Españoles, Hispanics, the Family de Gálvez, World-Wide wars and the
Pre-American Revolutionary War Period
When one writes a family history it is a very
personal matter. We de Riberas
originated in España, before
entering the Spanish Nuevo Mundo
in the 16th-Century C.E. Our forebears were loyal subjects who served
the Corona Española through
centuries as soldados and
administrators of el Imperio Español.
As such, we descendents feel proud of our lineage and the services that
our progenitors rendered in Nueva
España after their arrival in North America before and after in
1598 C.E. Yes, I wrote “North America.” Not those areas currently
within the boundaries of today’s Mexico. I also wrote 1598 C.E., yes
before the British or English established their colonies.
This was before the first permanent English
settlement in the Americas named the Jamestown settlement, in the Colony
of Virginia. It was the first colony in the British Empire, established
by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 4,
1607 C.E. (O.S., May 14, 1607 C.E. N.S.). Jamestown was considered to be
permanent after its brief abandonment in 1610 C.E.
Now, we move to unpleasant business. What does one
do when the actions of my progenitors, the de Ribera, España, and Españoles
during the Spanish Colonial Period are called into question, even
condemned? If your progenitors were attacked and demeaned, wouldn’t
you mount a defense? How should a person react when issues of immoral
acts by one’s ancestors are raise? What of questions of rights
trampled upon and wrongs committed by one’s ancestors are put forth?
What if accusations of corruption by one’s ancestors are raised? How
would you react if outright evil acts have been laid at the door step of
your progenitors? The answer is simple. One must comment on the
realities which existed during the various periods in which they all
lived. In addition, objective comparators must be used.
It must be remembered that the story of a family
is not only the offering of information about their lifetimes. It also
involves the circumstances and conditions under which they experienced
their lives. These need to be contextualized using the historical
realities which swirled about them. Nations, just as people, transition,
change, and evolve. So should their stories.
Today, as I sit writing this text the world around
me is full of change in politics, religion, science, war, the concepts
of right and wrong, racial and ethnic conflict, and other life events
which mark this second decade of the 21st-Century C.E. It would be fair
to say that I’m not immune to those conditions or their outcomes. They
most certainly have an impact upon me, my family, friends, and
acquaintances just as the realities of the world around my progenitors,
the de Ribera, had an impact
Additionally, I’m not a historian, nor do I
claim to be. In fact, both my undergraduate and graduate degrees are
both in business. The only advantage I hold in the writing of this
family history, which includes many historical facts, is that of my
training and education. Before retirement, I was a business
analyst/researcher and an executive in both Private and Public Sectors.
I also spent over a decade as a University adjunct professor in the area
of business and management. In addition, I was involved assessing
potential activities which might be used to enable managerial success in
a given marketplace or given set of circumstances and in the writing of
large, complex business strategic planning documents. These were geared
toward domination of market share and overtaking large, powerful
business rivals. As an executive, I was responsible to implement
strategic plans and annual operating plans, and to meet their
qualitative goals and quantitative objectives. Monarchies and
nation-states utilize similar activities and approaches to achieve their
economic and military strategies, goals, and objectives to achieve
España’s Nuevo Mundo
of the 16th-Century C.E. and 17th-Century C.E. were no different. My
progenitors, the de Ribera,
did not live in a vacuum. They were affected by the same elements of
life and society that we are today. España
was by that time a world superpower. Through exploration, warfare,
conquest, and settlement she won her place as the world’s greatest
power. Please, take notice that I did not include the word
“colonization.” I find its constant application to España’s
Nuevo Mundo settlements and not those of other European nations by
non-Spanish commentators, writers, and historians deliberate and
offensive. My preference is to use the terms settlements and
term “Colonization” is rarely referred to as a process in a
denotative sense by which a central system of power dominates the
surrounding land and its components. By the anti-Spanish the emphasis is
almost always placed upon what it connotates. The term is derived from
the Latin word “colere.” This means "to till, farm, cultivate; worship,
live in (place), or inhabit." Also,
colonization may be used to refer strictly to migration, for example, to
the settler colonies in America, trading settlements, and
plantations. Today’s most popular use is that of ruling an existing indigenous
people of "new territories."
España’s position in the world as the greatest superpower
of the time brought her into a collision course with the other competing
powers of the world. Britain, France, and other nations wanted her
position, power, prestige, territories, and wealth. Thus, España
became the target of her competitors and enemies over those desires. In
the case of Britain, she quickly moved past the steps of exploration,
raced through settlement, and went directly to taking by force that
which others (España and
France) had earned and won by exploration, “right of conquest,” and
settlement. Britain simply stole what she wanted through subterfuge and
To obtain España’s
territories, her enemies used every means possible. The obvious were
anti-Catholicism and anti-Spanish alliances, intrigues, proxy wars
everywhere, wars in España’s
Nuevo Mundo, the stirring up of revolts in her possessions, and
piracy against her trading fleets. But there was more.
España’s enemies took the writings of a Catholic priest
which painted her as the ultimate despotic monarchy and fine-tuned it,
enlarged, and enhanced it. The use of the Leyenda
Negra or “Black Legend” and its purported abuses was accompanied
by the narrative of the willful destruction of the “Noble Savage,”
the Natives of España’s Américas.
All was done to influence world opinion against España
and to make her destruction palatable. For the non-Spanish I offer, “Condemnant
quod non intellegunt” and “Contra
principia negantem non est disputandum.” In both cases, to have
knowledge is not necessarily to understand.
There is in the 21st-Century C.E. a general
acceptance of the Leyenda Negra
and the narrative of the destruction of the Spanish América’s
Noble Savage by España and Españoles.
If one accepts this as fact, it makes the recognition of any of España’s
or her Españoles’ positive
contributions to the Nuevo Mundo
difficult, if not impossible to contemplate and/or accept. This act is
the negation of the realities on the ground.
The anti-Spain, anti-Spanish propaganda
disinformation process was and remains a simple one. Disinformation is intentionally false or inaccurate information which
is deliberately distributed. It is an act of deception whereby
false statements are made to convince someone of an untruth. One
substitutes fiction for facts and then convinces all who are willing and
able to listen that España
was evil and destructive. This is what was done. España’s detractors then used that disinformation as a pretext to take her lands
and possessions. Once they had taken what they wanted from España, her competitors and enemies simply continued and expanded
upon that successful false narrative until that narrative became the
Unfortunately, few understand and recognize that
the Leyenda Negra is a style
of non-objective historical writing and that it is a propaganda tool
used by the perpetrators to demonize
el Imperio Español, its
people, and Spanish culture. Further, this clandestine method for
promulgating the disinformation narrative continues by those nations,
organizations, groups, and individuals who have a need to call attention
to España’s evil deeds. Why? The answer is simple. If España
remains the chief target for European misdeeds in the New World, their
own sins against the Natives are kept hidden and rarely discussed. The
best “defense” is a “great offense,” and all of that.
To compound the problem, there exist the
grievances of those who are a genetic result of España’s Nuevo Mundo territorial past which touched so many
lives. Here, I speak of Mulatos,
Mestízos, and others of mixed
parentage. These see their families and themselves as victims.
Therefore, embracing one’s Spanish European roots which might mitigate
such feelings becomes difficult if not impossible to do. This is
understandable as no one wants to be viewed as less than anyone else,
particularly as seen through the distorted prism of biased and
prejudicial racism. The ugly reality of Hispanic racial identity
intolerance in the Americas is decidedly anti-indigenous. In short, if I
look European I’m superior. If my physical presence is viewed as Mulato,
Mestízo, or other, I’m not quite as good. This perception is
wrong, hurtful, cruel, and ugly. None the less, it exists.
Here I must add that I didn’t create the world,
its peoples, its many cultures, social strata identification, and/or
economic status. I am only a victim of said. Humanity is not good or
bad, it just is! However, life’s outcomes can and should be judged as
good and bad by each of us and the results put to the test.
This perception of racial injustice and
intolerance is further tainted by the false narrative regarding the “Leyenda
Negra” and España’s destruction of Spanish América’s
“Noble Savage.” Obviously, those of Spanish Nuevo
Mundo mixed lineage of Natives and European roots have reason to be
angry about past treatment of their Native lines of progenitors and how
they are viewed in today’s society. However, the mistreatment of the
conquered peoples applies to all regions, geographic areas,
nation-states, etc. Islam and her many Muslim nations bent on the
continued conquest of Christianity and its adherent nations, comes to
To clarify, the propaganda of the Black Legend
originated in the 16th-Century C.E. This was a time when strong
rivalries existed between European colonial powers (Britain, España,
France, the Netherlands, Portugal,
etc.) for supremacy. Why was it put forth? In the context of this
chapter, it was an intentional attempt by competing European powers to
damage España’s reputation.
They did this in an effort to delegitimize her status and authority as a
Nuevo Mundo territorial superpower. By destabilizing her standing in
the international community these rival powers hoped to have their
efforts of taking her possessions and wealth viewed in a more positive
light. España’s rivals were
then seen as reluctantly forced to use necessary evil methods against an
evil empire to end its evil excesses.
In today’s world, these activities used by
European powers against España
are called Psychological Operations (PSYOP). These are planned
Intelligence Community operations meant to convey selected information
and indicators to identified, targeted audiences. This is done in an
effort to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and
ultimately the behavior of individuals, groups, organizations, and
governments. Influence in this arena benefits the influencer not the
target of the PSYOP.
As history is largely written from the viewpoint
and for the benefit of the victors, España
and Españoles became victims
of this effective negative messaging. All competing nations gained from
the “dark” Leyenda Negra
narrative at España’s
expense. The Leyenda Negra
indicates an unfavorable image of España
and Españoles. It accuses
them of cruelty and intolerance toward Nuevo
Mundo natives. The “Leyenda”
continues to be prevalent in the works of many non-Spanish and
especially Protestant historians. The Leyenda
is primarily associated with criticism of 16th-Century C.E. España and the anti-Protestant policies of King Felipe
II (Reigned 1556 C.E.-1598 C.E.). Leyenda
Negra was also popularized by the Español,
historian Julián Juderías
in his book La Leyenda Negra.
Succeeding generations of powerful monarchies and
nation states found the constant restatement of the narrative helpful as
they decoupled parts of España’s
worldwide empire for their own uses. These included Britain, Méjico, and later, the United States. Each took her lands and its
wealth. In their continuing narrative she was an evil empire, with vile
institutions, and Conquistadores or
conquerors that used
murder and oppression against helpless Spanish Nuevo
Mundo millions. The ongoing narrative suggests that the non-Spanish
European victors defeated that evil empire, took possession of her
lands, and improved the conditions of the downtrodden masses. I’m just
questioning the reality of the narrative here!
Over hundreds of years the non-Spanish Europeans
helped the Natives by taking their lands by force and later killing them
indiscriminately. When these helpful methods failed to achieve their
required ends, these helpful non-Spanish Europeans then offered up their
“Final Solution.” This was the placement of large indigenous
populations on “reservations.” Once safely incarcerated the
populations were starved, beaten, and killed. The term, depopulation
comes to mind. When existing Native areas of incarceration were needed
for new European arrivals, the natives were forcibly moved to new
“holding areas.” Once there, more died from neglect and
mistreatment. Shall I go on? Better not. However, to make a point, “Let
he who is without sin cast the first stone.” Black Legend
and the Noble Savage narratives related to the Españoles
pale by comparison. Let’s leave it there, shall we?
There are a precious few Americans that are aware
of España’s positive
contributions relative to the New World. Even fewer know how España and Españoles
helped the United States of America become a free and independent
nation. Therefore, with this chapter I will endeavor to provide some
understanding of the events which led up to her providing financial and
military support which helped to keep the Américanos
or Americans’ morale high while freeing themselves from the British
yoke of oppression.
Today, many believe that recognition for the
contributions of España, Españoles,
and Hispanics in the United States of America is long overdue.
Unfortunately, anti-Spanish, Anglo-Saxon, Northern European, British,
and other non-Spanish historians and commentators have been purposeful
in their exclusion of España’s
contributions to the American Revolutionary War. Fortunately, there is a
great deal in the annals of American history about the exploits of España,
Españoles, and Hispanic-American heroes on behalf of the American
Colonial Patriots. However, only now are public and private school
textbooks beginning to tell of the important role España,
Españoles, and American Hispanics played in the war for liberty,
the American Revolution, and its war for independence.
It is with regret that I must state that the
oversight appears to be both systematic and most probably orchestrated.
One can deduce that the concept of “Manifest Destiny” as it relates
to the United States could only have been successful if the historic
claims to North American territory by Españoles
were purposefully forgotten or erased, and if not erased, besmirched.
Some opine that the American government and
educational institutions through their negligence downplayed any obvious
contributions by España. In
my estimation this exclusion was no oversight or due to the lack of
historical evidence. Rather, I believe it was purposeful. To the British
and later the Anglo-American victors went España’s
spoils and the power of the pen to write history in their honor and to España’s
Sadly, America and Americans exist in a society in
which racism continues to play a large part in how one’s race and/or
ethnicity are perceived. The sense in which I apply the term
“Racism,” is as follows. I view it as the result of complex
interactions between members of our American society. Each of us has a
worldview with which we may or may not discriminate against others,
practice prejudgment, and stereotyping. To some degree one might accept
the possibility of racism and ethnic hatred playing a part in the
exclusion of España and
Hispanics from the history of the American Revolution. I leave this
judgment to the reader.
Let me say that as a further clarifier. I, we, do
not wake up each morning and have as a first thought the hate of our
other ethnic or racial neighbors. Racism is simply a fact of life. How
and why exists, is beyond me. It is a disease as old as mankind. Its
tribal-like nature sickens and corrodes that soul.
For some time, Hispanic-Americans have been
excluded historically from mainstream Americana. These have been
marginalized by a society which has in the past almost exclusively
celebrated only Anglo-Saxon American culture and non-Spanish European
nations, with only their historic contributions remaining center stage.
Most assuredly, the founding of the nation and the defense of liberty in
America’s many wars has had the participation of many other
non-Anglo-Saxon and Northern European ethnic and racial groups. Yet,
these have only received passing attention or recognition, if any.
American textbooks by and large have credited
France with helping the Thirteen American Colonies gain independence
from Great Britain. They have also cited the financial help France gave
the American Patriots. For example, it is well known that over twenty
thousand buff blue uniforms were sown in France and sent to
Washington’s ragtag troops. However, contributions such as arms,
clothing, food, monies, and other resources provided from España
and her Hispanic soldados, ciudadanos of el Imperio Español
have been largely ignored by American historians and commentators.
In the past, American historians have written
glowing accounts of the heroics of Frenchmen such as Marie-Joseph Paul
Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette. There were also the
French aristocrats and military officers, Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien
de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau and Admiral or Lieutenant Général des
Armées Navales François-Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, Comte de
Grasse. Unfortunately, the Spanish heroes of the American Revolution
have been given short shrift by these same American scholars.
However, it cannot go without being said that in
recent years, some recognition has been granted regarding the
contributions of España and
her ciudadanos and soldados to
the independence of the United States.
Here, I must stop and offer a much needed note of
commendation. Unlike many anti-Spanish, non-Spanish, Anglo-American,
Northern European, and British historians, writers and commentators who
attack and demean España’s
intellectual and military capabilities there have been a few exceptions.
Even more than this, there are those in the United States who stand the
test of American ideals brought forth by its Founding Fathers and live
by them. These are the descendents of those brave and fearless men and
women who fought and died for freedom’s truths during the American
There are two American organizations which have
stood the test of honor. These are the Daughters of the American
Revolution (DAR) and the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR). Here, I
speak of the principled gesture of
inclusion. These organizations have recognized the contributions of el
Imperio Español and its many and varied ethnic and racial subjects
(Hispanics) who participated in the War against Britain on behalf of the
brave and over matched Américanos.
This act of inclusion took courage of heart. After many years of
resistance and debate within the DAR and SAR, their common decency and
adherence to the principles as laid down by the Founding Fathers
prevailed. For those who accomplished this feat, I can think of only one
quote appropriate to apply: “Courage is grace under
pressure.” ― Ernest Hemingway
It has been my pleasure to live to see those
descendents of the brave American Patriots who founded, bled, and in
some cases died for American liberty reach out their hands of friendship
and recognition to España and
the descendents of Españoles,
Criollos, Hispanic-Americans, and Latinos whose progenitors served and fought for the cause of the
American Revolutionary War.
Both have given credit where credit is due. They
have offered kind, respectful, and honorable mention to España in her efforts to support with blood and treasure the
founding of the United States of America. In fact, they have opened
their organizations for membership to those Hispanic-Americans who can
document their family relationships to those Españoles
of el Imperio Español who
fought side-by-side with the Américanos,
those who fought for, but apart, from the Américanos,
those who stood watch and protected Nueva
España’s frontiers from British incursion, and those who gave
money and other resources to this great cause of American freedom. Such
actions held the British dogs of war at bay, allowing the geographically
encircled Américanos to
Now, I must deal with unpleasant and hard to
accept realities. Believe me when I say that I do not enjoy conveying
this information. Unfortunately, it is part and parcel of the human
condition. Additionally, I must do so to ensure that my progenitors
receive proper treatment after what has been done by anti-Spanish
historians and commentators. In my efforts to accomplish this, I will
use Britain as the primary example.
The British had a remarkable lust for power. She
was the greediest of España’s
competitors. Britain did whatever was needed to obtain her wants. She
employed improper conduct, lies, theft, inciting of revolutions, sneak
attacks, proxy wars, etc. in pursuit of her goal of world domination.
Relative to its historical standing in the New
World, Britain has for centuries provided an ongoing narrative regarding
España and Españoles which is obviously untrue as well as preposterous.
España did no more or no less than the other European nations in
the New World. Britain in fact butchered, murdered, stole or took the
land by force without appropriate payment, and then shunned the Natives.
The British were practiced liars, thieves, and assassins. In fact,
Britain stole everything she could from both European nations and the
Native populations. With that said, let us move on with our story to
España and Españoles
did a great deal for the Américano
Patriots in their efforts to free themselves from Britain during the
American Revolutionary War for independence. It should be said that
Britain as a mother country was to say the least, unkind to her North
American children. Her abuse of them is legend.
There is one such Spanish subject who exemplified honor and strength of
spirit in his support of American liberty. His name is Bernardo Vicente Apolinar de Gálvez y Madrid, Vizconde de Gálvezton
and Conde de Gálvez (July 23, 1746 C.E.-November 30, 1786 C.E.). He was
part of the illustrious de Gálvez
family which gave great service to their king and empire, España.
also stands tall for his honorable governmental activities and brave and
brilliant military exploits in the aid of the Américano Patriots. He and his soldados
consisting of Peninsulares or
Spanish born on the Ibero
Peninsula, Criollos or Españoles born in the Spanish Américas
(progenitors of today’s Hispanics), Mestízos
or persons of mixed racial ancestry, especially of mixed European and
Native American ancestry, Mulatos
or persons born from one European parent and one African parent; or to
persons of two Mulato parents,
Native Americans, and others aided the Patriots during the American
He was born in Macharaviaya, a mountain villa
in the province of Málaga, España,
on July 23, 1746 C.E. Macharaviaya
is a municipality in the mountains of the autonomous community of Andalucía
in the south of España. Macharaviaya’s
population of by time of his birth was impoverished.
The name of the villa is derived from the Arabic Machar Ibn Yahha, Court of Yahha's
son. The villa was originally
founded over an old Arabic farmhouse. It is located in the comarca of La Axarquía. As the villa
was built upon the ruins of an old Moro
settlement, it was a constant reminder of Ibero
or Iberian enslavement by the Islamist Moros
and the almost 800 years it took to remove the Islamic yoke of
oppression and slavery from Ibéria. Freedom was thus always in the forefront of the
Spanish mind. Therefore, the Américanos
at the time would most certainly have Spanish sympathy.
It was also the home of the entire noble de
Gálvez family, whose descendant Matías
de Gálvez y Gallardo had been the virrey
of Nueva España. It was his son, Bernardo,
who became Gobernador of
Spanish Luisiana. The family
of de Gálvez was hidalga, which included the lower-ranking gentry, untitled, and
lower stratum of the nobility who were exempted from taxation. With
little money, being tax exempt meant something.
His parents were Matiás de Gálvez and María
Joséfa de Madrid y de Gálvez. Bernardo
and his father, Matías, owed
a great deal to his uncle, José
de Gálvez y Gallardo, Marqués
de Sonora for both guiding and assisting their successful careers.
As for the Marqués, his genius and abilities are things that legends are made
of. All three did many good and important things for the American cause
of freedom under difficult circumstances. Each of these aided the Américanos
out of personal compassion and political necessity.
Bernardo’s childhood was spent between working in the fields
and attending school in the neighboring villa of Benaque. De
Gálvez lost his mother when he was very young, in 1748 C.E. within
two years of his birth. His father had a second marriage. From this
union was born a second son, José. He died during childhood, in 1756 C.E., when the family had
already moved to Madrid. De
Gálvez likely spent part of his adolescence in Islas
Canarias where his father had been transferred between 1757 C.E. and
1778 C.E. Bernardo’s father was responsible for an administrative area as an intendant or
government official under the Corona
As discussed earlier, American textbooks have
credited many Frenchmen with helping the Thirteen Colonies gain
independence from Great Britain. In the past, American historians wrote
glowing accounts of their heroics. They also cited the financial help
France gave the Patriots. Unfortunately, few if any spoke of Bernardo
de Gálvez. It is both the DAR and SAR who have made his name
well-known and respected again within the United States. Others came to
the scene later and offered their kind help in the matter. One can only
wonder where the other groups were for all these many years.
Over the years, some recognition has been granted Bernardo
de Gálvez. H.RES. 1400 SPONSOR: Representative González
(introduced October 4, 1778 C.E.) was the resolution to recognize the
contribution of de Gálvez to
of the United States. On October 10, 1778 C.E. the measure passed the
House. He was also honored by the United States government with his own
stamp due to his heroic efforts during the American Revolution.
Additionally, the Order of Granaderos
passed a resolution recognizing the contributions and the role played by
Bernardo de Gálvez toward the
independence of the United States.
In October of 1995, a statue of Bernardo
de Gálvez was officially dedicated in Washington D.C. In fact,
Congress may also be considering creating a day in his honor. Statues of
Bernardo, the Mariscal
del Campo can also be seen in New Orleans.
Gobernador of Spanish Luisiana,
Bernardo de Gálvez, presided
over an area which extended from Tejas
to Florida and up into
Michigan. His heroic exploits and a string of victories on behalf of the
newly formed United States of America along the Mississippi River and
the Gulf Coast greatly aided the cause of the American Revolution. But
who was this man?
Between 1779 C.E. and 1785 C.E., he defeated the
British at Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
Mobile, Alabama, Pensacola,
Florida, Saint Louis, Missouri, and Saint Joseph, Michigan, to name
but a few places. There were many more locations not mentioned here at
which Bernardo’s forces defeated the British on behalf of the American
A superb military tactician, he was an inspiring
and charismatic leader. So much so, that the State of Tejas named Gálvezton, Gálvezton
Island, and Gálvezton Bay
after him. In addition, Americans have honored Mariscal
del campo Bernardo de
Gálvez by making his descendants eligible to become members of the
DAR and SAR, a rare honor for a non-citizen. Today, we Americans are
indebted to this heroic Spaniard and his Hispanic and multi-racial,
multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and international army and navy for
assisting the newly founded United States of America by helping to win
her independence from Britain.
However, before we can deal with Bernardo
de Gálvez and his battles, we must provide a historical backdrop to
his life and times. First, we must deal with the 17th-Century C.E. and
18th-Century C.E. and the world in which the competing European powers
were jockeying for control and supremacy of the European continent and
the world beyond. This was a time before his birth in 1746 C.E.
In the 17th-Century C.E., by 1698 C.E., España
was considered a first rate, worldwide empire. At this time, King Carlos
II of España was seen as
being at the end of his life and beginning to fail. He was of the House
of Habsburg Monarchy or the House of Austria which had arrived in Ibéria after 1506 C.E. It had dominated España for almost 200 years, until his death in 1700 C.E. Efforts
had to be made to regulate the impending Spanish succession in order to
diminish España’s worldwide
power and wealth. The rival European powers forced the issue and
agreements were made. If these were not satisfied upon Carlos’s
death, war was the only answer for the interested parties.
The question is why risk war? Earlier, an effort
had been made to regulate the impending Spanish succession. Why? These
European monarchies and nations wanted what they hadn’t worked for.
They wanted it to be given to them piece part. In this endeavor there
were three principal claimants the
Dutch Republic, England (Before becoming Great Britain), and France.
The three had signed the First Treaty of
Partition in October 1698 C.E. Each signed, agreeing that on the death
of Carlos II, Prince
Joseph Ferdinand, son of the elector of Bavaria, would inherit España,
the Spanish Netherlands, and the Spanish colonies. Next, España’s Italian dependencies would be
separated and subdivided. Austria was to be
awarded the Duchy of Milan. France would receive Naples and Sicily.
These efforts were made with the intent of eliminating España’s
position as the lone superpower of the time.
Unfortunately, in February 1699 C.E. Joseph
Ferdinand died. This necessitated a second
Treaty of Partition to be signed. This was signed on June 11, 1699 C.E.
by England and France, notorious enemies. One can liken them to two
dancers holding a cocked and loaded pistol at each other’s temple as
they sweep across the dance floor. One simple slip of the foot, a trip,
and all would be lost.
By the 18th-Century C.E., in March 1700 C.E., the
Dutch Republic signed the Treaty of Partition. This treaty awarded España’s
Spanish Netherlands and colonies to Archduke
Charles, second son of the Holy Roman Emperor,
Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau the "Old Dessauer."
Additionally it awarded Nápoles, Sicily, and other Spanish territories in Italy to France.
However, Leopold refused to sign the treaty. He demanded that Charles
receive all the Spanish territories intact. The Spanish Grandes likewise did not recognize it, being unalterably opposed to
partition of el Imperio Español.
Why were the Grandes opposed? Many
were of the original noble houses of Ibéria.
The Iberians were those who fought the Islamic Moros
from 711 C.E. until 1492 C.E., retook Ibéria,
and established the first Ibero/Spanish
monarchy (Fernando II of Aragón and Ysabel I
of Castilla) upon marriage on October 19, 1469 C.E. They
were not of the House of Habsburg or House of Austria (1516 C.E.-1700
C.E.) which came later. Nor were they of the House of Bourbon. The
Bourbons were a European royal house of French origin
(1700 C.E. to present) which both claimed and took the Spanish throne.
On November 1, 1700 C.E., King Carlos
II of España died. Carlos had
always been infirm and died childless. While on his deathbed, Carlos
had placed his entire Spanish inheritance upon Philip duc d’Anjou, the
second-eldest grandson of King Louis XIV of France.
Felipe V was born at the Palace of Versailles in France.
He was the second son of Louis, Grand Dauphin and heir apparent to the
throne of France, and his wife Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphine
Victoire. He was a younger brother of Louis, Duke of Burgundy, and the
father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip, later Felipe V, was created Duke of Anjou, a traditional title for younger
sons in the French royal family. He would be known by this name until he
became the king of España.
It has been said that Carlos II had allowed himself to be convinced that only the
House of Bourbon was able to keep the España’s possessions intact. In the autumn of 1700 C.E., he made
a will bequeathing them to Philip. By November
24th of that same year, Louis XIV of France proclaimed his grandson,
Philip, king of España as Felipe V. He was to be the first Borbón king of España.
Soon thereafter, Louis invaded the Spanish Netherlands. By this action
decades of war were assured.
To clarify, Carlos
II had reigned over a vast, existing, powerful, wealthy, global empire.
Because of this, the question of who would succeed him had for some time
troubled ministers in European capitals. There had been attempts to
solve the problem politically by partitioning the empire between the
eligible candidates from the royal Houses of Austria (Habsburg), Bavaria
(Wittelsbach), and France (Bourbon). These had failed.
rule of España, all of Europe
knew that his uncle, Louis XIV’s France would secure great advantages
for his dynasty, the Bourbons. Concerned statesmen throughout Europe
felt that a dominant House of Bourbon in these two nations would be a
threat to European stability. This one kingly move jeopardized the
balance of power on many continents.
The reader is asked the question why not war as a
first resort? One must understand why these European powers coveted España’s
Viejo Mundo and Nuevo Mundo
territories. It wasn’t just the wealth. One has only to trace the
water routes of the oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes where commerce was
transacted to understand the España’s wealth enabling strategies. Thereafter, one can
appreciate why each settlement on each continent and island was placed.
It is obvious that all of the thought and planning for a worldwide
trading network had already been completed, implemented, and adjusted
for efficiency and effectiveness by España
for her various settlement locations.
It was also the existing infrastructure that
competitors. España’s Nuevo
Mundo cities, presidios,
cities, towns, and villas had
been built and functioning since their early beginnings in 1492 C.E.
Hundreds of years of labor, sweat, and tears had produced ready-made
locations for plundering and taking in the Nuevo
Mundo. These had been placed
in specific geographic locations for economic, strategic, and military
advantage. Bridges and roads for linking the population centers were in
place and operational. The settlers were already farming and ranching
around these settlements and trade centers. European populations were
already deployed and implementing the necessary technology for increased
crop yield, for both local consumption and international trade. Mining
operations were everywhere removing, processing, and transporting
precious metals. Local marketplaces were available, operational, and
The networks of roads, bridges, and presidios,
had been engineered and built for hauling and protecting agricultural
and mining products being taken to market, locally and internationally.
The products could then be shipped from existing superbly engineered,
constructed, and militarily protected harbors and sea ports and exported
via ships to an awaiting and eager international market. Large shipping armadas
had been built and efficient routes established.
In short, the fruits of European society and its
advanced infrastructure were in place in advantageous spots of the Nuevo
Mundo and ready for the taking. Ripe, low hanging fruit was on the
trees and vines were available for any adventurous soul able and strong
enough to relieve the current owners of it. Competitors had only to
attack the rightful residents, defeat them, and kill them and/or enslave
them. Thanks to the Islamists, the Europeans had been taught over the
many centuries the process of depopulation, population displacement,
and/or slavery. The Europeans had a personal acquaintance with the
reality of Islamic conquest and its methods of population control.
The result of that covetousness was that 13 year
War of the Spanish Succession (1701 C.E.-1714 C.E.). That major European
conflict took place in the early-18th-Century C.E. It was triggered by
the death of that last Habsburg King of España,
Carlos II and the ascension of the House of Bourbon’s Felipe
to the rule of España. The
pivotal act of aggression, invasion of the Spanish Netherlands by Louis
of France, resulted in the formation of an
anti-French alliance on September 7, 1701 C.E. It was comprised of
England, the Dutch Republic, and Leopold
the Holy Roman Emperor, King of
Hungary and Croatia, and King if Bohemia. These were later
joined by Prussia, Hanover, other German states,
The electors of Bavaria and Cologne and the
dukes of Mantua and Savoy allied themselves with
King William III of England, that strong opponent
of Louis XIV, died in 1702 C.E. The government of his successor, Queen
Anne (1665 C.E.-1714 C.E.), upheld the vigorous conduct of the War of
Spanish Succession. John Churchill, duke of
Marlborough, understood the international stakes of these historic
changes. His title in the Peerage of England was created by Queen Anne
of England in 1702 C.E. Later, he would play the leading role in Queen
Anne’s government and on the battlefield until his fall from grace in
1711 C.E. His second in command on the battlefield was the imperial
general Prince Eugene of Savoy.
In the Caribe
on August 5, 1702 C.E., the English invaded el
Imperio Español city of Arecibo,
on Puerto Rico's northern
coast. The Puertorriqueños
armed only with spears and machetes
were under the command of Capitán
António de los Reyes Correa. These 30 members of the miquelets
defended the city against musket and sword carrying English troops. The
English were defeated and suffered 22 losses on land and 8 at sea. Capitán Reyes Correa was declared a national hero and awarded the Medalla
de Oro de la Real Efigie or Gold Medal of the Royal Image. King Felipe
V awarded him the title of Capitán
of the Infantería Española
In Europe, the House of Savoy would later switch
sides to the anti-French alliance during the War of Spanish Succession
in 1703 C.E. Savoy had emerged as the feudal
territory of the House of Savoy during the 11th to 14th centuries C.E.
Installed by Rudolph III, King of Burgundy, officially in 1003 C.E., the
House of Savoy became the longest surviving royal house in Europe. This
territory is historically shared between the modern countries of France,
Italy, and Switzerland. It ruled the County of Savoy to 1416 C.E. and
then the Duchy of Savoy from 1416 C.E. to 1860 C.E.
The markedly superior generalship of the Duke of
Marlborough and imperial General Prince Eugene of Savoy during the War
of the Spanish Succession brought them a series of victories over France
from 1704 C.E.-1709 C.E. One was the Battle of Blenheim which occurred
on August 13, 1704 C.E. This Franco-Bavarian offensive in Germany was
smashed by the anti-French alliance at Blenheim
in 1704 C.E.
During the War of Spanish Succession, the French
were driven out of the Low Countries in the Battle of
Ramillies in 1706 C.E. They were also expelled
from Italy by Prince Eugene of Savoy’s brilliant campaign after their
attempted siege of Turin was broken on September
7, 1706 C.E. The only theatre of the land war in which the
“Alliance” had no real success was España,
where Felipe V successfully maintained his position.
During the War of Spanish Succession, the French
were again driven out of the Low Countries by the Battle of Oudenaarde
in 1708 C.E. Soon after, Louis XIV of France sought to end the War of
the Spanish Succession and was willing to give up the Spanish
inheritance to the House of Habsburg. However, unrealistic demands were
made by the English, by then Great Britain. They insisted that Louis use
his own army to remove his own grandson, King Felipe,
from España. The cunning British were aware that Louis would refuse (for
obvious reasons) and broke off negotiations. The war was then resumed.
By 1711 C.E., there were two developments which
were to alter situations of the War of Spanish Succession. These were in
favor of France. On April 17, 1711 C.E., fate would have it that
Archduke Charles became heir to all Austrian Habsburg possessions.
Britain and the Dutch were aware that this would give Archduke Charles
the Spanish inheritance as well as resurrect the old empire of Charles
V. As a result, they had no intention of continuing.
On December 31, 1711 C.E., John Churchill or 1st
Earl of Marlborough (1650 C.E.-1722 C.E.), and the Duke of Marlborough
was removed from command. His enemies at Court having won influence with
the Queen maneuvered his removal.
For some time, the Duke’s wife had a difficult
relationship with the Queen. Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough had
risen to be one of the most influential women of her generation through
her close friendship with Queen Anne. Sarah's friendship with Princess
Anne and influence with her was widely known. Many leading public
figures of the day turned their attentions to her in hopes that she
could influence Anne. With her cousin’s new position as Court
favorite, and Sarah’s dismissal from Court, the Duke of Marlborough
who had brought glory and success to Anne's reign saw his own fortunes
fall. This is considered by many to be central to his loss of power.
Anne's disfavor and being caught politically between Tory and Whig
factions forced Marlborough from office and caused him to go into
self-imposed exile. He would leave the Island nation for a time and
return to Britain later regaining influence under the House of Hanover
with the accession of King George I to the British throne in 1714 C.E.
In 1712 C.E., with the collapse of the anti-France
alliance of the War of Spanish Succession, peace negotiations had begun.
These former allies were experiencing conflicts of interest, forcing
each to deal separately with France.
At its peak in 1712 C.E., before the beginning of
the Treaty of Utrecht, the territory of Nouvelle-France or New France,
also sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New
France was extensive. Early on, Quebec
also known as Québécois French, or Acadians of the
Maritimes eventually built small settlements throughout what is
today’s mainland Nova
Scotia and New
Brunswick, as well as Île-Saint-Jean (Prince
Edward Island), Île-Royale (Cape
Breton Island), and other shorelines of the Gulf of St.
Lawrence in present-day Newfoundland and Labrador,
and Quebec. It spread from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay
to the Golfo de Méjico or
Gulf of Mexico, including all the Great Lakes of North America. To be
sure, Britain coveted it all.
Matters made little progress until after July 10,
1712 C.E., when Felipe V
signed a renunciation. Clearly, the parties to the War did not want the
two great powers, España and
France, united under one monarch and maintained a watchful eye. One of
the first questions discussed before the Treaty of Utrecht’s signing
on April 11, 1713 C.E. had been the nature of the guarantees to be given
by España and France that their crowns would be kept separate.
With Britain and France having agreed upon a
truce, the pace of negotiation now quickened, and the main treaties
(Treaty of Utrecht) were finally signed on April 11, 1713 C.E. The first
group of treaties over the War of Spanish Succession was signed at
Utrecht. These and the later treaties of Rastatt
and Baden ignored the will of Carlos
II. The treaties would divide his inheritance among the warring powers.
Louis XIV’s grandson would remain king of España.
Of the greatest importance in the outcomes of
these agreements was the fact that the treaties of Utrecht marked the
rise of the power of Great Britain. Her subsequent rise as a colonial
empire was to be at the expense of both España
and France. It should be said here that Britain had one aim, the
furtherance of Britain’s interests. Everything else was tangential.
The British were scavengers and finally birds of prey. Dress them how
you wish, they were still greedy, power hungry, and pirates.
Dressed-well yes, but thieves never the less.
By treaty, the North American territory of
Nouvelle-France was divided into colonies. Each had its own
administration. These were Canada, Acadia, Newfoundland (Plaisance), and
Louisiana, later to be called Spanish Luisiana.
The Treaty of Utrecht would result in the relinquishing of French claims
to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland, and the
establishment of the colony of Île Royale, now called Cape Breton
Island, where the French had built the Fortress of Louisbourg.
To make a point, this ongoing series of wars
between the competing powers of Europe were fought by more than just the
European nations. In effect, the global nature of the recurring
conflicts saw the rise of proxy wars on various continents with the
involvement of their various Native populations.
In North America, the Cherokee Indians (Natives)
sided with the British Province of Carolina in the Tuscarora War of 1711
C.E.-1715 C.E. This was the first successful, permanent European
settlement of North Carolina began in 1653 C.E. The Tuscarora Natives
had lived in peace with the European settlers who had lived in North
Carolina for over 50 years. This was at a time when nearly every other
American colony was tragically involved in some form of conflict with
Natives. Unfortunately, the settlers increasingly encroached upon
Tuscarora land. They also began to raid Native villages and take slaves.
The colonists also introduced epidemic diseases. All of these grievances
led the Natives to war. The Tuscarora War would be fought in the area
North Carolina during the autumn of 1711 C.E. until February 11, 1715
In this conflict, the warring parties were the
British, Dutch, and German settlers against the Tuscarora Natives. The
colonists enlisted the Yamasee and Cherokee as Native allies against the
Tuscarora. The Tuscarora had also gathered several allies. This was to
be the bloodiest colonial war in North Carolina. The Tuscarora would
eventually be defeated.
The Cherokee turned on their British allies at the
outbreak of The Yamasee War, also called the Yemassee War of 1715 C.E.-1717
C.E., until switching sides, once again, midway through the war.
The origins of the War are complex, as all are.
Here we must touch upon the reasons for participation in the War on the
part of the many Native groups which differed. These included
encroachment on Native lands by the British colonists and the spread of
rice plantation agriculture. These two factors may have contributed to
the depletion of deer in the region which was a Native staple. There was
also the trading system weighted toward European trader’s benefit
which resulted in trader abuses. Increasingly Native debt grew greater
in contrast to the increasing wealth among some European colonists.
There were also varied levels of commitment by the Native groups as
well. As French power grew in Louisiana, it offered an alternative to
British trade and its abuses as did long-established Native links to España’s increasingly prosperous trade in Florida.
The Native slave trade became problematic for the
Natives as European greed grew more pronounced and obvious. Here, I must
add that we hear little or nothing about this attack upon the “Noble
Savage” by the British and other non-Spanish European colonists.
Slavery of the North American Native by the British and others, I’m
shocked! What of the
application of the “Black Legend” under these circumstances. I
suppose a rose by any other name is not a rose…. My thanks to Gertrude
Stein for the original line, it says it all. With her passing those many
years ago, her work has been a wonderful fountain of phrases. Many not
used by the world yet which we could use today.
clear, the “Red Skins” as they were named were the subhumans to be
used first, next dominated, and ultimately decimated. When of little
use, they were discarded by their British masters into holding bins.
When their unwanted presence as discarded, non-humans in holding bins
were found to have little value, they could no longer be tolerated by
the British Protestants. They were then eliminated.
Native anger gained a foothold in the tribes as
the increasingly large-scale and strong intertribal communication
network expanded and provided information about recent negative
experiences with other Europeans. There was also an expanding military
collaboration among previously distant tribes which increasingly vied
for power among the Native tribes and groups.
Given the aforementioned, the Yamasee War became a
conflict between South Carolina British colonials and various Native
tribes. These included the Yamasee, Muscogee, Cherokee, Chickasaw,
Catawba, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Yuchi, Savannah River Shawnee,
Congaree, Waxhaw, Pee Dee, Cape Fear, Cheraw, and others. Some of these
Native groups played only a minor role. Others launched attacks
throughout South Carolina attempting to destroy the colony.
The Yamasee War was disruptive to the colonials.
During 1715 C.E., Natives killed hundreds of colonists and destroyed
many settlements. Traders were killed throughout what is now
southeastern United States. Approximately 7% of South Carolina's White
citizenry was killed. This made it bloodier than King Philip's War. King Philip's War
is sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War,
Metacomet's War, or Metacom's Rebellion. It was an armed conflict
between Native American inhabitants of present-day New England and
English colonists and their Native American allies in 1675 C.E.-1678 C.E.
This war is often cited as North America's bloodiest war involving
Natives. The War was one of the Natives' most serious challenges to
European control and dominance. Colonists eventually fled to Charles
Town when supplies ran low and starvation set in. As the colonists
abandoned settled frontiers the survival of the South Carolina colony
was in question. For over a year the South Carolina colony faced
possible annihilation. The war would mark the end of the Early Colonial
Era of the American South.
The English established their first permanent colony in America in Jamestown,
Virginia, in 1607 C.E. continuing
colonization in the South thereafter.
By early 1716 C.E., the tide turned in the Yamasee
War when the Cherokee sided with the European colonists against the
Creek, their traditional enemy.
The last of South Carolina's major Native enemies
withdrew from the Yamasee War in 1717 C.E. This brought a fragile peace
to the South Carolina region. This action of the Cherokee siding with
the colonists spelled defeat for the Yamasee. Thereafter, the Cherokee
would remain allies of the British until the French and Indian War.
It is recognized that the geopolitical situation
was radically altered for British, French, and Spanish colonies, as well
as the Native groups of the southeast. The Yamasee War and its aftermath
contributed to the emergence of new Indian confederated nations, such as
the Muscogee Creek and Catawba.
The defeated Tuscarora Natives signed a treaty
with European colonial officials in 1718 C.E. and settled on a reserved
tract of land in what became Bertie County. After their defeat, most of
the Tuscarora migrated north to New York where they joined their
Iroquoian cousins, the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. There,
they were accepted as the sixth nation. Their chief proclaimed that any
Tuscarora who remained in the South after 1722 C.E. would no longer be
considered members of the tribe.
This would be a good point to offer the fact that
many settlements in España’s
Nuevo Mundo, North American Continent settlements were solidly in
place and well-built. Britain’s interest in España’s
Florida was based upon its
having a strong infrastructure, military fortress for its garrison, and
easy access to Cuba which it
coveted. It also understood that the civilian population had its towns, villas, ranchos or
ranches, estancias or large
farms, and homes built and operational.
such site was the “Ribera House.”
It’s located at 22nd Street and George Street. The Ribera
House had been originally built by Juan
Ribera in the 1730's C.E. The house was rebuilt in 1962 C.E. It is a
two-story reconstruction of a First Spanish Period building. Each of the
stories is coquina or a
soft limestone of broken shells, used in road-making and for buildings
in the Caribe and Florida.
It has tabby floors, with no glass in the windows only shutters. Behind
the house is a two story kitchen rebuilt on 18th-Century C.E.
foundations. It had stood apart from the main dwelling due to fire
hazard, smoke, and cooking fumes.
The 1733 C.E. slave insurrection on St. John in
the then Danish West Indies, now St. John, United States Virgin Islands
began on November 23, 1733 C.E. 150 African slaves from Akwamu,
present-day Ghana, revolted against the Island's plantation owners and
managers. It lasted several months, into August 1734 C.E. This slave
rebellion was one of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the
Americas. During the rebellion, the Akwamu slaves captured Fort
Fortsberg in Coral Bay. Was this an abuse of the African Noble Savage?
Do we have a Black Legend-like situation here which should be applied to
the Danes? Yes, the Danes.
Fortsberg was an 18th-Century C.E. citadel
fortress. Located on the summit of a high hill commanding Coral Bay, it
supported a shore battery, containing five cannons. It was begun in 1717
C.E. On November 23, 1773 C.E., it was seized by the liberated African
slaves who massacred the garrison and then occupied most of the
plantations on St. John. Later, they took control of most of the island.
It was their intent to resume crop production under their own control
and use Africans of other tribes as slave labor.
The Island’s Planters regained control by the
end of May 1734 C.E. after two failed attempts by the Danish authorities
to suppress the rebellion. 400 better-armed European French and Swiss
troops sent in April from Martinique, a French colony, were deployed.
Could a “Black Legend-like” scenario be applied here to the French
and the Swiss? What about an
attack upon the “African Nobel Savage” by these parties. Oh,
that’s right! They’re not Spanish. Non-Spanish butchery and
oppression is almost always viewed as an attempt to make things better
for those they disturbed. In any event, let’s move on.
After the Akwamu defeat the Colony’s militia
continued to hunt down the slaves and eventually declared the rebellion
at an end in late August 1734 C.E.
When the Españoles
first occupied the West Indies, they used the indigenous people as
slave labor but most died. By the late-17th-Century C.E., the British,
Dutch, and French were in competition for Saint John Island after
jointly settling for a period. In 1718 C.E., the British took it before
the Danes could claim it. However, numerous Dutch planters had remained.
While some plantations had been started, there was not an adequate
supply of laborers among the settlers. Unfortunately, young Danish
people could not be persuaded to immigrate to the West Indies. This
left the Island without a reliable source of labor. Next, attempts were
made to attract and to use indentured servants from Danish prisons as
plantation workers. This failed. As a result, imported slaves from
Africa became the main supply of labor on the Danish West Indies
It should be noted here that few would apply the
issues of a “Black Legend-like” condition or the attack on the
“Noble Black Savage” to the Danes. Anti-Spanish historians and
commentators apply these solely to España
and Españoles. It’s clear
that there is no bias here!
España, which had been at war with Britain over colonies
and trade ever since 1739 C.E., entered the war on the European
Continent to re-establish its influence in northern Italy. This would
further reverse Austrian dominance over the Italian peninsula which had
been achieved at España's
expense as a consequence of España's
War of Succession earlier in the 18th-Century C.E.
The War of Jenkins' Ear took place in 1739 C.E. It
is named for a 1731 C.E. incident. It was a minor episode in New World
history. A Spanish comandante
purportedly chopped off the ear of British merchant captain Robert
Jenkins as punishment for the raiding of Spanish ships and told him to
take it to his king, George II. There was very little response from the
general public to the incident. That was until several years later.
Opposition politicians and the British South Sea Company hoped to spur
outrage against España for
financial gain. They did this believing that a victorious war would
improve Britain’s trading opportunities in the Caribe.
This was another area the Protestant British coveted.
The underlying causes for the War were centered on
disputed land claims. It should also be understood that the conflict was
not limited to land. International shipping on the high seas had
suffered frequent interruption from acts of piracy by all interested
parties. In this case, the Españoles
had severed the ear of British Captain Robert Jenkins as punishment
for raiding Spanish ships. In short, Britain was caught yet once
again stealing from the Españoles. I think this quote applies nicely. “Shake paws, count
your claws, You steal mine, I'll borrow yours. Watch my whiskers, check
both ears. Robber foxes have no fears.”
This war between España and Great Britain remained confined to the Caribe
Sea and between Spanish Florida
and the neighboring British Province of Georgia. The conflict over the
land between South Carolina and Florida
had been ongoing for nearly two centuries. However, six years after
Georgia's founding, formal hostilities began in 1739 C.E. Britain’s
only concern for the moment was to ensure the survival of its colony
Georgia. Of course she was also greedy for the annexation of Florida
and already charting a course to that end.
In 1740 C.E., just six years previous to Bernardo
de Gálvez’s birth, the War of the Austrian Succession had broken
out in Europe. The War was begun under the pretext that Maria Theresa
was ineligible to succeed to the Habsburg thrones of her father, Charles
VI, due to Salic law precluding royal inheritance by a woman.
Charles VI (October 1, 1685 C.E.-October 20, 1740
C.E.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I in 1711 C.E., as Holy Roman
Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia
(as Charles III), and King of Serbia, Archduke of Austria. Following the
death of España’s ruler Carlos II in 1700 C.E., he tried unsuccessfully to claim that
throne. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. With
her, Charles VI had two children. The first was Maria Theresa, born 1717
C.E. She was to be the last Habsburg sovereign. His second daughter was
Maria Anna, born 1718 C.E., Governess of the Austrian Netherlands.
The First Silesian War (1740-C.E.1742 C.E.) and
the Second Silesian War, (1744 C.E.-1745 C.E.), are viewed by historians
and military analysts in the context of the larger War of the
“Austrian Succession.” That larger war involved most of the powers
of Europe. They were consumed over the question of Maria Theresa's
succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg which held claim to
the title, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. This was no simple matter
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (May 13,
1717 C.E.-November 29, 1780 C.E.) was the only female ruler of the
Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She Held as
sovereign the lands of Austria, Austrian Netherlands, Bohemia, Croatia,
Galicia and Lodomeria (parts of East-Central Europe), Hungary, Mantua,
Milan, Parma, and Transylvania. Maria by marriage was Duchess of
Lorraine, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, and Grand Duchess of
She started her 40-year reign in October 1740 C.E.
when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died. Charles VI had paved the way
for this accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 C.E. He had spent
his entire reign securing this right. Upon the death of her father,
Bavaria, France, Prussia, and Saxony and all repudiated the sanction
they had recognized during his lifetime. Here we have an excellent quote
on the matter of promises, “We promise according to our hopes, and
perform according to our fears.” None of the interested parties
trusted the other.
Prussia quickly invaded the affluent Habsburg
province of Silesia. This act of war sparked the nine-year conflict
known as the War of the Austrian Succession. He was able to prevail and
conquered it. Later, Maria Theresa would attempt to reconquer Silesia
during the Seven Years' War, though unsuccessfully.
The Second Silesian War (1743 C.E.-1745 C.E.)
started in 1743 C.E. Britain had agreed to an alliance with Maria
Theresa. The British joined the alliance to fight the French, whom they
had been fighting in the New World colonies. Britain’s King George II
of was concerned about the French threat to Hanover, as he was the
elector. In this scenario, diplomacy meant all the wicked devices of the
Old World. This included balances of power, secret treaties, spheres of
influence, and triple alliances. During the interim period, appeasement
of old enemies had been attempted and failed to achieve the ultimate
aim, power and control. Thus, in the new political/military dynamic she
could carry on the war against the French and the Bavarians.
Maria had created the “Pragmatic Army” which
was made up of Austrians, 16,000 British troops, 16,000 Hanoverians, and
8,000 Hessians. A very decisive battle would be fought at Dettingen in
Belgium on June 27, 1743 C.E. By September, 1743 C.E., Maria had formed
a new alliance consisting of Austria, Great Britain, Holland, Sardinia,
and Saxony. For Maria, her alliances were understood as a means to
expand her influence and not as a constraint on her power. Therefore,
they were fungible.
Frederick II (January 24, 1712 C.E.-August 17,
1786 C.E.) also known as Frederick the Great was King of Prussia from
1740 C.E. until 1786 C.E. He was aware of the Austrian success over the
French at Dettingen. This would force him to join the alliance so as to
defend his position in Silesia. As a result, he raised a large army of
King George's War (1744 C.E.-1748 C.E.) is the
name given to the military operations in North America that formed part
of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740 C.E.-1748 C.E.). The French
refer to it as the Third Intercolonial War. It was the third of the four
French and Indian Wars. It took place primarily in the British North
American Continental provinces of New York, Massachusetts Bay, New
Hampshire, and Nova Scotia. It’s most important military action was
the expedition organized by Massachusetts Governor William Shirley.
Britain and France were technically at peace with
one another between 1713 C.E. and 1744 C.E. These two competing European
colonial powers continually argued over the boundaries of Acadia or Nova
Scotia and northern New England. Each also wanted control over the Ohio
Valley. The war was a series of bloody border raids by both sides using
their Native allies as surrogates. The parties finally signed the Peace
of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 C.E., wherein they
mutually agreed to restore conquered territory. However, the
short-sighted parties failed to solve the more important colonial
questions leaving them open to future crisis.
In Europe, on May 22, 1744 C.E., Frederick II
formed the Union of Frankfurt for the Second Silesian War. This he did
to conquer Bohemia and return Bavaria to Charles VII.
Prince-elector of Bavaria, Charles VII (August 6,
1697 C.E.-January 20, 1745 C.E.) held that position from 1726 C.E. He
was also Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 C.E. until his death,
in 1745 C.E. As a member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles VII was
notably the only person not born of the House of Habsburg to become
emperor in over three centuries. He was supposedly descended from the
Habsburg, Felipe I of Castilla
in 27 different ways.
Most of the German princes were suspicious of
Frederick II's motives. The moment these suspicions reared their ugly
heads about a Frederick's motives, everything he did became tainted.
Frederick the Great would soon be at war again. He signed the Treaty of
Paris. He and Louis XV of France agreed to invade both the Upper and
Lower Rhine in Germany. This they would do while the Prussians invaded
Bohemia. On July 15, 80,000 Prussian troops invaded Bohemia. They
reached Prague on September 16th.
Meanwhile, on the battlefields in northern Europe
during the Second Silesian War, Louis XV in person, with 90,000 men,
invaded the Austrian Netherlands and took Menin and Ypres in July 1744
C.E. His presumed opponent, that same allied army which had previously
been commanded by King George II was composed of Austrian, British,
Dutch, and German (Hanoverian) troops. Here we find the British once
again stirring the pot to their advantage.
The French put four armies into the field. On the
Rhine, Marshal Coigny had 57,000 troops against Prince Charles 70,000
allied troops under his command. Located between the Meuse and Moselle
Rivers, a fresh army of over 30,000 soldiers under the Louis François
de Bourbon, Prince of Conti (August 13, 1717 C.E.-August 2, 1776
C.E.) was in the field. He was a French nobleman and soldier. This army
would later assist the Españoles in
Piedmont and Lombardy. The plan however, was altered when the advance of
Prince Charles, assisted by the veteran Marshal Traun, skillfully
maneuvered his allied army over the Rhine near Pilippsburg on July 1,
1744 C.E. They soon captured the lines of Weissenburg, and cut-off
Marshal Coigny and his army from Alsace.
A third French Army under the command of Duke d'
Harcourt and composed of 17,000 men kept Luxembourg at bay. Meanwhile,
the largest army numbering 87,000 men in the field in the summer of 1744
C.E. was France’s fourth army, the Army of Flanders. It was officially
under the command of the King of France, Louis XV. In reality, Louis XV
was being advised on military matters by Marshal Noailles.
Adrien Maurice de Noailles, 3rd duc de Noailles or
Duke of Noailles (September 29, 1678 C.E.-June 24, 1766 C.E.) was a
French aristocrat and soldier. By 1702 C.E., he was made a knight of the
Order of the Golden Fleece. Adrien inherited the title duc de Noailles upon
his father's death in 1708 C.E. He was made a Grande
of España in 1711 C.E.
The duc de Noailles fought in the War of Spanish
Succession from 1710 C.E.-1713 C.E. During this period, his forces drove
back a British attack on Sète
on July 24th-26th, 1710 C.E.
Later, he was appointed president of the Finance
Council from 1715 C.E. to 1718 C.E. and made a Knight of the Order of
Saint-Esprit in 1724 C.E.
The Duke distinguished himself in the War of the
Polish Succession (1733 C.E.–1738 C.E.) and was made a marshal of
France in 1734 C.E. He served in the War of the Austrian Succession and
was appointed to command the French forces in March 1743 C.E. The duc de
Noailles was defeated at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 C.E., but
successfully drove the Austrians out of Alsace-Lorraine the following
year, 1744 C.E. However, he
failed to seriously damage the Austrian army as it was crossing the
He was appointed Foreign Minister from April to
November 1744 C.E. The Duke in this capacity regarded Great Britain as a
greater enemy of France than Austria. In this diplomatic capacity he had
substantial influence over the course of foreign policy.
He became Dean of the Marshals in 1748 C.E. Duc de
Noailles had six children, 4 daughters and 2 sons. His two sons Louis,
4th duc de Noailles, and Philippe, duc de Mouchy, also later became
marshals of France.
France’s fourth army, the Army of Flanders
outnumbered the allied armies by approximately 25 Percent when it
invaded the Austrian Netherlands. As they marched into the Austrian
Netherlands they were met by a confused military resistance of Dutch
forces. The result was that the French Army swept across the Austrian
Netherlands. As the situation became desperate, the Dutch government
sent an envoy to the king of France seeking peace. This plea for peace
was rejected by the French.
The situation in the Austrian Netherlands changed
abruptly when Prince Charles and his 70,000-man allied army crossed the
Rhine on June 30, 1744 C.E. Marshal Coigny found that he and his troops
were far in advance of the other French forces. He smashed his way back
through the enemy at Weissenburg and quickly withdrew towards
Strasbourg. Louis XV then was forced to abandon the invasion of the
Southern Netherlands. His army then moved to become a decisive factor in
the war in Alsace and Lorraine.
Finally on July 12, 1744 C.E., Frederick II of
Prussia received confirmation that Prince Charles had taken his army
beyond the Rhine and into France. Thus, Frederick knew that Prince
Charles would not be able to present any immediate threat for him in the
On August 15, 1744 C.E., Frederick II, crossed the
Austrian frontier into Bohemia. By late August, all 80,000 of his troops
were gathered there. It had been understood that the attention and
resources of Austria had been fully concentrated on a renewal of the war
in Silesia. Neither Maria Theresa nor her advisers expected the
Prussians to march as quickly as they did. Frederick's invasion of
Bohemia was therefore a complete surprise to the Austrian court, which
left Frederick almost unopposed in Bohemia. Frederick's own command
consisting of a column of 40,000 troops passed through Saxony. A second
column under the command of "Young Dessauer" Leopold
II Maximilian, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau
(December 25, 1700 C.E.-December
16, 1751 C.E.) consisting of 16,000 men passed through Lusatia.
Count Schwerin’s third column consisting of 16,000 soldiers advanced
from Silesia. The destination for these three columns was Prague.
That objective was reached on September 2nd they
surrounded and besieged the city. Six days later, the Austrian garrison
at Prague was forced to surrender. Immediately, after the surrender of
Prague, Frederick II marched southwards. He left only 5,000 soldiers
under General Baron Gottfried Emanual von Einsiedel with which to
garrison Prague. Within three days of the fall of Prague, Frederick had
marched his army southwards and seized Tabor, Budweis, and Frauenburg.
As Austria's troops were stationed at various
fronts, Maria Theresa was helpless as it appeared that Frederick would
be victorious. However, as Frederick pushed south into Bohemia to trap
the Austrians from the Rhineland, his French and Bavarian allies had
deliberately stopped. Frederick decided to fight on unassisted by his
allies. In response, the Catholic natives of Bohemia became hostile to
the Lutheran invaders. They refused to supply food. This forced
Frederick to retreat from Bohemia due to shortages of food and men.
In the British Isles, the Jacobite Rising of 1745
C.E. occurred. It was an attempt by the exiled Charles Edward Louis John
Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (December 31, 1720 C.E.-January
31, 1788 C.E.) to regain the British throne for the House of Stuart. The
rising occurred during the War of the Austrian Succession when most of
the British Army was engaged on the European continent. Charles, also
known as Bonnie Prince Charlie or the Young Pretender, was a Catholic.
To the British Protestant aristocracy, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s
Catholic religion was his undoing. There could never be a Catholic
Britain. After all, Britain had killed, converted, or marginalized those
remaining Catholics in the realm. It simply wouldn’t do to have a
resurgence of the Papists.
He had sailed to Scotland and raised the Jacobite
standard at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands. There he was supported
by a gathering of Highland clansmen. They next marched south. The
venture began with an initial victory at Prestonpans near Edinburgh. A
confident Jacobite army marched toward Carlisle, over the border in
England. By the time it reached Derby, British divisions had been
recalled from the Continent. This forced the Jacobite army to retreat
north to Inverness. There the last battle took place on a nearby moor at
Culloden, Scottish soil. The Battle of Culloden’s conclusion was the
final defeat of the Jacobite cause. This is part of a poem about the
young prince, “…. We fought and bled in fields turned red - did
wield the claymore well, many a lad was slain today - and for
Scotland’s freedom fell.” The Catholic, Bonnie Prince Charlie was
forced to flee with a bounty on his head. He then sailed quickly to the
safety of France.
During the Second Silesian War on January 20, 1745
C.E., bad news came to Frederick. Emperor
Charles VII had died in Munich. Now his son, Maximilian Joseph would
follow the advice of his father to make peace with Maria Theresa. He
signed the Peace of Fussen on April 22, 1745 C.E., which guaranteed that
Austria would restore all conquests of Bavaria. Maximilian then gave up
his claim to the throne and promised to vote for Archduke Francis
Stephen at the imperial election. Frederick was no longer fighting as
the champion of the Holy Roman Emperor.
On January 8, 1745 C.E., the Union of Warsaw made
a new alliance of Britain, Holland, and Saxony against Prussia. However,
Maria Theresa made a mistake. She entrusted her campaign to Prince
Charles, who had lost at the Battle of Chotusitz. The Pragmatic Army
would also lose at the Battle of Fontenoy in Belgium on May 11, 1745 C.E.,
becoming the French's revenge for the defeat at Dettingen.
By June 3, 1745, another decisive battle took
place. This was at the Battle of Hohenfiriedberg. The Prussians
surprised the Saxons and the Austrians and destroyed them within a few
hours. The Austrians tried again to defeat the Prussians at Soor, but
the Prussians won again. Maria Theresa’s efforts were frustrated as
she was now deprived of her British and Saxon allies. She was forced to
make peace with Frederick.
On December 25, 1745, the Treaty of Dresden was
signed. Frederick the Great was to recognize Francis I as the Holy Roman
Emperor and Saxony was to pay Prussia 1,000,000 thalers. This was the
end the Second Silesian War.
In North America, the British New England militia
saw Louisbourg as a convenient direct threat to their colonies and the
nearby fishing grounds. In 1745 C.E., the British expedition of the
third of the four French and Indian Wars began. Its purpose was to
besiege and ultimately captured the French fortress of Louisbourg, on
Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. This was to remove a perceived
threat. Or was it? Britain had already taken it once and then returned
it to France who was the original builder/owner.
French engineers had surrounded the town and
garrison with massive stone walls which made it one of the most
extensive and expensive fortifications in North America. The four 2.5
miles of walls measured 30 feet high and 36 feet thick in some places.
Despite these thick, towering walls the Fortress of Louisbourg had
weaknesses. The fortress was engineered and well-built to defend against
attacks from the sea. However, its construction left it vulnerable to
land-based assaults. The British would exploit this weakness. At the
beginning of the siege, the British erected siege batteries on the hills
overlooking the fortress. Once in place, a series of bombardments and
assaults, forced the defenders to surrender.
At this juncture I must explain why I have
endeavored previously to highlight important issues, problems, and
historical events in many parts of the world during the period prior to
the birth of Bernardo de Gálvez
in 1746 C.E. This I’ve done in order to offer the reader the
opportunity to understand how the Old World’s great powers had
intrigued, then warred against one another, and later negotiated in
order to secure some portion of world dominance for themselves. Clearly,
one area of great interest for European colonial domination was North
America. That includes España’s
North America is also where many of España’s
Nuevo Mundo possessions
were located. The area of España’s
Nueva España is of great importance to this chapter. At issue for the
subjects of España in the Nuevo
Mundo and my progenitors, the de
Ribera, were the critical areas of land, its wealth, and promise.
This is not to say that the Old World lands and wars were not of
importance. Let’s call the struggles of the Old World a necessary
prerequisite for control and exploitation of the Nuevo Mundo. The New World was in fact where the future of the great
European powers lay.
One can say that España’s various Nuevo
Mundo possessions were critical elements to this worldwide
gamesmanship. Each of the vying nations was well-versed at the art of
winning power games. All were practiced at the use of various economic,
political, and military ploys and tactics to gain the psychological
advantage. When these failed, it was bloody war that obtained the
strategic and tactical advantage. Such was the opportunity which the
American Revolution would present for España,
France, and later the Netherlands. All had grudges against the British.
All wanted to stop Britain’s lust for world domination.
It should be noted here that during the early-18th
Century C.E., Britain made every effort to expand her power. She did
this with willful intent employing intrigue, war, negotiations, and
finally treaties favorable for her. British, Northern European,
anti-Catholic, anti-Spanish, and other writers, historians, and
commentators have for centuries painted Britain as a civilizing
influence with everyone’s best interests at heart. Nothing could have
been further from the truth. She was in fact an instigator of rebellions
and wars against those she saw as her economic, military, political, and
religious rivals. Chief of these was España.
Many Anglophiles may disagree with my attacking their sacred cow.
However, the truth is the truth and here the fact is that veritas numquam perit
must be accepted. Britain dreamed, planned, and executed world
domination at everyone else’s expense. That is factual! Britain, nosce
As far as España’s
Nuevo Mundo possessions, the competing nations wanted to have these
for themselves. The wealth and natural resources were what was at stake.
Alone or in concert, these other European nations plotted, planned, and
executed her downfall. By the middle-18th-Century C.E., a greedy Britain
continued to consolidate her power and control over her stolen
possessions. Let the reader be the judge.
Finally, I’ve made an effort to provide the
reader with a better understanding of the degree to which these Old
World monarchies and nation-states and their militaries fine-tuned their
warfare making abilities, improved armament technologies and deployment,
and created and implemented new and improved methods for mass killing on
the battlefield. The 18th-Century C.E. was not a time of backwards
thinking men and women. The military in particular was comprised of
well-educated warriors and technologists that brought the art of killing
to new heights. The leaders of the time were not cardboard cutout
figures. Instead, they were flesh and blood men and women with families,
education, beliefs, religion, and capabilities. All these they brought
to bear in the all or nothing wars for world domination.
Here we must add another note of interest, España’s
18th-Century C.E., Francophile nature. It was only in 1492 C.E., that
the combined Ibero Christian
forces of Castilla and Aragón
captured the Emirate of Granada,
ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Ibéria.
Many believe this begins the date of the founding of the Ibero Spanish monarchy of España.
The House of Habsburg Monarchy or The House of Austria arrived in Ibéria
in 1516 C.E., twenty-four years later. It would be replaced with
the House of Borbón in 1700
C.E., after almost two hundred years. France and its Enlightenment
ideals came to España and
found fertile ground.
Historically, what became parts of northern España
and southern France had centuries of strong connections. These went back
many hundreds of years. Some dynasties that ruled in España
had origins with beginnings in the Frankish Empire. The rulers of the
County of Barcelona were
created by Charlemagne as counts when he conquered lands in the Ibero
Peninsula north of the Ebro River. The Counts of Barcelona had Provençal ancestry and held the title of the
"Count of Provence."
In the 11th-Century C.E., the Counts of Barcelona
formed a dynastic union with the Kingdom of Aragón.
Alfonso II of Aragón was the first Conde
de Barcelona to be crowned King of Aragón,
succeeding his mother Petronila
of Aragón. Alfonso's maternal grandparents were the Duke and Duchess of
Aquitaine, which made Alfonso
a first cousin, once-removed, of the famous French, later English,
Queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine.
The first Spanish Borbón King Felipe V (b.
1700 C.E.-1746 C.E.) acceded to the throne. He and his successors, Fernando
VI (r. 1746 C.E.-1759 C.E.), Carlos
III (r. 1759 C.E.-1788 C.E.), and Carlos
IV (r. 1788 C.E.-1807 C.E.) were the sponsors of a centurylong
effort to reform and renovate the Imperio
Español. The Borbón
Reforms or policy changes were targeted. Firstly, they attempted to curb
contraband commerce. Secondly, there was an effort to regain control
over transatlantic trade. The Spanish Borbóns
wanted badly to curtail the Church’s power in España
and its Nuevo Mundo
possessions. They also tried in vain to modernize state finances. This
effort was focused upon filling the depleted royal coffers. Finally, the
Borbóns also wanted to
establish tighter political and administrative control within the entire
Generally speaking, Spanish Castellanos supported Felipe
because the new royal house promised continuation of an imperial España
ruled from Madrid. However, Cataluña,
Aragón, and València which were the Mediterranean flank and traditionally the
most stubbornly opposed to Castellano
domination supported the Austrian pretender. Why? There was the
long-standing rivalry between Castilla
and the other three regions, each of which enjoyed traditional rights (fueros).
The Castellanos had already
tried to override these in the 17th-Century C.E. Felipe
had sworn to recognize these rights shortly after assuming power. The Catalanes,
Aragonese, and Valencians feared that Felipe
would follow the absolutism or centralist policies of his grandfather,
Louis XIV. Louis was famous for the saying “L’etat, c’est moi”
or “The state, that’s me.”
The enterprising Catalanes also had another motive. These saw that with the sea power
of the British and the Dutch there was a way to break the Castellano-French
monopoly over trade with the Américas.
Which to their detriment, all transport was carried out exclusively
through the port of Cádiz.
Each of the three regions would pay dearly for their opposition to Felipe.
The defeat of these three rebellious regions
provided Felipe with an excuse
to abolish fueros. During the Reconquista,
the feudal lords granted fueros
to some villas and cities, to encourage the colonization of
the frontier and of commercial routes. These laws regulated the
governance and the penal, process, and civil aspects of the places. It
also represented a compilation of laws, especially a local or regional
one. There were also a set of laws specific to an identified class or
estate. For example there was a fuero
militar, comparable to a military code of justice. There was also a fuero
eclesiástico, specific to the Church. And there were various
These were the very same ones Felipe
had sworn to recognize shortly after arriving in España.
Due to the acts of betrayal on the part of these three regions, Felipe enforced the centralization that the Hapsburg monarchs of the
17th-Century C.E. had failed to impose. His actions were now seen as
being justified. The fueros of, Aragón
and València were abolished
in 1707 C.E., those of Cataluña
in 1716 C.E. In future, Aragón,
València, and Cataluña
were subject to the laws of Castilla.
This was under the Nueva
Planta or New
Foundation, as the plan was known.
Felipe also abolished the Cortés
or parliaments of these regions and allowed only those
individuals loyal to Madrid to
be appointed to local offices. In addition, the Catalanes were forced to accept the suppression of their language.
For practical reasons some limited concessions were made to allow the
language in legal and commercial areas.
Felipe V became the first Spanish monarch to rule over a
single or unitary state. He was the ruler of a centralized España,
governed by the rules and laws of Castilla.
However, the King left the Vasco
Provinces and Navarra with
their fueros largely intact. This they received as a reward for
having supported Felipe. The Ibero Peninsula, excluding Portugal,
would now be united via one language, one law, and one religion. These
impositions would continue after King Felipe
V’s death in 1746 C.E.
It should by now be apparent to the reader that España
of the early-18th-Century C.E. was a product of Ibero
monarchies, Austrian monarchs, and now the newly crowned French Borbón King s Felipe V
and Carlos III. It should also be noted that various Spanish regions had been
semi-independent with regional approaches to governance and economics.
Centralization of government and economy were the greatest of issues if España was to continue as a world power. To accomplish this, the
semi-autonomous regions would have to be controlled and eventually
stripped of their independence all while España
was defending and protecting her peninsular borders and possessions in
Europe, the Américas, and
other worldwide territories.
By the birth of Bernardo de Gálvez in 1746 C.E., many things had changed in España.
His father and uncles had been a large part of those changes. It had
been 254 years since Cristóbal Colón had sailed and found the Nuevo Mundo’s Nueva Españia. They were of that group of
individuals loyal to Madrid.
These men had been appointed to local offices both on the Peninsula and
abroad for the purpose of control and improvement. Before Bernardo
reached manhood, centralization and the implementation of the Borbón
Reforms or policy changes were targeted to resolve and improve
governmental and military areas of concern for a united and structured España.
Later by the time Bernardo was in his early twenties, he and his uncles would not only
be faced with administrative and economic concerns, but with yet one
more round of war with Britain.
By the latter part of the 18th-Century C.E., Bernardo
de Gálvez would disrupt Britain’s control of the Golfo
de Méjico and its needed access to the Mississippi River. The River
was important as it parted the North American Continent and provided for
rapid travel and geographic access via its many waterways. Britain knew
it needed this easy, rapid access to control its own colonies and to
attack and conquer those of the Españoles
By 1776 C.E., the secret support provided by both España
and France gave confidence to the Américano
Patriots prior to their signing the Declaration of Independence. It
should be remembered that many of España’s
ciudadanos of the time supported and gave to that great American
cause of liberty. Perhaps they remembered their own almost 800 years of Moro
oppression and were in sympatico. Or maybe it was as simple as wanting
to cause Britain grief over their having successfully taken so many
One of many illustrious noble Spanish families, de
Gálvez, gave great service to their king and the fledgling American
nation. Their presence in so many areas affecting the American
Revolutionary War gave the Patriots needed support. They also served as
conduits for material aid sent by España to American Patriots throughout the American Revolution of
1776 C.E. and fought the British throughout el
Imperio Español. Undoubtedly, it helped pave the way for a resolute
group of American Patriots to overcome and defeat the British.
Beginning that same year, 1776 C.E., Diego
María de Gardoqui y Arriquibar was born on November 12, 1735 C.E., Bilbao
España. He died 1798 C.E., at
Madrid, España. Diego was a Spanish/Basque politician, diplomat, banker, financier,
the first Ambassador to the Spanish State in the United States (1784 C.E.-1789
C.E.), and Secretary of the State Council of His Majesty Carlos IV and Interim General Superintendent of the Royal Treasury.
He managed the transfer of monies from the Spanish government to the
He arrived in Philadelphia in the spring
of 1785 C.E. and from there he went to New York, where the Congress
met, moving into a luxurious mansion in Broadway, close to where
George Washington lived. That same year, Diego
aided in the construction in New York of Saint Peter’s
Church, the first Catholic Church in the USA, situated in Barclay
Street, near the area of the Twin Towers. This Church was blessed on
June 20, 1786 C.E. and the event was attended by Gardoqui as well as George
Pablo Jerónimo Grimaldi y Pallavicini, Marqués y Duque de Grimaldi (Genoa, c. 1720 C.E.-1730 C.E. October
1789 C.E.) was an Italian-Spanish diplomat and politician. After
extensive experience as an Ambassador, Grimaldi served as Chief Minister
of España between 1763 C.E.
and 1778 C.E. helping to rebuild Spanish power following its defeat
during the Seven Years' War. He handpicked the Conde Floridablanca who preceded him as Minister of State, oversaw
the initial secret aid to the Thirteen Colonies.
It was he, who set the governmental tone and policy which Floridablanca
inherited and continued. José Moñino
y Redondo, Conde de Floridablanca was born on October 21, 1728 C.E.
and died on December 30, 1808 C.E. He was born the son of a retired army
officer at Murcia, España. José
studied in Murcia and Orihuela, and
later law at the University of Salamanca.
Conde de Floridablanca became
an esteemed advocate in the Spanish courts where he became a criminal
prosecutor in Castilla in 1766
C.E. He was also well known for having defended the expulsion of the
Catholic Jesuits in 1767 C.E.
of Esquilache, who was the
chief minister at the time, recognized his ability and made Moñino the Spanish ambassador to Pope Clement XIV in 1772 C.E. He
was rewarded with the title "Conde
de Floridablanca" in 1773 C.E. This he received for his success
in obtaining the support of the Pope in suppressing the Jesuits.
José Moñino y Redondo was the consummate Spanish statesman. He was
the reformist chief minister of King Carlos
III of España, and also
served briefly under Carlos
IV. In the end, José is
considered España’s most effective statesman in the 18th-Century C.E.
Also beginning in 1776 C.E., until declaring war
against Great Britain in 1779 C.E., España
sent generous amounts of medicine, military assistance, money,
munitions, muskets, and supplies to aid America covertly through the
merchants Diego María de Gardoqui
of Bilbao and American Oliver
Pollock in New Orleans. During these years, España
provided credit to the colonists totaling 8,000,000 reales, for food, medical and military supplies.
In August of 1776 C.E., General Charles Henry Lee,
second in command to General George Washington, sent Captain George
Gibson with a group of sixteen Patriots from Fort Pitt to New Orleans to
obtain supplies from the Españoles.
In September of 1776 C.E., España
sent nine thousand pounds of gun powder up the Mississippi River from
New Orleans to the Américanos
and an additional one thousand pounds by ship to Philadelphia.
By November of 1776 C.E., King Carlos
On December 24, 1776 C.E., an order was issued by José
de Gálvez to the newly installed Gobernador
of Luisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez
instructing him to support the Américanos
in every way possible. José’s
nephew, Bernardo, was also
ordered to do so quietly.
Bernardo immediately made great improvements in several
branches of the Luisiana
administration and gathered and settled several tribes of wandering
Natives (Atakapa- Choctaw group that lived in Southwest Luisiana), whom he succeeded in civilizing. The kindnesses
shown the Natives placed the Black Legend on its head. Each of his moves
was to consolidate control of the region in preparation for war.
España also provided armed military support which was
necessary and valuable at a critical juncture in the American war for
independence. This obviously helped turn the tide of that war toward
victory. As you read further, look at the map of what is today the
United States. Later, place a check mark on each state where the Españoles
defeated the British on behalf of the Américanos.
You will then understand the Spanish strategy for relieving the pressure
of British encirclement on the Thirteen American Colonies and disrupting
plans for containment and attacking from different directions of that
as the chapter will reflect, the Españoles
and España’s allies the
French and the Netherlands battled the British in a “world war,”
only part of which was in the Spanish Nuevo
In the end, the British were forced to fight in
both the Old World and the New World. This is made abundantly clear by
Judge Edward Butler in his book, “Gálvez Spain
our forgotten ally in the American Revolutionary War: A concise summary
of Spain’s assistance.” He has rightly described this war as
a world war.
To be sure, the 18th-Century C.E. was an important
and bloody period in world history. The British were found everywhere on
the attack. She wanted to own the world and displace España and France where she could. It is for this reason that this
chapter will dwell upon Britain’s worldwide warfare, disruption, and
rise as a dominant world power.
Finally, we shall deal with the American
Revolutionary War and España’s
role in it.
As has thus been presented, España’s eventual entry into the American Revolution War on May
8, 1779 C.E. was a result years of war and intrigue. These wars had in
the main been fought between Britain and France for worldwide
domination. España was almost
always aligned with France. This is why I must proceed with information
used to acquaint the reader with those historical events and figures
which led up to España’s involvement in the American Revolution War against
In time, greedy Britain’s ongoing wars moved to
India where they wanted everything French. The First Carnatic War (1746
C.E.-1748 C.E.) began in July 1746 C.E. The French commander La
Bourdonnais and British Admiral Edward Peyton fought an indecisive
battle off Negapatam. After the action the British fleet withdrew to
Bengal. On September 21, 1746 C.E., French forces captured a British
outpost at Madras.
The termination of the War of Austrian Succession
in Europe would bring the First Carnatic War to an end. In the Treaty of
Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748 C.E., Madras was given back to the British as
was the French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia
in North America. It took decades, but the British finally gained the
military advantage they so desperately wanted in Nova Scotia. To the
British strategic geographic positioning and placement of military
assets was all important. This provided easy access and control of key
land areas, waterways, and trade routes.
The War of the Austrian Succession ended with the
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 C.E., by which Maria Theresa was
confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia
retained control of Silesia. Silesia was strategically important to
Prussia. Silesia is located in southwestern Poland. It was originally a
Polish province, which later became a possession of the Bohemian crown
in 1335 C.E. Silesia passed with its crown to the Austrian Habsburgs in
1526 C.E. In 1742 C.E., it was taken by Prussia. By the
18th-Century C.E., Silesia’s mining and textile industries made it the
richest of all the Habsburgs’ Austrian provinces.
Prussia's two chief foes, Austria and Russia, had
been meddlesome in Prussian affairs. The control of Silesia
significantly blunted this capacity. Silesia is a region of Central
Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic,
Slovakia and Germany. Located along the Odra River and consists of Lower
Silesia and Upper Silesia, it has a land mass of about 15,444 square
But the peace was soon to be shattered. Austria's
desire to recapture Silesia and the great political changes in Europe
would see another great war. The Silesian Wars really refer to three
wars between Austria and Prussia for control of Silesia. This long-time
struggle ended in the mid-18th-Century C.E. With Prussian victories in
all three wars, it was finally concluded. Unfortunately, this Prussian
victory and the possession of Silesia foreshadowed a wider struggle for
control over the German-speaking peoples. This would culminate later in
the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 C.E.
Let me be clear. The 1748 C.E. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
ended the third of the four French and Indian Wars, King George's War.
The Treaty also restored Louisbourg and its fortress to France. However,
it failed to resolve any of the outstanding major territorial issues,
leaving the door open for further British encroachment into French
territory and beyond.
By 1749 C.E., the British Ohio Company
successfully obtained a royal land grant in the Ohio River Valley region
of North America, an offensive move. In response, the French created a
series of strategic forts along the Allegheny River to prevent any
further British encroachment into the area. The British Crown commanded
its colonial governors to advance against any French aggression.
Apparently for the British any defensive military activities by its
potential victims constituted an act of aggression. As a result, the
British Colony of Virginia sent military forces. These included a then
young George Washington. Their mission was to visit French forts and
demand that they relinquish those defensive military fortifications.
Second Carnatic War (1749 C.E.-1754 C.E.) now had
come. Though a state of war did not exist in Europe, a proxy war was
continued in India. The Nawab Anwaruddin Mohammed Khan in the Battle of
Ambur against the French in 1749 C.E., which escalated matters. On one
side were Nasir Jung, the Nizam and his protégé Muhammad Ali,
supported by the British. On the other side were Chanda Sahib and
Muzaffar Jung, supported by the French, vying for the Nawabship of Arcot.
Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib were able to capture Arcot while Nasir
Jung's subsequent death allowed Muzaffar Jung to take control of
Hyderabad. Muzaffar's reign was short as he was soon killed, and Salabat
Jung became Nawab.
The British would simply not take “No” for an
answer. By 1751 C.E., during the Second Carnatic War Robert Clive led
British troops in the capture of French influenced Arcot, won it, and
successfully defended it. Again, she was intent upon controlling
geographically and strategically important areas for trade and
exploitation. India was only one area of the world she was interested in
On the North American Continent ongoing tensions
between British-American settlers and the Cherokee increased during the
1750s C.E. These circumstances would culminate in open hostilities by
In Asia, José
or Joséf de Gálvez y Gallardo
was to become a Spanish colonial administrator in 1750 C.E. He was
appointed gobernador in the Filipinas. These Islands were the gateway to the Far East. España’s
intent was to gain a share of the lucrative spice trade, to develop
better contacts with China and Japan, and to gain converts to
Trade in the Filipinas
centered upon the use of España’s
Galeón de Manila or Manila Galleons. These ships sailed from Acapulco de Juárez on the west coast of what is now Méjico,
then a part of Nueva España.
They carried shipments of silver bullion and minted coins. These were to
be exchanged for returning cargoes of Chinese goods, mainly porcelain
and silk textiles. The process had little direct trade with España
or exploitation of indigenous natural resources.
By 1756 C.E., during the Seven Years’ War (1756
C.E.-1763 C.E.), British East India Company forces would covet this
strategic location. They soon invaded and captured Spanish Manila. British inspired rebellions were begun in the north. Soon,
British instigated Moro raids
from the south were ongoing while the Españoles
were busy fighting the British. The Chinese community supported the
British with laborers and armed men. In short, noble Britain was at it
again using surrogates to do their bidding.
Although the Filipinas
were returned to España at
the end of the war, the British occupation would mark the beginning of
the end of the Spanish control. I’m sure that Anglophile historians
and commentators will find more noble reasons for Britain’s actions in
the region. The idea of theft appears to be beyond their comprehension
when blinded by the thought of British goodness, fairness, and largesse.
By 1754 C.E., the Second Carnatic War ended with
the Treaty of Pondicherry. Upon its signing, the supporter of Britain,
Muhammad Ali Khan Walajah, was recognised as the Nawab of the Carnatic.
The French were out and the British in control. Here again, I’m sure
we will find Anglophile historians and commentators applauding these
actions as ridding the Indian world of a necessary evil, France.
The French and Indian War (1754 C.E.-1763 C.E.)
comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War.
The war pitted the British America colonies against those of
Nouvelle-France. Nouvelle-France was an area colonized by the French in
North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the
Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 C.E. Both warring sides
were supported by military units from their parent countries, France and
Great Britain, as well as by allied Natives.
In some countries participating during the Seven
Years' War, such as those colonial territories of North America, actions
were named after combatants in their respective theatres of military
operations. One example would be the French and Indian War in what is
now the United States. In French-speaking Canada, it is known as the War
of the Conquest. It is called the Seven Years' War in English-speaking
Canada (North America, 1754 C.E.-1763 C.E.).
Great Britain’s greed for France’s colonies
broke out in 1754 C.E.-1756 C.E. when the British attacked those French
locations and positions in North America which they coveted. They then
seized hundreds of French merchant ships. British intent here was to
control all strategically important areas in North America. She
aggressively continued along this well-planned path to world domination.
Tensions and conflict in North America between
Britain and France would continue for a half-century, after having begun
in 1754 C.E. This strife was over Britain’s wanting control and
domination of the Ohio River Valley. By 1754 C.E., the French responded
to the British aggression and demands to leave their Ohio River Valley
region fortifications with a definite, no! The British response as
always was to take what they wanted.
At the 1754 C.E. outbreak of the French and Indian
War, the Cherokee were allies of the British, taking part in campaigns
against Fort Duquesne at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and the Shawnee of
the Ohio Country.
During the period, a battle ensued at Fort
Necessity. In the spring of 1754 C.E., the British Virginia Colony
Governor Robert Dinwiddie dispatched a construction party to the Forks
of the Ohio at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Its goal was
to invade the area and build a fort to assert British claims to the
region. To support the construction effort, Dinwiddie later sent 159
militiamen under Lieutenant Colonel George Washington. Dinwiddie
instructed Washington to stop any attempt to interfere with the
construction work. While Washington was marching north, he found that
the construction workers had been driven away from the forks by the
French and had retreated south.
As the French had already begun constructing Fort
Duquesne at the forks Washington received new orders from Governor
Dinwiddie. These instructed him to commence building a road north from
Wills Creek. Obeying his orders, Washington's men proceeded to Wills
Creek, at present-day Cumberland, Maryland. By May 14, 1754 C.E., they
reached the large, marshy clearing known as the Great Meadows. Once
having established a base camp in the meadows, Washington explored the
region while awaiting reinforcements.
Within three days, he was informed of the approach
of a French reconnaissance party. After assessing the situation,
Washington agreed with his Native advisor, Half King, a Mingo chief
allied to the British. He would take a detachment and ambush the French
Washington and approximately 40 men marched
through the night in bad weather to lay the trap. As he moved toward a
narrow valley, in the valley the British found the French contingent
camped. The British troops then surrounded the French position and
opened fire. The resulting action called the Battle of Jumonville Glen,
lasted about fifteen minutes. Washington's men killed 10 French soldiers
and captured 21. Their commander, Ensign Joseph Coulon de Villiers de
Jumonville was also taken prisoner. After the battle, Washington
interrogated Jumonville. Without provocation the Native, Half King,
supposedly approached and then attacked the defenseless French officer.
The Frenchman was bludgeoned on the head, killing him.
Washington anticipated a French counterattack. He
fell back to Great Meadows and on May 29, 1754 C.E. He then ordered his
men to begin constructing a log palisade. Washington had the
fortification built in the middle of the meadow, believing it would
provide his men with a clear field of fire. After Washington's men
quickly completed work on the fortification, the site was dubbed Fort
Necessity. Washington's lack of military inexperience proved problematic
critical as the Fort was located in a depression. It was too close to
the tree lines. While construction was underway, Washington had
dispatched Half King in an attempt to rally Delaware, Shawnee, and
Seneca warriors to the British cause.
On June 9, 1754 C.E., additional troops from
Washington's Virginia regiment arrived from Wills Creek. This brought
the company to a total force of 293 men. Five days later, Captain James
McKay arrived with his Independent Company of regular British troops
from South Carolina.
Shortly after making camp, McKay and Washington
began to dispute over who should hold command. It was clear that
Washington held a superior rank. However, McKay's commission in the
British Army took precedence. The two finally agreed on joint command.
McKay's men would remain at Great Meadows. Washington's troops continued
work on the road north to Gist's Plantation.
Gist's Plantation was the name of a settlement
Christopher Gist, a Maryland surveyor, Indian trader, and agent for the
Ohio Company of Virginia (1749 C.E.) which Gist spearheaded. It was
located between the Monongahela and Youghiogheny Rivers near Uniontown,
Pennsylvania in the years, 1752 C.E.-1754 C.E. As Agent, through the
Logstown Treaty of 1752 C.E., he obtained permission from the local
Natives for the Company to build a storehouse at the Forks of the Ohio.
There fur traders kept goods and conduct business with the Natives. Gist
had also previously accompanied George Washington on his journey to Fort
LeBoeuf in 1753 C.E.
Gist's Plantation had a fortified storehouse for
Native trade and about a dozen families of settler. It also served as
Washington's military headquarters during his ill-fated campaign of 1754
By June 18, 1754 C.E., Half King’s efforts to
win the Natives over to the British cause were unsuccessful. No Native
forces would be reinforcing the British position at Great Meadows.
It was late in the month that word arrived that a
force of 600 French and 100 Indians had departed Fort Duquesne.
Washington felt his position at Gist's Plantation was untenable. His
force then retreated to Fort Necessity. By July 1, 1754 C.E., the
British garrison began work on a series of trenches and earthworks
around the fort.
Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers, Jumonville's
brother, led a French force to counter the British. On July 3, 1754 C.E.,
they arrived and quickly surrounded Fort Necessity. De Villiers quickly
took advantage of Washington's mistake. Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers
advanced in three columns. He then occupied the high ground along the
tree line which would allow his troops to fire into the fort.
Washington reacted quickly to this threat and
prepared to attack the enemy. He understood that his troops needed to
eject the French from their position. De Villiers anticipated
Washington’s move and attacked first. He ordered his men to charge the
British lines. While the regulars held their position and inflicted
losses on the French, the Virginia militia fell back toward the Fort.
After breaking de Villiers' charge, Washington withdrew all of his men
into Fort Necessity.
De Villiers was reported to be outraged by his
brother's death. As a professional soldier, he considered it murder. In
revenge, he ordered his troops concentrate heavy fire on the Fort
throughout the day. This kept Washington's men pinned down. They soon
ran short of ammunition. As the hours passed, their situation became
worse. Heavy rain began falling which made firing difficult. At
approximately 8:00 PM, de Villiers dispatched a messenger to Washington.
He wanted to open negotiations for surrender. As Washington’s
situation was hopeless, he agreed. Lieutenant Colonel Washington and
Captain McKay soon met with Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers.
Negotiations went slowly as neither spoke the other's language. Luckily
one of Washington's soldiers men who could speak some French. He was
summoned to the conference to serve as an interpreter.
After several hours of negotiating, an agreement
of surrender was drafted. Washington, McKay, and their troops were
permitted to withdraw back to Wills Creek in return for surrendering
Fort Necessity. Unfortunately, the language of the surrender document
included language which stated that Washington was responsible for the
"assassination" of Jumonville. Washington's reported admission
of assassination was used as propaganda by the French. Later, Washington
would deny the allegation. It was his position that the translation he
had been provided was not the word assassination, but death of, or
After the British surrendered the Fort on July 4,
1754 C.E., the French set it afire and left for Fort Duquesne.
Washington would return to Great Meadows the following year to
take part in the disastrous Braddock Expedition. Once the French and
Virginia militia forces engaged, the French overcame the British. The
British later moved to attack the French Fort Duquesne. Before British
forces reached the Fort, the French and their Native allies ambushed
British force. Two-thirds of the British expedition were killed or
wounded. Fort Duquesne was to remain in French hands until 1758 C.E.,
when it was captured by General John Forbes.
In 1755 C.E., a band of Cherokee 130-strong under
Ostenaco or Ustanakwa of Tamali or Tomotley took up residence in a
fortified town at the mouth of the Ohio River at the behest of the
Iroquois who were then also British allies.
For several years, French agents from Fort
Toulouse had been visiting the Overhill Cherokee on the Hiwassee and
Tellico Rivers, and had made inroads into those places. The strongest
pro-French Cherokee leaders were Mankiller (Utsidihi) of Talikwa on the
Tellico Plains, Old Caesar of Chatuga (or Tsatugi, Chatooga), and Raven
(Kalanu) of Ayuhwasi or Hiwassee. The "First Beloved Man" (or
Uku) of the nation, Kanagatoga (or "Stalking Turkey", aka 'Old
Hop'), was very pro-French, as was his nephew, Kunagadoga, who succeeded
him at his death in 1760 C.E.
Outside of North America, the Españoles
would sustain serious losses against the British during Europe's Seven
Years' War (1756 C.E.-1763 C.E.). These losses would eventually
influence the España’s
timing in entering the American Revolutionary War on the side of the
Patriots. It was during the War, that the British attacked and occupied
two of España's key trading
ports in 1762 C.E. These were Habana,
Cuba and, Manila, in the Filipinas.
Following months of localized conflict, in 1756
C.E. the European mother countries / nations declared war on each other
as combatants. To be clear, the Seven Years' War was a world war. A
world war is a war involving many or most of the world's most powerful
and populous countries. World wars span multiple countries on multiple
continents, with battles fought in multiple theatres. In this case, it
involved every European great power of the time except the Ottoman
Empire. The Ottoman Turks will be discussed later. However, this must be
said. The Ottoman Empire would have only one interest in these matters.
It was an Islamist empire with only one goal, the destruction of
Christendom and all of her adherent nations. This is to say, it was
happy to sit back and watch the worldwide carnage and destruction of its
sworn Christian enemies at their own hands.
Considered to be the first real global war in
history, it spanned four continents. The great geographic scale of the
War’s combat took place in many different locations. As a result, the
War is referred to by many different names, each based upon the
geography of that conflict. Fighting in North America is more commonly
known as the French and Indian War (1754 C.E.-1763 C.E.). Conflicts
between Austria and Prussia are known as the Third Silesian War (1756
C.E.-1763 C.E. The battles between Prussia and Sweden are sometimes
referred to as the Pomeranian War (1757 C.E.-1762 C.E.). Warfare between
France and England that took place on the Indian subcontinent is
referred to as the Third Carnatic War (1758 C.E.-1763 C.E.).
A great number of the European powers of the time
participated in the war. These included Austria, Britain, España, France, Portugal,
Prussia, Russia, and Saxony. The outcomes were staggering. The resulting
death tolls were high for this period of time. It is estimated that
900,000 to 1,400,000 people died over the course of the War.
The Seven Years’ War’s outcome would affect
locales in West Africa, the Caribe,
Central América, Europe,
India, North America, and the Filipinas.
Warfare escalated from a regional affair to theaters involving several
continents. Thus, the name French and Indian War is used mainly in the
United States. It refers to the two main enemies of the British
colonists the royal French forces and the various Indigenous/Native
forces allied with both parties.
The conflict divided Europe into two military
coalitions. There was a group led by Great Britain on one side and
France on the other. The War would be fought in the main on two major
fronts, Europe and North America. Competition between Britain and the
Bourbon kingdoms of España
and France over colonial and commercial power in North America finally
erupted into armed conflict, making North America one of the major
theaters during the war. Britain was intent upon taking the entire North
American Continent for herself. Anglophile historians and commentators
may disagree with this assessment. Somehow, the phrase “res ipsa
loquitur” comes to mind. Simple, obvious, it works for me!
Lingering tensions following the War of Austrian
Succession (1740 C.E.-1748 C.E.) caused further fighting on the European
continent. Ongoing, unresolved conflicts between Austria’s Habsburg
dynasty and the House of Hohenzollerns (the royal dynasty of Prussia)
continued over control of the Holy Roman Empire and disputed territory.
In fact, the rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for
dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe.
This eventually led to war. Realizing that war was imminent, Prussia
preemptively struck Saxony and quickly overran it. The result caused
uproar across Europe.
The hostilities spread throughout Europe once
Austria and Prussia encouraged military alliances with other European
powers. By 1756 C.E., Britain and Prussia formed a strong alliance.
Britain became involved for one purpose only and it was not for
Largesse. There was no
generosity of spirit or attitude involved, only the will of a nation to
expand its greatness at the expense of others. It was, “The Friend of
My Enemy Is My Enemy” and all of that. Whatever side France found
herself on, she could expect to find the British across the battle lines
staring straight across from her in support of her enemies.
Because of Prussia's alliance with Britain, this
was to be followed inevitably by an alliance between Austria and France.
These two states had been tradition adversaries were joined when Austria
saw an opportunity to recapture Silesia, which had been lost in a
previous war. Following the Imperial Diet or General Assembly, most of
the states of the empire reluctantly, joined Austria's cause. Those
alliances which had been in place between European states were in some
cases completely overturned and/or reversed.
By 1756 C.E., the major powers would switch partners.
It wasn’t just nations that changed sides during
and after wars. One man of history, Charles Lee (born January 26, 1731
C.E. or February 6, 1732 C.E.-died October 2, 1782 C.E.) served in the
British Army during the Seven Years’ War. After the end of that war,
he would sell his commission and serve for a time in the Polish army of
King Stanislaus II. He would
then later serve as a General of the Continental Army during the
American War of Independence.
In North America, the British and French had
fought one another in several wars prior to the French and Indian War.
In 1756 C.E., the British had completed Fort Prince George near Keowee
in South Carolina, among the Lower Towns; and Fort Loudoun which was
near Chota at the mouth of the Tellico River. Once the forts were
completed, their allies, the Cherokee raised a complement about to 700
warriors to fight in western Virginia Colony under Ostenaco. Oconostota
and Attakullakulla led another large group in the attack on the French
It is understood by experts in the area that the
French and Indian War was the first which began in the North American
colonies due to colonial conflicts. The French colonists were heavily
outnumbered on the American Continent. There were approximately two
million British American colonists and only about 65,000 French Canadian
colonists. The French were able to stand their ground against the
British in the early stages of that war. That would change dramatically.
This conflict between the British and French began
in the Ohio River Valley. Both sides desired to have access to trade
with Natives (Indians). The British colonists had established the Ohio
Company and its investors from London and Virginia sought to reap the
rewards of British control of the region.
Following British defeats at Fort Necessity and
Fort Duquesne, the British soon modified their military strategy. In
1756 C.E., William Pitt was appointed as the king’s chief minister. He
successfully rallied the British colonies in a war effort against the
French and their native allies. His promise to the colonists was that
the Crown would pay for all military related services and supplies.
With her ally, Prussia, carrying the military load
on the European Continent, Britain was free to redirect the majority of
its war-making resources against the French in North America. This
freedom in many ways allowed Britain to establish her naval dominance in
the Atlantic Ocean. In response, France formed a grand coalition of her
own. Unfortunately for France which aimed to curtail Britain and
Prussia's ever-growing might, it ended in failure. Thereafter, Britain
rose to become the world's predominant nation which altered the European
balance of power.
The Pomeranian War between Britain and Sweden and
Prussia took place 1757 C.E.-1762 C.E. While the war began when Swedish
forces invaded Prussian territory in 1757 C.E., the Pomeranian War was
in actuality a theatre of warfare of the Seven Years' War. The War is
characterized by military engagements by the Prussian and Swedish
armies, in which they moved backwards-and-forwards, neither scoring a
decisive victory. The name is also used to describe the locations of
warfare between Prussia and Sweden in Prussian Pomerania, Swedish
Pomerania, northern Brandenburg, and eastern Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
The Anglo (British)-Prussian alliance was joined
by many smaller German states, especially Hanover. Sweden feared
Prussia's expansionist tendencies. Thus, it went to war in 1757 C.E. to
protect its Baltic dominions once it saw the chance to accomplish this
goal when virtually all of Europe opposed Prussia.
The Anglo (British)-Cherokee War (1758 C.E.-1761
C.E.) was also known from the Anglo-European perspective as the Cherokee
War, the Cherokee Uprising, or the Cherokee Rebellion. In the Cherokee
language it was called The War with those in the red coats or War with
the British. The war was a conflict between British forces in North
America and Cherokee Native tribes during the French and Indian War. At
the beginning of the War the British and Cherokee had been allies.
However, each party suspected the other of betrayals. With the British,
betrayal was part and parcel of their suite of underhanded acts of
aggression. It worked nicely in concert with their use of bribery as a
means to an end.
In North America the Anglo-Cherokee War broke out
in 1758 C.E. when Virginia militia attacked Moytoy (Amo-adawehi) of
Citico in retaliation for the theft of some horses by the Cherokee.
Moytoy's reaction was to lead retaliatory raids on the Yadkin and
Catawba Rivers in North Carolina which began a domino effect that ended
with the murders of 23 Cherokee hostages at Fort Prince George near
Keowee and the massacre of the garrison of Fort Loudoun near Chota (Itsati).
The Cherokee were led by Aganstata of Chota,
Attakullakulla (Atagulgalu) of Tanasi, Ostenaco of Tomotley, Wauhatchie
(Wayatsi) of the Lower Towns, and Round O of the Middle Towns.
During the second year of the French and Indian
War, in 1758 C.E. the British had sought Cherokee assistance against the
French and their Native allies. The British had received reports that
indicated the French were planning to build forts in Cherokee territory.
They had already built Fort Charleville at Great Salt Lick on the
Even before British and French traders arrived on
the scene, the French Great Salt Lick had long attracted native hunters.
It was a natural area for attracting wild game. This territory between
the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers became a hunting ground for many Native
tribes. The Shawnees had occupied the area in the 17th-Century C.E.
By 1700 C.E., the Cherokees and Chickasaws were
forcing the Shawnees Tribes northward from the French Lick, or the Big
Salt Springs on the Cumberland River.
The area also saw early trading activities which
by the 18th-Century C.E. involved Europeans and their imperial
struggles. French traders from New Orleans and others from the Illinois
country came in to offer manufactured goods for pelts. By 1710 C.E., a
Frenchman, Jean du Charleville from New Orleans had transformed a
deserted Shawnee fort at the French Lick into a warehouse. Charleville
became the vanguard of trade and French imperial ambitions for the
region. By the 18th-Century C.E., French government administrators had
planned to fortify the interior of North America with a line of forts.
They were to be placed from the St. Lawrence to New Orleans. In concert
with Native alliances, The French hoped to withstand the pressure of
British settlements from advancing from the East.
By the 1750s C.E., long hunters from the British
colonies had already penetrated the area. Land speculators and settlers
would soon follow. This group contributed a great deal of knowledge of
the topography of the North American Continent. The long hunters of the
colonial days were the pioneer settlers who moved continually toward the
extreme frontiers. When the first American settlers were arriving at
Wolf Hills surrounding Abingdon and Cassell's Woods (Castlewood),
Virginia in 1768 C.E. and 1769 C.E., the long hunters had long since
bypassed these regions and were already hunting far away in the Ohio and
Cumberland river basins of Kentucky and western Tennessee. The long
hunters had already named most of the rivers, streams, gaps, salt licks,
mountains, and valleys long ago before settlers came upon them. Settlers
upon arrival adopted these names for natural land marks.
The French had built Fort Toulouse, near
present-day Montgomery, Alabama. The French also held Fort Rosalie at Natchez,
Mississippi and Fort Saint Pierre at modern day Yazoo, Mississippi.
There was also Fort Tombeckbe on the Tombigbee River in present-day west
Alabama. The Tombigbee River is a tributary of the Mobile River which is
approximately 200 miles long in the states of Mississippi and Alabama.
It merges to form the short Mobile River before emptying into Mobile Bay
on the Golfo de Méjico. Once
the Cherokee agreed to be their allies, the British hastened to build
forts of their own in the Cherokee lands.
The Seven Years' War in India saw the long running
conflict between the British and French trading companies for influence
renewed with the outbreak of the War in Europe. It also resulted in
renewed conflict between French and British forces in India, the Third
Carnatic War (1758 C.E.-1763 C.E.). Britain was intent upon taking all
French possessions in India. It had become addicted to the policy of
world domination no matter the price in blood and treasure. It quickly
spread beyond southern India and into Bengal. There, British forces
under Robert Clive would recapture Calcutta.
By 1757 C.E., British forces captured the French
settlement of Chandernagore, now Chandannagar. The war was to be decided
in the south. A French ally, the Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, was ousted from
his throne at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 C.E. The Battle of Plassey
was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab
of Bengal and his French allies on June 23, 1757 C.E. The Battle
consolidated the Company's presence in Bengal, which later expanded to
cover much of India over the next hundred years.
In what is now in Nadia district in West Bengal,
the battle took place at Palashi. Located on the banks of the Bhagirathi
River about 93 miles north of Calcutta and south of Murshidabad, it was
then the capital of Bengal. The last independent Nawab of Bengal, Nawab
Siraj-ud-daulah and the British East India Company were the warring
forces. After Siraj-ud-daulah had become the Nawab of Bengal the year
before, he ordered the British to stop extending their fortification.
The British then bribed Mir Jafar, the commander in chief of the Nawab's
army and promised him to make him Nawab of Bengal if he would defect.
Mir Jafar changed sides, defeated the Nawab at Plassey in 1757 C.E., and
captured Calcutta. Britain’s determination to overcome France in every
theater was its primary goal. The British were fixated on an empire with
world domination as its end game. Here again the honorable British are
found with their hands dirty. Bribery, I’m shocked!
In 1758 C.E., the Cherokee had participated with
the British in the taking of Fort Duquesne at present-day Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. However, they felt unappreciated after their efforts were
not celebrated. In addition, the Cherokee had been promised supplies for
their support and had received none. As the Cherokee traveled through
Virginia they took horses they believed were rightly theirs. On their
way home, several were murdered by Virginians. The Virginians killed and
scalped between 30 and 40 of them. Later, the Virginians claimed the
scalps as those of Shawnees and collected bounties for them. So much for
the caring and noble British! Sounds a great deal like the British
version of the Black Legend and the celebrated attacks upon the Noble
Savage to me. Oh, but I forget. This only applies to the Españoles.
In Europe, Swedish forces were soon repelled and
blockaded at Stralsund until their relief by a Russian force in 1758 C.E.
During the Pomeranian War, renewed Swedish incursions into Prussian
territory resulted in a small Prussian fleet being destroyed. Also,
areas as far south as Neuruppin were occupied.
In 1758 C.E., at the urging of an American
merchant, Thomas Cumming, the British war leader William Pitt dispatched
an expedition to take the French settlement at Saint Louis, West Africa.
Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of
Senegal's Saint-Louis Region. It is located in the northwest of Senegal,
near the mouth of the Senegal River, and 320 km north of Senegal's
capital city Dakar. Saint-Louis was the capital of the French colony of
Senegal from 1673 C.E. through 1902C.E.
Cumming was an 18th-Century C.E. British-American
merchant who built a large commercial empire in West Africa. He was born
in New York City, and raised as a Quaker, something which later earned
him the nickname of the "fighting Quaker." He is the best
known for the role he played in the 1758 C.E. capture of Senegal in
which he submitted a plan to the British war leader, William Pitt which
advocated an attack on France's valuable but ill-defended African
colonies and steal them.
The British captured Senegal with ease in May 1758
C.E. and brought home large amounts of captured goods. The capture and
theft of Senegal was a part of a British strategy to weaken the French
economy. They would do this by damaging her international trade. To that
end, a succession of small British military expeditions landed in
Senegal and captured the French settlements of Saint-Louis and Gorée.
Île de Gorée or Gorée Island, from the Dutch
Goede Reede or good harbor, is one of the nineteen communes
d'arrondissement or districts of the city of Dakar, Senegal. It is a
45-acre island located 2 kilometres at sea from the main harbor of
The British seized French vessels and supplies. By
late-1758 C.E., the Senegalese coast was entirely in British hands with
local administration controlled by the first British Governor of
Senegal, Lieutenant Colonel Richard Worge.
These successes convinced Pitt to launch further
British invasions to take the French trading post on the Gambia. The
Gambia River is formerly known as the River Gambra.
It is a major river in West Africa, running 700 miles from the
Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea westward through Senegal and the
Gambia to the Atlantic Ocean at the city of Banjul. It is navigable for
about half that length. The river is strongly associated with the
Gambia, the smallest country in mainland Africa, which consists of
little more than the downstream half of the river and its two banks.
The losses of France’s valuable African colonies
to the insatiable British appetite for conquest, power, and wealth
further weakened her economy.
The Seven Years' War was to conclude with the
signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 C.E. In effect, it returned
Chandernagore and Pondichéry to France. This allowed the French to
maintain trading posts in India. However, it did exclude French traders
from administering them. The French agreed to support the resulting
British client governments. This ended French ambitions of an Indian
empire and made the British invaders the dominant foreign power of
The Prussian territory campaign of the Pomeranian
War was aborted in late 1759 C.E., when the poorly supplied Swedish
forces were unable to succeed in taking the major Prussian Fortress of
Stettin (now Szczecin) or in combining with their Russian allies.
In August of 1759 C.E., Carlos III (January 20, 1716 C.E.-December 14, 1788 C.E.) of España
had ascended el Trono Español or the
Spanish throne as the King of España
and the Spanish Indias from
1759 C.E. to 1788 C.E. At the time, Britain and France were at war, in
the Seven Years' War. He was the fifth son of Felipe
V of España, but eldest by
his second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731 C.E., at 15 years of age Carlos became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, on
the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese.
As the Duke of Parma, in 1734 C.E., he conquered
the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily. Charles I and was crowned king on
July 3, 1735 C.E., He then reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles
V of Sicily. In 1738 C.E. he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, an
educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom
reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19
years. She died in 1760 C.E.
On August 10, 1759 C.E., Carlos III succeeded to the Spanish throne as a proponent of
enlightened absolutism. Enlightened absolutism is also known as
enlightened despotism and benevolent absolutism. It is a form of
absolute monarchy or despotism which was inspired by the
Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs such as Carlos
III embraced the concept of rationality. Many enlightened monarchs
fostered education, allowed religious tolerance, freedom of speech, and
the right to hold private property.
On October 6, 1759 C.E., Carlos III abdicated the Neapolitan and Sicilian thrones in favor of
Ferdinand, his third surviving son, who became Fernando I of the Two Sicilies.
Carlos III attempted to rescue el Imperio Español from decay. He passed far-reaching reforms such
as weakening the Catholic Church and its monasteries. The King promoted
science and university research as a way of facilitating trade and
commerce. Carlos modernized
agriculture to improve his people’s plight. He also attempted to avoid
wars, although at the time, Britain and France were involved in the
Seven Years' War. He was unable to achieve satisfactory control over
finances. This led to his borrowing to meet expenses. His various
reforms proved limited and España returned to its old ways after his death.
In North America, some Cherokee leaders still
called for peace with the British, others led retaliatory raids on
outlying pioneer settlements. The Cherokee finally declared open war
against the British in 1759 C.E. In this instance, they were fighting
independently and not as allies of France. A number of Muskogee under
Big Mortar moved up to Coosawatie. These people had long been French
allies in support of the Cherokee pro-French faction centered in Great
The governor of South Carolina, William Henry
Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton (December 24, 1724 C.E.-September 1808
C.E.) embargoed all gunpowder shipments to the Cherokee. He then raised
an army of 1,100 men to march against the Lower Towns of the Cherokee.
Desperate for ammunition for their fall and winter hunts, the Cherokee
Nation sent a delegation of moderate chiefs to negotiate. The
twenty-nine chiefs were taken prisoner as hostages. They were later
escorted by the provincial army and sent to Fort Prince George.
Lyttelton made the assumption that this would ensure peace.
A Muscogee contingent under Big Mortar or
Yayatustanage in support of the pro-French Cherokee then residing in
Great Tellico and Chatuga reoccupied the former site of the Coosa
Chiefdom in 1759 C.E. This was one step toward his grand plan of an
alliance of Muscogee, Cherokee, Shawnee, Chickasaw, and Catawba. This
would have made the alliance the first of its kind in the South. While
the alliance did not come into being until the days of Dragging Canoe,
Big Mortar was able to rise to the leading chief of the Muscogee after
the French and Indian War.
In Europe, by January of 1760 C.E., a Prussian
counter-attack of Swedish Pomerania was repelled. Throughout that year
Swedish forces advanced into Prussian territory as far south as Prenzlau.
This was before withdrawing to Swedish Pomerania in the winter.
Fighting during the French and Indian War in North
America would continue through 1760 C.E. The British defeated French
forces in Québec, Montreal, and Louisbourg seizing their military
fortifications. One can only call the British, fixated. Their lust for
power never ceased.
In the 1760s C.E., the Cherokee expanded their
retaliatory campaign into what is today, North Carolina. They went as
far east as modern day Winston-Salem. An attack on Fort Dobbs in North
Carolina was repulsed by General Hugh Waddell. However, smaller British
settlements in the North and South Carolina back-country fell quickly to
the Cherokee raiders.
As a result Governor Lyttelton appealed to Jeffrey
Amherst, the British commander in North America for support. Amherst’s
Royal Scots and Montgomerie's Highlanders numbering 1,200 troops were
dispatched to South Carolina under the command of Archibald Montgomerie.
During the campaign Montgomerie razed some of the Cherokee Lower Towns,
including Keowee. The campaign failed and ended in defeat at Echoee (Itseyi)
Pass when Montgomerie attempted to enter the Middle Towns territory.
Later in 1760 C.E., the Overhill Cherokee defeated
the British colonists at Fort Loudoun Tennessee and took the region
Governor Lyttelton of South Carolina then returned
to Charleston. The Cherokee remained angry and continued attacking
frontier settlements into 1760 C.E. By February 1760 C.E., they attacked
Fort Prince George attempting to rescue their hostages. The Fort's
commander was killed. In response, his replacement massacred all of the
Cherokee hostages and fought-off the attack. One could say that a
massacre of Natives hostages could be seen as an atrocity by the British
upon the Noble Savage. No, this can’t be. Just ask most Anglophiles.
I’m sure that they would defend these actions as just a minor
misunderstanding as it didn’t involve the Españoles.
If it had, the Black Legend and attacks upon the Noble Savage would have
The Cherokee also attacked Fort Ninety Six,
located today at a town in Greenwood County, South Carolina. Ninety Six
was established on the frontier in the early-18th-Century C.E. For a
short period of time the location was known as "Jews Land."
This was due to prominent, originally Spanish, Sephardic Jewish families
in London having purchased extensive property in the area. The Salvador and DaCosta
families purchased some 200,000 acres, intending to help poor Sephardic
families to relocate to the Nuevo
The Fort’s defenders were able to withstand the
The future American Patriot, Oliver Pollock sailed
to North America at the age of 23 in 1760 C.E. with his father from his
native Ireland to Philadelphia. He settled in Cumberland County,
Pennsylvania. Two years later, he began his career as a merchant,
trading from port-to-port with the Españoles
in the West Indies, and was headquartered in Habana,
Cuba. It was here that he
became close with the Gobernador
O'Reilly. O'Reilly was later made the Gobernador
of Luisiana by the King of España.
Oliver Pollock began working as a merchant in New
Orleans and, through his relationship with Don
O'Reilly, was favorably received by Spanish Luisiana's
officials, who granted him free trade within the city. He became the
most successful businessman in the city as a result of the scarcity of
provisions at the time, bringing in a desperately needed shipment of
flour. However, instead of taking advantage of the Pobladores,
Pollock sold the flour for half the going price.
In India’s south, the Seven Years' War continued
with the French capturing Cuddalore, but failing in their siege of
Madras. The British commander Sir Eyre Coote decisively defeated the
Frenchman, Comte de Lally at the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760 C.E. and
overran the French territory of the Northern Circars.
In the Caribe,
Tacky's War or Tacky's Rebellion took place. It was an uprising of Aken
that occurred in Jamaica from May to July 1760 C.E. At the time, they
were then referred to as Coromantee slaves. In terms of its shock to the
imperial system, only the American Revolution surpassed Tacky's War in
the 18th-Century C.E. It was the most significant slave rebellion in the
Caribe between the 1733 C.E. slave insurrection on Saint John and
the 1791 C.E. Haitian Revolution.
The leader of the rebellion was Tacky or in the
Akan language, Takyi. He was originally from the Fante ethnic group in
West Africa. Before being enslaved Tacky had been a paramount chief in
Fante land in the Central region of present-day Ghana. Prior to being
made a slave, Tacky was a king of his village. Tacky supposedly spoke
fluent English which was common for the ruling class of Fantes during
the period. He sold his rivals of the Ashanti, Nzema, Ahanta, and other
Akan states into slavery to the British as spoils of war. Ironically, he
became a slave when a rival state defeated his army in battle and sold
him off to slavery in Jamaica.
He, along with the Asante Queen Nanny or Nana,
planned to take over Jamaica. It was their goal to remove it from
British control and make it a separate Black country, but and not as
Tacky and his followers revolted, killed their
masters, and took over the Frontier and Trinity plantations while. Next,
they made their way to the storeroom at Fort Haldane where munitions
were kept to defend the town of Port María.
Tacky and his mob stole 4 barrels of gunpowder, 40 firearms, and
ammunition after first killing the storekeeper. The group then marched
on the plantations at Heywood Hall and Esher and overran them.
Hundreds of slaves soon joined Tacky and his
followers. The rebels stopped to celebrate their success at Ballard's
Valley. A slave from Esher slipped away and sounded the alarm. Very
quickly, 70 to 80 mounted militia and some Maroons from Scott's Hall
were on their way to suppress the rebellion. The Maroons were African
refugees. They escaped slavery in the Americas and formed independent
settlements in inaccessible areas. There they hid and formed permanent
communities. Later, they established a guerilla military force. Jamaica
would eventually have five Maroon groups. These lived in the mountains.
They were the Accompong and the Trelawney Maroons in the West. There
were also the Mooretown, Scotts Hall, and Charlestown Maroons in the
Many of the rebels later returned to the
plantations. However, Tacky and approximately 25 of his group decided to
continue the rebellion.
These non-Spanish Europeans were all love and
kindness. Tacky and his men were chased by the Maroons. Tacky was shot
and his head cut off. His head was later displayed on a pole in Spanish
Town. The remainder of Tacky's men committed suicide rather than going
back to slavery and were found in a cave near Tacky Falls. The British
found these rebels unappreciative of their masters and had their Native
allies, the Maroons finish them off. No oppression here. There can be no
accusations of Black Legend-like activities or attacks upon the Noble
African Savage in these instances, as the perpetrators were not Españoles.
The Third Silesian War (1761 C.E.-1763 C.E.) with
Prussia against Austria, better known as the Seven Years' War was on.
Austria was once more attempting to regain Silesia.
Prussia for her part was grabbing for Saxony. This land grab
exercise was a part of the pan-European Seven Years' War, which related
to many nations of Europe. These were involved either collectively or in
cooperation with one another. As a result of the collapse of the
Anglo-Austrian Alliance in 1756 C.E., Britain had changed sides. In this
Third Silesian War they would support Prussian efforts against the
In the summer of 1761 C.E., another Swedish
campaign of the Pomerania War was started moving into Prussia. However,
this poorly planned effort was soon ended due to shortage of supplies
Final encounters of the Pomerania War took place
in the winter of 1761 C.E.-1762 C.E. near Malchin and Neukalen in
Mecklenburg, just across the Swedish Pomeranian border.
The French capital of Pondicherry or Pondichéry,
India fell to the British in 1761 C.E. during the Seven Years' War. With
the fall of the smaller French settlements of Karikal and Mahé, this
effectively eliminated French power and control in India. Again we find
the Noble British taking whatever their kindly hearts desired. The
phrase, world domination comes to mind!
France in its ongoing fighting against Britain
suffered a series of setbacks. In response, it successfully negotiated a
treaty with España known as
the España and French Family
(Bourbon) Compact which was signed on August 15, 1761 C.E. By a
subsidiary secret convention, España
had committed to making preparations for war against Britain.
On the North American Continent, the
Anglo-Cherokee War between the Cherokee Natives and the British didn't
end until 1761 C.E.
In 1761 C.E., Captain Montgomerie was replaced by
Colonel James Grant who led a British army of 2,600 against the
Cherokee. It was the largest force to enter the southern Appalachians to
that time. His army moved through the Lower Towns, defeated the Cherokee
at Echoee Pass, and proceeded to raze about 15 Middle Towns while
burning fields of crops along the way. No application of attacks upon
the Noble Savage here!
In November 1761 C.E., the Cherokee signed the
Treaty of Long-Island-on-the-Holston with the Colony of Virginia. They
made peace with South Carolina the following year in the Treaty of
Charlestown. During the Timberlake Expedition, Lieutenant Henry
Timberlake, Sergeant Thomas Sumter, Interpreter John McCormack, and an
unknown servant traveled into the Overhill settlements area to deliver a
copy of the treaty with Virginia to the Cherokee.
A pro-French leader, Standing Turkey, was deposed
and replaced as "First Beloved Man" with the pro-British
The British-American John Stuart became British
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern District, based out of
Charlestown, South Carolina. He then became the liaison between the
Cherokee and the British government. Stuart was born in England in 1700
C.E. and came to North America as a young man. During his first twenty
years in America he was a frontiersman and among the Natives a great
deal. He learned their culture and lifestyle.
During the Seven Years' War in America, Stuart was
on the Southern frontier and among the Southern Indian as a captain of
militia. Captain Stuart had already spent half his life interacting with
the Natives and would give the remaining years in faithful service to
the British government.
In the early years of the War with France, Captain
Stuart was assigned on the Southern frontier. When Fort Loudon was
completed in 1756 C.E., he and his company proceeded and were posted at
Fort Loudon in the heart of the Cherokee country. There he was made
second in command of the garrison stationed there under Captain Demere.
After becoming the British Superintendent of
Indian Affairs for the Southern District, his first deputy was Alexander
Cameron. Cameron had lived among the Cherokee. He was first at Keowee
and later at Toqua on the Little Tennessee River. His second deputy was
John McDonald. He lived approximately one hundred miles to the
southwest, on the west side of Chickamauga Creek where it was crossed by
the Great Indian Warpath. All three men knew the Natives well and were
During the War, a number of Cherokee towns had
been destroyed by British troops under the command of General James
Grant. These were never reoccupied. The most notable of these was Kituwa.
Its inhabitants migrated west, taking up residence at Great Island Town
on the Little Tennessee. There they lived among the Overhill Cherokee.
The War resulted in a reduced strength of Cherokee warriors from an
estimated 2,590 warriors before the war in 1755 C.E, to 2,300 after.
They had been victims of battle, smallpox, and starvation. No Black
Legend-like situation here!
José de Gálvez y Gallardo Marqués de Sonora as Secretarío del Estado del
Despacho Universal de Indias traveled to Nueva España in 1761 C.E. He had studied law at the Universidad
of Salamanca and began his professional practice in Madrid.
He was later to be made an Officer of the Indias
By 1762 C.E., Europe’s small and middle size
powers had been active in various wars. However, unlike in the previous
wars, many of these attempted to maneuver away from involvement in the
ever escalating conflicts. One long-time British ally, the Dutch
Republic, maintained strict neutrality. It did so fearing that the odds
were too great against Britain and Prussia overcoming the great powers
of Europe. The Dutch eventually went so far as to try to prevent
Britain's domination in India. The Dutch were correct to fear Britain.
She won the war.
Naples, Savoy, and Sicily had sided with
Franco-Spanish alliance, yet they declined to join the coalition due to
the fear of Britain’s growing military power.
During Third Silesian War in the years 1761 C.E.-1762
C.E., the Russian Empire initially aligned itself with Austria due to
its fear of Prussian ambition to take over the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth. Russian taxation of its people for the war efforts would
cause the Russia considerable hardship. These new taxes were added to
the taxation of salt and alcohol already begun by Empress Elizabeth in
1759 C.E. to complete an addition to her Winter Palace. Battles had gone
well for Russian and Austrian forces.
Peter III’s ascension upon the death of Empress Elizabeth of
Russia (died December 25, 1761 C.E. or on January 5, 1762 C.E.) suddenly
left Austria abandoned by her one-time ally. By January 1762 C.E., Peter
III of Russia recalled his army from within Berlin and Pomerania. Russia
would later change sides in the War upon the succession of Tsar Peter
III in 1762 C.E.
The parties in the Pomerania War would soon agree
on the Truce of Ribnitz on April 7, 1762 C.E. On May 5th, a
Russo-Prussian alliance eliminated Swedish hopes for future Russian
assistance. This alliance posed the obvious threat of a Russian
intervention on the side of Prussia. As a result, Sweden was forced to
make peace. The war was formally ended on May 22, 1762 C.E. by the Peace
of Hamburg between Prussia, Mecklenburg, and Sweden.
Between May 5, 1762 C.E. and November 24, 1762
C.E., as España was bound by
its Pacto de Familia with the
French, the Españoles
interceded on behalf of France in the invasion of Portugal.
This was one of three separate, but similar alliances between the
Bourbon kings of España and
France. The French phrase for this relationship is “Pacte de Famille.”
Both are better known by the English phrase “Family Compact.” It is
needless to say that Britain had unfinished business with España
and France. The British had needs. Those needs included the taking by
force of anything and everything France and España
This was one of the campaigns of the Seven
Year’s War. As France was involved, Britain came to the defense of Portugal.
Together, España and France launched the failed invasion.
España had agreed with France to attack Portugal.
She had previously remained neutral and was an important economic ally
of Great Britain. It was hoped by France that this new front would draw
away needed British forces, currently directed against France. On May 5,
1762 C.E., the triple Franco-Spanish invasion of Portugal
in Europe began. Portugal was
the main theater of this war and absorbed the lion's share of the
Spanish war effort.
The invasion of Portugal was quickly was followed by a Spanish invasion of Portugués
territories in South América,
a secondary theater of the war. The first ended in humiliating defeat.
The second front represented a stalemate. There was a Portugués
victory in Northern and Western Brazil.
The Españoles were victorious
in Southern Brazil and Uruguay.
Between May 5th and November 24, 1762
C.E., at the age of 16 Bernardo de Gálvez y
Madrid served in this campaign in Portugal. This was during that conflict known as the Seven Years'
War in Europe and the French and Indian War in North America. Bernardo participated
in this failed invasion while serving there in a very select
Franco-Spanish military unit, the Royal Regiment of Cantabre.
He immediately obtained an appointment to the Regiment as a Teniente.
España had begun its participation in January 1762 C.E. Bernardo had
originally entered the regiment with ease as Cadete
or Cadet, due to his noble family.
parents had purchased the position from the French as it would to be
very useful in his later career. Entry into the regiment gave Bernardo
greater ease of ascent in the army France. The requirement was also
indispensable as it provided for the possibility of command of a
regiment. In addition, it allowed for appointment as an officer with the
rank of Capitán. Interestingly, it was a French regiment and not Spanish.
It has been said that this was due to his uncle, José, who had great influence with French authorities, as he had
been an advocate of the French Embassy in España.
The invasion stalled after the Españoles
had captured Almeida that
fortified village and a municipality in the sub-region of Beira Interior Norte and
the District of Guarda, Portugal.
Spanish invasion of Portugal
was a major strategic area of operations of the wider Seven Years' War. España
and France were decisively defeated by the Anglo-Portugués
Alliance. In its initial stages, the conflict involved the forces of España
and Portugal. Later, the British and French intervened, each on the side
of their respective allies in the conflict. A national guerilla
warfare effort in the mountainous country resulted in the cutting-off of
supplies from España. These
efforts were headed by a hostile peasantry who enforced a scorched earth
policy. They did this as the invading armies approached, leaving them
starving and short of military supplies.
Commandante, Nicolás de Carvajal, Marqués
de Sarria and his 22,000 Españoles
first invaded the province of Alto
Trás-os-Montes located northeast of Portugal
with Oporto being their
ultimate goal. Soon after occupying fortresses, Españoles
were confronted with a national uprising. Bands of guerrillas taking advantage of the mountainous terrain inflicted
heavy losses on the Españoles
and almost cut-off their communication lines with España. This resulted in a shortage of critical supplies. The Españoles
near starvation, attempted to quickly conquer Oporto.
However, they were defeated in the battle of the Douro
and at Montalegre before
retreating to back to España.
After this failure, the Spanish Commandante
was replaced by Pedro Pablo Abarca
de Bolea y Jiménez de Urrea, Conde de Aranda.
Conde de Aranda was born
December 18, 1719 C.E., at Siétamo,
España. He died on January 9, 1798 C.E., at Épila
Zaragoza, Aragón. He was a Spanish general,
diplomat, and minister. The Conde
de Aranda was considered one of the most prominent reformers in the
government of King Carlos
III (1759 C.E.1788 C.E.). He would later be appointed ambassador to
France in 1773 C.E., before the American Revolutionary War and remained
until 1787 C.E.
was a member of the Aragonese nobility. He initially prepared for the
priesthood, before entering the Spanish Army. As an officer, he became
director of the artillery, introducing the Prussian system of drill in
the Seven Years’ War. It was during that time that he commanded this
short campaign against Portugal in 1762 C.E.
at war in Portugal, Bernardo de Gálvez received the first in a lifetime of serious
wounds. During the conflict Bernardo
impressed his comandantes and
the rank and file with courage and sound judgment as a teniente de Infantería.
After this service, Bernardo
would be promoted to capitán
in the Royal Regiment of La Coruña.
or La Coruña is a city and
municipality of Galicia, España and its provincial capital and was home to the Regiment of La
Coruña. La Coruña is one long sea front which is adjacent to the seaport
city of El Ferrol. In A
Coruña the Palace of the General Military Headquarters stands in Plaza
de la Constitución square. The original construction dates from the
16th-Century C.E., although in 1748 C.E. a new building was erected for
the comandante militar and for
the different court premises.
On November 24, the Spanish Conde
de Aranda asked for a truce. It was
accepted and signed by Lippe
on December 1, 1762 C.E. This joint effort had become a reoccurring theme
in the act of war.
the end of the war, Bernardo de Gálvez
left his regiment, which was dissolved shortly thereafter. He was in Pau,
France by the end of 1762 C.E.
Asian military theater of the Seven Years' War was primarily the British
invasion of Filipinas which
occurred between 1762 C.E.-1764 C.E. This was a proactive action of war.
This episode in Filipinas’
history resulted from Britain’s strategic goal of controlling España’s
Nuevo Mundo trade using silver shipments for Chinese goods. The
British Empire moved to occupy the overseas Spanish provincia
or province, its capital of the Manila,
and the nearby principal port of Cavite.
During the Seven Years War there was a capture of Manila
in the Filipinas by the British on October 6, 1762 C.E. At that time, Manila
was a sophisticated city with walls built on the European model. It was
the center of the Pacific portion of the Spanish trading empire. The
British invaded and attacked Spanish forces who were assisted by
Natives. Brigadier General William Draper and Rear Admiral Samuel
Cornish led the British military contingents and ships. A force of 2,000
British soldiers and sailors, Indian sepoys or Indian soldiers, and
French deserters were deployed ashore with a fleet of 14 ships in
The main formation in the British military force
was the 79th Regiment. It was led by Lieutenant Colonel William Draper
who in 1757 C.E., fought in India against the French.
By 1762 C.E., the 79th was a thoroughly battle hardened regiment.
The 79th was disbanded at the end of the Seven Year War in 1763 C.E. on
its return to Chatham.
The British land forces were equipped with musket
and bayonet and small sword or hanger. Field guns are thought to have
been provided by the Royal Artillery and East India Company. The heavy
guns and mortars were most likely provided by the British ships.
The temporary gobernador
of Manila was Arzobispo Manuel António Rojo
del Río y Vieyra. Senior Spanish military officer, Marqués de Villa Medina, was in charge of the regiment of infantry
troops at the guarnición. It
held some 800 Spanish soldados
and approximately 10,000 Natives.
The plan was to take Cavite before moving against the city of Manila. This plan was changed as Cavite could be dealt with later. Cavite would eventually fall to the British on October 11, 1762 C.E.,
as did some nearby provinces such as Cainta, Taytay, and Pasig.
In 1571 C.E., the Españoles established the Port Cavite,
City of Cavite, and fortified
the settlement as a first line of defense for the City of Manila. A defensive outer wall, normally known as the curtain wall
was constructed. It encircles an area in need of protection and provides
the first line of defence. The Spanish military engineers and builders
put most of their skills and efforts into making the inner structure
(fortress) hard to attack. The curtained wall was constructed the length
of Cavite's western side. It
began from the entrance, "La
Estanzuela," and continued to the end of Punta de Rivera, the peninsula. The eastern shore was left
unprotected by a wall. Cavite
contained churches, La Fuerza de
San Felipe or Fort San Felipe,
government offices, misión
buildings, the Rivera de Cavite
shipyard, and homes for Españoles.
Docks were in place to construct Galeónes
and galleys, but without a dry dock.
The construction of La Fuerza de San Felipe was completed between 1609 C.E. and 1616 C.E.
The quadrilateral structure was built using curtained walls, with
bastions at the corners, and contained twenty cannons facing the
seashore. The Españoles
garrisoned La Fuerza with
three infantry companies of 180 soldados
each. Additionally, they stationed 220 Pampangañ infantry at the Fort.
The Kapampangan people, also known as Pampangueños
or Pampañgo are a Filipino ethnolinguistic group native to and the seventh largest
ethnic group in the Filipinas.
The British fleet approached Manila and three frigates bombarded the area where Spanish troops
were assembled on the coast. The fleet then disembarked soldiers of the
79th Regiment and the ships marines. With no Spanish opposition the
landing was successful. From the moment the British landed, Natives
continued to skirmish. They attacked the fringe of the British
encampment firing arrows in an attempt to cut-off small groups of
soldiers and individuals.
Once the encampment was secured, a letter was
dispatched to the Spanish Gobernador
demanding he surrender the city. He declined. Next, a force of 400
Spanish soldados and 3 guns
attacked from Manila. Under
the command of the Chevalier Fayet, the force approached the British
positions near San Jago’s
church and opened fire. The British counter-attacked with a force of
Sepoys, soldiers of the 79th, and others driving the Españoles
back into Manila.
An assessment of the state of the defenses at the
south-west corner of the city was made. Next, a construction of
batteries from which to bombard the city walls was put in place. British
ships began to fire on the City walls distracting the Españoles
from attacking the British troops engaged in building the batteries. No
attempt was made by the Spanish guarnición
to interfere with construction of the siege works or later counter-fire
against the British guns. Heavy bombardment started against the Bastion
of San Diego at the south west
corner of the city walls. This bombardment soon made a breach in the
Bastion. An attack was then mounted by approximately 1,000 Natives on
the British seamen’s camp. The attack was carried out by a force armed
only with bows and lances. The 79th used its guns to turn the attackers
away and they were soon driven off.
Immediately after this assault was repulsed
another Spanish attack was launched. In the course of this fighting 40
soldiers of the 79th killed or wounded and 70 Spanish soldados and Natives were dead. The effect of their defeat caused
around 1,500 Natives to leave Manila
for their homes.
British troops assembled the next morning for the
assault on Manila. In the
covered way between San Jago’s
church and the batteries and in the batteries’ storage area by the sea
opened a heavy fire on the walls. At dawn a large force of Spanish soldados
and Natives was gathered on the Bastion of Saint Anthony but the force
was dispersed by mortar fire. This huge church was built of stone in
1739 C.E. It is directly linked with the first church built in 1578 C.E
of bamboo and nipa by Spanish Franciscan friars. They constructed it
shortly after they arrived in the Filipinas.
The large stone edifice stood in Intramuros,
the old walled city of Manila.
Immediately after this incident a British
assaulting party of the 79th with 60 volunteers, followed by the
grenadiers of the 79th rushed the breach in the Bastion of San Diego. Next, came more from the 79th and some seamen. The East
India Company’s troops brought up the rear.
The assault force rushed directly into Manila.
There they found little resistance except at the Royal Gate. A force of
180 Españoles and Natives held the guard chamber refusing to surrender.
These were killed. The British force then moved to secure each of the
bastions in the City’s wall and the various parts of the city. There
continued to be resistance from soldados
on the top storey’s of the houses in the Grand Square. These were
found and killed. In the end, the Marqués
de Villa Medina, his officers, soldados,
and the remaining Natives within the city surrendered. The British
captured Manila on October 6, 1762 C.E.
The early success at Manila was limited. It did not enable the British to gain control of
all of the Spanish Filipinas.
The resistance raised by the provisional Spanish government was
immediate. The Spanish-Filipino
forces were comprised mostly of Filipinos
kept the British confined to Manila.
Nevertheless, the British were confident of eventual success after
receiving the written surrender of captured Arzobispo
Católico Rojo or Catholic Arzobispo
Rojo on October 30, 1762 C.E.
Members of the Real Audiència of Manila
and their Filipino allies prevented British forces from taking control of
territory beyond the neighboring towns of Manila
Real or Corte Real de Justicia en España was the Royal Court of Justice in España
and throughout the Imperio
Español. This was a Spanish colonization period institution created
in 1583 C.E. to assist the gobernador
general to protect the people from abusive Spanish officials. The gobernador
general acted as its presidente.
The Audiència also had three
justices, a prosecuting attorney, and other various officials.
A surrender proposed by the British was rejected
outright as illegal by Don Simón
de Anda y Salazar. It was he, who claimed the title of Gobernador General under the statutes of the . He and the Audiència led Spanish-Filipino
forces that kept the British confined to Manila.
Over a period of time, they sabotaged and finally crushed British
fomented revolts in the Provincia.
was able to intercept and redirected Galeón
de Manila trade out of harm’s way to prevent further
captures by the British. Ultimately, it was the failure of the British
to consolidate their strategic and tactical position which led to troop
desertions and a breakdown of command unity. This failure left the
British forces paralyzed and in an increasingly untenable military
During the same year of 1762 C.E., Bernardo
de Gálvez would be sent to study military sciences at the Academia
de Ávila or Academia de
Administración Militar in España.
His family members were a part of the Spanish elite. His father, Matiás,
and uncles, José, Miguel, and António
held important positions within the government. They understood the
ongoing militarization of the opposing nations and where the world was
headed. Conquest and war were to be ever present conditions with which España
would have to cope. This is why they sent young Bernardo de Gálvez to study military sciences. It is from the Academia
or Academy that he would graduate as a teniente.
The university is located at town of Ávila
which is sheltered by the Sierra
de Gredos Mountains. Ávila,
España is located in the autonomous community of Castilla
and León, and is the capital of the Provincia
Military science is the study of military
processes, institutions, behavior, the study of warfare, and the theory
and application of organized coercive force. In today’s world its main
focus is on method, practice, and theory of producing military
capability in a manner consistent with national defense policy. In the
past, the use of military science served to identify the strategic,
operational, technological, and tactical elements necessary to sustain
relative advantage of military force. However, it did not stress
economic, political, psychological, and social areas or condition. Nor
did this education increase the likelihood and favorable outcomes of
victory in peace or during a war.
In the 18th-Century C.E., there were few if any
military scientists. These had not yet perfected the field of Military
Science. Nor did they understand its complexity to the degree of
today’s theorists, researchers, experimental scientists, or applied
scientists. However, there were designers, engineers, technicians, and
other military personnel with rudimentary knowledge. Army personnel of
the day would have been taught military weapons and equipment use and
military training to achieve specific strategic and tactical goals and
objectives. Military science was also used then to establish enemy
capability as part of technical intelligence.
This military education would form the basis of Bernardo’s
technical knowledge of warfare and means of achieving political and
administrative strategic goals and military objectives.
Bernardo De Gálvez would
arrive later in Nueva España
in 1762 C.E. as a capitán. He
would fight the Apaches with
his Ópata Indian allies in North America. These tribes were indigenous to today’s northern Méjicano border state of Sonora.
While there, he would receive many wounds, several of them serious. This
young man had already gone from Academia
de Administración Militar in España
as a military student to teniente
de Infantería while serving
in that war with Portugal.
Then, while recovering from the wounds he received in Portugal,
Bernardo was promoted to capitán
in the Regiment of La Coruña
and was assigned Nueva España
to aid in the containment of the Apache
The British Lion was on its continual prowl
throughout España’s Nuevo Mundo.
On the morning of July 26, 1762 C.E., a combined British and Miskito Sambu expeditionary force laid siege to the Fortaleza
de la Limpia Pura e Inmaculada Concepción or Fortress of the
Immaculate Conception. The action would later be called the Battle for
the Río San Juan de Nicaragua.
The Miskitu are an ethnic group of mixed
African-Indigenous American cultural ancestry occupying a portion of the
Caribe coast of Spanish Central
América. Specifically, they inhabit the Atlantic coasts of Honduras
and Nicaragua which is known as La
Mosquitia or the Mosquito Coast region. Modern ethnographic
terminology uses the term "Miskito." Older documents,
beginning with those of the Spanish of the early 18th-Century C.E.,
refer to the group as "Mosquitos
Zambos." According to early accounts, slaves traveling on a
slave ship revolted and took the ship over, but wrecked it near Cape Gracias
Early accounts state that the Miskito
Sambu were originally African slaves who took over a ship at sea in
a revolt. They brought it to the coast. The Spanish account said the
ship wrecked on an island while carrying the slaves to "Tierra
Firme" (Panama). The
slaves then swam ashore. The ship was supposedly Portugués
carrying the slaves to Brasil
or Brazil. One, Pedro de Rivera,
writing in 1742 C.E. reported that the ship that was wrecked in 1650 C.E.,
"according to tradition" and that it was owned by "Lorenzo
Gramalxo." This is probably Lorenzo
Gramajo, a prominent Portugués
merchant of Cartagena de Indias or
Africans next violently overthrew their Native hosts, and intermarried
with their women.
The Fortress was a fortification located on the
southern bank of the Río San Juan
or San Juan River, in the
village of El Castillo in
southern Nicaragua. The
Fortress or El Morro is a
massive, stone fortress which is situated on the brow of a hill
approximately 6 kilometers from the border with Costa
Rica. It overlooks a strategic bend in the Río
San Juan at the Raudal del
Diablo rapids with its torrents of whitewater. The Fortress had
three barracks, a chapel, an armory, several towers, a prison, and many
bulwarks. El Morro is part of a system of fortifications that were built in
the 18th-Century C.E. along the Central American isthmus. It was
originally built to defend against pirate attacks on the City of Granada which can be reached by navigating upstream from the Caribe
Sea along the Río San
Juan into Lake Nicaragua.
The Fortress’ construction had begun on March 10, 1673 C.E. and
finally completed in 1675 C.E. as part of a series of fortifications
along the Río San
The settlement of El Castillo and its fortress had continued to be strategically
important to the Captaincy General of Guatemala until
the late 18th-Century C.E. This is undoubtedly why the British took such
a keen interest in it.
The attacking British force consisted of two
thousand men and more than fifty boats. The soldados
at the Fortress numbered only around a hundred. The guarnición comandante, Teniente
Coronel Don José de Herrera y Sotomayor, had died unexpectedly on July 15,
only 11 days earlier. Inspired by acts of heroism displayed by Herrera's
19 year old daughter, Rafaela,
one of which included the killing of the British commander of the
expeditionary force, the guarnición comandante Teniente
Juan de Aguilar y Santa Cruz led the defenders to victory in a
battle that lasted six days. However, the British troops had cut the
Fort’s water supply after besieged it for 17 days and finally seized
it. The British finally lifted their siege and retreated on August 3,
In Europe, peace talks had been in progress
regarding a wider Third Silesian War when they concluded in February
1763 C.E. That next summer, Peter was assassinated before Catherine the
Great succeeded him. Therefore, she could not bring Russia into an
alliance. Unfortunately, for Austria, Peter had mediated an agreement
between Prussia and Sweden which allowed Frederick II's forces to
consolidate his position and bolster Prussia's claims by January and
February. As a result, the Treaty of Hubertusburg confirmed Prussia’s
Silesian possessions by then.
The “greater” Seven Years’ War would
formally be concluded in 1763 C.E., with the Treaty of Paris and the
Treaty of Hubertusberg. With the signing of the Peace of Paris on
February 10, 1763 C.E., the British occupation of the Filipinas
was ended as part of the peace settlement. Interestingly, at the time of
signing the treaty, the signatories were not aware that the Manila
was under British occupation and was being administered as a British
colony. As a result, no specific provisions were made for the Filipinas.
Fortunately for España,
arrangements fell under the general provision that all other lands not
otherwise provided for in the agreements be returned to the el
On the North American Continent, in 1763 C.E., a
war that was launched by a loose confederation of elements of various
Native tribes primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois
Country, and Ohio Country. It should be noted that warfare on the North
American frontier was brutal. Atrocities such as the killing of
prisoners and the targeting of civilians were widespread. This
ruthlessness and treachery on both sides of the conflict was simply a
reflection of the great divide between the intentionally separate
populations of the British colonists and Natives and a lack of justice.
These Natives were dissatisfied with the British
postwar policies in the Great Lakes region employed after the British
victory in the French and Indian War (1754 C.E.-1763 C.E.). Called
Pontiac's War, Pontiac's Conspiracy, or Pontiac's Rebellion, it was
named after the Odawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many native
leaders in the conflict. Its warriors were from numerous tribes. They
joined together in an uprising mainly in an effort to drive the
oppressive British soldiers and settlers out of the region. Why isn’t
a Black Legend-Like model applied here? Oh, that’s right, they’re
The war began in May 7, 1763 C.E., when Natives
became offended by the policies of British General Jeffrey Amherst. In
response, they attacked a number of British forts and settlements.
Hundreds of British colonists were killed or captured. Many terrified
colonists fled the region. Eight British forts were destroyed.
Also, on the North American Continent, the French
and Indian War ended with the cession of Nouvelle-France to España
and Great Britain on February 10, 1763 C.E. To clarify, at the beginning
of the French and Indian War there had been approximately 65,000
European colonists in French North American portion Nouvelle-France. In
comparison, the British North American colonies had a population of over
2 million. The obviously outnumbered French were dependent upon the
Natives for all things military. The French-Native alliance failed to
win the war primarily due to the strength with which Britain prosecuted
the war. The British advantage was in her large population of colonists
of military age and having readily available resources on the North
The war ended with the Treaty of Paris between
France, Great Britain, and España
in 1763 C.E. It was also the Treaty of Paris that ended the French and
Indian War. The Treaty would see France cede to Great Britain nearly all
of France’s territories in Nouvelle-France, including most of Canada,
Acadia, and almost all of the French holdings east of the Mississippi
River, in parts French Louisiana. However, this did not include the
islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Another exception was the Île
d'Orléans or Island of Orleans. It is located in the Saint Lawrence
River about 3.1 miles east of downtown Québec City, in Québec, Canada.
This was granted to España,
along with the territory to the west that the larger portion of
Louisiana. France awarded the Mississippi Valley to her ally, España to prevent it from coming under British control.
In addition to France having lost many of its
colonies, it was to be burdened by heavy war debts which its mélange,
a loosely structured financial system was barely able to support.
The War debts alone left her a diminished power.
The British also gained España’s colony of Florida,
a few Caribe islands in the
West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, and
control over French posts on the Indian subcontinent.
The British returned the possessions of Cuba
and the Filipinas to España. By
regaining control of her possessions in Cuba
and the Filipinas, España
would later be able to exert some control over Asian and Caribe
waters which would help her in the next war with the British.
España had recovered Habana by ceding Florida.
This included San Agustín,
which they had founded in 1565 C.E. In the Caribe,
the main Spanish effort and goal would be to prevent future British
landings in Cuba. España remembered well the circumstances of the British expedition
against Cuba which seized Habana
during the Seven Years' War and did not want a reoccurrence. España’s
other future goals were the reconquest of Florida
which the British had divided into West and East Florida in 1763 C.E.
While it is true that España lost Florida on
the North American Continent, she also gained French Louisiana. It would
be from what was then Spanish Luisiana
that she would later seek revenge against the British during the
American Revolutionary War.
also wanted to resolve logging disputes with the British in Belize.
Belize is a country on the eastern coast of Central América.
It is bordered on the north by Méjico,
on the south and west by Guatemala,
and on the east by the Caribe
Sea. Over half of Belize or Mayan for “muddy
water,” is covered by forest with 700 or so different trees
such as Mahogany. Mahogany was a much valued commodity by carpenters,
furniture-makers, and shipbuilders in Britain. In short, the wood was
critical to Britain’s manufacture of warships. This enabled her to
continue her non-stop aggression.
The British returned the colonies of Guadeloupe
and Martinique to the French. Guadeloupe is located in the Leeward
Islands, part of the Lesser Antillas
or Antilles in the Caribe with
a land area of 629 square miles. While on
his second trip to the Américas,
in November 1493 C.E., Cristóbal
Colón became the first European to land on Guadeloupe, while
seeking fresh water. He called it Santa María de Guadalupe de
Extremadura or Guadeloupe.
Guadeloupe’s two main islands are Basse-Terre to the west and
Grande-Terre to the east, often referred to as a single island. These
are separated by a narrow strait which is crossed with bridges.
Martinique is located in the Lesser Antillas
of Antillas in the eastern Caribe
Sea. It has a land area of 436 square miles.
It must be remembered that as a result of the
Seven Years’ War, Britain emerged as the strongest European colonial
power, particularly in North America and India.
It is an accepted fact that there had been a long
history of enmity between the two powerful European nations, Britain and
España. Each wanted to have
the premier empire. However, only one could prevail. The long simmering
anger over the British Seadog piracy of the 1580s C.E. and the defeat of
the España’s Armada in 1588
C.E. remained flash points. It was the loss of Florida
to Great Britain in 1763 C.E. which left the Españoles with fresh, open wounds. Therefore, España was determined to retaliate against the Britain and regain
her territory in Florida.
Later, on the eve of the American Revolution it
was this discontent with Great Britain that led España to aid the rebellious American Patriots. España
and France together would avenge their defeat later in 1778 C.E., with
the American Revolutionary War in hopes of destroying Britain's
dominance once and for all. España would do so with arms, money, supplies, and eventually soldados.
The Treaty of Hubertusberg was signed by Austria,
Prussia, and Saxony. It in effect restored peace to the European
Continent. As a result of the War, King Frederick II of Prussia, also
known as Frederick the Great, became one of the most powerful monarchs
in Europe. Prussia’s influence as one of the strongest powers on the
continent diminished the power of the Austrian Habsburgs and the entire
Holy Roman Empire.
Just as Sweden had, Russia would conclude a
separate peace with Prussia. While the war began disastrously for
Prussia, good luck and a very successful military strategy saw King
Frederick the Great manage to retrieve the Prussian position and return
the political status of the region to its previously existing state of
affairs. Prussia emerged as a new European “great power.” Although
Austria failed to achieve its original goal of retrieving the territory
of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was also noted by the
Unfortunately for España, Portugal, and
Sweden their involvement in the War did not return them to their former
status as European great powers. They had become nations with less
power, prestige, and wealth. Over the years, Burbon France had led Borbón España to ruin.
When one reflects upon the significance of The
Seven Years' War, he or she is left with the realization that it was in
effect the first true world war. It took place almost 160 years before
the 20th-Century C.E.’s World War I, called the Great War. The Seven
Years' War would later influence many major world events around the
globe by restructuring the European political order. The War allowed for
the rise of Prussia and its involvement in the Germany's affairs. It
spread the seeds for the beginning of tensions and rebelliousness in
Britain’s Thirteen American Colonies, as well as France's eventual
revolutionary turmoil of 1789 C.E. That War also paved the way for the
beginning of British world supremacy in the 19th-Century C.E. It is also
characterized in Europe by sieges and the arson of towns as well as open
battles with heavy losses which would become the warfare of the future.
It must be remembered that the once all powerful España
by the 16th and 17th centuries C.E., maintained a monopoly on trade over
its Nuevo Mundo territories. Its competitors, the northern European
powers, were increasingly attracted to the regions as they wanted
potential trade and settlements. To challenge and then destroy España's monopoly, these powers resorted to piracy, smuggling, and
war. España's spoils were
taken by British buccaneers, Dutch freebooters, and French corsairs.
Beyond being simply pirates, in times of war they were put into the
service of their crowns as privateers legally encroaching upon España's
Nuevo Mundo possessions.
España’s ministers had other concerns as well. Its European
geographic neighbor, Portugal,
was a British ally and on its doorstep. This was an irritant as Britain
used Portugal as a convenient
excuse to foment border disputes and take other aggressive actions.
España's wealthy Flota
de Indias which sailed from Habana
was under constant threat. The Flota
de Indias was known by many names. It was also called the West
Indies Fleet, the Silver Fleet or Plate Fleet. This was taken from the
Spanish word plata meaning
"silver." It was a convoy system developed and implemented by el Imperio Español from 1566 C.E. to 1790 C.E. It linked España
with its territories in the Américas
across the Atlantic. The Flota
de Indias trade route was the first permanent transatlantic trade
route in history.
Similarly, the Galeón de Manila was the first permanent trade route across the
Pacific. Galeón de Manila Spanish
trading ships made round-trip voyages once or twice per year across the
Pacific Ocean. The Galeón de
Manila trade route was first inaugurated in 1565 C.E. It occurred
soon after Augustinian fray
and navigator Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the tornaviaje or return route from the Filipinas to Méjico. The
first successful round trips were made that year. They originated at the
port of Acapulco in
present-day Méjico and made
their way to Manila in the Filipinas. These were at the time, both part of Nueva
The term Galeón
de Manila was also a reference to the trade route between Acapulco
and Manila. Later, the name of the Galeón
would change to reflect the city from which the ship sailed. The Galeón
de Manila also became known in Nueva
España as La Nao de la China or The China Ship. This was because it carried
largely Chinese goods, shipped from Manila.
With the growth and expansion of her empire, these
convoys became general purpose cargo fleets. They were used for
transporting a wide variety of items. These included gems, gold,
luxuries, pearls, silver, silk, spices, sugar, tobacco, and other exotic
goods. It was the transference of wealth from across el
Imperio Español to the
Spanish mainland. Passengers and goods such as textiles, books, and
tools were then transported in the opposite direction to various places
with the Empire.
de Manila sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to España
cultural exchange, economic benefits, and their cargoes of luxury goods.
These round-trip voyages lasted until 1815 C.E., just before the Méjicano
Republic was founded in 1821 C.E. ending Spanish control of Méjicano
de Gálvez was in Nueva España’s
Apache country, the Conde of
Ricla was appointed Capitán
General of Cuba to
safeguard this important Spanish asset.
had first entered the Spanish Army, and by 1760 C.E., he was
representing España at the
court of Russia. After the Treaty of Paris between England and España
was signed, in July of 1763 C.E., the Conde
de Ricla took possession of
the island of Cuba in the name
of the king of España. During
his short administration, el Conde
repaired the fortifications of the city of Habana
and laid the foundations of the great fortress known as La Cabaña. Villalpando
also organized the department of finances, the police, the miquelets, and the hospitals. All of this, he did to reinforce the
fact that España intended to
In North America, the Pontiac War's hostilities
were brought to an end after British Army expeditions during 1764 C.E.
forced peace negotiations over the next two years.
In 1764 C.E., at 18 years of age Bernardo
de Gálvez was made a cadete
or cadet in the Gardes Wallonnes,
also known as Guardia Valona
or Walloon Guards. The Gardes Wallonnes were an infantry corps recruited for the Spanish Army and
assigned to the region now known as Belgium. The troops were mainly from
Catholic Wallonia. As foreign troops, they were without direct ties to
the Spanish population there and the Gardes
Wallonnes were often used for the maintenance of public order.
Eventually they would be incorporated as a regiment of the Spanish Royal
During some portion the next three years (1764 C.E.-1765
C.E.), Bernardo de Gálvez
served in and out of France as an Alférez
or sub-lieutenant comandante
militar in the Regiment of Cantabria
before leaving again for Nueva
España. This is the rank was that of an officer in the army below
the rank of Capitán.
The infantry Cantabria
Regiment has its origins in Salinas
(Guipúzcoa), in the year 1703
C.E. It was moved to Andalucía and
placed under the command to the Maestro
de campo or master of field, Tomás
Idiáquez and Peñarica. This was where the unit first received the
name of "the 3rd Guipúzcoa."
Reforms carried out by Felipe V of the Borbón
Dynasty, in 1704 C.E. By the 1707 C.E., it became the "Regiment of Guipúzcoa"
and participated in the War of the Spanish Succession. In the year 1714
C.E. the Álava Regiment merged with it. The Vizcaya Regiment would also merge with it one year later. By 1715
C.E., the Regiment was reorganized into two battalions and took the
name, Cantabria Regiment.
The Regiment of Cantabria during the year 1718 C.E., fought in the wars of Italy,
specifically in Sicily.
Undoubtedly in response to ongoing tensions with
the British, the first modern Spanish military school was created at in Segovia,
España in 1764 C.E. The Escuela
Real de Artillería (Royal School of Artillery) was the first
military Academia in España to be opened. This Academia
remains present in the city today.
By 1764 C.E., the Spanish Nuevo Mundo was changing. Its ciudadanos
were becoming more sophisticated. That year the Conde of Ricla founded La
Gaceta de la Habana Gazette. The Calle
de Ricla in Habana one of
its most important streets was named in his honor.
By 1764 C.E., José
or Joséf de Gálvez y Gallardo Marqués de Sonora, Bernardo’s
uncle, was appointed a member of the .
From 1764 C.E. José served as
Regent and given autonomy by the Virrey
of Nueva España, Visitador General or Inspector General so that he could take
whatever measures necessary to improve the income of the Royal Treasury.
These involved a tobacco monopoly, imposing charges on the alcoholic
beverage derived from the maguey or pulque, and on flour. To combat
smuggling, the Visitador General
reformed the customs services of Veracruz
and Acapulco. To control important financial and legal documents, de
Gálvez introduced new accounting methods.
In 1764 C.E., Pedro
Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Conde
de Aranda returned to España
to become Capitán General of València.
By 1764 C.E., Britain established dominion over
East India after the Battles of Plassey (1757 C.E.) and Buxar (1764 C.E.).
The Battle of Buxar was fought on October 22, 1764 C.E. On one side of
the conflict were the forces under the command of the British East India
Company led by then Major Hector Munro in the 89th Highland Regiment of
Foot later to be promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. The opposing forces
were the combined army of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; the Nawab of
Awadh; and the Mughal King Shah Alam II.
The battle fought at Buxar, what was then a small
fortified town within the territory of Bengal. It is located on the bank
of the Ganges River approximately 130 km west of Patna. The Battle was
to be a decisive victory for the British East India Company.
The British troops brought to bear in the conflict
numbered 7,072. They comprised 857 British, 5,297 Indian Sepoys, and 918
Indian cavalry. The opposing force numbered an estimated 40,000. It has
been stated that Mughal camp suffered from internal divisions.
A quarrel came about between the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and
Shuja-ud-Daula the Nawab of Awadh; Mir Qasim due to reluctance on their
part to engage the British. Instead,
went left the battle to collect tribute. Some have offered that this
lack of coordination among the allies led to their decisive defeat.
In the end, the British had faced an opposing
force five times as large. Major Hector Munro overcame the enemy and
finally dispersed it. The enemy suffered 6000 troops killed and left 130
cannon pieces on the field. The British lost only 2 officers and 4
In North America, Fort Charlotte was named in
honor of Her Majesty the Queen. It was to be the site of the first overt
act of war during the struggle for American independence in South
Carolina. It was the last fort erected in South Carolina during the
colonial period. The Fort was originally built between 1765 C.E. and
1767 C.E. for defensive purposes in an effort to protect local European
settlers near Long Canes. It was not constructed as a trading fort to be
used for Native and European trading. Constructed of stone, its cost was
£1,000 sterling. Built on the Savannah River, it is about forty-five
miles above Augusta, opposite the mouth of the Broad River. The Fort is
in the lower part of what is now Abbeville County, actually McCormick
County. The 50' x 40', bastioned Fort’s actual site of is now under
today’s J. Strom Thurmond Lake. It measured approximately 170 foot
squared with bastions at every corner and a wall height of between 10
and 20 feet.
By 1765 C.E., King Carlos III would send Don
O'Reilly to Puerto Rico. His
mission was to assess the state of the military defenses and readiness
of that settlement. Undoubtedly, this was another message to the British
that España had every intention of preparing for its next war with her.
As a result, Don O'Reilly
became known as the "father of the Puertorriqueño
miquelets.” He quickly took a very complete census of the island.
Next, O'Reilly recommended numerous reforms. These included instilling
strict military discipline in the local troops. He insisted that the men
serving the defense of the realm receive their pay regularly and
directly. Existing policy was that soldados
received their pay indirectly from their commanding officers. This was a
long-standing practice which had led to abuses. O'Reilly's
recommendations also resulted in a massive 20-year program to build up
the Castillo or Castle of San
Juan de Ulúa. Once his work was done, he returned to Cuba.
Upon returning to Cuba, Don O'Reilly married
into a prominent Cubano
family. His wife, Doña Rosa de
Las Casas, was the sister of Luís
de Las Casas. Luís served
as Gobernador of Cuba. As a
side note, O'Reilly was also cousin to Juan
MacKenna, a hero of the Chilean War of Independence.
José or Joséf
de Gálvez y Gallardo became Visitador
General to Nueva España.
In the years 1765 C.E. through 1772 C.E., he held more power than the virrey
during most of his tenure. He clearly understood the world and its
politics. It was his vision that helped save el
Imperio Español. For this reason and many others, Joséf
de Gálvez would be pivotal to España’s
success during his lifetime.
By 1765 C.E., José
de Gálvez y Gallardo was present when a reorganization of the army
was forced upon the Virrey Joaquín
de Montserrat, Marqués of Cruillas (born c1725 C.E.; Virrey, 1760 C.E.-1766 C.E.). The result of de Montserrat’s failures was his replacement by the Marqués
of Croix, Carlos Francisco of Croix.
Carlos Francisco de Croix,
Marqués de Croix
(1699C.E.-1786 C.E.) was born in Lille, France. He died in València,
España in 1786 C.E. He was a Flemish nobleman in the service of España
as a colonial administrator. It was Carlos
who introduced French fashions and French cuisine to Nueva
In 1765 C.E., at age 19 years, Bernardo
de Gálvez had already acquired fame in his participation in the War
with Portugal and fighting
against the apaches. He
arrived in Méjico City for
the first time as a part of the entourage of his uncle, José de Gálvez, the Visitador
General, who undertook an inspection tour of the Virreinato of Nueva España.
José’s field service in Nueva
España as Visitador General of the affairs of public finance was from 1765 C.E.-1771
On the North American Continent, on July 25, 1766
C.E. Pontiac and the Algonquian chiefs met at Fort Ontario located at
what is now Oswego, New York to sign a final peace treaty to end The
Pontiac War. Sir William Johnson, British Superintendent of Indian
Affairs, presided. Natives had been unable to drive away the British.
However, the uprising did prompt the British government to modify its
policies which had for some time provoked the conflict.
The Conde of
Ricla maintained the office Capitán
General of Cuba until
September of 1766 C.E. After the Conde
of Ricla return in España,
he was made Virrey of Navarra, Capitán General of
Cataluña. During the reign of Carlos
III, he became Secretary of War.
of Nueva España (1766 C.E.-1771
C.E.), Carlos Francisco de Croix,
Marqués de Croix was said to be genial, honest, and industrious.
However, the true ruler was José
de Gálvez, the Visitador
1766 C.E., after riots in began in Madrid,
Carlos III dismissed his
Italian minister Leopoldo de Gregorio Squillace. He then called upon Pedro
Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Conde
de Aranda to be president of the Council of Castilla.
The Conde de Aranda convinced Carlos
that the riots had been the work of the Catholic
Jesuits. The Conde next prepared a decree of expulsion of the Jesuits from España
and the Spanish América in
April of 1767 C.E.
The suppression of the Catholic Jesuit Order had
been an ongoing process. It occurred in the Portugués
Empire by 1759 C.E. and in France in 1764 C.E. Later, there were similar
activities in the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma and throughout el
Imperio Español by 1767 C.E. It was at the time considered a highly
controversial issue. Those who have expertise in such areas have
suggested that it was a result of a series of necessary political moves
in each monarchy or nation-state rather than a theological controversy.
The political entities of the era were attempting to centralize and
secularize political power. These viewed the Jesuits as being too
international in their approach, too strongly tied to the papacy, and
too autonomous from the monarchs and nation-state in whose territory
they conducted their affairs.
The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought
in South India over the last three decades of the 18th-Century C.E.
These wars were between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the
British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras
Presidency), and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the
other. Hyder Ali and his
successor Tipu Sultan fought a war on four fronts with the British
attacking from the west, south and east, while the Marathas and the
Nizam's forces attacked from the north.
The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767 C.E.-1769 C.E.)
saw Hyder Ali gain some measure of success against the British, almost
capturing Madras. The British convinced the Nizam of Hyderabad to attack
Hyder, but the Nizam changed sides, supporting the Sultan. That was
temporary however, and the Nizam signed a new treaty with the British in
February 1768 C.E. Hyder did contend with a British Bombay army
attacking on the west and a Madras army attacking from the northeast.
However, Hyder's attack in the area of Madras resulted in the Madras
government suing for peace, and the resultant Treaty of Madras.
Hyder Ali Khan (c. 1720 C.E.-December 7, 1782 C.E.)
or Sayyid wal Sharif Hyder Ali Khan was the sultan and de facto ruler of
the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. He distinguished himself
through military exploits and eventually drew the attention of Mysore's
rulers. Hyder Ali Khan rose to the post of Dalavayi or
commander-in-chief to Krishnaraja Wodeyar II. As a result he came to
dominate the titular monarch and control the Mysore government. He also
became the de facto ruler of Mysore as Sarvadhikari or Chief Minister by
Hyder strongly resisted the military advances of
the British East India Company during the First and Second Anglo-Mysore
Wars, and he was the innovator of military use of the iron-cased
During this same period, many reforms were
instituted in Nueva España.
As stated earlier, the Jesuits were expelled in 1767 C.E.; and the
Natives of Nueva España were
subdued in order to open the California
frontier. The nephew of Carlos
Francisco de Croix, Teodoro de Croix (1730 C.E.-1791 C.E.) would
become the comandante militar and provincial gobernador in Nueva España
before becoming the Virrey of Perú
(1784 C.E.-1790 C.E.). He put into operation reforms in the
administration of indigenous peoples.
By 1767 C.E., José
de Gálvez helped to mitigate the social effects of the expulsion of
the Jesuits which were felt with particular intensity in the Virreinato of Nueva España.
Carlos III had commissioned the catechizing via instruction in the
principles of Christian religion of the Natives and the colonization of Alta
California or Upper California.
This was done in order to block the attempted expansion of Russia via
Alaska into Nueva España. España had
first claimed the Alta California
coast in 1542 C.E., when Juan
Cabrillo sailed along it and explored from what is now San
Diego to San Francisco.
Their claim was reinforced by Sebastían
Cermano’s exploration in 1595 C.E., and by Sebastían
Vizcaíno in 1602 C.E.
In North America, near Fort Charlotte’s
completion date, the British Royal government abandoned the fort. Fort
Charlotte was placed under the care and authority of the South Carolina
government. In 1768 C.E., at that time several forts were closed in the
area. In many cases guns, cannon, powder, bullets, and other military
and war supplies were transported and held at Fort Charlotte.
It was in 1768 C.E., that King Carlos
III of España officially appointed José
de Gálvez y Gallardo Visitador General or ruler of Nueva España. Defending Nueva
España and the other Virreinatos
was of paramount importance to the Corona
José de Gálvez y Gallardo Marqués de Sonora, Visitador General of Public Finance in Nueva España
was the second son of António de
Gálvez y Gallardo y Carbajal. His mother was Ana Gallardo Jurado. José
was born in Macharaviaya Málaga,
España, on January 2, 1720 C.E.
III would later (1775 C.E.) make José
de Gálvez Secretarío del
Estado del Despacho Universal de Indias. The position allowed him to
continue his work reorganizing the northern parts of Nueva
España. He was authorized to establish and implement the Comandancia
y Capitanía General de las Provincias Internas or Commandancy
General of the Provincias Internas, which was to be independent of the virrey
of Nueva España. This new political structure included Nueva
Vizcaya, Nuevo Santander, Sonora y Sinaloa, Las Californias, Coahuila y
Tejas and Nuevo Méjico. Chihuahua was its capital. Teodoro
de Croix, the nephew of the former virrey,
was named the first Commandante
Upon his arrival José de Gálvez found the Borderland defenses of Nueva
España well beyond any defense cordon he could have imagined, given
the available resources and manpower. José,
the Uncle of the famous General
Bernardo de Gálvez, found the Nuevo
Méjicanos willing and able to defend their lands against those who
would try to seize it. He also saw remote Nuevo
Méjico as a wedge against hostile intentions of any powers and an
anchor for moving the frontier northward from Tejas
to Las Californias. José de Gálvez
was also in effect reorganized España’s
By 1768 C.E., the famous Teniente Coronel Juan Bautista
Gobernador of Sonora, was active in the
region. He shared España’s
broad military strategic view. The complete vision was to extend España’s influence from Sonora,
through Tejas and onto Luisiana.
De Anza would later prove himself by successfully settling San
Francisco Bay in Alta
California. He was a man José
de Gálvez y Gallardo could trust in. He was both a natural leader
and resourceful. Under orders from de
Gálvez, de Anza planned, organized, recruited, and successfully
mounted two overland expeditions from Sonora
through the California desert to Alta
De Gálvez also authorized the waging of war against the
northern Natives, opening the way for expansion of the realm. It was his
deployment of superior defenses that made Nueva
España more secure against foreign and internal enemies. Among
other accomplishments, he headed the settlement of California. With California
populated by Españoles, Nueva
España could better defend against the British and Russian
incursions from the Pacific. This brings home the importance of the de Gálvez family to España’s
In 1768 C.E., José’s
nephew, Bernardo de Gálvez
was assigned to Nueva España’s
northern regions of what is today Méjico
and portions of the United States. Once again, he would be fighting the Apaches. This time it was to be in Nueva Viscaya and Sonora.
At age 23 Bernardo
de Gálvez arrived in northern Nueva
España in early 1769 C.E.
There his uncle, José had
been Visitador General in the
region from 1765 C.E. On April 11, 1769 C.E., Bernardo
went to Chihuahua, in Nueva
Vizcaya, to participate in the military campaign against the Gila
Apaches. He served under Capitán
Lope de Cuéllar, Gobernador of the Rarámuri
and Tepehuána Natives and comandante
of their borders. He was attached to the Presidio
of Janos at what is
present-day Chihuahua, Méjico. He commanded a military contingent of 700, which including
Natives (Indians) in campaigns against the Apaches
de Gila during June through December of 1769 C.E. His campaigns led
to the destruction of 2 villages and some number of the Chafalotes Indians. 60 Indians were killed, 5 captured 15, and 2
The name, Gila,
or Xila, was originally that
of an Apache settlement west
of Socorro, in southwest Nuevo
Méjico. As early as 1630 C.E., the name was applied to the Apache
residing for part of the time on the extreme headwaters of the Río
Gila. It is suggested that the name Gila
was applied to those Natives later known as
and Warm Springs or the Chiricahua
Apache and later extending to
include the Apache living
along the Gila in Arizona.
After a few months of training in Chihuahua,
Bernardo was made a Capitán in
the Regiment of the Crown of Nueva
España, thanks to the support
of his uncle, Joséf and the virrey.
He was commissioned at the northern frontier of Nueva
España becoming Comandante
Militar of military forces in Nueva
Vizcaya and Sonora. He
then led several major expeditions against Gila
Apaches, whose attacks and
plundering had seriously crippled the economy of the region.
In April of 1769 C.E., Mariscal del campo Alejandro O'Reilly was appointed Gobernador
and Capitán General of Spanish Luisiana
while in España. He received
orders to immediately proceed to Habana.
The Gobernador embarked 3,000
troops in Habana and left for
his assignment. Upon reaching Spanish New Orleans in Luisiana
in August 1769 C.E., Don
O'Reilly formally took possession of the Territory and put down a revolt
had a small population. Its inhabitants were free Whites, free Blacks,
slaves, and Natives (Indians). During the first decades of Spanish rule,
Luisiana would grow quickly.
However, the population’s percentage of Spanish was very low. Twenty
years later, the period the Spanish population reached only 15% of the
total. According to the Government census of implemented by
Don O' Reilly, in 1769 C.E., it had 13,513 inhabitants, excluding
Natives. Twenty years later, the population would grow to 31,433.
O'Reilly had crushed the uprising against Ulloa
and Spanish rule. He had also and defeated the ringleaders who had
led the Rebellion of 1768 C.E. O'Reilly then held trials and severely
punished those French Creoles responsible for the expulsion of España's first Gobernador
of Luisiana, Don António de Ulloa (1716 C.E.-1795 C.E.) from Luisiana.
Don O'Reilly continues to be remembered in New
Orleans as "Bloody O'Reilly." This is because he had six
prominent rebel French citizens executed, in October 1769 C.E. Other
French rebels were exiled and some were sent for life imprisonment in
the Castillo San Felipe del Morro also known as Fuerte San Felipe del Morro or Morro
Castle in Habana, Cuba.
Alejandro then sent most of his troops back to Cuba
and focused his attention on administrative issues. It was necessary for
him to resuscitate Luisiana’s
ailing economy and stabilize its food supplies. Don
O'Reilly was also forced to quickly reform many of the French
bureaucratic practices which had been in place since before Spanish
During this time, the settlement of Ninety Six in
South Carolina became the capital city of the Ninety-Six District when
it was established in July 1769 C.E.
At the end of September, 1769 C.E., or the
beginning of November, 1769 C.E., Bernardo
de Gálvez went to Pitic
or Santísima Trinidad del Pitic and Presidio del Pitic where his uncle was seriously ill. Pitic
is now called Hermosillo, that city located centrally in the northwestern Méjicano
state of Sonora.
In December of 1769 C.E., Don O'Reilly allowed the French Canadian Acadians who had settled on
the Mississippi River opposite Natchez
to resettle on the Amite River near Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain.
These Acadians were the descendants of the 17th-Century C.E. French
colonists who settled in Acadia, some of whom are also Métis. The North
America Métis were a specific indigenous people with their own culture
and communities. Later, the early unions of the Métis between First
Nations people would develop into a mixed-race. Descendants of
Colonial-era European settlers and the Métis within generations
developed a distinct Métis/European culture.
The Acadia colony was located in what is now
Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and
Prince Edward Island), as well as part of Québec, and present-day Maine
to the Kennebec River. This increased the number of Spanish subjects in
Just as he’d done on his 1765 C.E. mission to Puerto
Rico, Gobernador and Capitán
General O'Reilly's proclamations and rulings would affect many
aspects of life in Luisiana.
He gave slaves the ability to purchase their freedom and slave owners
the ability to more easily release them from bondage, so much for the
Spanish and the Black Legend. The Gobernador
also banned ownership of Native slaves. What does this due to the Noble
Savage indignations and the Spanish? Alejandro
regularized the weights and measurements, regulated doctors and
surgeons, and improved public safety through the funding of bridge and
levee maintenance. The Corona Española
had an interest in strengthening its Nuevo
Mundo possessions. Should another war breakout, she would be
After restoring public order, O'Reilly assigned
the post of Gobernador of Luisiana
to the coronel of the Habana
Regiment in December 1769 C.E. He kept the post of Capitán General for himself. Luisiana
was firmly placed as a dependency of the military. It would be led by
the political establishment in Cuba.
To offer some clarity on the transition of Luisiana
from a French possession to a Spanish provincia,
O'Reilly had made great strides in controlling the populace and its
leadership. Alejandro O’Reilly,
the “enforcer” had to establish order over the hostile Frenchmen and
Germans living there in the wake of Gobernador
Antonio de Ulloa’s tumultuous Governorship. The reconstituted,
reorganized governance of the Provincia
would hold. Future Spanish gobernadores
such as Bernardo de Gálvez
would not have to face these same issues.
One interesting note, Oliver Pollock (1737 C.E.,
Coleraine, Ireland-December 17, 1823 C.E., Pinckneyville, Mississippi),
later to become an American Patriot, had arrived in Luisiana in 1768 C.E. Pollock would serve O’Reilly’s commercial
needs. The two men became close friends. Pollock remained a friend of
every Spanish gobernador who
followed including de Gálvez.
Pollock is a story unto himself, a sincere Patriot, credited for
financing the American Revolution in the west. He is often attributed
with the creation of the United States Dollar sign in 1778 C.E.,
developing a symbol for the Spanish peso
consisting of an elaborate “p” within an “S” which evolved into
our American dollar sign. He was a merchant and financier of the
American Revolutionary War, of which he has long been considered a
historically undervalued figure.
of Pollock’s personal papers exist. Ironically, they were destroyed in
the 1860’s C.E. by the U.S.S. Essex when it bombarded Saint
Francisville during the Civil War. His portraits were destroyed. There
is no known likeness of him. We have some indication of his commitment
to his new country from a letter he sent to Congress after the
Revolution. He wrote: “I have the pleasure to reflect that from the
beginning to the end I was deaf to every motive except an ardent
appreciation for our righteous cause.”
Between the years 1770 C.E.-1771 C.E., Bernardo
de Gálvez found himself in the northern provincias
of Nueva España. After a few months, he was in command of 35 soldados
and 50 Ópata and undertook his first raid against the Apaches. He was soon
promoted to Comandante de armas
or commandant of arms of Nueva
Vizcaya and Sonora,
northern provincias of Nueva España,
currently Nuevo Méjico. Bernardo
then returned to Chihuahua, in
July or August of 1770 C.E. There he quickly became immersed in the
campaign against the Apaches,
who had left the area vulnerable to repeated incursions. During
campaigns against the Apache
along the Pecos and Gila rivers in
1770 C.E.-1771 C.E., Bernardo
was wounded twice by an arrow in the left arm and spear in the chest.
Despite this, he gained military experience that proved invaluable a few
de Gálvez’s uncle, José,
recovering from illness, Bernardo
accompanied him to Méjico
City in May, 1770 C.E. He then later returned to the northern provincias.
San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo was founded on June 3, 1770 C.E.
in the nearby settlement of Monterey.
However, it was moved to Carmel by Junípero
Serra due to the interaction between soldados
stationed at the nearby Presidio and
the Native Indians.
On October 21, 1770 C.E., Bernardo
de Gálvez crossed the Río
Grande. On November 1, 1770
C.E. he came to the Pecos
River. By the end of year, the Apaches
caused such havoc that Bernardo was ordered to end all offensive operations and to reinforce the presidios
to focus on the defense of the territory against attacks by the Apaches.
By 1770 C.E., Oliver Pollock married Margaret
O'Brien of New Orleans, with whom he had eight children before her death
in 1799 C.E.
The year 1771 C.E., found José de Gálvez y Gallardo on a mission to Méjico City to settle difficulties that had arisen between the Audiència
and the proprietors of the mines regarding revenue. He soon arranged
everything satisfactorily, introduced improvements into the
administration, and saved the government several millions of dollars
yearly. José then made
several trips into the interior to study the situation and the
necessities of Nueva España.
Thanks to the support of the virrey, on February 26, 1771 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez was allowed to resume his offensive campaign in
charge of a mixed Hispanic-Indian contingent. De Gálvez pursued the Apaches
during the next several months who continued their attacks on Spanish
On October 11, 1771 C.E.,
de Gálvez was in pursuit of a band of Apache,
he and his outnumbered 14 soldados
were defeated. He was gravely wounded, by an arrow in the left arm and
spear in the chest.
In December 1771 C.E., he
made a new start against the Apaches
with a major military force. While on maneuvers, Bernardo suffered a fall from his horse. The injury
bothered him greatly afterwards. He
then made a request of its uncle, José,
to return to the Ibero
By December 1771 C.E., the transfer of the Misión
San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo to Carmel from Monterey
California was complete. A new
stockade of approximately 130’x200’ became the new Misión
Carmel. Simple buildings made of plastered mud were the first church
and dwellings. These were followed by a more sturdy structure built of
wood from nearby pine and cypress trees. The new structure was needed to
stand up to the seasonal rains. This structure was also temporary. The
replacement church, of a permanent stone edifice was built later.
España, Bernardo de Gálvez
was soon relieved of his command in Chihuahua
and returned to Méjico City
on February 10, 1772 C.E. This was done so he could accompany his uncle,
José, on his visits
throughout the region of Nueva
España. However, his uncle
could not wait for him and left on visitations. José
de Gálvez returned in late of May 1772 C.E. José’s experiences in the border areas of the Virreinato caused him to have a great respect for the quality of the
soldados of the presidios.
It also gave him a better understanding for the reasons for the war with
the Apaches. For the Apaches
it was revenge for Spanish excesses. However, part of the problem was
that they didn’t cultivate crops or maintained cattle for sustenance,
thus, their continued raids.
After his return to España in 1772 C.E., José de
Gálvez y Gallardo became the leading guide of the Council of the Indias. José’s
stay brought new responsibilities. José
was also a member of the General Council on Commerce, Coinage and
Mining, a gobernador in the ,
and a councilor of state. He designed and drove many of them initiatives
more outstanding within the set of decisions that integrated them,
called the Borbón Reforms.
At age 26 in 1772 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez had returned to España in the company of his uncle, José de Gálvez. October 9, 1772 C.E., de Gálvez was promoted to Capitán
of the infantry regiment of Sevilla,
by then in Cádiz.
Meanwhile in the Maratha Empire in India, after
the death of Madhavrao Peshwa in 1772 C.E., his brother Narayanrao
became Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India. However, he was
assassinated and his uncle, Raghunathrao became Peshwa. Narayanrao's
widow, Gangabai, then gave birth to a posthumous son, Sawai Madhavrao.
He was the legal heir to the throne. Soon, twelve Maratha chiefs
initiated an effort to elevate the infant to Peshwa and rule under him
In 1773 C.E., Charles Lee, a man later to serve in
the American Independence movement, moved to North America and bought an
estate in Virginia. When the fighting began in the American War of
Independence in 1775 C.E., Lee volunteered to serve with American
Patriot forces. Lee was ambitious to become Commander in Chief of the
Continental Army. However, this was prevented when George Washington was
appointment of to that post.
Bernardo de Gálvez
graduated from the Regiment of Sevilla
on March 18, 1773 C.E.
Bernardo was sent to Pau, France in 1773 C.E., with the
infantryman Regiment of Cantabria.
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, and capital of
the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Aquitaine,
France. The city is located in the heart of the former sovereign State
of Béarn, of which it was the capital from 1464 C.E. Bordered by the
Gave de Pau, a city situated 62 miles from the Atlantic Ocean and 31
miles from España. There he spent the years furthering his knowledge of
military science and learning the French language and culture. These
would serve him well when he would later become gobernador
Between 1770 C.E. and 1774 C.E., General
de Teniente Alejandro O’Reilly reached the apex of his power and
influence at the Corte Real Española.
Having received many honors from King Carlos
III for his military reforms in Cuba,
Puerto Rico, and Luisiana
O’Reilly was appointed Gobernador
and comandante militar of Madrid
in 1773 C.E.
From his position in Madrid, General de Teniente
Alejandro O’Reilly accomplished one of his greatest professional
military ambitions. In 1774 C.E, he established a new Spanish military
academy for officers, “La Real
Escuela Militar de Ávila” or The Royal Military Academy of Ávila.”
Located at Ávila, España the
Academy would follow the best European military models of planning and
warfare. O’Reilly had experienced this European warfare himself during
its formative years. However, Ávila
would adapt these to a Spanish context for warfare.
The officers selected for the military academy
were those who were most likely to be promoted in the Spanish Army. This
was based upon the opinion of its Director, who was also the Inspector General de infantería or Inspector General of Infantry.
Secondly, the instructors used books for military training in España
considered to be the most advanced for the times.
Bernardo de Gálvez entered
the Royal Military Academy of Ávila
de los Caballeros for staff
officers in April 1774 C.E. This was after its foundation under Alejandro O’Reilly in 1774 C.E. It is likely that he achieved this
through the help of his uncle, Miguel,
at the time a member of the Supreme War Council and O’Reilly under
whom he had served previously.
His Uncle, Miguel
de Gálvez y Gallardo was born at Macharaviaya,
November 30, 1725 C.E. and died in Gotha, Germany on July 14, 1792 C.E.
He was the third brother of the famous Gálvez
y Gallardo family brothers (Joséf,
Matiás, and António). Miguel
became a jurist and Spanish politician. At his baptism, he was
christened Andrés Luís, but later changed it to Miguel in 1747 C.E.
Miguel studied law at the Colégio de Santa María or León
of the University of Alcalá.
By 1770 C.E., he was appointed as Mayor
of the Court. Four years later, he took up a new post of Minister of the
Supreme War Council. He participated in the creation of the military mutual
aid society, which was responsible for the support of widows and
orphans of officers of the army. Later, he took part in the Foundation
of the Economic Society of Friends of Madrid
at 1775 C.E.
Together with his brothers, Miguel founded the montepío
whereby wine-growers, and brandy makers and local growers deposited
money made up of discounts. This allowed individuals of this body to
assist their widows and orphans or for other assistance. They also made
the import of figs, almond, and oil from Málaga,
to improve regional conditions. The
de Gálvez y Gallardo brothers also facilitated regional access to
credit through an agricultural bank they founded and scholarships for
the children in some universities Españolas.
For a period of 14 years, Miguel was President of the Royal Academy of Spanish law and public
of Santa Bárbara. He soon introduced some American plants into the Iberian
Peninsula, in order to improve trade and the economy. In 1766 C.E., he
was appointed perpetual Mayor
of Málaga, although he
resided in Madrid. Miguel brought about a series of reforms and public works in the
city to improve its economy. He later took a rest in his hometown in
1785 C.E. While there, he provided the town with several urban
In the summer of 1786 C.E., he was sent as
Plenipotentiary Minister-Ambassador to the Court of Prussia, in Berlin.
While there, he developed excellent relations with Fredrick the Great.
He was later sent to Saint Petersburg, Russia. He never forgot his
beloved Málaga. While at
Saint Petersburg, he opened a market for Spanish wines from Málaga.
Miguel de Gálvez y Gallardo
became ill, and requested to be relieved. He left for España
on June 6, 1792 C.E. While returning to España,
Miguel died in the city of
Gotha, Germany on July, 14th. A life-long bachelor, he left no
descendents. His remains were later moved to the crypt-mausoleum in the
parish church of San Jacinto in
Macharaviaya, his hometown.
The burial chamber construction had been financed by the de Gálvez brothers.
The Church of San
Jacinto was rebuilt in the 18th-Century C.E. in the same location
that the first church had been built two centuries before, in 1505 C.E.
Its floor plan is that of a Latin cross with a single nave that measures
36 metres long by 9 metres wide. The building has a barrel vault and a
graceful dome on the transept. The entrance to the church has a sober
facade, done in facing brick and very much in the style of the era with
Corinthian columns under a divided pediment. Over this appears a royal
coat of arms. Adjacent to San
Jacinto is the cemetery. This is also the location of the entrance
to the Church’s crypt which occupies practically the entire
underground area of the Church.
Unfortunately, the Royal Military Academy of Ávila’s
existence was brief. Therefore, it was quickly forgotten and has been
the subject of little study. Understanding the ideas and methods used,
one can assume that this military academy was one of the major attempts
of the 18th-Century C.E. Spanish army to modernize its officer corps.
Its failure and end also meant the defeat of one of España’s
largest projects to undermine privileges in the Borbón
In 1774 C.E., José
de Gálvez y Gallardo was appointed president of the and
Councilor of State. In this office, the most important in the kingdom
after that of Prime Minister, he excelled. José
rendered great service to the state and the territories. One of his
key concerns was the growing discontent in the British colonies of North
America. Their Thirteen Colonies were moving quickly to establish their
own sovereign nation. Britain would have none of it.
By 1774 C.E., in India, the British were
continuing their efforts of conquest. They occupied Salsette Island,
Thana Fort, Fort Versova, and the island fort of Karanja in India.
The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775 C.E.-1782 C.E.)
was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the British
East India Company and Maratha Empire in India. The war would begin with
the Treaty of Surat and end with the Treaty of Salbai.
Raghunathrao of the Maratha Empire in India would
not relinquish power and sought help from the British at Bombay. He
signed the Treaty of Surat on March 6, 1775 C.E. In the Treaty,
Raghunathrao ceded the territories of Salsette and Bassein to the
British. It also contained provisions for part of the revenues from
Surat and Bharuch districts to be given to the British. In return,
Britain was to provide Raghunathrao with 2,500 soldiers.
In Europe, Bernardo
de Gálvez became aware of España’s preparation of a military expedition against Algiers. Bernardo
left France when he was transferred to Sevilla in 1775 C.E., at the age of 29. He departed to Madrid on April 10, 1775 C.E. with companions to participate in it.
The objective of the campaign was to punish the Moroccan Sultan,
Mohammed III for attacking Spanish held Melilla
and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera
in 1774 C.E. The Sultan did this despite a peace treaty having been
signed between the two nations in 1767 C.E.
War was also a reality in North America. It has
been reported that in the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 17, 1775 C.E.,
in addition to the Continental Army some number of Puertorriqueños volunteers fought the British. The Puertorriqueños
were supposedly under the command of Capitán
Bernardo had managed the return to his old Regiment of Sevilla
which was to participate in the Algiers campaign and to obtain the
command of a company of cazadores
thanks to the influence of his uncle, Miguel,
a member of the Supreme War Council. He
then participated in the failed Algiers Expedition in July 1775 C.E., against
the Ottoman Empire’s forces as Capitán
de Infantería under Alejandro
O'Reilly. The “Siege of Algiers” began when the town was attacked
July 8, 1775 C.E. by a Spanish force of 51 ships of war and 26,000 men
Pedro González de Castejón y Salazar, the marqués de
González de Castejón,
Ministro de Marina of Carlos
III and the Conde de O'Reilly.
It is important to place this attack in its proper
context. Many historians and commentators do not or will not deal with
the issue of Islam’s designs for the complete conquest of the West.
They evidently misunderstand Muslim intentions of world domination. The
issue was not a simplistic one for España,
as Islam had every intention of reconquering her and regaining her
sacred Islamic places of worship. Islam’s view of “once a conquered
country, always a conquered country” is and was the order of the day.
Therefore, Algeria and Algiers played more than a casual role on the
world stage in these historic times.
Algiers is the capital, chief seaport, and largest
city of Algeria and second largest country on the African continent.
Located in northern Algeria on the slopes of the Sahel hills, the city
extends for 10 miles along the west side of the Bay of Algiers on the
Mediterranean Sea. Its strategic location allowed the city to easily
access the Mediterranean region and its shipping lanes. She was at the
time controlled by the Islamist Ottoman Empire, the enemy of España
and all other Christian nations of Europe. The Ottoman Empire, also
known as the Turkish Empire, was founded in 1299 C.E. by Oghuz Turks
under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
By the early-14th-Century C.E., España
ruled the City of Algiers. In 1302 C.E., the Españoles
had occupied the islet of Peñón
located in the front of Algiers Harbor. Thereafter, a considerable
amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and España.
After conquests in the Balkans by Murad I between 1362 C.E. and 1389 C.E.,
the Ottoman sultanate was transformed into a transcontinental empire and
claimant to the caliphate. The Ottomans were bent upon world domination.
To prove the point, the Ottoman Mehmed the Conqueror ended the Christian
Byzantine Empire with the 1453 C.E. conquest of Constantinople. The
Eastern Roman Empire which had lasted for over a thousand of years was
Piracy in the Mediterranean had existed since time
immemorial. Algiers did not have great importance to the Europeans. That
was until after the expulsion of the Moros
from España in 1492 C.E.,
many of whom sought asylum in that city. The first great wave of Barbary
piracy came at the time that these Moros
had been driven from España.
Spanish vessels and coastal cities became their first targets.
They soon grew in importance and power. As they did, the Islamic
governors of North Africa were brought under their control. It was at
this point that they became a greater threat to all of Europe. They
plunder the cargo of merchant ships, took all Christian passengers
hostage, and either ransomed them, or sold them off as slaves.
During the 16th and 17th centuries C.E., the
Ottoman Empire was at the height of its power. Under the reign of
Suleiman the Magnificent, the Empire was a multinational, multilingual
entity controlling much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus,
North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. It served the Ottoman Empire’s
purposes to have Algeria and her capital Algiers act on her behalf as a
terrorist client state. By the early 1500s C.E., Algiers became the main
base of the Barbary pirates. From that protected location they would
attack European shipping in the western Mediterranean for the next 300
In the early 16th-Century C.E., España
constructed fortified presidios
at her outposts on or near the Algerian coast. She then took control
over coastal towns such as Mers el Kébir in 1505 C.E. and Oran in 1509
C.E. By 1510 C.E, following their occupation of Oran, the Españoles
occupied and placed presidios
at Tlemcen, Mostaganem, and Ténès or Kartenas on the coast of North
Africa. This strategy proved to be a costly and largely ineffective
military endeavor. It did not guarantee access for España’s
quickly fortified the islet of Peñon
and imposed a levy which was intended to suppress corsair activity.
Barbary piracy was by then a full-fledged enterprise.
C.E., The merchants of Algiers ceded one of the rocky islets in their
harbor to España. The Españoles quickly established themselves on that small island in
front of Algiers. Next, they persuaded the ruler, amir of Algiers
Selim-bin-Teumi to accept their presence through a treaty and pay
tribute. Fortifications were soon built on the islet, and a guarnición of 200 soldados
was established. Selim-bin-Teumi then went to España and took an oath of obedience to Fernando of Aragón.
In 1516 C.E., the amir negotiated with the two
corsair brothers, Arouj and Khair ad-Din Barbarossa to expel the Españoles.
Arouj, with the assistance of Ottoman troops, arrived at Algiers and
ordered the assassination of Selim. He then seized the town. Spanish
expeditions were sent to take over the city. The first one was in 1516
C.E. under Don Diego de Vera.
By 1518 C.E., the city of Algiers fell under the direct rule of the
Ottoman Empire. The city was then enclosed by walls on all sides,
including along the seafront. The wall’s five gates allowed access to
the city. The five gates and the road from each gate divided the city
and met in front of the Ketchaoua Mosque. Then in 1519 C.E., Don
Ugo de Moncada, attempted to take the city and failed.
Khair ad-Din succeeded Arouj after the latter was
killed in battle against the Españoles
at the Fall of Tlemcen (1517 C.E.). The capture of Algiers in 1516 C.E.
had been made possible with the support of the Ottoman Sultan Selim I.
This support was discontinued with Sultan Selim's death in 1520 C.E.,
causing Barbarossa to lose the city to a local Kabyle chieftain in 1524
C.E., and to retreat to his fief of Djidjelli.
Suleiman the Magnificent declared war on Ferdinand
of Habsburg in January 1529 C.E. He also decided to go on the offensive
in the western Mediterranean. As a result, he chose to renew Ottoman
support of Barbarossa.
Barbarossa received from the Ottoman Empire 2,000
Janissaries which were elite infantry units, artillery, and an important
financial support. Through bribery Barbarossa first obtained a change in
the allegiance of the supporters of the Algiers Sheikh. After taking
power in the city, Barbarossa then started to lay siege to the offshore
island forts El Peñón de Argel,
the Spanish fortress at the entrance of the harbor. El
Peñón de Argel is a small islet off the coast of Algiers,
fortified by the Kingdom of España
during the 16th-Century C.E. The islet was connected to the African
continent to form a seawall and the harbor of Algiers.
After 22 days of heavy artillery fire, the Spanish
Gobernador Don Martín de Vargas
finally surrendered on May 29, 1529 C.E. He had only 25 men left and had
received no help from the Spanish mainland. De
Vargas was executed by being clubbed to death by the Islamists. The
fortress was then dismantled and the stonework was used to build a
seawall. The Moros used
Christian slaves as workers on the project.
By 1556 C.E., the Ottomans had constructed a
citadel at the highest point in the wall. A major road was placed
running north to south, dividing the city in two. The upper city or al-Gabal
consisted of about fifty small quarters of Andalusian, Jewish, Moorish,
and Kabyle communities. What was called the lower city or al-Wata,
constituted the administrative, military, and commercial center of the
city. The area was inhabited by Turkish dignitaries and other
Unfortunately, the Barbary pirates that band of Moro
brigands were protected by the Ottomans and their piracy was encouraged
by the coastal cities of Northern Africa. These included Algiers, Djerba,
Tripoli, and Tunis.
It is important to remember that at the beginning
of the 17th-Century C.E., the Ottoman Empire comprised some 32 provinces
and numerous vassal states. Some would later be absorbed into the
Ottoman Empire. Others would be granted various levels of autonomy
during the course of centuries. In effect, this powerful empire and
Algiers actively collaborated with the pirates in their activities. To
make matters worse, by the early-17th-Century C.E., many more Moros
were expelled from España and
sought asylum in Algiers.
What should be clear to the reader by now is that
by 1775 C.E., the Españoles
could no longer turn a blind eye toward Algiers and allow the pirates to
continue to attack and pillage with impunity. Something had to be done.
Thus, España attacked Algiers. After a severe conflict, the Españoles
failed to dislodge their opponents. They retired after a loss of over
3,000 killed and wounded. The Algerines lost about 5,000.
As stated earlier, Bernardo
de Gálvez made his way to Sevilla
in 1775 C.E. From there, de Gálvez left
for Algiers and participated in the disastrous expedition commanded by Alejandro
O’Reilly. While capturing the fortress that guarded the city De Gálvez was seriously wounded in a leg during the fighting on the beaches. Though injured, he resisted
being removed. After the unsuccessful expedition quickly failed, Bernardo
returned to Cádiz. During his
participation in the unfortunate Maghreb Expedition, he was allowed to
ascend to Teniente Coronel.
His was a part of a series of promotions which caused a great scandal,
because they were awarded in many cases to comendadores who had led the failed campaign.
In North America, on July 12, 1775 C.E., Fort
Charlotte located just west of Fort Ninety-Six on the Savannah River was
seized in the name of the Council of Safety. This marked South
Carolina’s entry into the Revolutionary War. The Council of Safety in
Charlestown ordered Major James Mayson, commander of Fort Ninety-Six to
capture Fort Charlotte.
On July 12th, a Patriot force of Ranger companies
captured the Fort. They accomplished this without bloodshed or
opposition. The only occupants of the fort were Captain George
Whitefield, his family, and a few men of the garrison. The Rangers also
captured 1,050 pounds of gunpowder, 18 cannons, 15 muskets, 83 casks of
musket cartridges, 2,521 musket balls, and 343 iron cannonballs. Fort
Charlotte also housed an undisclosed number of Prisoners-of-War. Exactly
how many is unknown. However, given the number of loyalists living in
the Carolina backcountry, their numbers may have been numerous.
Mayson and part of the SC 3rd Regiment would soon
be stationed at Fort Charlotte to command the interior. Once there, the
Patriots met with leaders of the Cherokee at Fort Charlotte in an
attempt to sway the Cherokee in their favor. However, the talks failed
and South Carolina entered the American Revolutionary War with both the
English and the Cherokee opposing them.
Ninety Six would figure prominently in the
Anglo-Cherokee War (1758 C.E.-1761 C.E.). It also was a site for various
southern campaigns waged during the American Revolutionary War. The
first land battle of the revolution south of New England was fought
there in 1775 C.E. On August 1, 1775 C.E., American militia forces led
by Major Andrew Williamson were ambushed by Cherokee and Loyalists near
here in the Battle of Twelve Mile Creek. There were more than 4,000
Cherokee who waged war on a long front beginning in June, from Tennessee
to central South Carolina. Francis Salvador,
an immigrant from London, a planter, and a Sephardic Jew was one of the
casualties. He was the first Jew to be killed fighting with the Patriots
in the Revolutionary War.
In North America, the Corona Española held all lands west of the Mississippi River and
the beautiful city of New Orleans. El
Imperio Español’s Nueva España, in North America, where my
progenitors lived was a part of a Spanish administered area that
extended from Central América to
In an effort to counter its European rivals,
Britain, France, and Russia, España
began organizing its army in Nueva
España’s borderlands from Tejas
through California. By 1776
C.E., orders went to all border provincias
of Northern Nueva España to
properly deploy forces to unify the frontier and counter the influence
of the British and other foreign forces. Most probably this was also in
preparation for war with Britain in North America.
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