from Bienville sent to Santa Fe with a letter to the governor was aborted, but a lone Frenchman, evidently a deserter from Illinois, dragged into Pecos early in June 1744. Governor Codallos told Sgt. Juan Felipe de Rivera to take a couple of soldiers to the pueblo of "Nuestra Señora de la Defensa de Pecos," enlist four Pecos Indians, and bring this unidentified intruder in "well secured." Interrogated in Santa Fe, he gave his name as Santiago Velo (Jacques Belleau, Bellot, or Valle?) and confessed that he was a native of Tours who had served as a soldier in Illinois. Codallos had no use for him. Dispatching the Frenchman's statement directly to the viceroy and Velo himself to the governor of Nueva Vizcaya, he washed his hands of the matter.

1748: Less newsworthy than the Comanche assault of 1748, but more lethal, was an unnamed epidemic that swept New Mexico late that summer. Sixty-eight persons died at Santa Fe between July and September. Father Urquijo was ordered to the villa to help. During his absence, at least fifteen Pecos children expired as well as three single men "without receiving the sacraments because," in the words of Fray Andrés García, "it is the custom of these mission Indians to notify the Father when there is no chance." The bunching of deaths in the Pecos burial books, more-or-less complete for the years 1695-1706 and 1727-1828, reveals major epidemics almost every decade:

1696 (fever)
1728-1729 (measles)
1738 (smallpox, in 18 weeks 36 young children died)
1780-1781 (smallpox)
1800  (smallpox)
1816  (smallpox)

And there were others. Over the years, epidemic disease claimed many more lives at Pecos than did the violent assaults of Plains raiders.

1749: After the assault on Galisteo in December 1749, Governor Vélez Cachupín took the Comanche grudge against Pecos (New Mexico) and Galisteo seriously. Like his predecessor, he provided, on paper at least, detachments of fifteen soldiers at each pueblo. The large compound west of the Pecos convento, the so-called "presidio," probably dates from the 1740s and 1750s. Alcalde mayor José Moreno and a squad of soldiers had stood as marriage witnesses at Pecos as early as February 1747, although they may simply have been passing through on patrol. The friars confirmed that Governor Codallos had left troops to guard the pueblo after his heroics there in January 1748. That April, the military-minded Father Menchero wrote of fifteen-man detachments at both Pecos and Galisteo. Like others posted on outlying New Mexico frontiers, these detachments rotated and, like the parent presidio in Santa Fe, rarely if ever mustered at full strength.



Vélez Cachupín, in his letter of March 1750, to the viceroy was the first to mention that he had fortified Pecos and Galisteo "with earthworks (trincheras) and towers (torreones) at the gates." Just what form the earthworks took is difficult to say, but the towers at the gates have been well substantiated at Pecos by archaeologist A. V. Kidder. In the north or main pueblo, he excavated four of them and identified a likely fifth, all "strategically placed" to command the four entrances. He termed them "guardhouse kivas," and he recognized that they were of late construction. But because he surmised that they were entered by a hatchway in the roof, because they were fitted out like kivas, and because they seemed not "to have been mentioned in the early Spanish accounts," Kidder refused to assign them a primarily defensive role. Probably he was right about their ritual significance, albeit secondary. The kiva-like fire pit, deflector, and ventilator simply provided the best heating system for these chambers. These, it would seem, were Vélez Cachupín's defensive torreones.

For the next half-century, until the Spanish settlements took hold at the river ford beyond, the governors guarded the Pecos gateway as best they could. To back up the arms of the Pecos Indians, which in 1752 consisted of 107 fighting men with 3,313 arrows, seventeen lances, four swords, and no cueras, they garrisoned the place sporadically and provided a small arsenal. In 1762, Alcalde mayor Cayetano Tenorio was responsible at Pecos for "1 small campaign cannon, 3 pounds of powder, and 250 musket balls." Somewhat expanded, the Pecos arsenal in 1778 included "18 muskets, 9 pounds of powder, 300 balls, 1 bronze cannon of two-pounder caliber with its carriage and other accessories, 4 balls of grape-shot, ramrod, and wormer."




1760-1859: From 1760 to 1859, La Castrense Church (the Military Chapel), stood on the south side of the Santa Fe Plaza (Santa Fe, New Mexico) across from the Palace of the Governors. The church’s official name was Nuesta Señora de la Luz (Our Lady of the Light), however, most of the locals preferred to call it "La Castrense."

New Mexico’s Spanish Governor Francisco Antonio Marin del Valle (1754-1760) paid 8,000 pesos to have the church built and, at its completion, locals and visitors marveled at its appearance and at the artistry of the church’s altar screen. The altar screen, which is made of limestone, depicts Jesus, Mary and various saints. Carved by santero and cartographer Don Bernardo Miera y Pachéco, the altar screen measures 18-by-14-feet and is recognized as a masterpiece from the Spanish Colonial era. The altar screen’s inscription credits Gov. Valle and his wife for donating the money to build the church (the altar screen was later moved to Cristo Rey Church in Santa Fe).

1761: Juan María de Rivera or Juan María Antonio Rivera (also spelled Ribera) was an 18th Century Spanish explorer who explored southwestern North America, including parts of Southern Rocky Mountains.

1762: Texas previously neglected by Spain, was spurred by La Salle’s actions led the Spanish to place forts and missions in Texas during the 1700’s where there were many Native-American tribes living in this region: The Osage, Caddo, Akansa and the Quapaw. France later ceded this region to Spain in 1762.

1763: When Spain lost the Seven Years’ War (1756-63) to Britain, Spain gave up Florida but received the territory of Louisiana from France as compensation

1763: Menorca Spain to Florida – A Shared British Spanish History - The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War and control of Florida passed from Spain to Britain. When the British arrived in their newly acquired territory, they found it virtually unpopulated, and in an effort to cultivate and develop the area easy terms of settlement were offered to those who desired land grants. One such person was colonist, Dr. Andrew Turnbull, a Scottish doctor. Turnbull negotiated a grant for land near present-day Daytona, about 60 miles south of St. Augustine and called his new colony New Smyrna. His wife being Greek, he planned to find around 500 Greek settlers from islands like Crete and Corfu to work the land, cultivating indigo, silk, cotton, and vine plantations.

On the 1767 journey to Greece, Turnbull’s ship docked at the port of Mahon as Menorca was then under British possession. He delayed going to Greece and went first to Livorno, Italy where he recruited around 100 men interested in immigrating to the New World together with some Greeks from Levant. Having dropped them off in Menorca he went to Greece to recruit the rest of his workforce. When he returned to Menorca in 1768 with far fewer Greeks than he had hoped for due to intervention by Turkish authorities, he found that the Italian men had taken a liking to the Menorcan women and many were no longer single. Turnbull agreed to bring their new Menorcan brides to Florida as well as other Menorcan families, looking to escape from what then was then a harsh time in Menorcan history, and believed he would prosper further as a result. The Greeks, Italians and Menorcans were all signed up as indentured servants. Now with over 1,400 recruits, what Turnbull had planned as a colony of Greeks had turned out to be almost a colony of Menorcans.

In April 1768, he sailed from Menorca with eight ships carrying a total of 1,403 settlers. This was the largest group of European settlers to immigrate as a single group to the New World. It probably didn’t take long for the poor Menorcans to wish they had never left their island. There were nearly three times as many colonists on the ship back to British East Florida than Turnbull had planned. On the journey, 148 died and when they reached New Smyrna, named after the Greek town where Turnbull’s wife was born, the colony wasn’t ready as Turnbull had promised.

It was swampland and the new colonists were forced to clear it. More than four hundred died in the first year alone. In the ensuing years they battled hunger, disease, Native Americans, as well as terrible working conditions and cruelty.

After nine years of toiling under such harsh conditions and enduring even harsher treatment, their numbers had diminished dramatically. All the colonists had signed letters of indenture with Turnbull that they would work for a set number of years according to their skills, after which they would be released from the indenture and given a small plot of land.

 As the terms of indenture ended, they approached Turnbull for their discharge and land but invariably they were imprisoned and forced to sign new indentures.

These injustices led to a revolt and the colony failed. In 1777, a group of colonists walked to St. Augustine to petition the British governor, Patrick Tonyn. 

Tonyn launched an investigation that led to the demise of Dr Andrew Turnbull, and subsequently granted them liberation and gave them an area in the northwest section of the old walled city of St Augustine. Nearly 10 years after they arrived in New Smyrna, 964 original immigrants had died, leaving barely 600 adults and children to start again as free citizens.

Francisco Pellicer led the first group of Menorcans to St. Augustine in the autumn of 1777. Here they were treated like second class citizens and given the worst part of the city to live in. They built their own community and kept themselves to themselves. Housing was scarce and the death rate was high but once left to their own devices the Menorcans began to recover.

In fact, the Menorcan’s arrival in St. Augustine came at a fortuitous time. The north part of the city was sparsely populated as many Spanish inhabitants had left under British rule. Although the American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence) was starting to bring an influx of loyalists into British East Florida, this enabled them to take up residence in abandoned houses and to also make use of garden plots north of the city walls prior to the population increase of the area.

As such, the Menorcans who had arrived in St. Augustine penniless finally became landowners and a number of families started to move to the beach along the northeast coast of St. Johns County to acquire property.

The end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783 also secured East Florida as a Spanish crown colony once again as part of the Treaty of Paris. Despite having arrived under British rule, in order to re-populate the area, the Spanish were offering favourable terms for land grants and they were treated much better, so they stayed.

1764: In 1764, Afan de Rivera was the Commander of Presidio La Bahia (Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto La Bahia del Espiritu Santo). The presidio was established by Marques de Aquayo in 1722 on the site of LaSalle's Fort St. Louis on Garcitas Creek, moved to present site on San Antonio River in 1749.

On a bluff overlooking Garcitas Creek in present-day Victoria County, Texas, lies the site of the earliest European settlement on the entire Gulf coast between Pensacola, Florida, and Tampico, Mexico. Most often called Fort St. Louis, through historical error, this meager outpost came into existence not only as the bitter fruit of one man's vision, but also as a manifestation of the three-way struggle for America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Spain had come early to work its way north and south from the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. England gained a toehold with its colonies on the Atlantic Seaboard. France, utilizing the Saint Lawrence River and other waterways, claimed Canada and the Great Lakes region, and then aspired to the center of the continent by possessing its greatest river, the Mississippi. By the strangest of circumstances, France's ambitions led to this tenuous settlement on the Texas coast.

1765: In 1765, at the request of Governor Tomás Vélez Capuchín of New Mexico, Don Juan María Antonio de Rivera led an expedition from Santa Fe northward through present-day Utah and Colorado, partly in search of gold but also to help thwart the expansion of other European powers in the region. His expedition passed through regions inhabited by the Ute tribes. It followed the Dolores River (a tributary of the Colorado River), which he may have named. The ore samples he brought back to Santa Fe were among the first recorded discoveries of gold in present-day Colorado, although they created no particular interest at the time was the first European to cross the Rockies. The expedition to Colorado in search of precious minerals also included Joaquín Laín, Gregorio Sandoval and Pedro Mora.

In 1664, Juan Archuleta had led a party of Spanish explorers northward into Colorado. This was the first official Spanish foray into the Rocky Mountain state. Archuleta was followed by Juan Ulibarri in 1706 and then by Don Juan María Antonio de Rivera in 1765. Eleven years later, the famous Escalante-Dominguez expedition penetrated the southwestern part of the state.

There were other Spanish forays into Colorado during this period of time, but these were of a more furtive and clandestine nature. Groups of Spanish prospectors crept northward from New Mexico, vanishing into the mountains in search of gold and silver. In some places, they left evidence of their passing. Old Spanish mine workings have been reported in many parts of Colorado including the Dolores River valley (near Rico), the Animas River valley (near Silverton), the La Plata Mountains, the Spanish Caves area (near Buckskin Joe), the headwaters of the Piedra River, and the Needle Mountains.


1765: Manuel de Rivera explored along what is now the Old Spanish Trail as far north as Delta Colorado.

1765: In 1765, 100 Catalonians arrived in Florida.

1766: List of mayors of Lima Agustín de Landaburu y de Ribera Fernando (de la Presa) Carrillo, 4th Count of Montemar 1766

1768: Captain Juan Rivera was sent by the king of Spain with a military force to Upper California as a precautionary measure to prevent Russian encroachment in that area. Two ships left La Paz, in Lower California, with soldiers and missionaries, Fray Fernando Parrón, Fray Francisco Gómez and Fray Juan González Vizcaíno. Two other expeditions left by land, one left from Loreto and was headed by Captain Gaspar de Portolá and Fray Junípero Serra and another one left from Velicata and was headed by Capt. Juan Rivera and Capt. Juan Crespi. Both met in San Diego Bay. Fray Serra founded the Mission of San Diego. The expeditions explored the area in great detail.

1768-1770: Gaspar de Portolá, the Governor of Las Californias, founded Monterey and San Diego.

1768-1776: Father Francisco Tomás Garcés explored Arizona, California, and the areas surrounding the Gila and Colorado rivers, while exploring the western Grand Canyon, he met the Hopi people and the Havasupai people. From 1768 to 1776, Father Garcés explored with Juan Bautista de Anza and alone with native guides.

1769, Portola led a large expedition, including Fray Junípero Serra, up the California coast to San Diego and Monterey in order to establish new Franciscan missions. They established San Diego in 1769, but could not find Monterey until 1770.

1769-1823: Father Junípero Serra founded many missions in Alta California (now the state of California), with the first in San Diego de Alcala and eight more north along the coast. Serra also helped an expedition in locating San Francisco.


Editor Mimi:  With the following information, the author is sharing historical information to facilitate the descendents of early New Mexican descendents for membership in the Sons of the American Revolution and Daughters of the American.  Starting in the 1700s and within the history of the time period, Michael Perez has traced his own personal . . de Ribera/Rivera/ Ribera lineage through the military involvements of his ancestors.  


DAR New Mexico Colonial Patriot Soldiers and Alcalde Mayores

Virginia Sanchez

September 12, 2005  

Use the following tables to determine if New Mexico colonial soldiers and alcalde mayores (page 6) in your family line qualify for patriot recognition by the Daughters of the American Revolution.  You must be able to prove your ancestor contributed or was in the Spanish military between the April 3 and November 18, 1782 timeframe.  This list is not all-inclusive, but it is a start.  

Additional sources:

§  "Spanish Enlistment Papers 1770-1816" by Evelyn Lujan Baca, (SANM II, Roll 23) published by the New Mexico Genealogical Society

§  "Spanish Enlistment Papers of New Mexico 1732-1820," by Virginia L. Olmsted, National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 67 (September 1979) to Vol 68 (March 1980). Taken from the Spanish Archives of New Mexico II, roll 21.  

These tables are a work in progress. Please send additions or corrections to Virginia Sanchez.

New Mexico Colonial Patriot Soldiers  
This table compares the November 1781 muster roll[i] with Virginia Langham Olmstead’s “Spanish Enlistment Papers of New Mexico 1732-1820,” published by the National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 67 (September 1979) to Vol 68 (March 1980).

(SANM II, roll 21).




Title or Notes


In Military during 1785?

Spouse or Parents or Notes


Juan Bautista de

Governor and Captain

December 1751


Ana María Perez Serrano


Manuel de

1st Lt. Gen. of captain

bef January 1, 1781


Major $ Contributor[i]


Jose María

2nd Lt. Gen. of captain

bef January 1, 1781

Further source documentation needed




December 1, 1779


Josefa Armijo



1st Alferez - NOTE: This officer did not appear on the contribution list and cannot qualify for patriot recognition by the DAR at this time.

María Luisa Tenorio


Juan Vermejo

Fray, Chaplain

bef January 1781


Most likely did not leave any descendants



2nd Alferez

bef January 1, 1781


Tomasa Rael de Aguilar




March 29, 1777


María Antonia Abeyta




March 7, 1741


Graciana (Prudencia) Sena




January 11, 1779


María Antonia Ortiz


Jose (Viterbo)


July 1, 1779


María de la Luz Pacheco[ii]


Matias (de San Juan Nepomuceno)


July 1, 1779


Juliana Pena

1770s: Captain Gabriel de Rivera, Spanish first envoy from the Philippines and Manila's Attorney-General Captain 1770s.  

He was Spanish commander, who had gained fame in a raid on Borneo and the Malacca coast, was the first envoy from the Philippines to take up with the King of Spain the needs of the archipelago.  

Already in 1575, we find a handful of Augustinian missionaries who were laboriously trying to preach the Faith among Pangasinenses.  Their early arrival in Pangasinan was occasioned by a Spanish military expedition in hot pursuit against the Chinese corsair, Limahong, who made two attempts to conquer Manila.  Failing in his undertaking, Limahong left Manila Bay and retreated northward until his party reached an islet near the mouth of the Agno river (between what is now Salasa and Lingayen) where he established his headquarters and began to rule the province in tyranny.  Accompanying the forces of this expedition (1) under Juan Salcedo were some Augustinians, among them, Fr. Martin de Rada and Fr. Pedro Holgado, who took the opportunity to spread the Faith in the province.  

1 It is said that Juan Salcedo was accompanied by Captain Pedro de Chaves and Gabriel de Ribera and the expedition consisted of about 250 Spanish troops and 2,250 Filipino natives. (Cfr. GONZALES, Jose Ma. Op. Labor Evangelica Y Civilizadora de los Religiosos Dominicos en Pangasinan. University of Santo Tomas Press. Manila. 1946. P.12).  

1770: The will of Jose Miguel de Ribera about 1770.  Know all who shall see this memorandum that I, Joseph Miguel Rivera, resident of this villa of Santa Fe, and the legitimate son of Alferez Don Juan Phelipe de Rivera, deceased and Doña María Estela Rendon Palomino, find myself ill in bed and make this last will in the following manner.

I declare that I have been married according the church to Doña Manuela Olgin for a period of four years, more or less, during which time we had two children one girl named Juana Antonia, and one boy named Agustin de Jesus, who I acknowledge as my legitimate children.  

It is my will that my brother and compadre, Salvadór Matias de Rivera, is my executor.  

I declare as my goods 200 ewes, which are united with those belonging to my mother and they are in possession of Jose Chabes, resident of Atrisco; with a share of twenty out of a hundred and half of the wool.  It is my will that they remain with him the one hundred with the profit that belongs to it, to my wife Manuela Olgin; and the other hundred to my daughter Juana Antonia, in the same conformity with the profits.  

I declare as my goods, three beasts belonging to the mule family, two jacks and one mule, with four pack saddles with full equipment.  

I declare as my goods three horses, my riding saddle, bridle, spurs, little cushions, shield, gun with its case, ammunition pouches, which, together with the two cows and one little bull, are in possession of his grandfather, Antonio Sandobal, it is my last will to leave to my son, Agustin de Jesus, that he may enjoy it with God’s blessing and with mine.  

I declare a house which I have built at the rear of the one belonging to my mother, and it composed of three rooms, with free ingress and egress.  It is my will that this be left to my wife.  

I declare as goods - fifteen goats, which, with three and a burro and a jack, belong to my wife.  

I declare that Francisco Montoya, resident of la Sienega, owes me twenty sheep, I order them collected and delivered to my wife.  

I declare that my old clothes and the other things within the house, which may be recognized as mine, it is my wish that my wife enjoy.  

I declare that Diego Antonio Baca, resident of this villa, owes me a piece of plush, without trimming, I order it collected.  

I declare that Juachin Martin, a resident of El Rio Abajo owes me a jack-ass, I order it collected and if it is verified that it should be paid, he shall be given six pesos of the land from my goods.  

I declare that Antonio Sandobal, a resident of this villa, owes me a pattern of scarlet cloth, seven varas long.  He must deliver this next year at the time when the neighbors may come and always when the collection of these debts is made, I order my executor to deliver them to my wife.  

I declare that all of the goods, which remained at the end and death of my father, are in the possession of my mother, all without anything having been lost by me.  It is my will that all that is contained in this will be complied with fine and due effect.  

I attest that I know the grantor and he did not know how to sign but at his request, Jose Miguel Tafoya, signed and witnesses Joachin Lain, rubric; and Miguel Tenorio de Alba, rubric. [not dated]  

References:  Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Series I, Twitchell 788, Reel 4, Frames 1230-1232.  

1773: Capitán Fernando Xavier de Rivera y Moncada Military Governor of Alta California, 1773-1777  

1742: Fernando de Rivera began military service when he is but 17. Rivera came from Compostela.  His father, Don Cristobal de Rivera y Mendoza, held office in Compostela, first as public and royal notary and then as alcalde ordinario, or municipal magistrate. When Fernando was about 9, his father died.  This changed the family financial status. The estate was divided among eleven children.  The family need for money probably influenced his military enlistment at an early age.  


1725 – Born in or near Compostella, Mexico and baptized with the name, Fernando Javier.  

1742 – Began military career at Loreto, Lower California at the age of 17.  

1752 – At the age of 27 Fernando de Rivera named Captain of the Loreto presidio after 10 years dedicated service on the frontier.

1767 - Serving with the Jesuit explorers, Fernando de Rivera established several missions in northern Baja from 1752-1767.  In November of 1767 Captain Fernando de Rivera worked closely with Portola to affect the expulsion of Jesuit missionaries without stirring natives into rebellion.  

1769 – Receiving high praise of Galvez and Portola for his handling of Jesuit expulsion, Captain Fernando de Rivera was chosen to lead the first overland party for the founding of Upper California.  Captain Fernando de Rivera, comandante of the company of Loreto led 25 leather jackets and 40 Indians to San Diego over nearly 300 miles of unexplored northern Baja territory.  Rivera’s men were declared to be ‘the best horsemen in the world’ having attained that honor ironically in service of Jesuit explorers.  

1769: Captain Fernando de Rivera accompanied the expedition to discover the port of Monterey in May of 1769.  

1771: By 1771 Captain Fernando de Rivera had made at least 3 expeditions to Lower California to gather supplies, soldiers, and cattle for the Upper California.  Rivera returned to the mainland and purchased a small farm near Guadalajara where he intended to retire with his family.  

1773 – Captain Fernando de Rivera appointed military governor of Upper California. Rivera left for his new post in Monterey traveling via Guadalajara where he recruited 51 settlers for California.  

1774 - Captain Fernando de Rivera with Fray Francisco Palou explored the San Francisco area to select sites for a presidio, town, and two missions.  Although the expedition was successful, nearly 2 years elapsed before any settlements were established. Rivera could not spare soldiers for founding the new posts.  The same was true for mission San Buenaventura that was to be established near the Santa Barbara Channel.  Captain Fernando de Rivera had only 60 soldiers available for service in Alta California.  With some difficulty Fray Junípero Serra Ferrer, O.F.M. and Captain Fernando de Rivera compromised by founding San Juan Capistrano between San Diego to the south and San Gabriel to the north.  

1776 – Fray Luís Jaime was killed in an Indian uprising at San Diego.  Junípero Serra Ferrer and Captain Fernando de Rivera quarreled over Indian treatment following the uprising.  Rivera was overruled in his desire for vengeful reprisals.  Rivera traveled south and enlisted the aid of Juan Bautista de Anza who had arrived to found San Francisco to quell the uprising in San Diego.  Rivera experienced health problems at the time, which resulted from a poorly set fracture. (This same fracture helped identify his bones after his death at Yuma).  Rivera was also much disturbed that Fray Vincente Fuster excommunicated him on grounds that he had violated ecclesiastical asylum by removing the chief culprit of the San Diego uprising from the mission warehouse serving temporarily as a church.  Rivera’s conduct alienated Juan Bautista de Anza.  Rivera was deeply offended because Anza belittled his merits.  Both military leaders wrote numerous reports to the viceroy, each blaming the other; and both receiving severe rebukes for delaying the founding of San Francisco.  

1777–1779 – Captain Fernando de Rivera turned over the governorship of California to Felipe de Neve who assumed command of both Upper and Lower California with headquarters at Monterey.  At Neve’s request, Teodoro de Croix, Captain General of the Interior Provinces ordered Captain Fernando de Rivera, to recruit soldiers and settlers for the founding of Los Angeles.

1780 – By late 1780, Captain Fernando de Rivera had recruited many soldiers and settlers needed for the new settlements in Alta California.  The settlers were sent by sea to Loreto in Lower California and then to San Gabriel where they arrived safely on August 18, 1781.  

1781 – In May of 1781 Captain Fernando de Rivera advanced across the desert with a vast herd of animals, nearly 1000 head.  Over ¼ of them were too weak to ford the Colorado.  He sent on to the coast the Santa Barbara recruits and their families together with part of the herd that could cross the river.  Rivera himself camped near the eastern bank of the river opposite Conception with a small contingent of soldiers and the animals left behind.  On Tuesday July 17th Rivera and his men were all killed by the Yumans in a surprise attack.  

1775: Juan Bautista de Anza and Francisco Tomas Graces explored a route from the Presidio of Tubac, Arizona, where de Anza was commander, overland to California.  De Anza also founded the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Jose.  

1775: Juan Perez sailed from Port San Blas, Mexico up the coast of North America, turning around by northern Vancouver Island.  

In 1776, Spain decided to create the new Viceroyalty of the Río de La Plata in part of South America.  With its capital at Buenos Aires, the new viceroyalty was made up of territories formerly governed under the Viceroyalty of Peru.  

1776 -1777: Fathers Silvestre Velez de Escalante and Francisco Dominguez along with 12 other men formed an expedition to attempt a route to Monterey from Santa Fe.  They traveled into Colorado, discovered and named the Dolores River, then got lost until Utes guided them to the Uncompahgre River, north to Rangeley Colorado, then west into Utah, across the Wasatch Mountains through Spanish Fork Canyon, and to Utah Lake.  That winter they traveled south as far as Cedar City before returning to Santa Fe, crossing the Colorado River en route.  They were the first Europeans in Utah.  

1777: Teodoro de Croix (1730–1792) was a soldier and government official in New Spain.  He was born in Prévoté castle near Lille, France, on June 20, 1730.  He entered the Spanish army at age seventeen and was sent to Italy as an ensign of grenadiers of the Royal Guard.  In 1750 he transferred to the Walloon Guards, bodyguards of the Bourbon kings of Spain.  He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in 1756 and was decorated in Flanders with the Cross of the Teutonic Order, which gave him the title of caballero.  In 1760 Caballero de Croix was made a colonel in the Walloon Guards. In 1766, when his uncle Francisco, Marqués de Croix, went to New Spain as viceroy, Teodoro accompanied him as captain of the viceregal guard.  The viceroy shortly appointed him governor of Acapulco.  He became inspector of troops for New Spain with the rank of brigadier in December of that year and served in that capacity until 1770.  The next year the Marqués de Croix ended his term as viceroy, and Teodoro sailed with him for Spain in company with José Bernardo de Gálvez Gallardo, who was retiring as inspector general.  Poor sailing weather held up the voyage for five months in Havana.  Thus Gálvez's young nephew, Bernardo de Gálvez, fresh from his first frontier command in Chihuahua, was able to overtake him and join the group for the rest of the voyage.  

Croix's career undoubtedly benefited not only from his uncle's status but also from the close alliance of the Gálvez and Croix families.  The subsequent careers of both the two older men and their nephews-which followed a well-planned course-testify, if not to a Croix-Gálvez power scheme, at least to their tremendous influence at court.  While the elder Croix became commandant-general of the Spanish Army, José de Gálvez advanced to the important post of minister of the Indies.  Don José thus was able to implement his recommendation for separating New Spain's northern provinces form the viceroyalty to deal more effectively with the Indian problem.  Teodoro de Croix was named commandant general of the new Provincias Internas jurisdiction and assumed his duties on January 1, 1777, the same date that Bernardo de Gálvez became acting governor of Louisiana.  

As commandant general Croix found himself facing the animus of the reigning viceroy, Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, who had been deprived of a portion of his jurisdiction.  Croix saw little improvement in frontier conditions from the work of Hugo Oconór, a Bucareli appointee, who had undertaken a reshuffling of presidios to establish a new defense line to conform with the Royal Regulations of 1772 (see NEW REGULATIONS FOR PRESIDIOS).  The staggering toll of Indian depredations all across the frontier convinced him of Oconór's incompetence.  Croix faced the necessity of reorganizing the presidial line again.  He ultimately returned some of the forts to their original position and buttressed them with a secondary line of fortified towns.  In August 1777 Caballero de Croix left Mexico to inspect his jurisdiction.  The entourage crossed the Rio Grande near San Juan Bautista on December 24 and remained in what is now Texas until January 22, 1778.  At Monclova, San Antonio, and Chihuahua, Croix convened war councils to discuss with frontier officers the means of confronting the Apache menace that was common to all the Interior Provinces.  Out of the juntas came a request for the new governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, to join Croix in the Apache campaign, uniting a Louisiana force to 2,000 troops the commandant general hoped to obtain from the crown.  Such plans, which might have enhanced the stature of both men, were doomed by the prospect of Spain's entry into the war that the North American colonists were waging against England.  

Croix built up a more extensive military establishment over the entire northern frontier than any that had existed previously, with 4,686 militiamen and presidials under arms from Texas to Sonora.  With his departure, however, the bulk of his policy was abandoned.  On February 13, 1783, he was promoted to lieutenant general and relieved of his duties to become Viceroy of Peru.  Two years later his friend Bernardo de Gálvez, having achieved notable successes in the war with England, was appointed viceroy of New Spain to succeed his late father, Matías de Gálvez.  If the Croix and Gálvez families had achieved a colonial dynasty, it was short-lived.  Bernardo died in office in November 1786.  Caballero de Croix served as Viceroy of Peru from April 6, 1784, to March 25, 1790.  In 1791 he was made a colonel in the king's bodyguard and a commander in the Teutonic Order. He died in Madrid in 1792.  

1779-1783: New Mexico Spanish soldiers under arms from 1779 until 1783 while Spain, along with the American Colonies, was at war with England.

Alfonso Ribera/Rivera ( ). 1a. enl 29 Mar 1777, Sonora Exped, 1780/81, disch 28 Oct 1790, 21:811. 1d. Santa Fe, 1785.

Antonio Ribera/Rivera ( ). 1c, d. Santa Fe invalid, 1781 and 1785.

Balthazar Ribera/Rivera+ (1750 NM - 14 Jul 1817). 1a, 1c. enl 11 Jan 1779, Sonora Exped 1780/81, 21:833. 1d. Santa Fe, 1785. 2a.

Jose Ribera/Rivera+ (1755 NM - ). 1a, 1c. enl 1 Jul 1779, Sonora Exped, 1780/81, invalid 15 Jul 1802, 21:875. 1d. Santa Fe, 1785, en cavallada. 2a.

Mathias Ribera/Rivera (NM - 17 Aug 1785). 1a, 1c. enl 1 Jul 1779, Sonora Exped 1780/81, 21:874. 1d. Santa Fe, 1785, en Chiguagua.

Antonio Rivera+ (1722 NM - ). 1a. enl 7 Mar 1741, invalid 1 Jul 1779, 21:743. 1c. Santa Fe Presidio, 1 Jan 1781. 1d. Santa Fe, 1785. 2a.

 Luís  Phelipe de Rivera ( ). 1a. enl 26 Apr 1757, disch 15 Jul 1779, 21:757.

Salvadór Rivera+ ( ). 1c. Lt, Santa Fe Presidio, 1 Jan 1781. 1d. Santa Fe, 1785, en Chiguagua. 2a.  

1779: Spain recovered Florida in 1779.


1780s: In the 1780s the Spanish presence still extended over much of the continent, but Spain had to face the growing threat of British power and nearby presence of the Dutch and French.  Although trade between Spain and its American colonies increased, Spain was unable to prevent other nations from trading with them, and smuggling of foreign manufactured goods increased.  The Spanish government increasingly drained American treasure and resources, and the colonists’ resistance grew, with Creole leaders of the colonial society seeking more control and freedom to trade in other markets.

1783: Spain permitted Americans to settle a portion of it, Arkansas, in 1783.  

1784: New Mexico Marriage Records for Miguel Geronimo de Ribera (My Progenitor) married María de la Luz Gurulé in 1784, at Santa Fe, New Mexico.  

April 20, 1784, María de la Cruz Gurulé (daughter of Jose Gurulé and María Rita Montoya) and Miguel Rivera (son of Salvadór Rivera and Tomasa Rael) - married at La Castrensa in Santa Fe [SF-92]  

From 1760 to 1859, La Castrense Church (the Military Chapel), stood on the south side of the Santa Fe Plaza across from the Palace of the Governors.  The church’s official name was Nuesta Señora de la Luz (Our Lady of the Light), however, most of the locals preferred to call it “La Castrense.”  

New Mexico’s Spanish Gov. Francisco Antonio Marin del Valle (1754-1760) paid 8,000 pesos to have the church built and, at its completion, locals and visitors marveled at its appearance and at the artistry of the church’s altar screen.  The altar screen, which is made of limestone, depicts Jesus, Mary and various saints.  Carved by santero and cartographer Don Bernardo Miera y Pachéco, the altar screen measures 18-by-14-feet and is recognized as a masterpiece from the Spanish Colonial era.  The altar screen’s inscription credits Gov. Valle and his wife for donating the money to build the church (the altar screen was later moved to Cristo Rey Church in Santa Fe).  

1761: Miguel Geronimo (Jerónimo) Rivera (My Progenitor)

BEF 30 SEP 1761 - ____

     ·        BIRTH: BEF 30 SEP 1761, Santa Fe, New Mexico [55414]  
BAPTISM: 30 SEP 1761, Santa Fe, New Mexico [55415] [55416]  
EVENT: Farmer, 5'2" married  
Military: 21 AUG 1789, Santa Fe, New Mexico [55417] [55418]  
DEATH: Y (After 1805)  

Father: Salvadór de Rivera  
Tomasa Rael de Aguilar

[55415] Padrinos: Juan Ortiz y María de Rivera.

[55417] Light chestnut hair and eyebrows, dark eyes, straight nose, heavy beard, fair skin, scars on outside of left ear and under chin.  Signed by mark.  Re-enlistment April 9,1805.  Citation for action against Navajos.

[55414] [S1327] Santa Fe Baptisms 1747-1851 PAGE: Pg. 455

[55418] [S1392] Spanish Enlistment Papers of New Mexico 1732-1820 Virginia L. Olmsted  

Spanish action against the Navajos at Cebolleta, New Mexico on January 17, 1805  

Citations for Spanish troops under Lt. Antonio Narbona invaded the stronghold of Canyon de Chelly near Cebolleta (Seboyeta), New Mexico On January 17, 1805.  

1804:  A Navajo war party attacks the village of Cebolleta (Seboyeta) in northwestern New Mexico.  The war party of 500 to 1,000 Navajos find the village's three foot thick, ten foot high wall difficult to breach.  After a four day siege, with numerous casualties on both sides, the Navajos leave the area.  The thirty Spanish families who have settled the village in 1800 see many more raids in the future.  

January 17, 1805, - Spanish troops with Indian auxiliaries, Zuñi guides, and citizen militia, numbering more than 300 in all, commanded by Lt. Antonio Narbona invaded the stronghold of Canyon de Chelly.  

Attacking the Navajos who had entrenched themselves behind fortifications, they killed 93 Navajo warriors and 25 women and children.  Three warriors, eight woman, 22 children, and one Moquino (Hopi) were taken prisoners; 350 sheep and goats, and 30 horses and mules were captured during the two-day battle.  Included among the prisoners were Chief Segundo, his wife, and two children.  Cristóbal, another Navajo Chief, asked for peace.  According to custom, 90 pairs of ears from the slain Navajo warriors were taken, but six were lost in transit to Santa Fe.  

Spanish losses consisted of one Lieutenant of the Opata Nation, one man dead from pneumonia, 64 among the soldiers, citizens, and Indian allies wounded, and 85 horses which Lt. Narbona had killed because they were worn out.  

1784: Juan Antonio Ribera (One of my Progenitors)
Birth: About 1784
Of, Santa Fe, Santa Fe, New Mexico

Candelaria Crespin Born February, 4, 1784 (b. 02/04/1784)


Miguel Geronimo Rivera
- Father

Birth: 1761
Marriage: María de la Cruz Gurulé - 1784
Death: After 1805

Juan Antonio Ribera Son

Birth: About 1784
Of, Santa Fe, Santa Fe, New Mexico

Candelaria Crespin -


1784: Candelaria Crespin Born February, 4, 1784 (b. 02/04/1784)

Candelaria Crespin (daughter of Cristoval Crespin and Antonia Lovato) was born 02/04/1784 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.  She married Juan Rivera.

Children of Candelaria Crespin and Juan Rivera are:

+Jose Luís Rivera, b. 1810 (One of my progenitors)  

1786: Each spring they formed small caravans and set out for the Llano Estacado, the high plains of eastern New Mexico, to barter at the Indian camps.  Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza had made this possible back in 1786, when he arranged a permanent Comanche peace with chiefs visiting Pecos Pueblo.  

The American Southwest owes its expansion partly to the Spanish carreta.  The carreta was a crudely constructed two wheeled wagon pulled by oxen.  The design of the carreta with its spring less axles and peg construction provided for a rough cargo ride.  


 The carreta's distinctive screeching wheels forewarned people of its arrival.  "The wheels are never greased, and as they are driven along they make an unearthly sound..." wrote U. S. Attorney for the New Mexico territory William Watts Hart Davis in the 1850s.  The driver feared if the wheels were oiled, that evil spirits would interfere with his trip, while screeching sounds scared them away.  

There were many uses for the carreta.  Women carried laundry to the river in them, and they were used to haul timber, trade goods, and supplies.  The carts traveled over deeply grooved trails, so the very large wheel construction helped the carreta ride more smoothly.  The carreta found its way with the Hispanic population to the Southwest, California, Colorado, Louisiana, and as far east as Kansas.  

One of the romantic figures of New Mexico's early history was the Comanchero, a name that meant, literally, "he who trades with the Comanches."  Men who took up this dangerous occupation came from all the villages of the upper Rio Grande, from Taos and Santa Fe southward through Albuquerque, Belen and Socorro.  

The caravans were made up of heavy two-wheeled carretas, the typical New Mexican ox carts manufactured of cottonwood from the Bosques River in Central Texas.  They were loaded for the outward bound journey with such merchandise as tobacco, metal arrow points, guns, knives, calico, hats, beads and wine.  

Very hard, sweet bread was another common item, since it was much favored by the meat-eating Plains Indians.  Having none of their own, they craved anything made of wheat.  The New Mexican dried horno bread was so durable, however, that the Comanches had to break it up with their tomahawks and soak it before chewing.  

The customers invariably demanded whiskey.  So the Comancheros usually included several kegs in their carts.  But from experience they knew to bury the liquor several miles before reaching the villages.  This was a safety measure.  

After all the trading was done and the whiskey sold, the New Mexicans started swiftly for home, leaving one of their own behind as hostage for the kegs.  When a half-day had passed, he would guide the Comanches to the burial site and then ride like the wind. He wanted to be far away when the drunken revelers forgot that the traders were their friends.  

Ordinarily, the Comanches were quite protective of the roving merchants from New Mexico.  But this was not true of their allies, the Kiowas, who would attack on sight.  

In the early 1850s a Kiowa war party came upon a Comanchero train from San Juan Pueblo.  The Kiowas were on the point of butchering the lot when some Comanches arrived, intervened and saved the lives of the San Juans.  

First the Spanish government, and after independence the Mexican government, tried to regulate the Comanchero trade by issuing licenses to those wanting to participate.  Following U.S. acquisition of the territory, American officials continued the policy but did so reluctantly, because of growing abuses.  

From the 1850s onward, the Comanches raided the new Anglo settlements in Texas, making off with thousands of horses and cattle.  They knew that the Comancheros would gladly buy them all.  Texas rancher John Hittson, who had suffered major losses, staged a raid of his own.  In 1872, with 60 gun-toting cowboys, he swept through eastern New Mexico, seizing 11,000 head of stolen stock carrying his brand and that of his neighbors.  

The Indian superintendent at Santa Fe wrung his hands in despair and considered suppressing the Comanchero activities altogether.  But he long hesitated because of the traders' access to the Indian camps, which made them excellent go-betweens for ransoming captives taken in both Texas and Chihuahua.  

Nevertheless, as the U.S. Army moved in the mid-1870s to end Indian hostilities on the plains, the Comanchero trade was outlawed.  

One old-line merchant, Jose Tafoya of Mora, refused to quit, but he was soon arrested with his carts near Tucumcari, closing a story that had begun in Spanish colonial days.  

1789: Juan Manuel Rivera ____ - ____ Event: Farmer 5'1 Military: 1 AUG 1812, Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, New Mexico Event: Military Census: 1826, Santa Fe, New Mexico  


1790: Alonzo Rivera

ABT 1750 - ____

     ·        OCCUPATION: Farmer
·        1790, Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, New Mexico [33269]
RESIDENCE: 1795, Corral de Piedra, New Mexico

Family 1 : María ABEYTA

     ·        CENSUS: 1790, Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, New Mexico [167940]
MARRIAGE: Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, New Mexico
+Pedro Antonio RIVERA
María Rita RIVERA


[33269] [S167] Census 1790,1823,1845, Spanish & Mexican Colonial  ·        PAGE: Page 81

[167940] [S167] Census 1790,1823,1845, Spanish & Mexican Colonial ·        PAGE: Page 81, bottom of page





                            _Alonzo RIVERA ______|

                           | (1750 - ....)       |

                           |                     |   __

                           |                     |  | 

                           |                     |__|__


 _Pedro Antonio RIVERA ____|

| (1780 - ....) m 1802     |

|                          |                         __

|                          |                        | 

|                          |                      __|__

|                          |                     |    

|                          |_María ABEYTA _______|

|                            (1750 - ....)       |

|                                                |   __

|                                                |  | 

|                                                |__|__



|--Jose Miguel RIVERA

|  (1812 - ....)

|                                                    __

|                                                   | 

|                                                 __|__

|                                                |    

|                           _Jose MALDOÑADO _____|

|                          |                     |

|                          |                     |   __

|                          |                     |  | 

|                          |                     |__|__

|                          |                          

|_María Dolores MALDOÑADO _|

  (1782 - ....) m 1802     |

                           |                         __

                           |                        | 

                           |                      __|__

                           |                     |    

                           |_María Antonia BACA _|


                                                 |   __

                                                 |  | 



1790: THE SPANISH ARCHIVES OF NEW MEXICO 333, (1) 11) Concha to Ugarte y Loyola,
 January 16, 1790, on retirement of Alferez Salvadór Rivera (My Progenitor) and the 
promotion of Salvadór Sandoval. (2.) 1077 CONCHA, FERNANDO DE LA. Santa Fe, 
January 16, 1790.
Letter to General Jacobo Ugarte y Loyola, Chihuahua, asking approval for a ruling in 
connection with the salaries of Pablo Sandoval (promoted) and Salvadór Rivera (retired). 
(3) 1283 SANTA FE PRESIDIAL COMPANY.  Finance.  Chihuahua, April 22, 1794.  
Adjustment of accounts with the royal treasury for 1793; salaries, pension funds, etc.
 Names:  Nava, Rivera, retired; Concha, Caiiuelas, Guerrero, Sandoval, Abrego, Beregana, 
Delgado and Joachin Lain, retired, etc. D. S. (4) 1348a SANTA FE PRESIDIAL COMPANY. 
Santa Fe, December 1, 1795. Returns :  Lista de la Revista:  Names:  Governor and 
Captain Chacon, Teniente Cafiuelas, ranking captain; Antonio de Arce (2nd); Alferezces 
Abrego (1st), Santiago Abreu (2nd); Chaplain Fray de Ocio; Sarjentos Juan de Dios Pefia 
(1st), Alari (2nd), Beittia (3rd); interpreters, Francisco Garcia (for Navajos), Antonio 
Garcia (Navajos), Alejandro Martin (Comanches), Joseph Miraval, Joseph Campos, 
Cristobal Tenorio; cordon; Captain Delgado, Teniente Joaquin Layn, Alferez Rivera, 
Sargento Miera (all on the invalid list), etc. 2f

 1790: The Pecos Pueblo of New Mexico became the ancestral home of the de Riberas, 
after 1790.

                          1792: María Casilda Afán de Ribera García
                         Birth date: Date and location unknown

                         Death: Date and location unknown
                         Immediate Family:
                         Daughter: of Pedro Afán de Ribera
                         Wife: of Jose Antonio Moreno Guerrero
                         Mother: of Juan José Moreno Afán de Ribera

Juan José Moreno was a Spanish sailor who settled in Buenos Aires, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Argentina) at the end of the 18th Century, and was the father of the prominent educator Hilarión María Moreno Arandía.  Marino Juan José Moreno Afan de Ribera was born in Granada, Spain, son of the Colonel of the Royal Navy of Spain José Moreno Guerrero and María Casilda García and Afan de Ribera.  Was the first in his family to reach the Río de la Plata being appointed captain-general of the port of Buenos Aires.  In 1792, casualty with the rank of Lieutenant, he married Catalina de Arandia and Ruiz de Arellano, daughter of Baltasar Antonio Arandía Elizalde and Catalina Ruíz Arellano Moreno, with whom he had two sons:

·       Hilarión María Moreno Arandía (1807) and

·       Mercedes Moreno Arandía


Their home soon became one of the most representative of the Buenos Aires society sites.  There were performed lively gatherings than usual Bernardino Rivadavia, who was closely linked to the family Moreno was involved.  

Testimony of the esteem that deserved by being pronounced decisively in favor of the cause of independence, the constituent General Assembly of 1813 was 'American citizen' of these provinces by Decree on 23 February of that year signed by Carlos María de Alvear and Deputy Secretary Hipólito Vieytes.  

Juan José Moreno was a Spanish sailor that settled in Buenos Aires, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Argentina) at the end of the eighteenth century, and was the father of the prominent educator Hilarion María Moreno Arandia marine.  

1796: In 1796, the British blockaded shipping between Spain and America and in 1810 people began to revolt against Spanish authorities, their struggle benefiting from the power vacuum during Napoleon’s invasions of the Iberian Peninsula.  Simón Bolívar liberated Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador and assisted José de San Martín, who had released Chile from Spanish control, to obtain Peru’s independence.  

1797: From the book "Santa Fe Baptisms 1747-1851. "By: Thomas D. Martinez.  Page 120.  DOMINGUEZ, María Manuela Baptized 8-19-1797, 2 days old.  Father Bernabe Dominguez, Mother María Tomasa Marquez.  Pads:  Antonio Sandoval and María Ortega.  DOMINGUEZ, Cayetano Tiburcio Bapt 8-18-1798, Father Bernabe Dominguez, Mother María Tomasa Sandoval.  Pads:  Miguel Geronimo Rivera and María Francisca Ortiz (One of my progenitors).

19th Century

In the Americas, Spanish possessions stretched from the present-day western United States, through Mexico and Central America, and along the western shores of South America to the edge of Patagonia; they included the state of Florida, the Caribbean islands, and what would become Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina.  In Africa, in different periods, Spain held possessions on the coast of present-day Equatorial Guinea, including the island of Fernando Póo (now Bioko), and occupied territories in the Western Sahara (occupied by modern Morocco).  In Asia, Spain ruled the Philippine Islands.  In Oceania, Spain held the Maríana Islands and later the Caroline Islands.  It is true that in some areas, especially in the Americas, Spanish sovereignty was more official than factual, with large tracts of wild and sparsely populated land remaining unexplored until the 1800s.  

But despite the difficulty to control such a vast domain, Spain maintained much of the empire until the 19th Century.  Today only the North African exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla and the Canary Islands, off the African coast, remain under the Spanish flag.  

19th Century: One out of every three cowboys (Caballero, the Spanish word for "knight" or "gentleman") in the late 1800s was the Mexican vaquero.  In the Southwest, two decades before the pilgrims landed in 1620 on Plymouth Rock, when adventurous criollos (Spanish-born Americans) and Mestizos (mixed Spanish and Indian settlers) pushed past the Rio Grande River to take advantage of land grants in the kingdom of New Mexico, which included most of the western states.


They were called caballeros, "One of the highest stations you could have in life was to be a caballero," said Chavez, a resident of New Mexico whose lineage can be traced to the Don Juan de Oñate colony, the caballero who was among the first cowboys in the U.S.


Vaqueros: All of the skills, traditions, and ways of working with cattle are very much rooted in the Mexican vaquero.  If you are a cowboy in the U.S. today, you have developed what you know from the vaquero.  This uniquely American figure (the cowboy), did not begin in America.  He had his origins in the Old World.  His principal antecedent was certainly the vaquero, who had seen centuries of development in Spanish North America before Anglos and their black slaves moved into the eastern United States.  

Vaqueros were hard-working Mestizos who were hired by the Criollo caballeros to drive cattle between New Mexico and Mexico City, and later between Texas and Mexico City.  The title, though denoting a separate social class, is similar to caballero, and is a mark of pride.  "Vaquero is a transliteration of the words 'cow' and 'man.' Vaca means 'cow,'" said Chavez.  "Interestingly enough, in Spanish, we call ourselves cowmen; in English, it was demoted to cowboys."  

What we term the “western saddle,” Americans of the first half of the nineteenth century generally referred to as the “Spanish saddle.”  Thus they showed their awareness of its place of origin.  Americans of that time commonly used the term "Spanish" to distinguish whatever related to New Spain-Mexico and her provinces to the north: Texas, New Mexico and California. And within the locus of the New World, it was specifically in Mexico, (which included modern day New Mexico), that the western saddle originated and underwent a great deal of its development.  By the outset of the nineteenth century the saddle used by the horsemen of New Mexico was founded upon a saddletree incorporating practically all the elements of design by which the western saddle tree is distinguished today.  By the time Spain had set sail for the West Indies in 1492, two basic styles had been adopted and brought to the Americas with the horse, a la estradiota, and la jineta.


La Estradiota, Spanish War Saddle

Muslem Saddle

From the 11th century West European institution of "chivalry," (which originally had the same meaning as "cavalry") evolved the age of knighthood.  The saddle of chivalry, (a la estradiota) consisted of two large rigid bows, the rear end couching the pelvis of the rider, connected by wooden planks.  The seat was padded on both sides between the rider and the horse.  The fork swell or pommel rose high in front of the rider so as to protect the stomach from the force of the opposing jouster's lance.  The cantle was high enough to secure the rider from being forced over the rear of the horse and close enough to the pommel to further snugly secure the rider.


Spanish War SaddleIt was from the 'a la estradiota' and 'la jineta' styles and the saddles designed around those styles that the first vaqueros developed an American saddle to suit their own needs and preferences.  From their research the saddle experts have a reasonably good idea how the western stock saddle evolved and appeared.  However, because there are no surviving fully documented saddles from the colonial American Southwest and Mexico (1521-1821), other than a few inconclusive illustrations and literary references to the estradiota, jineta and later vaquero type saddles, there is no consistent agreement between authorities on exactly what the first vaquero saddle looked like.  Given the old maxim that "necessity is the mother of invention," it is a reasonable assertion that, there were as many prototypes as there were inventors, and they began with the examples of the Spanish import, la estradiota, and la jineta, and blended the most practical features of each and allowed the personal experience and the conditions of the deserts of northern Mexico and Southwestern U.S. to shape what eventually began to look like a "functional" prototype for what became the Spanish American, then Mexican, and later American western saddle.



To understand my mother's family, the de Riberas, one must appreciate the Iberian history of these Spaniards who came to the New World and were left to their own devices for survival.  These colonists and later settlers were products of a warrior race which had come to see themselves as the only hope for a Christian world.  Tempered by almost eight hundred years of war for independence, the Spaniards became strong and certain of their destiny.  Having overcome the African Islamic Moors and gained freedom, they sought to explore and conquer the remainder of the world.  Positive of their special relationship with God, these Spaniards went forth to spread His message.  No other message would be tolerated, only His.  The world view and mind-set of these Spaniards of 1595 would change little from their historical New World beginnings to their end as Spaniards and becoming Americanos.  

Her father, Isidro Ribera y Quintana’s, family came from that beautiful peninsula to the south of the rest of Europe and a short distance across the water from Africa.  War and conquest had been visited upon that land since the earliest times.  

The de Riberas claimed their lineage from the Celts, early Galicians, Romans, Visigoths other Germanic tribes of Spain, although they were also Jewish.  Each tribe had conquered and settled their area of the Iberian Peninsula.  Each of the tribes was fiercely independent and proud of their heritage.  The Romans were by far the most successful of the lot and eventually took the entire peninsula.  

By the time Columbus sailed the Ocean and quite by accident found the Americas, Spain was a unified kingdom.  Once claimed by Spain, the Americas became the latest lands for conquest and proselytizing.  The indigenous peoples were quickly defeated and fell victim to not only the sword and the cross, but also to European diseases.  Their numbers declined quickly and they were soon vassals of the Spaniards.  As the Spanish explored, conquered, colonized, and settled all of Mexico, Central and South America they brought with them their culture, religion, state bureaucracy.  

As each Iberian tribe had left its cultural imprint on what had become a unified Spain, with time, the tribes would share the Christian faith and values.  Much of this would happen as a result of empire and those disparate groups being brought together by the transition of New World settlement.  

Over the course of 300 hundred years the Spaniards had accomplished as much as they could in the New World.  They may have been the first to explore and exploit, but the world moved on.  Their great empire was in decline.  Too many wars and a failure to grasp the needs of their colonies left Spain unable and its people unwilling to expend the resources and energy necessary to maintain the Empire.  It gradually fell.  Not all at once, but like the Empire of Rome it experienced a slow agonizing death.  The causes of this decline will be discussed in greater depth in Chapter Four.  

By the 19th Century Spain was a hollow caricature of its once great past.  The French and English had beaten her.  The Americans were now in their ascendency.  This century would spell the end of the Spanish in the New World.  The Americans would take the North American Continent, the other colonies would each rebel and claim their own nation-state status, and the Spanish Empire would be no more.  

The pride of Spanish heritage that the de Ribera family once reveled in was now coming to an end.  The newly established Mexican Republic of 1821 would claim New Mexico and other areas of the old Viceroyalty of New Spain.  Then in 1846, the Americanos would covet the land and its riches, take it, and exploit it to their ends.  The once proud New Mexicans would become a people of little significance, no longer guardians of Spain’s most northern borders, just farmers and ranchers.



1800: NM Muster Roll and Military List of 1800
New Mexico Militia

Ribera Julian, Hombres Pudientes (Wealthy Men)  

1801: By 1801, Spain returned the Louisiana area to France.  

1803: Jose Vicente Rivera (1785 to about 1850) b. Santa Fe, NM m. María Paula Padilla (1808 to bef. 1841) b. San Miguel del Bado, NM  

Vicente established the small town of Ribera (Rivera), NM about 1803 just upriver from the San Miguel del Bado Mission just a few miles southwest of Las Vegas, New Mexico.  

Vicente and Paula had 8 children:
María Gertrudis

     ·       Juan de los Dolores
·       Jesus
·       Jose Gabriela (1826)
·       María Teodora (1828)
·       Jose Urbano (1832)|
·       Agustin, 1838
·       Vibiano (1858)

Jose Vicente is the son of:
Manuel Antonio Joe Rivera
1756 to bef. 1826 - in NM
Josefa Labadía 1766-after 1826 NM  

Their children:
·       María Micaela (1782)
·       Vicente (1785)
·       María Trinidad (1789)
·       María Guadalupe (1797)
·       Tomas Antonio (1801)
·       Diego (1802)
·       Juana de la Cruz (1803)
·       Jose Guadalupe (1805)
·       María del Carmen (1808)
·       Jose Antonio (?)

Manuel Antonio is the child of: Antonio (1726) Santa Fe
Graciana Prudencia Sena (d. 22 June 1810 NM)  

Their children:
·       Nicolasa María de la Luz (1748)
·       Matias de San Juan Nepomuceno (1750)
·       Josefa de la Luz María (1752)
·       Jose Viterbo (1754)
·       Manuel Antonio (1756)
·       Antonio Jose (1759)
·       Santiago Francisco (1760)
·       María Rosalia (1762)
·       Julian Rafael (1765)
·       María Luisa (?)  

Antonio is the child of: Juan Felipe (1694 - Zacatecas, Mexico - d. 1767 NM)
María Estela Palomino Rendon b. Santa Fe 1700  

Their children:
·       Francisca
·       Salvadór (1721)
·       Lorenza (1725)
·       Antonio (1726)
·       Vicente (1729)
·       Juan Miguel (1730)
·       Juliana (1731)
·       María Loreta (1732)
·        Luís  Felipe (1728)

Juan Felipe de Ribera is the son of Salvadór Matías de Ribera (1675 Puerto de Santa María, Spain d. before 1713) and Juana Canela de Sosa b. about 1675  

The Pre-nuptial investigation to this marriage states Salvadór Matías was a native of Puerto de Santa María, was in the Royal Navy and came from Spain on the ship Santo Tomas de Villanueva along with Toribio Benito Sanchez.  

The Ribera (Rivera) and Sena families were among the Spanish pioneer colonist who came to New Mexico with the Reconquest in the 1690s.  Frey Angelico Chavez includes this family in his book Origins of New Mexico Families, on pages 266, 267.  

1804: In 1804, Severino Martin (Later changed to Martinez.  His daughter married my Great-Great Grandfather) built the Hacienda de los Martinez.  It is one of the few northern New Mexico style late Spanish Colonial Period, "Great Houses" remaining in the American Southwest.  This fortress-like building with massive adobe walls became an important trade center for the northern boundary of the Spanish Empire.  The Hacienda was the final terminus for the Camino Real, which connected northern New Mexico to Mexico City.  

1805: Spanish action against the Navajos at Cebolleta, New Mexico on January 17, 1805  

Citations for Spanish troops under Lt. Antonio Narbona invaded the stronghold of Canyon de Chelly near Cebolleta (Seboyeta), New Mexico On January 17, 1805.  

In 1804, a Navajo war party attacks the village of Cebolleta (Seboyeta) in northwestern New Mexico.  The war party of 500 to 1,000 Navajos find the village's three foot thick, ten foot high wall difficult to breach.  After a four day siege, with numerous casualties on both sides, the Navajos leave the area.  The thirty Spanish families who have settled the village in 1800 see many more raids in the future.  

January 17, 1805, - Spanish troops with Indian auxiliaries, Zuñi guides, and citizen militia, numbering more than 300 in all, commanded by Lt. Antonio Narbona invaded the stronghold of Canyon de Chelly.  

Attacking the Navajos who had entrenched themselves behind fortifications, they killed 93 Navajo warriors and 25 women and children.  Three warriors, eight woman, 22 children, and one Moquino (Hopi) were taken prisoners; 350 sheep and goats, and 30 horses and mules were captured during the two-day battle.  Included among the prisoners were Chief Segundo, his wife, and two children.  Cristóbal, another Navajo Chief, asked for peace. According to custom, 90 pairs of ears from the slain Navajo warriors were taken, but six were lost in transit to Santa Fe.  

Spanish losses consisted of one Lieutenant of the Opata Nation, one man dead from pneumonia, 64 among the soldiers, citizens, and Indian allies wounded, and 85 horses which Lt. Narbona had killed because they were worn out.  

1807: María Ysabel Martin Padrina (My Great-Great Grandmother)

Francisco Antonio BRITO [95638]

6 NOV 1807 - ____

     ·        BIRTH: 6 NOV 1807, Embudo, New Mexico [95639] [95640]
BAPTISM: 14 NOV 1807, San Juan de los Caballeros, New Mexico [95642] [95643]
Miguel Antonio BRITO
María Ygnacia VARELA







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 _Miguel Antonio BRITO _|

| (1780 - ....)         |

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|--Francisco Antonio BRITO

|  (1807 - ....)

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|_María Ygnacia VARELA_|

  (1792 - ....)         |

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INDEX [95638] He is in the family census in Embudo in 1808.


1810: Jose Luís Ribera (My Great-Great Grandfather)
Born: 1810 in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Died: October 1, 1891 in Pecos, New Mexico  

Husband of: María I. (Martin) Ribera (Rivera) — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
María Isabel (Isabel) Ribera (Rivera) formerly Martin aka Martinez
Born: June 20, 1816 in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Daughter of: father unknown and mother unknown
Sibling(s): unknown
Wife of: Jose Luís Ribera — married [date unknown] [location unknown]

Mother of:
·       Anastacio Rivera (My Great-Grandfather)
·       Pedro Rivera
·       Ascension Rivera
·       Crestino Rivera
·       Felipe Rivera
·       Lorenzo Rivera
·       Pablo Rivera

Died: May 1, 1880 in Pecos, New Mexico
Son of: Juan Rivera and María (Candelaria Crespin) Rivera
Sibling(s): unknown

Juan Rivera
Born: about 1790 [location unknown]
Son of: Miguel Geronimo Ribera and María (de La Cruz Gurulé) River
Siblings: Unknown
Husband of: María (Candelaria Crespin) Rivera — married [date unknown] [location unknown]

Father of: Jose Luís Ribera
Died: October 1, 1891 in Pecos, New Mexico
María Rivera formerly Candelaria Crespin
Born: 1810 in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Daughter of: Cristoval Crespin and María A. (Lovato) Crespin
Sibling(s): unknown
Wife of: Juan Rivera — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Mother of: Jose Luís Ribera
Died: [date unknown] [location unknown]


1821: William Becknell led a group of traders from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico, on the route that became the Santa Fe Trail.  

1821: After Mexican Independence from Spain in 1821, Severino Martinez and his family became active in trading with the Americans who were bringing badly needed trade goods in by the Santa Fe Trail.

1821: A major problem that any trader faced was the constant change of government during this period.  One governor would be permissive and the next far from friendly.  American traders never knew what to expect.  Only after 1821, when Mexico secured her independence, did Santa Fe break away from the colonial trading system and become the major center for Mexican-United States commerce.

The year 1821 marked the end of Spanish rule in New Spain, and of course, New Mexico.  In that year Agustin de Iturbide, raised the banner of rebellion and drove out the Spanish.  A new nation called Mexico was born.  The Spanish were removed from Santa Fe and a Mexican governor was appointed.


New Mexico became a different province.  Trade was opened and the route between Santa Fe and Saint Louis became permanent.  Americans came and went.  For the first time in its history, New Mexico was able to develop her economy through trade.  The conditions for New Mexico's citizens improved for the first time in a hundred years.


Yet New Mexico did not experience Mexican rule for long.  In 1846 the United States declared war against Mexico over the Texas annexation question.  New Mexico was taken by Stephen Watts Kearny in a relatively bloodless military operation.  The Americans, like the Spanish, found that the land, the climate, and the great distances may have been too great for them.


As the Spanish period drew to a close, New Mexicans could look back at a history that originated some 300 years before.  Back to 1540 and Coronado's first probing of the arid, hostile land that was so remote.  From the outset New Mexico provided nothing but bleak prospects.  There was no gold.  There were no cities.  The parched countryside, relieved only by the muddy Rio Grande, was so uninviting, so unpromising that it languished for another fifty years until colonists breached its hostile interior.


Prodded by the Church, authorities at Mexico City sent Juan de Oñate north in 1598.  At this point New Mexico became a colony.  The Spanish had the opportunity to remove themselves forever from New Mexico in 1680.  The moral power of the Church and a fear of losing land to foreign powers brought the Spanish back.  In 1692 the heroic figure of Diego de Vargas retook the whole of New Mexico.  By 1695 Vargas had restored all areas of the province.


1776 marked the greatest change in New Mexican governmental and military affairs since the days of Vargas.  In that year, the Regulations were published. New Mexico was incorporated into the Provincias Internas.  The Marques de Rubi's report, one of the most sensible ever written about New Mexico, brought many of its woes to the attention of the crown.  It is a credit to King Charles III, his ministers, and various viceroys, that Rubi's perceptive ideas were implemented.


During the 300 years of Spanish control, New Mexico can be said to have been a land in which Spain found itself entrapped.  The forbidding land, its native peoples, the harsh climate, and other factors contributed to this Spanish entrapment.  A century later, the United States, too, found this strange land to be a place of disappointment.

1823: María Luisa Rivera Will 1823

 Know all who see this testament that I, María Luisa Rivera, finding myself sick in bed, but in sound mind and judgment, order this will made in the following form:

I declare that I have been married to:  

Retired soldier, Juan Garcia, we lived together for 28 years; in which time
We had raised eight children, five of those having died; and they were

     ·       Jose Santiago
·       Jose Antonio
·       Jose Luís
·       Juan Jose, who are children;
·       María de Loreto, married, living;
·       María Josefa
·       María del Carmen
·       Juana María

I confess they are my legitimate children and heirs.  

I declare the house where we reside as my property and it is composed of five rooms and a porch; and a piece of land measuring 300 yards, leaving my bedroom to pay for twelve masses for the repose of my soul.  A schedule is in my husband’s possession.  

I declare as my property 30 yards of land situated near the house of my deceased mother; and 90 in the Cañada of this city and one yoke of oxen, one female burro, three goats.  

I declare as my chattels the household furniture, seven holy pictures, two boxes, one kettle, one iron griddle, one axe, two mattresses, one blanket, one bedspread, one brass jar, one chocolate pot, one rug and two pillows.  

I declare I owe don Domingo Fernandes three pairs of stockings; and the gunsmith, Manuel Sena, three yards of sackcloth; I order them paid.  

I declare having paid Señor Pablo Garcia 14 pesos, products of the land, for the care of one cow about to have a calf; and now it appears it is lost; I order it collected.  

I declare that Juan Antonio Gonzales, resident of Abiquiu, owes me one fanega of beans; and Señora Rosa Archuleta owes me one peso in cash; I order them collected.  

It is my will, if God deigns to take me in this illness, that my funeral be paid; and what remains of my small holdings be divided, after the death of my husband, among my children in equal parts in order that they may enjoy them with God’s blessing and mine.

I declare that I have made another testament, which I annul; and this is to be the only valid one.  

I name as my administrators, in the first place, Miguel Rivera, my brother; and in the second place, Juan Diego Sena, whom I commission, for the love of God, to comply with and execute this last will and testament.  

Two witnesses who were present signed with me in this city of Santa Fe, on the 18th of September 1823.  

Manuel Baca, (rubric); Witness: Jose Larrañaga, (rubric) and Juan Benabides, (rubric).  

References: Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Series I, Twitchell 803, Reel4, Frame 1296-1298.  

1824: By 1824, Spain had lost all of its mainland possessions.  Cuba and Puerto Rico were the only remaining American colonies, until the Cuban revolt in 1895 triggered the Spanish-American War, won by the United States.  

On February 6, 1824 Tomás Ribera of Paso, son of Juan Antonio Rivera and Feliciana Telles, and Biviana Agansa of Paso,


Daughter of Ignacio Agansa, deceased, and Vicenta Madrid, who lives. (CAT 1: 69-71)


Aganza, Ignacio: farmer, Español, Paso native, 21, married to Casimira Montoya, Española, 21 years old has a son, 2, and a daughter 1 year-old.(1790-84)


Aganza, Ignacio:  

Español from Paso, 20, farmer, married to Casimiras Montoya, Española from Paso, 18.  

Married at NSG on September 17, 1786, Casimira Montoya, daughter of Dionisio Montoya and Damacia Padilla  

His family: 1 son, 5 daughters. (1788-166)


José Ignacio de Aganza, son of Miguel Aganza, deceased, and Juana Telles [The parents of José Ignacio de Aganza, Miguel Aganza and Juana María Telles were married at NSG on September 1, 1766. (Magdaleno, p. 73)]  

1825: In 1825, lands ("en las tierras de Pecos"-New, Mexico) were given to Miguel Rivera and five associates of the sobrante of the pueblo; see Archive 807, op. cit.  

1826: In August, 1826, Domingo Hernandez, Rafael Benavides, Miguel Rivera, Juan Antonio Armijo, for themselves and other settlers "en las tierras de Pecos" petitioned the Ayuntamiento of San Miguel del Vado for lands.  The petition was referred to the governor and provincial deputation; see Archive 285, op. cit.  

In Archive 288, op. cit., we find a protest from two Pecos Indians named Rafael Aguilar and Jose Coca protesting against the unlawful action by which they had been dispossessed of their lands in 1824 and asking that the governor investigate and do justice.

Rafael Aguilar was the 1st alcalde and Coca the 2nd alcalde of the pueblo.  The settlers against which they complained came from the capital and from "muchos otros puntos."  

The first application for lands in the vicinity of the Pecos pueblo that I was able to find was in 1814 when Juan de Dios Pena, 1st Alferez of Cavalry retired, and 5th alderman of the Ayuntamiento of Santa Fe, Don Francisco Ortiz 2nd, also an alderman and Don Juan Bautista Aguilar asked for "una porcion de tierra baldia" in that locality; see Archive 703, op. cit.  

1829: Rafael Rivera was a Nuevo Mexicano who, when just fourteen years old, signed on as a member of a commercial overland expedition led by Antonio Armijo that extended from Santa Fe, New Mexico to Los Angeles, California in 1829.  

This was the first expedition to blaze the Old Spanish Trail, an important trade route established shortly after Mexico won her independence from Spain.  They followed the trail from Santa Fe through Caracas Canyon crossing the San Juan River, thereafter passing near Durango and Cortez, Colorado.  Water was always a rare resource, especially in the desert country along the lower Colorado River.  At one point, young Rivera rode off on a solo scouting expedition and became the first known non-Indian to discover the vast spring in the grassy plains that became known as Las Vegas, Nevada and was recognized as an important watering hole along the Old Spanish Trail.


1834: María Marcelina Ribera
Husband: Jesus Manuel Roybal
Father: Rafael Roybal
Mother: María Manuela Madrid
Married: May 1, 1848, San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico
Wife: María Marcelina Ribera
Father: Jose Luís Ribera
Mother: María Isabel Martinez
Born: October 1834 Santa Fe, New Mexico
Child 1: María Eluteria Roybal Female
Died: January 1919 Pecos, New Mexico
Buried: Pecos, New Mexico
Spouse: Bartolome Vigil  

1839: The New Mexico Militia Lists of 1839
List of Officers and Capable men

As ordered by the Territorial Governor
"NS" below means not stated. (?) Means not sure. Some spellings of names have changed over time.  "Don" is a title denoting honor, as in The Honorable Judge, etc. Albuquerque was spelled Alburquerque in many older records. "de" means from or of.

The governor was Joaquin Velesques de Leon and signed the order on 23 April 1839.

Officers Listed Company/Unit Rank
Don Manuel Doroteo Pino
Don Teodosio Qunitana
Don Damacio Salazar
de Santa Fe
de Santa Fe
de Santa Fe
Teniente (Lt.)
 Alférez (2d Lt.)
Citizens, (capable men) This list does not include all capable men in New Mexico at that time. All areas were not surveyed. Some men may have paid to avoid service.
Last Name
First Name
Jose Crus


1846: US forces led by General Stephen Kearny seize New Mexico, which surrenders without a shot being fired.  

1848: Mexico signs the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which cedes lands in California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico to the United States.  

1848: María Marcelina RIVERA
Jose Luís RIVERA
María Isabel MARTIN

Family 1 : Jose Manuel ROYBAL

·        MARRIAGE: March 1, 1848, San Miguel del Vado Mission, New Mexico [164004]







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_Jose  Luís  RIVERA____|

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|--María Marcelina RIVERA


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|_María Isabel MARTIN _|


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INDEX [164004] [S1421] San Miguel del Bado Marriages 1802--1865

 1848: Felipe Rivera was born 1848.
Son of:

Jose Luis Ribera
and Maria Isabel Martin


Maria Trinidad Padilla
on 01/09/1873 in Pecos, New Mexico, daughter of Baltzar Padilla and Juana Garcia.

Children of Felipe Rivera and Maria Trinidad Padilla are:

Felipita Rivera born: 03/21/1882  

1848: 9 Dec 1848 Jose María Gallegos single son of Ramon Gallegos, deceased, and María Dolores Ortega, resident of Purisima Concepcion and native of Taos married María Feliciana Ribera single daughter of Tomas Ribera, deceased and María del Carmel Gonsales, resident of the same place and native of Taos.  Sponsors Felis Lonte and María de la Lus Trugillo.  Witnesses Julian Urban and Pablo Sandoval, residents of Don Fernando


1850: Ribera Family San Miguel County, New Mexico 1850 County Census

139 Ribera Anastacio                             San Miguel TWP

82 Ribera Aniseto                                   LaQuesta

76 Ribera Antonio Urban                       LaQuesta

139 Ribera Ascencion                             San Miguel TWP

76 Ribera Aug*                                        LaQuesta

82 Ribera                                                  Baltasar          LaQuesta

152 Ribera Benito                                   Tecolote

76 Ribera Concepcion                             LaQuesta

139 Ribera Cristino                                 San Miguel TWP

111 Ribera Dolores                                 San Miguel TWP

132 Ribera Francisca                              San Miguel TWP

77 Ribera Francisquita                           LaQuesta

77 Ribera Gaspar                                    LaQuesta

77 Ribera Gertrudes                               LaQuesta

77 Ribera Guadalupe                              LaQuesta

76 Ribera Isabela                                     LaQuesta

76 Ribera Jesus                                        LaQuesta

76 Ribera Jesus G.                                   LaQuesta

77 Ribera Jesus María                            LaQuesta

77 Ribera Jesus María                            LaQuesta

82 Ribera Jose Camilo                            LaQuesta

132 Ribera Jose de la Cruz                     San Miguel TWP

76 Ribera Jose G.                                     LaQuesta

82 Ribera Jose Gavino                            LaQuesta

76 Ribera Jose Lino                                 LaQuesta

111 Ribera Jose Manuel                         San Miguel TWP

77 Ribera Jose Pablo                               LaQuesta

76 Ribera Jose Urban                              LaQuesta

111 Ribera Juan Jose                              San Miguel TWP

139 Ribera Luciano                                 San Miguel TWP

139 Ribera Luís                                        San Miguel TWP

76 Ribera María                                      LaQuesta

76 Ribera María                                      LaQuesta

76 Ribera María B.                                  LaQuesta

76 Ribera María de los Angeles             LaQuesta

152 Ribera María del Carmel                 Tecolote

77 Ribera María Dolores                        LaQuesta

76 Ribera María Dorotea                       LaQuesta

152 Ribera María Elena                          Tecolote

152 Ribera María Juana                         Tecolote

135 Ribera María Leonora                     San Miguel TWP

82 Ribera Nieves                                     LaQuesta

77 Ribera Pablo                                       LaQuesta

82 Ribera Pablo                                       LaQuesta

82 Ribera Pedro                                      LaQuesta

139 Ribera Pedro                                    San Miguel TWP

76 Ribera Refugio                                    LaQuesta

82 Ribera Santiago                                  LaQuesta

152 Ribera Santos                                   Tecolote

152 Ribera Tomas                                   Tecolote

76 Ribera Vicente                                    LaQuesta

130 Rivera Agapito                                 San Miguel TWP

130 Rivera Ana María                             San Miguel TWP

130 Rivera Andrea                                  San Miguel TWP

18 Rivera Dolores                                    Las Vegas

165 Rivera Esquipula                              Tecolote

130 Rivera Filomena                               San Miguel TWP

130 Rivera Francisco                              San Miguel TWP

132 Rivera Guadalupe                            San Miguel TWP

51 Rivera Ignacio                                     LaQuesta

51 Rivera Jesusita                                   LaQuesta

15 Rivera Jesusita                                   Las Vegas

130 Rivera Jose Asencio                         San Miguel TWP

166 Rivera Jose Emiterio                        Tecolote

130 Rivera Jose M.                                  San Miguel TWP

132 Rivera Jose Perfilio/Porfirio           San Miguel TWP

51 Rivera Juan Andres                            LaQuesta

52 Rivera Juan de la Luz                         LaQuesta

136 Rivera Leonardo                              San Miguel TWP

18 Rivera Leonora                                   Las Vegas

130 Rivera Marcelina                             San Miguel TWP

15 Rivera Marcos                                    Las Vegas

139 Rivera María                                    San Miguel TWP

130 Rivera María Polinaria                    San Miguel TWP

74 Rivera Nestora                                   LaQuesta

131 Rivera Nicolas                                  San Miguel TWP

130 Rivera Perfilia                                   San Miguel TWP

51 Rivera Rosalia                                     LaQuesta

52 Rivera Sosteno                                   LaQuesta

51 Rivera Teodora                                   LaQuesta

132 Rivera Vicenta                                  San Miguel TWP


1855: September 24, 1855 – Juan Medina, widowed of María Antonia Leyva, native of the parish of San Juan de los Caballeros married María Gregoria Garcia, single, daughter of Juan Pablo Garcia and María Agustina Armenta, native of Taos, resident of the placita de los Dolores, Padrinos: Anastacio Rivera (My great-grandfather) and María de la Luz Trujillo, residents of Purissima Concepcion, Witnesses Pedro Valdes and Pablo Sandoval, residents of the Plaza of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe.

1850: Juan Ribera 1850 Census Age 61

 Year: 1850 Territory: New Mexico   County: Santa Fe   Sheet No: 344B
Reel No: M432-468   Division: the City of Santa Fe   Page No: 687
Enumerated on: December 12, 1850   by: Chs. Blumner   
Transcribed by Lydia Uribe and Proofread by Virginia Grace  
for the USGenWeb Archives. Copyright: 2008


INE | Dwell Family | Firstname Lastname | Age S C | Occupation Real  Birthplace | MSRD | SNDX | 

 10 | 1033  1033   | Juan Manuel Ribera    61 M   | farmer 1200 | New Mexico  | X  | R160 |

11 | 1033  1033   | Concepcion  Ribera |  36 F   |  | Rep. of Mexico |  | R160 | 

12 | 1033  1033   | Jose Leon   Ribera |  19 M   | farmer  | New Mexico  | | R160 | 

13 | 1033  1033   | Micaela     Ribera |  17 F   |    | New Mexico     |  R160 | 

14 | 1033  1033   | Jose        Ribera |  14 M   |     | New Mexico     || R160 | 

15 | 1033  1033   | Juana       Ribera |   8 F   |      | New Mexico     | | R160 |

16 | 1033  1033   | Severiano   Ribera |   7 M   |  | New Mexico     | | R160 |

17 | 1033  1033   | Guadalupe   Ribera |   3 F   |  | New Mexico     | | R160 | 

18 | 1033  1033   | Inez        Ribera |  8/12 F |      | New Mexico     | | R160 | 

19 | 1033  1033   | Dolores     Ribera |   6 F   |      | New Mexico     | | R160 | 



Juan Manuel RIVERA  

1789 ... Juan Manuel RIVERA ____ - ____ EVENT: Farmer 5'1 Military: 1 AUG 1812, Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, New Mexico EVENT: Military Census: 1826, Santa  

Juan Rivera Child of Luis Manuel Rivera and Maria Josefa de Jesus Ortiz

1785 (Born after)

65 Years old



1861-1865: American Civil War
1st Regiment, New Mexico Infantry

Last Name            First Name           Company              Grade                   Discharge Grade  

Ribera                   Antinacio              I                             Private                  Private  

Ribera                   Gabriel                  I                             Private                  Private  

Ribera                   George                  A                            Private                  Private  

Ribera                   Juan Esteban        K                            Private                  Private  

Ribera                   Seberiano             G                           Private                  Second Lieutenant

Rivera                   Gabriel                  I                             Private                  Private  

Rivera                   George                  A                            Private                  Private  

Rivera                   Juan Estevan        K                            Private                  Private  

Rivera                   Juan P.                  F                            Private                  Private  

Rivera                   Seberiano             G                           Private                  Private

                        Rivera                   Yriner                    H                           Private                  Private

1862: The Battle of Valverde

Socorro County of New Mexico

Arizona Territory, present day: New Mexico

Extracted from public files by Charles Barnum©2011


Location: Socorro County

Campaign: Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (1862)

Dates: February 20-21, 1862

Principal Commanders: Col. E.R.S. Canby [US]; Brig. Gen. Henry H. Sibley and Col. Thomas Green [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of New Mexico (combination of regular and volunteer units) [US]; Army of New Mexico [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 389 total (US 202; CS 187)


Description: Brig. Gen. Henry H. Sibley led his force of 2,500 men across the Rio Grande River and up the east side of the river to the ford at Valverde, north of Fort Craig, New Mexico, hoping to cut Federal communications between the fort and military headquarters in Santa Fe.  Union Col. E.R.S. Canby left Fort Craig with more than 3,000 men to prevent the Confederates from crossing the river.  When he was opposite them, across the river, Canby opened fire and sent Union cavalry over, forcing the Rebels back.  The Confederates halted their retirement at the Old Rio Grande riverbed, which served as an excellent position.  After crossing all his men, Canby decided that a frontal assault would fail and deployed his force to assault and turn the Confederate left flank.  Before he could do so, though, the Rebels attacked.  Federals rebuffed a cavalry charge, but the main Confederate force made a frontal attack, capturing six artillery pieces and forcing the Union battle line to break and many of the men to flee.  Canby ordered a retreat. Confederate reinforcements arrived and Sibley was about to order another attack when Canby asked for a truce, by a white flag, to remove the bodies of the dead and wounded.  Left in possession of the battlefield, the Confederates claimed victory but had suffered heavy casualties.  Although the Confederates would soon occupy Santa Fe, they would have to leave New Mexico within four months.  

Known Causalities of the Battle of Valverde
Civil War in New Mexico
Compiled by Oliver James Stevens

The story titled, "New Mexico in the Civil War" by James Stevens as it appeared in the NM Genealogist stated that Colonel Sibley-CSA and Colonel Canby-Union Armey were brothers-in-law.


That fact aside, we may never know the names of all of the soldiers killed at the Battle of Valverde.  Below are a list of names according to Charles Meketa, historian.  This is not a complete list.  

Rivera Gomesindo, Private: Killed  

1868: General Juan Rius Rivera (August 26, 1848-September 20, 1924) was the General of the Cuban Liberation Army of the West upon the death of General Antonio Maceo.  Rius was born in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, to Eusebio Rius and Ramona Rivera he was one of nine brothers.  His family, owned a coffee plantation in the Río Cañas Abajo Barrio in Mayagüez, and was one of the wealthiest families in that town.  There, he received both his primary and secondary education.  Ruis was sent by his parents, to study in Spain and earned his bachelor’s degree in Barcelona.  He then went to study law at the University of Madrid.  As a young man, he met and befriended the Puerto Rican patriot Ramón Emeterio Betances.  Convinced that the Spanish Crown was mistreating the people of Puerto Rico and inspired by the ideals of Betances, he joined the pro-independence movement on the island.  He became a member of the Mayagüez revolutionary cell "Capá Prieto" under the command of Mathias Brugman.  On September 23, 1868, a group of Puerto Ricans revolted against Spain in an event known as "El Grito de Lares" ("The Cry of Lares").  

1869: María Apolonia Rivera formerly Sanchez was born September 14, 1869 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.  
Apolonia (Sanchez) Rivera

She was the daughter of Cecilio Sanchez and Guadalupe (Sandoval) Sanchez and the Sister of:
·       Felicita Sanchez
·       Librada Sanchez
·       Estanislada (Sanchez) Dalton
·       Leonor Sanchez
·       Josefa Sanchez
·       Francescita Sanchez

Wife of: Crestino Rivera — married [date unknown] [location unknown]  

Crestino Rivera
Born about October 1845 in Pecos, New Mexico
Son of Jose Luís Ribera and María I. (Martin) Ribera (My Great-Great Grandfather)

Brother of Anastacio Rivera (My Great Grandfather), Pedro Rivera, Ascension Rivera, Felipe Rivera, Lorenzo Rivera and Pablo Rivera

Husband of María A. (Sanchez) Rivera — married [date unknown] [location unknown]

Husband of Teodora (Gonzales) Rivera — married [date unknown] [location unknown]

Husband of Carmen (Gonzales) Rivera — married [date unknown] [location unknown]

Father of Benigna (Rivera) Lujan, Encarnacion Rivera, Jose E. Rivera, Luciana (Rivera) Gonzales, Nemecio Rivera, Juanita Rivera, Enrique Rivera, Paublita (Rivera) Gonzales, Anastacio Rivera, Luís Rivera and Catalina (Rivera) Varela

Died October 26, 1918 in Pecos, New Mexico  

Mother of:
·       Encarnacion Rivera
·       Nemecio Rivera
·       Paublita (Rivera) Gonzales
·       Anastacio Rivera
·       Luís Rivera
·       Catalina (Rivera) Varela

Died: January 29, 1906 in Pecos, New Mexico




1889: Paublita "Pablita or Paulita" Gonzales formerly Rivera

Born June 30, 1889 [location unknown]

Daughter of Crestino Rivera and Maria A. (Sanchez) Rivera

 Sister of Nemecio Rivera, Encarnacion Rivera, Luciana (Rivera) Gonzales, Jose E. Rivera, Benigna (Rivera) Lujan, Juanita Rivera, Enrique Rivera, Anastacio Rivera, Luis Rivera and Catalina (Rivera) Varela  

Wife of Geronimo Gonzales — married October 9, 1911 in La Parroquia de Pecos, Pecos, New Mexico.  

Mother of Florentino Gonzales, Maria D. Gonzales, Melinda (Gonzales) Gallegos, Geronimo Gonzales, Jose A. Gonzales, [private daughter (1920's - 2000's)] and [private son (1920's - unknown)]  

Died January 1, 1941 in Pecos, New Mexico


1891: Ribera, Jose Luís, died. 1 Oct 1891, at age 80Cemetery is located on the grounds of St. Anthony's Catholic Church in Pecos, NM  

My Great-Great-Grandfather Jose Luis Ribera

My Great-Great-Grandfather Jose Luis Ribera  

1898: In 1898, Cuba became independent, and Puerto Rico fell under the United States’ administration.  The Spanish-American War ended 400 years of Spanish dominion in the Americas and marked the rise of the United States as a world power.  

20th Century


1901: 23 March, Led by General Frederick Funston, U.S. forces captured Emilio Aguinaldo on Palanan, Isabela Province.  Later, he declared allegiance to the United States.


1902: July, War ended in the Philippines, with more than 4,200 U.S. soldiers, 20,000 Filipino soldiers, and 200,000 Filipino civilians dead.


1917: The United States entered World War I in 1917, and men were being called to serve.  From the pool of 800 men, San Miguel County's quota was 213.  A board was set up to hear appeals that might be filed by any of these men who, for one reason or another, felt they could not serve.  

San Miguel County’s quota for the conscript army is 213.  It undoubtedly will be selected from the approximately 800 names published herewith.  About 1,000 more names of San Miguel County registrans [sic] are expected to be received soon by mail.  

Appearance before the exemption board is in the order in which the names are published.  

1) Names drawn for San Miguel County
No. 870--Secundino Ribera, Isidor

No. 297--Jose G. Rivera, Las Vegas

The following names belong in the list for San Miguel county following numbers for which the names could not be located, and which were marked “unknown”; these names belong in the order in which the numbers appeared in the regular list:  

No. 1798--Antonio Rivera, Rivera
No. 447--Vicente Rivera, Chaperito
No. 316--Anastacio Ribera, Valley Ranch
No. 640--Teodor Rivera, Chapelle


1919: Child 1: Maria Eluteria Roybal Female

Died: January 1919 Pecos, New Mexico

Buried: Pecos, New Mexico

Spouse: Bartolome Vigil

Husband: Jesus Manuel Roybal

Father: Rafael Roybal

Mother: Maria Manuela Madrid

Married: May 1, 1848 San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico

Wife: Maria Marcelina Ribera

Father: Jose Luís Ribera

Mother: Maria Isabel Martinez

Born: October 1834 Santa Fe, New Mexico


Old St. Anthony's Cemetery

San Miguel County

NMG, Vol XV, No 3, Sept 1976, page 71 ©2005  

Cemetery is located on the grounds of St. Anthony's Catholic Church in Pecos, NM

 1920: No information beyond this point

 Our thanks to the many sources provided via the Internet for this chapter.



                                                                02/26/2015 09:13 AM