Chapter Fifteen

The Españoles, Hispanics, the Family de Gálvez, World-Wide wars and the Pre-American Revolutionary War Period


 Much is owed to the Internet researchers who provide a wealth of information included here.

When one writes a family history it is a very personal matter. We de Riberas originated in España, before entering the Spanish Nuevo Mundo in the 16th-Century C.E. Our forebears were loyal subjects who served the Corona Española through centuries as soldados and administrators of el Imperio Español. As such, we descendents feel proud of our lineage and the services that our progenitors rendered in Nueva España after their arrival in North America before and after in 1598 C.E. Yes, I wrote “North America.” Not those areas currently within the boundaries of today’s Mexico. I also wrote 1598 C.E., yes before the British or English established their colonies.


This was before the first permanent English settlement in the Americas named the Jamestown settlement, in the Colony of Virginia. It was the first colony in the British Empire, established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 4, 1607 C.E. (O.S., May 14, 1607 C.E. N.S.). Jamestown was considered to be permanent after its brief abandonment in 1610 C.E.


Now, we move to unpleasant business. What does one do when the actions of my progenitors, the de Ribera, España, and Españoles during the Spanish Colonial Period are called into question, even condemned? If your progenitors were attacked and demeaned, wouldn’t you mount a defense? How should a person react when issues of immoral acts by one’s ancestors are raise? What of questions of rights trampled upon and wrongs committed by one’s ancestors are put forth? What if accusations of corruption by one’s ancestors are raised? How would you react if outright evil acts have been laid at the door step of your progenitors? The answer is simple. One must comment on the realities which existed during the various periods in which they all lived. In addition, objective comparators must be used.


It must be remembered that the story of a family is not only the offering of information about their lifetimes. It also involves the circumstances and conditions under which they experienced their lives. These need to be contextualized using the historical realities which swirled about them. Nations, just as people, transition, change, and evolve. So should their stories.


Today, as I sit writing this text the world around me is full of change in politics, religion, science, war, the concepts of right and wrong, racial and ethnic conflict, and other life events which mark this second decade of the 21st-Century C.E. It would be fair to say that I’m not immune to those conditions or their outcomes. They most certainly have an impact upon me, my family, friends, and acquaintances just as the realities of the world around my progenitors, the de Ribera, had an impact upon them.


Additionally, I’m not a historian, nor do I claim to be. In fact, both my undergraduate and graduate degrees are both in business. The only advantage I hold in the writing of this family history, which includes many historical facts, is that of my training and education. Before retirement, I was a business analyst/researcher and an executive in both Private and Public Sectors. I also spent over a decade as a University adjunct professor in the area of business and management. In addition, I was involved assessing potential activities which might be used to enable managerial success in a given marketplace or given set of circumstances and in the writing of large, complex business strategic planning documents. These were geared toward domination of market share and overtaking large, powerful business rivals. As an executive, I was responsible to implement strategic plans and annual operating plans, and to meet their qualitative goals and quantitative objectives. Monarchies and nation-states utilize similar activities and approaches to achieve their economic and military strategies, goals, and objectives to achieve geographic dominance.


España’s Nuevo Mundo of the 16th-Century C.E. and 17th-Century C.E. were no different. My progenitors, the de Ribera, did not live in a vacuum. They were affected by the same elements of life and society that we are today. España was by that time a world superpower. Through exploration, warfare, conquest, and settlement she won her place as the world’s greatest power. Please, take notice that I did not include the word “colonization.” I find its constant application to España’s Nuevo Mundo settlements and not those of other European nations by non-Spanish commentators, writers, and historians deliberate and offensive. My preference is to use the terms settlements and territories.


The term “Colonization” is rarely referred to as a process in a denotative sense by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components. By the anti-Spanish the emphasis is almost always placed upon what it connotates. The term is derived from the Latin word “colere.” This means "to till, farm, cultivate; worship, live in (place), or inhabit." Also, colonization may be used to refer strictly to migration, for example, to the settler colonies in America, trading settlements, and plantations. Today’s most popular use is that of ruling an existing indigenous people of "new territories."


España’s position in the world as the greatest superpower of the time brought her into a collision course with the other competing powers of the world. Britain, France, and other nations wanted her position, power, prestige, territories, and wealth. Thus, España became the target of her competitors and enemies over those desires. In the case of Britain, she quickly moved past the steps of exploration, raced through settlement, and went directly to taking by force that which others (España and France) had earned and won by exploration, “right of conquest,” and settlement. Britain simply stole what she wanted through subterfuge and war.


To obtain España’s territories, her enemies used every means possible. The obvious were anti-Catholicism and anti-Spanish alliances, intrigues, proxy wars everywhere, wars in España’s Nuevo Mundo, the stirring up of revolts in her possessions, and piracy against her trading fleets. But there was more.


España’s enemies took the writings of a Catholic priest which painted her as the ultimate despotic monarchy and fine-tuned it, enlarged, and enhanced it. The use of the Leyenda Negra or “Black Legend” and its purported abuses was accompanied by the narrative of the willful destruction of the “Noble Savage,” the Natives of España’s Américas. All was done to influence world opinion against España and to make her destruction palatable. For the non-Spanish I offer, “Condemnant quod non intellegunt” and “Contra principia negantem non est disputandum.” In both cases, to have knowledge is not necessarily to understand.


There is in the 21st-Century C.E. a general acceptance of the Leyenda Negra and the narrative of the destruction of the Spanish América’s Noble Savage by España and Españoles. If one accepts this as fact, it makes the recognition of any of España’s or her Españoles’ positive contributions to the Nuevo Mundo difficult, if not impossible to contemplate and/or accept. This act is the negation of the realities on the ground.


The anti-Spain, anti-Spanish propaganda disinformation process was and remains a simple one. Disinformation is intentionally false or inaccurate information which is deliberately distributed. It is an act of deception whereby false statements are made to convince someone of an untruth. One substitutes fiction for facts and then convinces all who are willing and able to listen that España was evil and destructive. This is what was done. España’s detractors then used that disinformation as a pretext to take her lands and possessions. Once they had taken what they wanted from España, her competitors and enemies simply continued and expanded upon that successful false narrative until that narrative became the reality.


Unfortunately, few understand and recognize that the Leyenda Negra is a style of non-objective historical writing and that it is a propaganda tool used by the perpetrators to  demonize el Imperio Español, its people, and Spanish culture. Further, this clandestine method for promulgating the disinformation narrative continues by those nations, organizations, groups, and individuals who have a need to call attention to España’s evil deeds. Why? The answer is simple. If España remains the chief target for European misdeeds in the New World, their own sins against the Natives are kept hidden and rarely discussed. The best “defense” is a “great offense,” and all of that.


To compound the problem, there exist the grievances of those who are a genetic result of España’s Nuevo Mundo territorial past which touched so many lives. Here, I speak of Mulatos, Mestízos, and others of mixed parentage. These see their families and themselves as victims. Therefore, embracing one’s Spanish European roots which might mitigate such feelings becomes difficult if not impossible to do. This is understandable as no one wants to be viewed as less than anyone else, particularly as seen through the distorted prism of biased and prejudicial racism. The ugly reality of Hispanic racial identity intolerance in the Americas is decidedly anti-indigenous. In short, if I look European I’m superior. If my physical presence is viewed as Mulato, Mestízo, or other, I’m not quite as good. This perception is wrong, hurtful, cruel, and ugly. None the less, it exists.


Here I must add that I didn’t create the world, its peoples, its many cultures, social strata identification, and/or economic status. I am only a victim of said. Humanity is not good or bad, it just is! However, life’s outcomes can and should be judged as good and bad by each of us and the results put to the test.


This perception of racial injustice and intolerance is further tainted by the false narrative regarding the “Leyenda Negra” and España’s destruction of Spanish América’s “Noble Savage.” Obviously, those of Spanish Nuevo Mundo mixed lineage of Natives and European roots have reason to be angry about past treatment of their Native lines of progenitors and how they are viewed in today’s society. However, the mistreatment of the conquered peoples applies to all regions, geographic areas, nation-states, etc. Islam and her many Muslim nations bent on the continued conquest of Christianity and its adherent nations, comes to mind!


To clarify, the propaganda of the Black Legend originated in the 16th-Century C.E. This was a time when strong rivalries existed between European colonial powers (Britain, España, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, etc.) for supremacy. Why was it put forth? In the context of this chapter, it was an intentional attempt by competing European powers to damage España’s reputation. They did this in an effort to delegitimize her status and authority as a Nuevo Mundo territorial superpower. By destabilizing her standing in the international community these rival powers hoped to have their efforts of taking her possessions and wealth viewed in a more positive light. España’s rivals were then seen as reluctantly forced to use necessary evil methods against an evil empire to end its evil excesses.


In today’s world, these activities used by European powers against España are called Psychological Operations (PSYOP). These are planned Intelligence Community operations meant to convey selected information and indicators to identified, targeted audiences. This is done in an effort to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of individuals, groups, organizations, and governments. Influence in this arena benefits the influencer not the target of the PSYOP.


As history is largely written from the viewpoint and for the benefit of the victors, España and Españoles became victims of this effective negative messaging. All competing nations gained from the “dark” Leyenda Negra narrative at España’s expense. The Leyenda Negra indicates an unfavorable image of España and Españoles. It accuses them of cruelty and intolerance toward Nuevo Mundo natives. The “Leyenda” continues to be prevalent in the works of many non-Spanish and especially Protestant historians. The Leyenda is primarily associated with criticism of 16th-Century C.E. España and the anti-Protestant policies of King Felipe II (Reigned 1556 C.E.-1598 C.E.). Leyenda Negra was also popularized by the Español, historian Julián Juderías in his book La Leyenda Negra.


Succeeding generations of powerful monarchies and nation states found the constant restatement of the narrative helpful as they decoupled parts of España’s worldwide empire for their own uses. These included Britain, Méjico, and later, the United States. Each took her lands and its wealth. In their continuing narrative she was an evil empire, with vile institutions, and Conquistadores or conquerors that used murder and oppression against helpless Spanish Nuevo Mundo millions. The ongoing narrative suggests that the non-Spanish European victors defeated that evil empire, took possession of her lands, and improved the conditions of the downtrodden masses. I’m just questioning the reality of the narrative here!


Over hundreds of years the non-Spanish Europeans helped the Natives by taking their lands by force and later killing them indiscriminately. When these helpful methods failed to achieve their required ends, these helpful non-Spanish Europeans then offered up their “Final Solution.” This was the placement of large indigenous populations on “reservations.” Once safely incarcerated the populations were starved, beaten, and killed. The term, depopulation comes to mind. When existing Native areas of incarceration were needed for new European arrivals, the natives were forcibly moved to new “holding areas.” Once there, more died from neglect and mistreatment. Shall I go on? Better not. However, to make a point, “Let he who is without sin cast the first stone.” Black Legend and the Noble Savage narratives related to the Españoles pale by comparison. Let’s leave it there, shall we?


There are a precious few Americans that are aware of España’s positive contributions relative to the New World. Even fewer know how España and Españoles helped the United States of America become a free and independent nation. Therefore, with this chapter I will endeavor to provide some understanding of the events which led up to her providing financial and military support which helped to keep the Américanos or Americans’ morale high while freeing themselves from the British yoke of oppression.


Today, many believe that recognition for the contributions of España, Españoles, and Hispanics in the United States of America is long overdue. Unfortunately, anti-Spanish, Anglo-Saxon, Northern European, British, and other non-Spanish historians and commentators have been purposeful in their exclusion of España’s contributions to the American Revolutionary War. Fortunately, there is a great deal in the annals of American history about the exploits of España, Españoles, and Hispanic-American heroes on behalf of the American Colonial Patriots. However, only now are public and private school textbooks beginning to tell of the important role España, Españoles, and American Hispanics played in the war for liberty, the American Revolution, and its war for independence.


It is with regret that I must state that the oversight appears to be both systematic and most probably orchestrated. One can deduce that the concept of “Manifest Destiny” as it relates to the United States could only have been successful if the historic claims to North American territory by Españoles were purposefully forgotten or erased, and if not erased, besmirched.


Some opine that the American government and educational institutions through their negligence downplayed any obvious contributions by España. In my estimation this exclusion was no oversight or due to the lack of historical evidence. Rather, I believe it was purposeful. To the British and later the Anglo-American victors went España’s spoils and the power of the pen to write history in their honor and to España’s dishonor.


Sadly, America and Americans exist in a society in which racism continues to play a large part in how one’s race and/or ethnicity are perceived. The sense in which I apply the term “Racism,” is as follows. I view it as the result of complex interactions between members of our American society. Each of us has a worldview with which we may or may not discriminate against others, practice prejudgment, and stereotyping. To some degree one might accept the possibility of racism and ethnic hatred playing a part in the exclusion of España and Hispanics from the history of the American Revolution. I leave this judgment to the reader.


Let me say that as a further clarifier. I, we, do not wake up each morning and have as a first thought the hate of our other ethnic or racial neighbors. Racism is simply a fact of life. How and why exists, is beyond me. It is a disease as old as mankind. Its tribal-like nature sickens and corrodes that soul.


For some time, Hispanic-Americans have been excluded historically from mainstream Americana. These have been marginalized by a society which has in the past almost exclusively celebrated only Anglo-Saxon American culture and non-Spanish European nations, with only their historic contributions remaining center stage. Most assuredly, the founding of the nation and the defense of liberty in America’s many wars has had the participation of many other non-Anglo-Saxon and Northern European ethnic and racial groups. Yet, these have only received passing attention or recognition, if any.


American textbooks by and large have credited France with helping the Thirteen American Colonies gain independence from Great Britain. They have also cited the financial help France gave the American Patriots. For example, it is well known that over twenty thousand buff blue uniforms were sown in France and sent to Washington’s ragtag troops. However, contributions such as arms, clothing, food, monies, and other resources provided from España and her Hispanic soldados, ciudadanos of el Imperio Español have been largely ignored by American historians and commentators.


In the past, American historians have written glowing accounts of the heroics of Frenchmen such as Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette. There were also the French aristocrats and military officers, Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau and Admiral or Lieutenant Général des Armées Navales François-Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, Comte de Grasse. Unfortunately, the Spanish heroes of the American Revolution have been given short shrift by these same American scholars.


However, it cannot go without being said that in recent years, some recognition has been granted regarding the contributions of España and her ciudadanos and soldados to the independence of the United States.


Here, I must stop and offer a much needed note of commendation. Unlike many anti-Spanish, non-Spanish, Anglo-American, Northern European, and British historians, writers and commentators who attack and demean España’s intellectual and military capabilities there have been a few exceptions. Even more than this, there are those in the United States who stand the test of American ideals brought forth by its Founding Fathers and live by them. These are the descendents of those brave and fearless men and women who fought and died for freedom’s truths during the American Revolution.


There are two American organizations which have stood the test of honor. These are the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) and the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR). Here, I speak of the principled gesture of inclusion. These organizations have recognized the contributions of el Imperio Español and its many and varied ethnic and racial subjects (Hispanics) who participated in the War against Britain on behalf of the brave and over matched Américanos. This act of inclusion took courage of heart. After many years of resistance and debate within the DAR and SAR, their common decency and adherence to the principles as laid down by the Founding Fathers prevailed. For those who accomplished this feat, I can think of only one quote appropriate to apply: “Courage is grace under pressure.” ― Ernest Hemingway


It has been my pleasure to live to see those descendents of the brave American Patriots who founded, bled, and in some cases died for American liberty reach out their hands of friendship and recognition to España and the descendents of Españoles, Criollos, Hispanic-Americans, and Latinos whose progenitors served and fought for the cause of the American Revolutionary War.


Both have given credit where credit is due. They have offered kind, respectful, and honorable mention to España in her efforts to support with blood and treasure the founding of the United States of America. In fact, they have opened their organizations for membership to those Hispanic-Americans who can document their family relationships to those Españoles of el Imperio Español who fought side-by-side with the Américanos, those who fought for, but apart, from the Américanos, those who stood watch and protected Nueva España’s frontiers from British incursion, and those who gave money and other resources to this great cause of American freedom. Such actions held the British dogs of war at bay, allowing the geographically encircled Américanos to prevail.


Now, I must deal with unpleasant and hard to accept realities. Believe me when I say that I do not enjoy conveying this information. Unfortunately, it is part and parcel of the human condition. Additionally, I must do so to ensure that my progenitors receive proper treatment after what has been done by anti-Spanish historians and commentators. In my efforts to accomplish this, I will use Britain as the primary example.


The British had a remarkable lust for power. She was the greediest of España’s competitors. Britain did whatever was needed to obtain her wants. She employed improper conduct, lies, theft, inciting of revolutions, sneak attacks, proxy wars, etc. in pursuit of her goal of world domination.


Relative to its historical standing in the New World, Britain has for centuries provided an ongoing narrative regarding España and Españoles which is obviously untrue as well as preposterous. España did no more or no less than the other European nations in the New World. Britain in fact butchered, murdered, stole or took the land by force without appropriate payment, and then shunned the Natives. The British were practiced liars, thieves, and assassins. In fact, Britain stole everything she could from both European nations and the Native populations. With that said, let us move on with our story to later periods.


España and Españoles did a great deal for the Américano Patriots in their efforts to free themselves from Britain during the American Revolutionary War for independence. It should be said that Britain as a mother country was to say the least, unkind to her North American children. Her abuse of them is legend.

There is one such Spanish subject who exemplified honor and strength of spirit in his support of American liberty. His name is Bernardo Vicente Apolinar de Gálvez y Madrid, Vizconde de Gálvezton and Conde de Gálvez (July 23, 1746 C.E.-November 30, 1786 C.E.). He was part of the illustrious de Gálvez family which gave great service to their king and empire, España.


This Español also stands tall for his honorable governmental activities and brave and brilliant military exploits in the aid of the Américano Patriots. He and his soldados consisting of Peninsulares or Spanish born on the Ibero Peninsula, Criollos or Españoles born in the Spanish Américas (progenitors of today’s Hispanics), Mestízos or persons of mixed racial ancestry, especially of mixed European and Native American ancestry, Mulatos or persons born from one European parent and one African parent; or to persons of two Mulato parents, Native Americans, and others aided the Patriots during the American Revolutionary War.


He was born in Macharaviaya, a mountain villa in the province of Málaga, España, on July 23, 1746 C.E. Macharaviaya is a municipality in the mountains of the autonomous community of Andalucía in the south of España. Macharaviaya’s population of by time of his birth was impoverished.


The name of the villa is derived from the Arabic Machar Ibn Yahha, Court of Yahha's son. The villa was originally founded over an old Arabic farmhouse. It is located in the comarca of La Axarquía. As the villa was built upon the ruins of an old Moro settlement, it was a constant reminder of Ibero or Iberian enslavement by the Islamist Moros and the almost 800 years it took to remove the Islamic yoke of oppression and slavery from Ibéria. Freedom was thus always in the forefront of the Spanish mind. Therefore, the Américanos at the time would most certainly have Spanish sympathy.


It was also the home of the entire noble de Gálvez family, whose descendant Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo had been the virrey of Nueva España. It was his son, Bernardo, who became Gobernador of Spanish Luisiana. The family of de Gálvez was hidalga, which included the lower-ranking gentry, untitled, and lower stratum of the nobility who were exempted from taxation. With little money, being tax exempt meant something.


His parents were Matiás de Gálvez and María Joséfa de Madrid y de Gálvez. Bernardo and his father, Matías, owed a great deal to his uncle, José de Gálvez y Gallardo, Marqués de Sonora for both guiding and assisting their successful careers. As for the Marqués, his genius and abilities are things that legends are made of. All three did many good and important things for the American cause of freedom under difficult circumstances. Each of these aided the Américanos out of personal compassion and political necessity.


Bernardo’s childhood was spent between working in the fields and attending school in the neighboring villa of Benaque. De Gálvez lost his mother when he was very young, in 1748 C.E. within two years of his birth. His father had a second marriage. From this union was born a second son, José. He died during childhood, in 1756 C.E., when the family had already moved to Madrid. De Gálvez likely spent part of his adolescence in Islas Canarias where his father had been transferred between 1757 C.E. and 1778 C.E. Bernardo’s father was responsible for an administrative area as an intendant or government official under the Corona Española.


As discussed earlier, American textbooks have credited many Frenchmen with helping the Thirteen Colonies gain independence from Great Britain. In the past, American historians wrote glowing accounts of their heroics. They also cited the financial help France gave the Patriots. Unfortunately, few if any spoke of Bernardo de Gálvez. It is both the DAR and SAR who have made his name well-known and respected again within the United States. Others came to the scene later and offered their kind help in the matter. One can only wonder where the other groups were for all these many years.


Over the years, some recognition has been granted Bernardo de Gálvez. H.RES. 1400 SPONSOR: Representative González (introduced October 4, 1778 C.E.) was the resolution to recognize the contribution of de Gálvez to the independence of the United States. On October 10, 1778 C.E. the measure passed the House. He was also honored by the United States government with his own stamp due to his heroic efforts during the American Revolution. Additionally, the Order of Granaderos passed a resolution recognizing the contributions and the role played by Bernardo de Gálvez toward the independence of the United States.


In October of 1995, a statue of Bernardo de Gálvez was officially dedicated in Washington D.C. In fact, Congress may also be considering creating a day in his honor. Statues of Bernardo, the Mariscal del Campo can also be seen in New Orleans.

GalvezDC 03.JPG

Gobernador of Spanish Luisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, presided over an area which extended from Tejas to Florida and up into Michigan. His heroic exploits and a string of victories on behalf of the newly formed United States of America along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast greatly aided the cause of the American Revolution. But who was this man?


Between 1779 C.E. and 1785 C.E., he defeated the British at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Mobile, Alabama, Pensacola, Florida, Saint Louis, Missouri, and Saint Joseph, Michigan, to name but a few places. There were many more locations not mentioned here at which Bernardo’s forces defeated the British on behalf of the American cause.


A superb military tactician, he was an inspiring and charismatic leader. So much so, that the State of Tejas named Gálvezton, Gálvezton Island, and Gálvezton Bay after him. In addition, Americans have honored Mariscal del campo Bernardo de Gálvez by making his descendants eligible to become members of the DAR and SAR, a rare honor for a non-citizen. Today, we Americans are indebted to this heroic Spaniard and his Hispanic and multi-racial, multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and international army and navy for assisting the newly founded United States of America by helping to win her independence from Britain.


However, before we can deal with Bernardo de Gálvez and his battles, we must provide a historical backdrop to his life and times. First, we must deal with the 17th-Century C.E. and 18th-Century C.E. and the world in which the competing European powers were jockeying for control and supremacy of the European continent and the world beyond. This was a time before his birth in 1746 C.E.


In the 17th-Century C.E., by 1698 C.E., España was considered a first rate, worldwide empire. At this time, King Carlos II of España was seen as being at the end of his life and beginning to fail. He was of the House of Habsburg Monarchy or the House of Austria which had arrived in Ibéria after 1506 C.E. It had dominated España for almost 200 years, until his death in 1700 C.E. Efforts had to be made to regulate the impending Spanish succession in order to diminish España’s worldwide power and wealth. The rival European powers forced the issue and agreements were made. If these were not satisfied upon Carlos’s death, war was the only answer for the interested parties.


The question is why risk war? Earlier, an effort had been made to regulate the impending Spanish succession. Why? These European monarchies and nations wanted what they hadn’t worked for. They wanted it to be given to them piece part. In this endeavor there were three principal claimants the Dutch Republic, England (Before becoming Great Britain), and France. The three had signed the First Treaty of Partition in October 1698 C.E. Each signed, agreeing that on the death of Carlos II, Prince Joseph Ferdinand, son of the elector of Bavaria, would inherit España, the Spanish Netherlands, and the Spanish colonies. Next, España’s Italian dependencies would be separated and subdivided. Austria was to be awarded the Duchy of Milan. France would receive Naples and Sicily. These efforts were made with the intent of eliminating España’s position as the lone superpower of the time.


Unfortunately, in February 1699 C.E. Joseph Ferdinand died. This necessitated a second Treaty of Partition to be signed. This was signed on June 11, 1699 C.E. by England and France, notorious enemies. One can liken them to two dancers holding a cocked and loaded pistol at each other’s temple as they sweep across the dance floor. One simple slip of the foot, a trip, and all would be lost.


By the 18th-Century C.E., in March 1700 C.E., the Dutch Republic signed the Treaty of Partition. This treaty awarded España’s Spanish Netherlands and colonies to Archduke Charles, second son of the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau the "Old Dessauer."


Additionally it awarded Nápoles, Sicily, and other Spanish territories in Italy to France. However, Leopold refused to sign the treaty. He demanded that Charles receive all the Spanish territories intact. The Spanish Grandes likewise did not recognize it, being unalterably opposed to partition of el Imperio Español. Why were the Grandes opposed?  Many were of the original noble houses of Ibéria. The Iberians were those who fought the Islamic Moros from 711 C.E. until 1492 C.E., retook Ibéria, and established the first Ibero/Spanish monarchy (Fernando II of Aragón and Ysabel I of Castilla) upon marriage on October 19, 1469 C.E. They were not of the House of Habsburg or House of Austria (1516 C.E.-1700 C.E.) which came later. Nor were they of the House of Bourbon. The Bourbons were a European royal house of French origin (1700 C.E. to present) which both claimed and took the Spanish throne.


On November 1, 1700 C.E., King Carlos II of España died. Carlos had always been infirm and died childless. While on his deathbed, Carlos had placed his entire Spanish inheritance upon Philip duc d’Anjou, the second-eldest grandson of King Louis XIV of France.


Felipe V was born at the Palace of Versailles in France. He was the second son of Louis, Grand Dauphin and heir apparent to the throne of France, and his wife Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphine Victoire. He was a younger brother of Louis, Duke of Burgundy, and the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip, later Felipe V, was created Duke of Anjou, a traditional title for younger sons in the French royal family. He would be known by this name until he became the king of España.


It has been said that Carlos II had allowed himself to be convinced that only the House of Bourbon was able to keep the España’s possessions intact. In the autumn of 1700 C.E., he made a will bequeathing them to Philip. By November 24th of that same year, Louis XIV of France proclaimed his grandson, Philip, king of España as Felipe V. He was to be the first Borbón king of España. Soon thereafter, Louis invaded the Spanish Netherlands. By this action decades of war were assured.


To clarify, Carlos II had reigned over a vast, existing, powerful, wealthy, global empire. Because of this, the question of who would succeed him had for some time troubled ministers in European capitals. There had been attempts to solve the problem politically by partitioning the empire between the eligible candidates from the royal Houses of Austria (Habsburg), Bavaria (Wittelsbach), and France (Bourbon). These had failed.


With Felipe’s rule of España, all of Europe knew that his uncle, Louis XIV’s France would secure great advantages for his dynasty, the Bourbons. Concerned statesmen throughout Europe felt that a dominant House of Bourbon in these two nations would be a threat to European stability. This one kingly move jeopardized the balance of power on many continents.


The reader is asked the question why not war as a first resort? One must understand why these European powers coveted España’s Viejo Mundo and Nuevo Mundo territories. It wasn’t just the wealth. One has only to trace the water routes of the oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes where commerce was transacted to understand the España’s wealth enabling strategies. Thereafter, one can appreciate why each settlement on each continent and island was placed. It is obvious that all of the thought and planning for a worldwide trading network had already been completed, implemented, and adjusted for efficiency and effectiveness by España for her various settlement locations.


It was also the existing infrastructure that interested España’s competitors. España’s Nuevo Mundo cities, presidios, cities, towns, and villas had been built and functioning since their early beginnings in 1492 C.E. Hundreds of years of labor, sweat, and tears had produced ready-made locations for plundering and taking in the Nuevo Mundo. These had been placed in specific geographic locations for economic, strategic, and military advantage. Bridges and roads for linking the population centers were in place and operational. The settlers were already farming and ranching around these settlements and trade centers. European populations were already deployed and implementing the necessary technology for increased crop yield, for both local consumption and international trade. Mining operations were everywhere removing, processing, and transporting precious metals. Local marketplaces were available, operational, and intact.


The networks of roads, bridges, and presidios, had been engineered and built for hauling and protecting agricultural and mining products being taken to market, locally and internationally. The products could then be shipped from existing superbly engineered, constructed, and militarily protected harbors and sea ports and exported via ships to an awaiting and eager international market. Large shipping armadas had been built and efficient routes established.


In short, the fruits of European society and its advanced infrastructure were in place in advantageous spots of the Nuevo Mundo and ready for the taking. Ripe, low hanging fruit was on the trees and vines were available for any adventurous soul able and strong enough to relieve the current owners of it. Competitors had only to attack the rightful residents, defeat them, and kill them and/or enslave them. Thanks to the Islamists, the Europeans had been taught over the many centuries the process of depopulation, population displacement, and/or slavery. The Europeans had a personal acquaintance with the reality of Islamic conquest and its methods of population control.


The result of that covetousness was that 13 year War of the Spanish Succession (1701 C.E.-1714 C.E.). That major European conflict took place in the early-18th-Century C.E. It was triggered by the death of that last Habsburg King of España, Carlos II and the ascension of the House of Bourbon’s Felipe to the rule of España. The pivotal act of aggression, invasion of the Spanish Netherlands by Louis of France, resulted in the formation of an anti-French alliance on September 7, 1701 C.E. It was comprised of England, the Dutch Republic, and Leopold the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Croatia, and King if Bohemia. These were later joined by Prussia, Hanover, other German states, and Portugal. The electors of Bavaria and Cologne and the dukes of Mantua and Savoy allied themselves with France.


King William III of England, that strong opponent of Louis XIV, died in 1702 C.E. The government of his successor, Queen Anne (1665 C.E.-1714 C.E.), upheld the vigorous conduct of the War of Spanish Succession. John Churchill, duke of Marlborough, understood the international stakes of these historic changes. His title in the Peerage of England was created by Queen Anne of England in 1702 C.E. Later, he would play the leading role in Queen Anne’s government and on the battlefield until his fall from grace in 1711 C.E. His second in command on the battlefield was the imperial general Prince Eugene of Savoy.


In the Caribe on August 5, 1702 C.E., the English invaded el Imperio Español city of Arecibo, on Puerto Rico's northern coast. The Puertorriqueños armed only with spears and machetes were under the command of Capitán António de los Reyes Correa. These 30 members of the miquelets defended the city against musket and sword carrying English troops. The English were defeated and suffered 22 losses on land and 8 at sea. Capitán Reyes Correa was declared a national hero and awarded the Medalla de Oro de la Real Efigie or Gold Medal of the Royal Image. King Felipe V awarded him the title of Capitán of the Infantería Española Real.


In Europe, the House of Savoy would later switch sides to the anti-French alliance during the War of Spanish Succession in 1703 C.E. Savoy had emerged as the feudal territory of the House of Savoy during the 11th to 14th centuries C.E. Installed by Rudolph III, King of Burgundy, officially in 1003 C.E., the House of Savoy became the longest surviving royal house in Europe. This territory is historically shared between the modern countries of France, Italy, and Switzerland. It ruled the County of Savoy to 1416 C.E. and then the Duchy of Savoy from 1416 C.E. to 1860 C.E.


The markedly superior generalship of the Duke of Marlborough and imperial General Prince Eugene of Savoy during the War of the Spanish Succession brought them a series of victories over France from 1704 C.E.-1709 C.E. One was the Battle of Blenheim which occurred on August 13, 1704 C.E. This Franco-Bavarian offensive in Germany was smashed by the anti-French alliance at Blenheim in 1704 C.E.


During the War of Spanish Succession, the French were driven out of the Low Countries in the Battle of Ramillies in 1706 C.E. They were also expelled from Italy by Prince Eugene of Savoy’s brilliant campaign after their attempted siege of Turin was broken on September 7, 1706 C.E. The only theatre of the land war in which the “Alliance” had no real success was España, where Felipe V successfully maintained his position.


During the War of Spanish Succession, the French were again driven out of the Low Countries by the Battle of Oudenaarde in 1708 C.E. Soon after, Louis XIV of France sought to end the War of the Spanish Succession and was willing to give up the Spanish inheritance to the House of Habsburg. However, unrealistic demands were made by the English, by then Great Britain. They insisted that Louis use his own army to remove his own grandson, King Felipe, from España. The cunning British were aware that Louis would refuse (for obvious reasons) and broke off negotiations. The war was then resumed.


By 1711 C.E., there were two developments which were to alter situations of the War of Spanish Succession. These were in favor of France. On April 17, 1711 C.E., fate would have it that Archduke Charles became heir to all Austrian Habsburg possessions. Britain and the Dutch were aware that this would give Archduke Charles the Spanish inheritance as well as resurrect the old empire of Charles V. As a result, they had no intention of continuing.


On December 31, 1711 C.E., John Churchill or 1st Earl of Marlborough (1650 C.E.-1722 C.E.), and the Duke of Marlborough was removed from command. His enemies at Court having won influence with the Queen maneuvered his removal.


For some time, the Duke’s wife had a difficult relationship with the Queen. Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough had risen to be one of the most influential women of her generation through her close friendship with Queen Anne. Sarah's friendship with Princess Anne and influence with her was widely known. Many leading public figures of the day turned their attentions to her in hopes that she could influence Anne. With her cousin’s new position as Court favorite, and Sarah’s dismissal from Court, the Duke of Marlborough who had brought glory and success to Anne's reign saw his own fortunes fall. This is considered by many to be central to his loss of power. Anne's disfavor and being caught politically between Tory and Whig factions forced Marlborough from office and caused him to go into self-imposed exile. He would leave the Island nation for a time and return to Britain later regaining influence under the House of Hanover with the accession of King George I to the British throne in 1714 C.E.


In 1712 C.E., with the collapse of the anti-France alliance of the War of Spanish Succession, peace negotiations had begun. These former allies were experiencing conflicts of interest, forcing each to deal separately with France.


At its peak in 1712 C.E., before the beginning of the Treaty of Utrecht, the territory of Nouvelle-France or New France, also sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France was extensive. Early on, Quebec French or français québécois; also known as Québécois French, or Acadians of the Maritimes eventually built small settlements throughout what is today’s mainland Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, as well as Île-Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island), Île-Royale (Cape Breton Island), and other shorelines of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in present-day Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec. It spread from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay to the Golfo de Méjico or Gulf of Mexico, including all the Great Lakes of North America. To be sure, Britain coveted it all.


Matters made little progress until after July 10, 1712 C.E., when Felipe V signed a renunciation. Clearly, the parties to the War did not want the two great powers, España and France, united under one monarch and maintained a watchful eye. One of the first questions discussed before the Treaty of Utrecht’s signing on April 11, 1713 C.E. had been the nature of the guarantees to be given by España and France that their crowns would be kept separate.


With Britain and France having agreed upon a truce, the pace of negotiation now quickened, and the main treaties (Treaty of Utrecht) were finally signed on April 11, 1713 C.E. The first group of treaties over the War of Spanish Succession was signed at Utrecht. These and the later treaties of Rastatt and Baden ignored the will of Carlos II. The treaties would divide his inheritance among the warring powers. Louis XIV’s grandson would remain king of España.

Of the greatest importance in the outcomes of these agreements was the fact that the treaties of Utrecht marked the rise of the power of Great Britain. Her subsequent rise as a colonial empire was to be at the expense of both España and France. It should be said here that Britain had one aim, the furtherance of Britain’s interests. Everything else was tangential. The British were scavengers and finally birds of prey. Dress them how you wish, they were still greedy, power hungry, and pirates. Dressed-well yes, but thieves never the less.


By treaty, the North American territory of Nouvelle-France was divided into colonies. Each had its own administration. These were Canada, Acadia, Newfoundland (Plaisance), and Louisiana, later to be called Spanish Luisiana. The Treaty of Utrecht would result in the relinquishing of French claims to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland, and the establishment of the colony of Île Royale, now called Cape Breton Island, where the French had built the Fortress of Louisbourg.


To make a point, this ongoing series of wars between the competing powers of Europe were fought by more than just the European nations. In effect, the global nature of the recurring conflicts saw the rise of proxy wars on various continents with the involvement of their various Native populations.


In North America, the Cherokee Indians (Natives) sided with the British Province of Carolina in the Tuscarora War of 1711 C.E.-1715 C.E. This was the first successful, permanent European settlement of North Carolina began in 1653 C.E. The Tuscarora Natives had lived in peace with the European settlers who had lived in North Carolina for over 50 years. This was at a time when nearly every other American colony was tragically involved in some form of conflict with Natives. Unfortunately, the settlers increasingly encroached upon Tuscarora land. They also began to raid Native villages and take slaves. The colonists also introduced epidemic diseases. All of these grievances led the Natives to war. The Tuscarora War would be fought in the area North Carolina during the autumn of 1711 C.E. until February 11, 1715 C.E.


In this conflict, the warring parties were the British, Dutch, and German settlers against the Tuscarora Natives. The colonists enlisted the Yamasee and Cherokee as Native allies against the Tuscarora. The Tuscarora had also gathered several allies. This was to be the bloodiest colonial war in North Carolina. The Tuscarora would eventually be defeated.


The Cherokee turned on their British allies at the outbreak of The Yamasee War, also called the Yemassee War of 1715 C.E.-1717 C.E., until switching sides, once again, midway through the war.


The origins of the War are complex, as all are. Here we must touch upon the reasons for participation in the War on the part of the many Native groups which differed. These included encroachment on Native lands by the British colonists and the spread of rice plantation agriculture. These two factors may have contributed to the depletion of deer in the region which was a Native staple. There was also the trading system weighted toward European trader’s benefit which resulted in trader abuses. Increasingly Native debt grew greater in contrast to the increasing wealth among some European colonists. There were also varied levels of commitment by the Native groups as well. As French power grew in Louisiana, it offered an alternative to British trade and its abuses as did long-established Native links to España’s increasingly prosperous trade in Florida.


The Native slave trade became problematic for the Natives as European greed grew more pronounced and obvious. Here, I must add that we hear little or nothing about this attack upon the “Noble Savage” by the British and other non-Spanish European colonists. Slavery of the North American Native by the British and others, I’m shocked!  What of the application of the “Black Legend” under these circumstances. I suppose a rose by any other name is not a rose…. My thanks to Gertrude Stein for the original line, it says it all. With her passing those many years ago, her work has been a wonderful fountain of phrases. Many not used by the world yet which we could use today.


To be clear, the “Red Skins” as they were named were the subhumans to be used first, next dominated, and ultimately decimated. When of little use, they were discarded by their British masters into holding bins. When their unwanted presence as discarded, non-humans in holding bins were found to have little value, they could no longer be tolerated by the British Protestants. They were then eliminated.


Native anger gained a foothold in the tribes as the increasingly large-scale and strong intertribal communication network expanded and provided information about recent negative experiences with other Europeans. There was also an expanding military collaboration among previously distant tribes which increasingly vied for power among the Native tribes and groups.


Given the aforementioned, the Yamasee War became a conflict between South Carolina British colonials and various Native tribes. These included the Yamasee, Muscogee, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Catawba, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Yuchi, Savannah River Shawnee, Congaree, Waxhaw, Pee Dee, Cape Fear, Cheraw, and others. Some of these Native groups played only a minor role. Others launched attacks throughout South Carolina attempting to destroy the colony.


The Yamasee War was disruptive to the colonials. During 1715 C.E., Natives killed hundreds of colonists and destroyed many settlements. Traders were killed throughout what is now southeastern United States. Approximately 7% of South Carolina's White citizenry was killed. This made it bloodier than King Philip's War. King Philip's War is sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, or Metacom's Rebellion. It was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day New England and English colonists and their Native American allies in 1675 C.E.-1678 C.E. This war is often cited as North America's bloodiest war involving Natives. The War was one of the Natives' most serious challenges to European control and dominance. Colonists eventually fled to Charles Town when supplies ran low and starvation set in. As the colonists abandoned settled frontiers the survival of the South Carolina colony was in question. For over a year the South Carolina colony faced possible annihilation. The war would mark the end of the Early Colonial Era of the American South. The English established their first permanent colony in America in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607 C.E. continuing colonization in the South thereafter.


By early 1716 C.E., the tide turned in the Yamasee War when the Cherokee sided with the European colonists against the Creek, their traditional enemy.


The last of South Carolina's major Native enemies withdrew from the Yamasee War in 1717 C.E. This brought a fragile peace to the South Carolina region. This action of the Cherokee siding with the colonists spelled defeat for the Yamasee. Thereafter, the Cherokee would remain allies of the British until the French and Indian War.


It is recognized that the geopolitical situation was radically altered for British, French, and Spanish colonies, as well as the Native groups of the southeast. The Yamasee War and its aftermath contributed to the emergence of new Indian confederated nations, such as the Muscogee Creek and Catawba.


The defeated Tuscarora Natives signed a treaty with European colonial officials in 1718 C.E. and settled on a reserved tract of land in what became Bertie County. After their defeat, most of the Tuscarora migrated north to New York where they joined their Iroquoian cousins, the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. There, they were accepted as the sixth nation. Their chief proclaimed that any Tuscarora who remained in the South after 1722 C.E. would no longer be considered members of the tribe.


This would be a good point to offer the fact that many settlements in España’s Nuevo Mundo, North American Continent settlements were solidly in place and well-built. Britain’s interest in España’s Florida was based upon its having a strong infrastructure, military fortress for its garrison, and easy access to Cuba which it coveted. It also understood that the civilian population had its towns, villas, ranchos or ranches, estancias or large farms, and homes built and operational.




One such site was the “Ribera House.” It’s located at 22nd Street and George Street. The Ribera House had been originally built by Juan Ribera in the 1730's C.E. The house was rebuilt in 1962 C.E. It is a two-story reconstruction of a First Spanish Period building. Each of the stories is coquina or a soft limestone of broken shells, used in road-making and for buildings in the Caribe and Florida. It has tabby floors, with no glass in the windows only shutters. Behind the house is a two story kitchen rebuilt on 18th-Century C.E. foundations. It had stood apart from the main dwelling due to fire hazard, smoke, and cooking fumes.

On June 19, 1959 C.E., a State House Bill number 774 was signed by the governor of Florida establishing the St. Augustine Historical Restoration and Preservation Commission. $150,000.00 in funding was set aside to begin operations. The purpose of the act was to: "acquire, maintain, operate preserve, reconstruct, reproduce and restore state and nation certain ancient or historic landmarks, such as buildings, cemeteries, graves, locations, military works, monuments, remains, and other sites and objects of historical or antiquarian interest of the City of San Agustín or St. Augustine, Florida, and surrounding territory. This was to be done for the use, benefit, education, recreation, enjoyment, and general welfare of the people.


The 1733 C.E. slave insurrection on St. John in the then Danish West Indies, now St. John, United States Virgin Islands began on November 23, 1733 C.E. 150 African slaves from Akwamu, present-day Ghana, revolted against the Island's plantation owners and managers. It lasted several months, into August 1734 C.E. This slave rebellion was one of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the Americas. During the rebellion, the Akwamu slaves captured Fort Fortsberg in Coral Bay. Was this an abuse of the African Noble Savage? Do we have a Black Legend-like situation here which should be applied to the Danes? Yes, the Danes.


Fortsberg was an 18th-Century C.E. citadel fortress. Located on the summit of a high hill commanding Coral Bay, it supported a shore battery, containing five cannons. It was begun in 1717 C.E. On November 23, 1773 C.E., it was seized by the liberated African slaves who massacred the garrison and then occupied most of the plantations on St. John. Later, they took control of most of the island. It was their intent to resume crop production under their own control and use Africans of other tribes as slave labor.


The Island’s Planters regained control by the end of May 1734 C.E. after two failed attempts by the Danish authorities to suppress the rebellion. 400 better-armed European French and Swiss troops sent in April from Martinique, a French colony, were deployed. Could a “Black Legend-like” scenario be applied here to the French and the Swiss?  What about an attack upon the “African Nobel Savage” by these parties. Oh, that’s right! They’re not Spanish. Non-Spanish butchery and oppression is almost always viewed as an attempt to make things better for those they disturbed. In any event, let’s move on.


After the Akwamu defeat the Colony’s militia continued to hunt down the slaves and eventually declared the rebellion at an end in late August 1734 C.E.


When the Españoles first occupied the West Indies, they used the indigenous people as slave labor but most died. By the late-17th-Century C.E., the British, Dutch, and French were in competition for Saint John Island after jointly settling for a period. In 1718 C.E., the British took it before the Danes could claim it. However, numerous Dutch planters had remained. While some plantations had been started, there was not an adequate supply of laborers among the settlers. Unfortunately, young Danish people could not be persuaded to immigrate to the West Indies. This left the Island without a reliable source of labor. Next, attempts were made to attract and to use indentured servants from Danish prisons as plantation workers. This failed. As a result, imported slaves from Africa became the main supply of labor on the Danish West Indies islands.


It should be noted here that few would apply the issues of a “Black Legend-like” condition or the attack on the “Noble Black Savage” to the Danes. Anti-Spanish historians and commentators apply these solely to España and Españoles. It’s clear that there is no bias here!


España, which had been at war with Britain over colonies and trade ever since 1739 C.E., entered the war on the European Continent to re-establish its influence in northern Italy. This would further reverse Austrian dominance over the Italian peninsula which had been achieved at España's expense as a consequence of España's War of Succession earlier in the 18th-Century C.E.


The War of Jenkins' Ear took place in 1739 C.E. It is named for a 1731 C.E. incident. It was a minor episode in New World history. A Spanish comandante purportedly chopped off the ear of British merchant captain Robert Jenkins as punishment for the raiding of Spanish ships and told him to take it to his king, George II. There was very little response from the general public to the incident. That was until several years later. Opposition politicians and the British South Sea Company hoped to spur outrage against España for financial gain. They did this believing that a victorious war would improve Britain’s trading opportunities in the Caribe. This was another area the Protestant British coveted.


The underlying causes for the War were centered on disputed land claims. It should also be understood that the conflict was not limited to land. International shipping on the high seas had suffered frequent interruption from acts of piracy by all interested parties. In this case, the Españoles had severed the ear of British Captain Robert Jenkins as punishment for raiding Spanish ships. In short, Britain was caught yet once again stealing from the Españoles. I think this quote applies nicely. “Shake paws, count your claws, You steal mine, I'll borrow yours. Watch my whiskers, check both ears. Robber foxes have no fears.”


This war between España and Great Britain remained confined to the Caribe Sea and between Spanish Florida and the neighboring British Province of Georgia. The conflict over the land between South Carolina and Florida had been ongoing for nearly two centuries. However, six years after Georgia's founding, formal hostilities began in 1739 C.E. Britain’s only concern for the moment was to ensure the survival of its colony Georgia. Of course she was also greedy for the annexation of Florida and already charting a course to that end.


In 1740 C.E., just six years previous to Bernardo de Gálvez’s birth, the War of the Austrian Succession had broken out in Europe. The War was begun under the pretext that Maria Theresa was ineligible to succeed to the Habsburg thrones of her father, Charles VI, due to Salic law precluding royal inheritance by a woman.


Charles VI (October 1, 1685 C.E.-October 20, 1740 C.E.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I in 1711 C.E., as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia, Archduke of Austria. Following the death of España’s ruler Carlos II in 1700 C.E., he tried unsuccessfully to claim that throne. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. With her, Charles VI had two children. The first was Maria Theresa, born 1717 C.E. She was to be the last Habsburg sovereign. His second daughter was Maria Anna, born 1718 C.E., Governess of the Austrian Netherlands.


The First Silesian War (1740-C.E.1742 C.E.) and the Second Silesian War, (1744 C.E.-1745 C.E.), are viewed by historians and military analysts in the context of the larger War of the “Austrian Succession.” That larger war involved most of the powers of Europe. They were consumed over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the realms of the House of Habsburg which held claim to the title, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. This was no simple matter for resolution.


Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (May 13, 1717 C.E.-November 29, 1780 C.E.) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She Held as sovereign the lands of Austria, Austrian Netherlands, Bohemia, Croatia, Galicia and Lodomeria (parts of East-Central Europe), Hungary, Mantua, Milan, Parma, and Transylvania. Maria by marriage was Duchess of Lorraine, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, and Grand Duchess of Tuscany.


She started her 40-year reign in October 1740 C.E. when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died. Charles VI had paved the way for this accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 C.E. He had spent his entire reign securing this right. Upon the death of her father, Bavaria, France, Prussia, and Saxony and all repudiated the sanction they had recognized during his lifetime. Here we have an excellent quote on the matter of promises, “We promise according to our hopes, and perform according to our fears.” None of the interested parties trusted the other.


Prussia quickly invaded the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia. This act of war sparked the nine-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession. He was able to prevail and conquered it. Later, Maria Theresa would attempt to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War, though unsuccessfully.


The Second Silesian War (1743 C.E.-1745 C.E.) started in 1743 C.E. Britain had agreed to an alliance with Maria Theresa. The British joined the alliance to fight the French, whom they had been fighting in the New World colonies. Britain’s King George II of was concerned about the French threat to Hanover, as he was the elector. In this scenario, diplomacy meant all the wicked devices of the Old World. This included balances of power, secret treaties, spheres of influence, and triple alliances. During the interim period, appeasement of old enemies had been attempted and failed to achieve the ultimate aim, power and control. Thus, in the new political/military dynamic she could carry on the war against the French and the Bavarians.


Maria had created the “Pragmatic Army” which was made up of Austrians, 16,000 British troops, 16,000 Hanoverians, and 8,000 Hessians. A very decisive battle would be fought at Dettingen in Belgium on June 27, 1743 C.E. By September, 1743 C.E., Maria had formed a new alliance consisting of Austria, Great Britain, Holland, Sardinia, and Saxony. For Maria, her alliances were understood as a means to expand her influence and not as a constraint on her power. Therefore, they were fungible.


Frederick II (January 24, 1712 C.E.-August 17, 1786 C.E.) also known as Frederick the Great was King of Prussia from 1740 C.E. until 1786 C.E. He was aware of the Austrian success over the French at Dettingen. This would force him to join the alliance so as to defend his position in Silesia. As a result, he raised a large army of 140,000 men.


King George's War (1744 C.E.-1748 C.E.) is the name given to the military operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740 C.E.-1748 C.E.). The French refer to it as the Third Intercolonial War. It was the third of the four French and Indian Wars. It took place primarily in the British North American Continental provinces of New York, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, and Nova Scotia. It’s most important military action was the expedition organized by Massachusetts Governor William Shirley.


Britain and France were technically at peace with one another between 1713 C.E. and 1744 C.E. These two competing European colonial powers continually argued over the boundaries of Acadia or Nova Scotia and northern New England. Each also wanted control over the Ohio Valley. The war was a series of bloody border raids by both sides using their Native allies as surrogates. The parties finally signed the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 C.E., wherein they mutually agreed to restore conquered territory. However, the short-sighted parties failed to solve the more important colonial questions leaving them open to future crisis.


In Europe, on May 22, 1744 C.E., Frederick II formed the Union of Frankfurt for the Second Silesian War. This he did to conquer Bohemia and return Bavaria to Charles VII.


Prince-elector of Bavaria, Charles VII (August 6, 1697 C.E.-January 20, 1745 C.E.) held that position from 1726 C.E. He was also Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 C.E. until his death, in 1745 C.E. As a member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles VII was notably the only person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in over three centuries. He was supposedly descended from the Habsburg, Felipe I of Castilla in 27 different ways.


Most of the German princes were suspicious of Frederick II's motives. The moment these suspicions reared their ugly heads about a Frederick's motives, everything he did became tainted. Frederick the Great would soon be at war again. He signed the Treaty of Paris. He and Louis XV of France agreed to invade both the Upper and Lower Rhine in Germany. This they would do while the Prussians invaded Bohemia. On July 15, 80,000 Prussian troops invaded Bohemia. They reached Prague on September 16th.


Meanwhile, on the battlefields in northern Europe during the Second Silesian War, Louis XV in person, with 90,000 men, invaded the Austrian Netherlands and took Menin and Ypres in July 1744 C.E. His presumed opponent, that same allied army which had previously been commanded by King George II was composed of Austrian, British, Dutch, and German (Hanoverian) troops. Here we find the British once again stirring the pot to their advantage.


The French put four armies into the field. On the Rhine, Marshal Coigny had 57,000 troops against Prince Charles 70,000 allied troops under his command. Located between the Meuse and Moselle Rivers, a fresh army of over 30,000 soldiers under the Louis François de Bourbon, Prince of Conti (August 13, 1717 C.E.-August 2, 1776 C.E.) was in the field. He was a French nobleman and soldier. This army would later assist the Españoles in Piedmont and Lombardy. The plan however, was altered when the advance of Prince Charles, assisted by the veteran Marshal Traun, skillfully maneuvered his allied army over the Rhine near Pilippsburg on July 1, 1744 C.E. They soon captured the lines of Weissenburg, and cut-off Marshal Coigny and his army from Alsace.


A third French Army under the command of Duke d' Harcourt and composed of 17,000 men kept Luxembourg at bay. Meanwhile, the largest army numbering 87,000 men in the field in the summer of 1744 C.E. was France’s fourth army, the Army of Flanders. It was officially under the command of the King of France, Louis XV. In reality, Louis XV was being advised on military matters by Marshal Noailles.


Adrien Maurice de Noailles, 3rd duc de Noailles or Duke of Noailles (September 29, 1678 C.E.-June 24, 1766 C.E.) was a French aristocrat and soldier. By 1702 C.E., he was made a knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Adrien inherited the title duc de Noailles upon his father's death in 1708 C.E. He was made a Grande of España in 1711 C.E.


The duc de Noailles fought in the War of Spanish Succession from 1710 C.E.-1713 C.E. During this period, his forces drove back a British attack on Sète on July 24th-26th, 1710 C.E.


Later, he was appointed president of the Finance Council from 1715 C.E. to 1718 C.E. and made a Knight of the Order of Saint-Esprit in 1724 C.E.


The Duke distinguished himself in the War of the Polish Succession (1733 C.E.–1738 C.E.) and was made a marshal of France in 1734 C.E. He served in the War of the Austrian Succession and was appointed to command the French forces in March 1743 C.E. The duc de Noailles was defeated at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 C.E., but successfully drove the Austrians out of Alsace-Lorraine the following year, 1744 C.E.  However, he failed to seriously damage the Austrian army as it was crossing the Rhine.


He was appointed Foreign Minister from April to November 1744 C.E. The Duke in this capacity regarded Great Britain as a greater enemy of France than Austria. In this diplomatic capacity he had substantial influence over the course of foreign policy.


He became Dean of the Marshals in 1748 C.E. Duc de Noailles had six children, 4 daughters and 2 sons. His two sons Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, and Philippe, duc de Mouchy, also later became marshals of France.


France’s fourth army, the Army of Flanders outnumbered the allied armies by approximately 25 Percent when it invaded the Austrian Netherlands. As they marched into the Austrian Netherlands they were met by a confused military resistance of Dutch forces. The result was that the French Army swept across the Austrian Netherlands. As the situation became desperate, the Dutch government sent an envoy to the king of France seeking peace. This plea for peace was rejected by the French.


The situation in the Austrian Netherlands changed abruptly when Prince Charles and his 70,000-man allied army crossed the Rhine on June 30, 1744 C.E. Marshal Coigny found that he and his troops were far in advance of the other French forces. He smashed his way back through the enemy at Weissenburg and quickly withdrew towards Strasbourg. Louis XV then was forced to abandon the invasion of the Southern Netherlands. His army then moved to become a decisive factor in the war in Alsace and Lorraine.


Finally on July 12, 1744 C.E., Frederick II of Prussia received confirmation that Prince Charles had taken his army beyond the Rhine and into France. Thus, Frederick knew that Prince Charles would not be able to present any immediate threat for him in the east.


On August 15, 1744 C.E., Frederick II, crossed the Austrian frontier into Bohemia. By late August, all 80,000 of his troops were gathered there. It had been understood that the attention and resources of Austria had been fully concentrated on a renewal of the war in Silesia. Neither Maria Theresa nor her advisers expected the Prussians to march as quickly as they did. Frederick's invasion of Bohemia was therefore a complete surprise to the Austrian court, which left Frederick almost unopposed in Bohemia. Frederick's own command consisting of a column of 40,000 troops passed through Saxony. A second column under the command of "Young Dessauer" Leopold II Maximilian, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (December 25, 1700 C.E.-December 16, 1751 C.E.) consisting of 16,000 men passed through Lusatia. Count Schwerin’s third column consisting of 16,000 soldiers advanced from Silesia. The destination for these three columns was Prague.


That objective was reached on September 2nd they surrounded and besieged the city. Six days later, the Austrian garrison at Prague was forced to surrender. Immediately, after the surrender of Prague, Frederick II marched southwards. He left only 5,000 soldiers under General Baron Gottfried Emanual von Einsiedel with which to garrison Prague. Within three days of the fall of Prague, Frederick had marched his army southwards and seized Tabor, Budweis, and Frauenburg.


As Austria's troops were stationed at various fronts, Maria Theresa was helpless as it appeared that Frederick would be victorious. However, as Frederick pushed south into Bohemia to trap the Austrians from the Rhineland, his French and Bavarian allies had deliberately stopped. Frederick decided to fight on unassisted by his allies. In response, the Catholic natives of Bohemia became hostile to the Lutheran invaders. They refused to supply food. This forced Frederick to retreat from Bohemia due to shortages of food and men.


In the British Isles, the Jacobite Rising of 1745 C.E. occurred. It was an attempt by the exiled Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (December 31, 1720 C.E.-January 31, 1788 C.E.) to regain the British throne for the House of Stuart. The rising occurred during the War of the Austrian Succession when most of the British Army was engaged on the European continent. Charles, also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie or the Young Pretender, was a Catholic. To the British Protestant aristocracy, Bonnie Prince Charlie’s Catholic religion was his undoing. There could never be a Catholic Britain. After all, Britain had killed, converted, or marginalized those remaining Catholics in the realm. It simply wouldn’t do to have a resurgence of the Papists.


He had sailed to Scotland and raised the Jacobite standard at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands. There he was supported by a gathering of Highland clansmen. They next marched south. The venture began with an initial victory at Prestonpans near Edinburgh. A confident Jacobite army marched toward Carlisle, over the border in England. By the time it reached Derby, British divisions had been recalled from the Continent. This forced the Jacobite army to retreat north to Inverness. There the last battle took place on a nearby moor at Culloden, Scottish soil. The Battle of Culloden’s conclusion was the final defeat of the Jacobite cause. This is part of a poem about the young prince, “…. We fought and bled in fields turned red - did wield the claymore well, many a lad was slain today - and for Scotland’s freedom fell.” The Catholic, Bonnie Prince Charlie was forced to flee with a bounty on his head. He then sailed quickly to the safety of France.


During the Second Silesian War on January 20, 1745 C.E., bad news came to Frederick.  Emperor Charles VII had died in Munich. Now his son, Maximilian Joseph would follow the advice of his father to make peace with Maria Theresa. He signed the Peace of Fussen on April 22, 1745 C.E., which guaranteed that Austria would restore all conquests of Bavaria. Maximilian then gave up his claim to the throne and promised to vote for Archduke Francis Stephen at the imperial election. Frederick was no longer fighting as the champion of the Holy Roman Emperor.


On January 8, 1745 C.E., the Union of Warsaw made a new alliance of Britain, Holland, and Saxony against Prussia. However, Maria Theresa made a mistake. She entrusted her campaign to Prince Charles, who had lost at the Battle of Chotusitz. The Pragmatic Army would also lose at the Battle of Fontenoy in Belgium on May 11, 1745 C.E., becoming the French's revenge for the defeat at Dettingen.


By June 3, 1745, another decisive battle took place. This was at the Battle of Hohenfiriedberg. The Prussians surprised the Saxons and the Austrians and destroyed them within a few hours. The Austrians tried again to defeat the Prussians at Soor, but the Prussians won again. Maria Theresa’s efforts were frustrated as she was now deprived of her British and Saxon allies. She was forced to make peace with Frederick.


On December 25, 1745, the Treaty of Dresden was signed. Frederick the Great was to recognize Francis I as the Holy Roman Emperor and Saxony was to pay Prussia 1,000,000 thalers. This was the end the Second Silesian War.


In North America, the British New England militia saw Louisbourg as a convenient direct threat to their colonies and the nearby fishing grounds. In 1745 C.E., the British expedition of the third of the four French and Indian Wars began. Its purpose was to besiege and ultimately captured the French fortress of Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. This was to remove a perceived threat. Or was it? Britain had already taken it once and then returned it to France who was the original builder/owner.


French engineers had surrounded the town and garrison with massive stone walls which made it one of the most extensive and expensive fortifications in North America. The four 2.5 miles of walls measured 30 feet high and 36 feet thick in some places. Despite these thick, towering walls the Fortress of Louisbourg had weaknesses. The fortress was engineered and well-built to defend against attacks from the sea. However, its construction left it vulnerable to land-based assaults. The British would exploit this weakness. At the beginning of the siege, the British erected siege batteries on the hills overlooking the fortress. Once in place, a series of bombardments and assaults, forced the defenders to surrender.


At this juncture I must explain why I have endeavored previously to highlight important issues, problems, and historical events in many parts of the world during the period prior to the birth of Bernardo de Gálvez in 1746 C.E. This I’ve done in order to offer the reader the opportunity to understand how the Old World’s great powers had intrigued, then warred against one another, and later negotiated in order to secure some portion of world dominance for themselves. Clearly, one area of great interest for European colonial domination was North America. That includes España’s Nuevo Mundo.


North America is also where many of España’s Nuevo Mundo possessions were located. The area of España’s Nueva España is of great importance to this chapter. At issue for the subjects of España in the Nuevo Mundo and my progenitors, the de Ribera, were the critical areas of land, its wealth, and promise. This is not to say that the Old World lands and wars were not of importance. Let’s call the struggles of the Old World a necessary prerequisite for control and exploitation of the Nuevo Mundo. The New World was in fact where the future of the great European powers lay.


One can say that España’s various Nuevo Mundo possessions were critical elements to this worldwide gamesmanship. Each of the vying nations was well-versed at the art of winning power games. All were practiced at the use of various economic, political, and military ploys and tactics to gain the psychological advantage. When these failed, it was bloody war that obtained the strategic and tactical advantage. Such was the opportunity which the American Revolution would present for España, France, and later the Netherlands. All had grudges against the British. All wanted to stop Britain’s lust for world domination.


It should be noted here that during the early-18th Century C.E., Britain made every effort to expand her power. She did this with willful intent employing intrigue, war, negotiations, and finally treaties favorable for her. British, Northern European, anti-Catholic, anti-Spanish, and other writers, historians, and commentators have for centuries painted Britain as a civilizing influence with everyone’s best interests at heart. Nothing could have been further from the truth. She was in fact an instigator of rebellions and wars against those she saw as her economic, military, political, and religious rivals. Chief of these was España. Many Anglophiles may disagree with my attacking their sacred cow. However, the truth is the truth and here the fact is that veritas numquam perit must be accepted. Britain dreamed, planned, and executed world domination at everyone else’s expense. That is factual! Britain, nosce te ipsum.


As far as España’s Nuevo Mundo possessions, the competing nations wanted to have these for themselves. The wealth and natural resources were what was at stake. Alone or in concert, these other European nations plotted, planned, and executed her downfall. By the middle-18th-Century C.E., a greedy Britain continued to consolidate her power and control over her stolen possessions. Let the reader be the judge.


Finally, I’ve made an effort to provide the reader with a better understanding of the degree to which these Old World monarchies and nation-states and their militaries fine-tuned their warfare making abilities, improved armament technologies and deployment, and created and implemented new and improved methods for mass killing on the battlefield. The 18th-Century C.E. was not a time of backwards thinking men and women. The military in particular was comprised of well-educated warriors and technologists that brought the art of killing to new heights. The leaders of the time were not cardboard cutout figures. Instead, they were flesh and blood men and women with families, education, beliefs, religion, and capabilities. All these they brought to bear in the all or nothing wars for world domination.


Here we must add another note of interest, España’s 18th-Century C.E., Francophile nature. It was only in 1492 C.E., that the combined Ibero Christian forces of Castilla and Aragón captured the Emirate of Granada, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Ibéria. Many believe this begins the date of the founding of the Ibero Spanish monarchy of España. The House of Habsburg Monarchy or The House of Austria arrived in Ibéria in 1516 C.E., twenty-four years later. It would be replaced with the House of Borbón in 1700 C.E., after almost two hundred years. France and its Enlightenment ideals came to España and found fertile ground.


Historically, what became parts of northern España and southern France had centuries of strong connections. These went back many hundreds of years. Some dynasties that ruled in España had origins with beginnings in the Frankish Empire. The rulers of the County of Barcelona were created by Charlemagne as counts when he conquered lands in the Ibero Peninsula north of the Ebro River. The Counts of Barcelona had Provençal ancestry and held the title of the "Count of Provence."


In the 11th-Century C.E., the Counts of Barcelona formed a dynastic union with the Kingdom of Aragón. Alfonso II of Aragón was the first Conde de Barcelona to be crowned King of Aragón, succeeding his mother Petronila of Aragón. Alfonso's maternal grandparents were the Duke and Duchess of Aquitaine, which made Alfonso a first cousin, once-removed, of the famous French, later English, Queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine.


The first Spanish Borbón King Felipe V (b. 1700 C.E.-1746 C.E.) acceded to the throne. He and his successors, Fernando VI (r. 1746 C.E.-1759 C.E.), Carlos III (r. 1759 C.E.-1788 C.E.), and Carlos IV (r. 1788 C.E.-1807 C.E.) were the sponsors of a centurylong effort to reform and renovate the Imperio Español. The Borbón Reforms or policy changes were targeted. Firstly, they attempted to curb contraband commerce. Secondly, there was an effort to regain control over transatlantic trade. The Spanish Borbóns wanted badly to curtail the Church’s power in España and its Nuevo Mundo possessions. They also tried in vain to modernize state finances. This effort was focused upon filling the depleted royal coffers. Finally, the Borbóns also wanted to establish tighter political and administrative control within the entire Imperio Español.


Generally speaking, Spanish Castellanos supported Felipe because the new royal house promised continuation of an imperial España ruled from Madrid. However, Cataluña, Aragón, and València which were the Mediterranean flank and traditionally the most stubbornly opposed to Castellano domination supported the Austrian pretender. Why? There was the long-standing rivalry between Castilla and the other three regions, each of which enjoyed traditional rights (fueros). The Castellanos had already tried to override these in the 17th-Century C.E. Felipe had sworn to recognize these rights shortly after assuming power. The Catalanes, Aragonese, and Valencians feared that Felipe would follow the absolutism or centralist policies of his grandfather, Louis XIV. Louis was famous for the saying “L’etat, c’est moi” or “The state, that’s me.


The enterprising Catalanes also had another motive. These saw that with the sea power of the British and the Dutch there was a way to break the Castellano-French monopoly over trade with the Américas. Which to their detriment, all transport was carried out exclusively through the port of Cádiz. Each of the three regions would pay dearly for their opposition to Felipe.


The defeat of these three rebellious regions provided Felipe with an excuse to abolish fueros. During the Reconquista, the feudal lords granted fueros to some villas and cities, to encourage the colonization of the frontier and of commercial routes. These laws regulated the governance and the penal, process, and civil aspects of the places. It also represented a compilation of laws, especially a local or regional one. There were also a set of laws specific to an identified class or estate. For example there was a fuero militar, comparable to a military code of justice. There was also a fuero eclesiástico, specific to the Church. And there were various others.


These were the very same ones Felipe had sworn to recognize shortly after arriving in España. Due to the acts of betrayal on the part of these three regions, Felipe enforced the centralization that the Hapsburg monarchs of the 17th-Century C.E. had failed to impose. His actions were now seen as being justified. The fueros of, Aragón and València were abolished in 1707 C.E., those of Cataluña in 1716 C.E. In future, Aragón, València, and Cataluña were subject to the laws of Castilla. This was under the Nueva Planta or New Foundation, as the plan was known.


Felipe also abolished the Cortés or parliaments of these regions and allowed only those individuals loyal to Madrid to be appointed to local offices. In addition, the Catalanes were forced to accept the suppression of their language. For practical reasons some limited concessions were made to allow the language in legal and commercial areas.


Felipe V became the first Spanish monarch to rule over a single or unitary state. He was the ruler of a centralized España, governed by the rules and laws of Castilla. However, the King left the Vasco Provinces and Navarra with their fueros largely intact. This they received as a reward for having supported Felipe. The Ibero Peninsula, excluding Portugal, would now be united via one language, one law, and one religion. These impositions would continue after King Felipe V’s death in 1746 C.E.


It should by now be apparent to the reader that España of the early-18th-Century C.E. was a product of Ibero monarchies, Austrian monarchs, and now the newly crowned French Borbón King s Felipe V and Carlos III. It should also be noted that various Spanish regions had been semi-independent with regional approaches to governance and economics. Centralization of government and economy were the greatest of issues if España was to continue as a world power. To accomplish this, the semi-autonomous regions would have to be controlled and eventually stripped of their independence all while España was defending and protecting her peninsular borders and possessions in Europe, the Américas, and other worldwide territories.


By the birth of Bernardo de Gálvez in 1746 C.E., many things had changed in España. His father and uncles had been a large part of those changes. It had been 254 years since Cristóbal Colón had sailed and found the Nuevo Mundo’s Nueva Españia. They were of that group of individuals loyal to Madrid. These men had been appointed to local offices both on the Peninsula and abroad for the purpose of control and improvement. Before Bernardo reached manhood, centralization and the implementation of the Borbón Reforms or policy changes were targeted to resolve and improve governmental and military areas of concern for a united and structured España.


Later by the time Bernardo was in his early twenties, he and his uncles would not only be faced with administrative and economic concerns, but with yet one more round of war with Britain.


By the latter part of the 18th-Century C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez would disrupt Britain’s control of the Golfo de Méjico and its needed access to the Mississippi River. The River was important as it parted the North American Continent and provided for rapid travel and geographic access via its many waterways. Britain knew it needed this easy, rapid access to control its own colonies and to attack and conquer those of the Españoles and French.


By 1776 C.E., the secret support provided by both España and France gave confidence to the Américano Patriots prior to their signing the Declaration of Independence. It should be remembered that many of España’s ciudadanos of the time supported and gave to that great American cause of liberty. Perhaps they remembered their own almost 800 years of Moro oppression and were in sympatico. Or maybe it was as simple as wanting to cause Britain grief over their having successfully taken so many Spanish possessions.


One of many illustrious noble Spanish families, de Gálvez, gave great service to their king and the fledgling American nation. Their presence in so many areas affecting the American Revolutionary War gave the Patriots needed support. They also served as conduits for material aid sent by España to American Patriots throughout the American Revolution of 1776 C.E. and fought the British throughout el Imperio Español. Undoubtedly, it helped pave the way for a resolute group of American Patriots to overcome and defeat the British.


Beginning that same year, 1776 C.E., Diego María de Gardoqui y Arriquibar was born on November 12, 1735 C.E., Bilbao España. He died 1798 C.E., at Madrid, España. Diego was a Spanish/Basque politician, diplomat, banker, financier, the first Ambassador to the Spanish State in the United States (1784 C.E.-1789 C.E.), and Secretary of the State Council of His Majesty Carlos IV and Interim General Superintendent of the Royal Treasury. He managed the transfer of monies from the Spanish government to the American Patriots.


He arrived in Philadelphia in the spring of 1785 C.E. and from there he went to New York, where the Congress met, moving into a luxurious mansion in Broadway, close to where George Washington lived. That same year, Diego aided in the construction in New York of Saint Peter’s Church, the first Catholic Church in the USA, situated in Barclay Street, near the area of the Twin Towers. This Church was blessed on June 20, 1786 C.E. and the event was attended by Gardoqui as well as George Washington himself.


Pablo Jerónimo Grimaldi y Pallavicini, Marqués y Duque de Grimaldi (Genoa, c. 1720 C.E.-1730 C.E. October 1789 C.E.) was an Italian-Spanish diplomat and politician. After extensive experience as an Ambassador, Grimaldi served as Chief Minister of España between 1763 C.E. and 1778 C.E. helping to rebuild Spanish power following its defeat during the Seven Years' War. He handpicked the Conde Floridablanca who preceded him as Minister of State, oversaw the initial secret aid to the Thirteen Colonies.



It was he, who set the governmental tone and policy which Floridablanca inherited and continued. José Moñino y Redondo, Conde de Floridablanca was born on October 21, 1728 C.E. and died on December 30, 1808 C.E. He was born the son of a retired army officer at Murcia, España. José studied in Murcia and Orihuela, and later law at the University of Salamanca. Conde de Floridablanca became an esteemed advocate in the Spanish courts where he became a criminal prosecutor in Castilla in 1766 C.E. He was also well known for having defended the expulsion of the Catholic Jesuits in 1767 C.E.


The Marqués of Esquilache, who was the chief minister at the time, recognized his ability and made Moñino the Spanish ambassador to Pope Clement XIV in 1772 C.E. He was rewarded with the title "Conde de Floridablanca" in 1773 C.E. This he received for his success in obtaining the support of the Pope in suppressing the Jesuits.


Ultimately, José Moñino y Redondo was the consummate Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister of King Carlos III of España, and also served briefly under Carlos IV. In the end, José is considered España’s most effective statesman in the 18th-Century C.E.

Also beginning in 1776 C.E., until declaring war against Great Britain in 1779 C.E., España sent generous amounts of medicine, military assistance, money, munitions, muskets, and supplies to aid America covertly through the merchants Diego María de Gardoqui of Bilbao and American Oliver Pollock in New Orleans. During these years, España provided credit to the colonists totaling 8,000,000 reales, for food, medical and military supplies.


In August of 1776 C.E., General Charles Henry Lee, second in command to General George Washington, sent Captain George Gibson with a group of sixteen Patriots from Fort Pitt to New Orleans to obtain supplies from the Españoles. In September of 1776 C.E., España sent nine thousand pounds of gun powder up the Mississippi River from New Orleans to the Américanos and an additional one thousand pounds by ship to Philadelphia.


By November of 1776 C.E., King Carlos III ordered Bernardo de Gálvez to covertly collect intelligence about the British. As second in command to the then gobernador of Luisiana, Luís de Unzaga y Amézaga, Bernardo was well placed to aid the Américanos. Later, José de Gálvez, Secretarío del Estado del Despacho Universal de Indias was ordered to render secret help to the Américano Patriots. After the promotion of Luís to be Capitán General of Caracas, toward the end of the year, Bernardo took charge of the Luisiana government. Unzaga y Amézaga later headed the general government of Cuba.


On December 24, 1776 C.E., an order was issued by José de Gálvez to the newly installed Gobernador of Luisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez instructing him to support the Américanos in every way possible. José’s nephew, Bernardo, was also ordered to do so quietly.


Bernardo immediately made great improvements in several branches of the Luisiana administration and gathered and settled several tribes of wandering Natives (Atakapa- Choctaw group that lived in Southwest Luisiana), whom he succeeded in civilizing. The kindnesses shown the Natives placed the Black Legend on its head. Each of his moves was to consolidate control of the region in preparation for war.


España also provided armed military support which was necessary and valuable at a critical juncture in the American war for independence. This obviously helped turn the tide of that war toward victory. As you read further, look at the map of what is today the United States. Later, place a check mark on each state where the Españoles defeated the British on behalf of the Américanos. You will then understand the Spanish strategy for relieving the pressure of British encirclement on the Thirteen American Colonies and disrupting plans for containment and attacking from different directions of that encirclement.

Further, as the chapter will reflect, the Españoles and España’s allies the French and the Netherlands battled the British in a “world war,” only part of which was in the Spanish Nuevo Mundo Américas.


In the end, the British were forced to fight in both the Old World and the New World. This is made abundantly clear by Judge Edward Butler in his book, Gálvez Spain our forgotten ally in the American Revolutionary War: A concise summary of Spain’s assistance.” He has rightly described this war as a world war.


To be sure, the 18th-Century C.E. was an important and bloody period in world history. The British were found everywhere on the attack. She wanted to own the world and displace España and France where she could. It is for this reason that this chapter will dwell upon Britain’s worldwide warfare, disruption, and rise as a dominant world power.


Finally, we shall deal with the American Revolutionary War and España’s role in it.

As has thus been presented, España’s eventual entry into the American Revolution War on May 8, 1779 C.E. was a result years of war and intrigue. These wars had in the main been fought between Britain and France for worldwide domination. España was almost always aligned with France. This is why I must proceed with information used to acquaint the reader with those historical events and figures which led up to España’s involvement in the American Revolution War against Britain.


In time, greedy Britain’s ongoing wars moved to India where they wanted everything French. The First Carnatic War (1746 C.E.-1748 C.E.) began in July 1746 C.E. The French commander La Bourdonnais and British Admiral Edward Peyton fought an indecisive battle off Negapatam. After the action the British fleet withdrew to Bengal. On September 21, 1746 C.E., French forces captured a British outpost at Madras.


The termination of the War of Austrian Succession in Europe would bring the First Carnatic War to an end. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748 C.E., Madras was given back to the British as was the French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia in North America. It took decades, but the British finally gained the military advantage they so desperately wanted in Nova Scotia. To the British strategic geographic positioning and placement of military assets was all important. This provided easy access and control of key land areas, waterways, and trade routes.


The War of the Austrian Succession ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 C.E., by which Maria Theresa was confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia retained control of Silesia. Silesia was strategically important to Prussia. Silesia is located in southwestern Poland. It was originally a Polish province, which later became a possession of the Bohemian crown in 1335 C.E. Silesia passed with its crown to the Austrian Habsburgs in 1526 C.E. In 1742 C.E., it was taken by Prussia. By the 18th-Century C.E., Silesia’s mining and textile industries made it the richest of all the Habsburgs’ Austrian provinces.


Prussia's two chief foes, Austria and Russia, had been meddlesome in Prussian affairs. The control of Silesia significantly blunted this capacity. Silesia is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Germany. Located along the Odra River and consists of Lower Silesia and Upper Silesia, it has a land mass of about 15,444 square miles.


But the peace was soon to be shattered. Austria's desire to recapture Silesia and the great political changes in Europe would see another great war. The Silesian Wars really refer to three wars between Austria and Prussia for control of Silesia. This long-time struggle ended in the mid-18th-Century C.E. With Prussian victories in all three wars, it was finally concluded. Unfortunately, this Prussian victory and the possession of Silesia foreshadowed a wider struggle for control over the German-speaking peoples. This would culminate later in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 C.E.


Let me be clear. The 1748 C.E. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the third of the four French and Indian Wars, King George's War. The Treaty also restored Louisbourg and its fortress to France. However, it failed to resolve any of the outstanding major territorial issues, leaving the door open for further British encroachment into French territory and beyond.


By 1749 C.E., the British Ohio Company successfully obtained a royal land grant in the Ohio River Valley region of North America, an offensive move. In response, the French created a series of strategic forts along the Allegheny River to prevent any further British encroachment into the area. The British Crown commanded its colonial governors to advance against any French aggression. Apparently for the British any defensive military activities by its potential victims constituted an act of aggression. As a result, the British Colony of Virginia sent military forces. These included a then young George Washington. Their mission was to visit French forts and demand that they relinquish those defensive military fortifications.


Second Carnatic War (1749 C.E.-1754 C.E.) now had come. Though a state of war did not exist in Europe, a proxy war was continued in India. The Nawab Anwaruddin Mohammed Khan in the Battle of Ambur against the French in 1749 C.E., which escalated matters. On one side were Nasir Jung, the Nizam and his protégé Muhammad Ali, supported by the British. On the other side were Chanda Sahib and Muzaffar Jung, supported by the French, vying for the Nawabship of Arcot. Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib were able to capture Arcot while Nasir Jung's subsequent death allowed Muzaffar Jung to take control of Hyderabad. Muzaffar's reign was short as he was soon killed, and Salabat Jung became Nawab.


The British would simply not take “No” for an answer. By 1751 C.E., during the Second Carnatic War Robert Clive led British troops in the capture of French influenced Arcot, won it, and successfully defended it. Again, she was intent upon controlling geographically and strategically important areas for trade and exploitation. India was only one area of the world she was interested in controlling.


On the North American Continent ongoing tensions between British-American settlers and the Cherokee increased during the 1750s C.E. These circumstances would culminate in open hostilities by 1758 C.E.


In Asia, José or Joséf de Gálvez y Gallardo was to become a Spanish colonial administrator in 1750 C.E. He was appointed gobernador in the Filipinas. These Islands were the gateway to the Far East. España’s intent was to gain a share of the lucrative spice trade, to develop better contacts with China and Japan, and to gain converts to Christianity.


Trade in the Filipinas centered upon the use of España’s Galeón de Manila or Manila Galleons. These ships sailed from Acapulco de Juárez on the west coast of what is now Méjico, then a part of Nueva España. They carried shipments of silver bullion and minted coins. These were to be exchanged for returning cargoes of Chinese goods, mainly porcelain and silk textiles. The process had little direct trade with España or exploitation of indigenous natural resources.


By 1756 C.E., during the Seven Years’ War (1756 C.E.-1763 C.E.), British East India Company forces would covet this strategic location. They soon invaded and captured Spanish Manila. British inspired rebellions were begun in the north. Soon, British instigated Moro raids from the south were ongoing while the Españoles were busy fighting the British. The Chinese community supported the British with laborers and armed men. In short, noble Britain was at it again using surrogates to do their bidding.


Although the Filipinas were returned to España at the end of the war, the British occupation would mark the beginning of the end of the Spanish control. I’m sure that Anglophile historians and commentators will find more noble reasons for Britain’s actions in the region. The idea of theft appears to be beyond their comprehension when blinded by the thought of British goodness, fairness, and largesse.


By 1754 C.E., the Second Carnatic War ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry. Upon its signing, the supporter of Britain, Muhammad Ali Khan Walajah, was recognised as the Nawab of the Carnatic. The French were out and the British in control. Here again, I’m sure we will find Anglophile historians and commentators applauding these actions as ridding the Indian world of a necessary evil, France.


The French and Indian War (1754 C.E.-1763 C.E.) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War. The war pitted the British America colonies against those of Nouvelle-France. Nouvelle-France was an area colonized by the French in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 C.E. Both warring sides were supported by military units from their parent countries, France and Great Britain, as well as by allied Natives.


In some countries participating during the Seven Years' War, such as those colonial territories of North America, actions were named after combatants in their respective theatres of military operations. One example would be the French and Indian War in what is now the United States. In French-speaking Canada, it is known as the War of the Conquest. It is called the Seven Years' War in English-speaking Canada (North America, 1754 C.E.-1763 C.E.).


Great Britain’s greed for France’s colonies broke out in 1754 C.E.-1756 C.E. when the British attacked those French locations and positions in North America which they coveted. They then seized hundreds of French merchant ships. British intent here was to control all strategically important areas in North America. She aggressively continued along this well-planned path to world domination.


Tensions and conflict in North America between Britain and France would continue for a half-century, after having begun in 1754 C.E. This strife was over Britain’s wanting control and domination of the Ohio River Valley. By 1754 C.E., the French responded to the British aggression and demands to leave their Ohio River Valley region fortifications with a definite, no! The British response as always was to take what they wanted.


At the 1754 C.E. outbreak of the French and Indian War, the Cherokee were allies of the British, taking part in campaigns against Fort Duquesne at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and the Shawnee of the Ohio Country.


During the period, a battle ensued at Fort Necessity. In the spring of 1754 C.E., the British Virginia Colony Governor Robert Dinwiddie dispatched a construction party to the Forks of the Ohio at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Its goal was to invade the area and build a fort to assert British claims to the region. To support the construction effort, Dinwiddie later sent 159 militiamen under Lieutenant Colonel George Washington. Dinwiddie instructed Washington to stop any attempt to interfere with the construction work. While Washington was marching north, he found that the construction workers had been driven away from the forks by the French and had retreated south.


As the French had already begun constructing Fort Duquesne at the forks Washington received new orders from Governor Dinwiddie. These instructed him to commence building a road north from Wills Creek. Obeying his orders, Washington's men proceeded to Wills Creek, at present-day Cumberland, Maryland. By May 14, 1754 C.E., they reached the large, marshy clearing known as the Great Meadows. Once having established a base camp in the meadows, Washington explored the region while awaiting reinforcements.

Within three days, he was informed of the approach of a French reconnaissance party. After assessing the situation, Washington agreed with his Native advisor, Half King, a Mingo chief allied to the British. He would take a detachment and ambush the French party.


Washington and approximately 40 men marched through the night in bad weather to lay the trap. As he moved toward a narrow valley, in the valley the British found the French contingent camped. The British troops then surrounded the French position and opened fire. The resulting action called the Battle of Jumonville Glen, lasted about fifteen minutes. Washington's men killed 10 French soldiers and captured 21. Their commander, Ensign Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville was also taken prisoner. After the battle, Washington interrogated Jumonville. Without provocation the Native, Half King, supposedly approached and then attacked the defenseless French officer. The Frenchman was bludgeoned on the head, killing him.


Washington anticipated a French counterattack. He fell back to Great Meadows and on May 29, 1754 C.E. He then ordered his men to begin constructing a log palisade. Washington had the fortification built in the middle of the meadow, believing it would provide his men with a clear field of fire. After Washington's men quickly completed work on the fortification, the site was dubbed Fort Necessity. Washington's lack of military inexperience proved problematic critical as the Fort was located in a depression. It was too close to the tree lines. While construction was underway, Washington had dispatched Half King in an attempt to rally Delaware, Shawnee, and Seneca warriors to the British cause.


On June 9, 1754 C.E., additional troops from Washington's Virginia regiment arrived from Wills Creek. This brought the company to a total force of 293 men. Five days later, Captain James McKay arrived with his Independent Company of regular British troops from South Carolina.


Shortly after making camp, McKay and Washington began to dispute over who should hold command. It was clear that Washington held a superior rank. However, McKay's commission in the British Army took precedence. The two finally agreed on joint command. McKay's men would remain at Great Meadows. Washington's troops continued work on the road north to Gist's Plantation.


Gist's Plantation was the name of a settlement Christopher Gist, a Maryland surveyor, Indian trader, and agent for the Ohio Company of Virginia (1749 C.E.) which Gist spearheaded. It was located between the Monongahela and Youghiogheny Rivers near Uniontown, Pennsylvania in the years, 1752 C.E.-1754 C.E. As Agent, through the Logstown Treaty of 1752 C.E., he obtained permission from the local Natives for the Company to build a storehouse at the Forks of the Ohio. There fur traders kept goods and conduct business with the Natives. Gist had also previously accompanied George Washington on his journey to Fort LeBoeuf in 1753 C.E.


Gist's Plantation had a fortified storehouse for Native trade and about a dozen families of settler. It also served as Washington's military headquarters during his ill-fated campaign of 1754 C.E.


By June 18, 1754 C.E., Half King’s efforts to win the Natives over to the British cause were unsuccessful. No Native forces would be reinforcing the British position at Great Meadows.


It was late in the month that word arrived that a force of 600 French and 100 Indians had departed Fort Duquesne. Washington felt his position at Gist's Plantation was untenable. His force then retreated to Fort Necessity. By July 1, 1754 C.E., the British garrison began work on a series of trenches and earthworks around the fort.


Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers, Jumonville's brother, led a French force to counter the British. On July 3, 1754 C.E., they arrived and quickly surrounded Fort Necessity. De Villiers quickly took advantage of Washington's mistake. Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers advanced in three columns. He then occupied the high ground along the tree line which would allow his troops to fire into the fort.


Washington reacted quickly to this threat and prepared to attack the enemy. He understood that his troops needed to eject the French from their position. De Villiers anticipated Washington’s move and attacked first. He ordered his men to charge the British lines. While the regulars held their position and inflicted losses on the French, the Virginia militia fell back toward the Fort. After breaking de Villiers' charge, Washington withdrew all of his men into Fort Necessity.


De Villiers was reported to be outraged by his brother's death. As a professional soldier, he considered it murder. In revenge, he ordered his troops concentrate heavy fire on the Fort throughout the day. This kept Washington's men pinned down. They soon ran short of ammunition. As the hours passed, their situation became worse. Heavy rain began falling which made firing difficult. At approximately 8:00 PM, de Villiers dispatched a messenger to Washington. He wanted to open negotiations for surrender. As Washington’s situation was hopeless, he agreed. Lieutenant Colonel Washington and Captain McKay soon met with Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers. Negotiations went slowly as neither spoke the other's language. Luckily one of Washington's soldiers men who could speak some French. He was summoned to the conference to serve as an interpreter.


After several hours of negotiating, an agreement of surrender was drafted. Washington, McKay, and their troops were permitted to withdraw back to Wills Creek in return for surrendering Fort Necessity. Unfortunately, the language of the surrender document included language which stated that Washington was responsible for the "assassination" of Jumonville. Washington's reported admission of assassination was used as propaganda by the French. Later, Washington would deny the allegation. It was his position that the translation he had been provided was not the word assassination, but death of, or killing.


After the British surrendered the Fort on July 4, 1754 C.E., the French set it afire and left for Fort Duquesne. Washington would return to Great Meadows the following year to take part in the disastrous Braddock Expedition. Once the French and Virginia militia forces engaged, the French overcame the British. The British later moved to attack the French Fort Duquesne. Before British forces reached the Fort, the French and their Native allies ambushed British force. Two-thirds of the British expedition were killed or wounded. Fort Duquesne was to remain in French hands until 1758 C.E., when it was captured by General John Forbes.


In 1755 C.E., a band of Cherokee 130-strong under Ostenaco or Ustanakwa of Tamali or Tomotley took up residence in a fortified town at the mouth of the Ohio River at the behest of the Iroquois who were then also British allies.


For several years, French agents from Fort Toulouse had been visiting the Overhill Cherokee on the Hiwassee and Tellico Rivers, and had made inroads into those places. The strongest pro-French Cherokee leaders were Mankiller (Utsidihi) of Talikwa on the Tellico Plains, Old Caesar of Chatuga (or Tsatugi, Chatooga), and Raven (Kalanu) of Ayuhwasi or Hiwassee. The "First Beloved Man" (or Uku) of the nation, Kanagatoga (or "Stalking Turkey", aka 'Old Hop'), was very pro-French, as was his nephew, Kunagadoga, who succeeded him at his death in 1760 C.E.


Outside of North America, the Españoles would sustain serious losses against the British during Europe's Seven Years' War (1756 C.E.-1763 C.E.). These losses would eventually influence the España’s timing in entering the American Revolutionary War on the side of the Patriots. It was during the War, that the British attacked and occupied two of España's key trading ports in 1762 C.E. These were Habana, Cuba and, Manila, in the Filipinas.


Following months of localized conflict, in 1756 C.E. the European mother countries / nations declared war on each other as combatants. To be clear, the Seven Years' War was a world war. A world war is a war involving many or most of the world's most powerful and populous countries. World wars span multiple countries on multiple continents, with battles fought in multiple theatres. In this case, it involved every European great power of the time except the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Turks will be discussed later. However, this must be said. The Ottoman Empire would have only one interest in these matters. It was an Islamist empire with only one goal, the destruction of Christendom and all of her adherent nations. This is to say, it was happy to sit back and watch the worldwide carnage and destruction of its sworn Christian enemies at their own hands.


Considered to be the first real global war in history, it spanned four continents. The great geographic scale of the War’s combat took place in many different locations. As a result, the War is referred to by many different names, each based upon the geography of that conflict. Fighting in North America is more commonly known as the French and Indian War (1754 C.E.-1763 C.E.). Conflicts between Austria and Prussia are known as the Third Silesian War (1756 C.E.-1763 C.E. The battles between Prussia and Sweden are sometimes referred to as the Pomeranian War (1757 C.E.-1762 C.E.). Warfare between France and England that took place on the Indian subcontinent is referred to as the Third Carnatic War (1758 C.E.-1763 C.E.).


A great number of the European powers of the time participated in the war. These included Austria, Britain, España, France, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, and Saxony. The outcomes were staggering. The resulting death tolls were high for this period of time. It is estimated that 900,000 to 1,400,000 people died over the course of the War.


The Seven Years’ War’s outcome would affect locales in West Africa, the Caribe, Central América, Europe, India, North America, and the Filipinas. Warfare escalated from a regional affair to theaters involving several continents. Thus, the name French and Indian War is used mainly in the United States. It refers to the two main enemies of the British colonists the royal French forces and the various Indigenous/Native forces allied with both parties.


The conflict divided Europe into two military coalitions. There was a group led by Great Britain on one side and France on the other. The War would be fought in the main on two major fronts, Europe and North America. Competition between Britain and the Bourbon kingdoms of España and France over colonial and commercial power in North America finally erupted into armed conflict, making North America one of the major theaters during the war. Britain was intent upon taking the entire North American Continent for herself. Anglophile historians and commentators may disagree with this assessment. Somehow, the phrase “res ipsa loquitur” comes to mind. Simple, obvious, it works for me!


Lingering tensions following the War of Austrian Succession (1740 C.E.-1748 C.E.) caused further fighting on the European continent. Ongoing, unresolved conflicts between Austria’s Habsburg dynasty and the House of Hohenzollerns (the royal dynasty of Prussia) continued over control of the Holy Roman Empire and disputed territory. In fact, the rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. This eventually led to war. Realizing that war was imminent, Prussia preemptively struck Saxony and quickly overran it. The result caused uproar across Europe.


The hostilities spread throughout Europe once Austria and Prussia encouraged military alliances with other European powers. By 1756 C.E., Britain and Prussia formed a strong alliance. Britain became involved for one purpose only and it was not for Largesse.  There was no generosity of spirit or attitude involved, only the will of a nation to expand its greatness at the expense of others. It was, “The Friend of My Enemy Is My Enemy” and all of that. Whatever side France found herself on, she could expect to find the British across the battle lines staring straight across from her in support of her enemies.


Because of Prussia's alliance with Britain, this was to be followed inevitably by an alliance between Austria and France. These two states had been tradition adversaries were joined when Austria saw an opportunity to recapture Silesia, which had been lost in a previous war. Following the Imperial Diet or General Assembly, most of the states of the empire reluctantly, joined Austria's cause. Those alliances which had been in place between European states were in some cases completely overturned and/or reversed.  By 1756 C.E., the major powers would switch partners.


It wasn’t just nations that changed sides during and after wars. One man of history, Charles Lee (born January 26, 1731 C.E. or February 6, 1732 C.E.-died October 2, 1782 C.E.) served in the British Army during the Seven Years’ War. After the end of that war, he would sell his commission and serve for a time in the Polish army of King Stanislaus II.  He would then later serve as a General of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence.


In North America, the British and French had fought one another in several wars prior to the French and Indian War. In 1756 C.E., the British had completed Fort Prince George near Keowee in South Carolina, among the Lower Towns; and Fort Loudoun which was near Chota at the mouth of the Tellico River. Once the forts were completed, their allies, the Cherokee raised a complement about to 700 warriors to fight in western Virginia Colony under Ostenaco. Oconostota and Attakullakulla led another large group in the attack on the French Fort Toulouse.


It is understood by experts in the area that the French and Indian War was the first which began in the North American colonies due to colonial conflicts. The French colonists were heavily outnumbered on the American Continent. There were approximately two million British American colonists and only about 65,000 French Canadian colonists. The French were able to stand their ground against the British in the early stages of that war. That would change dramatically.


This conflict between the British and French began in the Ohio River Valley. Both sides desired to have access to trade with Natives (Indians). The British colonists had established the Ohio Company and its investors from London and Virginia sought to reap the rewards of British control of the region.


Following British defeats at Fort Necessity and Fort Duquesne, the British soon modified their military strategy. In 1756 C.E., William Pitt was appointed as the king’s chief minister. He successfully rallied the British colonies in a war effort against the French and their native allies. His promise to the colonists was that the Crown would pay for all military related services and supplies.


With her ally, Prussia, carrying the military load on the European Continent, Britain was free to redirect the majority of its war-making resources against the French in North America. This freedom in many ways allowed Britain to establish her naval dominance in the Atlantic Ocean. In response, France formed a grand coalition of her own. Unfortunately for France which aimed to curtail Britain and Prussia's ever-growing might, it ended in failure. Thereafter, Britain rose to become the world's predominant nation which altered the European balance of power.


The Pomeranian War between Britain and Sweden and Prussia took place 1757 C.E.-1762 C.E. While the war began when Swedish forces invaded Prussian territory in 1757 C.E., the Pomeranian War was in actuality a theatre of warfare of the Seven Years' War. The War is characterized by military engagements by the Prussian and Swedish armies, in which they moved backwards-and-forwards, neither scoring a decisive victory. The name is also used to describe the locations of warfare between Prussia and Sweden in Prussian Pomerania, Swedish Pomerania, northern Brandenburg, and eastern Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

The Anglo (British)-Prussian alliance was joined by many smaller German states, especially Hanover. Sweden feared Prussia's expansionist tendencies. Thus, it went to war in 1757 C.E. to protect its Baltic dominions once it saw the chance to accomplish this goal when virtually all of Europe opposed Prussia.


The Anglo (British)-Cherokee War (1758 C.E.-1761 C.E.) was also known from the Anglo-European perspective as the Cherokee War, the Cherokee Uprising, or the Cherokee Rebellion. In the Cherokee language it was called The War with those in the red coats or War with the British. The war was a conflict between British forces in North America and Cherokee Native tribes during the French and Indian War. At the beginning of the War the British and Cherokee had been allies. However, each party suspected the other of betrayals. With the British, betrayal was part and parcel of their suite of underhanded acts of aggression. It worked nicely in concert with their use of bribery as a means to an end.


In North America the Anglo-Cherokee War broke out in 1758 C.E. when Virginia militia attacked Moytoy (Amo-adawehi) of Citico in retaliation for the theft of some horses by the Cherokee. Moytoy's reaction was to lead retaliatory raids on the Yadkin and Catawba Rivers in North Carolina which began a domino effect that ended with the murders of 23 Cherokee hostages at Fort Prince George near Keowee and the massacre of the garrison of Fort Loudoun near Chota (Itsati).


The Cherokee were led by Aganstata of Chota, Attakullakulla (Atagulgalu) of Tanasi, Ostenaco of Tomotley, Wauhatchie (Wayatsi) of the Lower Towns, and Round O of the Middle Towns.


During the second year of the French and Indian War, in 1758 C.E. the British had sought Cherokee assistance against the French and their Native allies. The British had received reports that indicated the French were planning to build forts in Cherokee territory. They had already built Fort Charleville at Great Salt Lick on the Cumberland River


Even before British and French traders arrived on the scene, the French Great Salt Lick had long attracted native hunters. It was a natural area for attracting wild game. This territory between the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers became a hunting ground for many Native tribes. The Shawnees had occupied the area in the 17th-Century C.E.


By 1700 C.E., the Cherokees and Chickasaws were forcing the Shawnees Tribes northward from the French Lick, or the Big Salt Springs on the Cumberland River.


The area also saw early trading activities which by the 18th-Century C.E. involved Europeans and their imperial struggles. French traders from New Orleans and others from the Illinois country came in to offer manufactured goods for pelts. By 1710 C.E., a Frenchman, Jean du Charleville from New Orleans had transformed a deserted Shawnee fort at the French Lick into a warehouse. Charleville became the vanguard of trade and French imperial ambitions for the region. By the 18th-Century C.E., French government administrators had planned to fortify the interior of North America with a line of forts. They were to be placed from the St. Lawrence to New Orleans. In concert with Native alliances, The French hoped to withstand the pressure of British settlements from advancing from the East.


By the 1750s C.E., long hunters from the British colonies had already penetrated the area. Land speculators and settlers would soon follow. This group contributed a great deal of knowledge of the topography of the North American Continent. The long hunters of the colonial days were the pioneer settlers who moved continually toward the extreme frontiers. When the first American settlers were arriving at Wolf Hills surrounding Abingdon and Cassell's Woods (Castlewood), Virginia in 1768 C.E. and 1769 C.E., the long hunters had long since bypassed these regions and were already hunting far away in the Ohio and Cumberland river basins of Kentucky and western Tennessee. The long hunters had already named most of the rivers, streams, gaps, salt licks, mountains, and valleys long ago before settlers came upon them. Settlers upon arrival adopted these names for natural land marks.


The French had built Fort Toulouse, near present-day Montgomery, Alabama. The French also held Fort Rosalie at Natchez, Mississippi and Fort Saint Pierre at modern day Yazoo, Mississippi. There was also Fort Tombeckbe on the Tombigbee River in present-day west Alabama. The Tombigbee River is a tributary of the Mobile River which is approximately 200 miles long in the states of Mississippi and Alabama. It merges to form the short Mobile River before emptying into Mobile Bay on the Golfo de Méjico. Once the Cherokee agreed to be their allies, the British hastened to build forts of their own in the Cherokee lands.


The Seven Years' War in India saw the long running conflict between the British and French trading companies for influence renewed with the outbreak of the War in Europe. It also resulted in renewed conflict between French and British forces in India, the Third Carnatic War (1758 C.E.-1763 C.E.). Britain was intent upon taking all French possessions in India. It had become addicted to the policy of world domination no matter the price in blood and treasure. It quickly spread beyond southern India and into Bengal. There, British forces under Robert Clive would recapture Calcutta.


By 1757 C.E., British forces captured the French settlement of Chandernagore, now Chandannagar. The war was to be decided in the south. A French ally, the Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, was ousted from his throne at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 C.E. The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on June 23, 1757 C.E. The Battle consolidated the Company's presence in Bengal, which later expanded to cover much of India over the next hundred years.


In what is now in Nadia district in West Bengal, the battle took place at Palashi. Located on the banks of the Bhagirathi River about 93 miles north of Calcutta and south of Murshidabad, it was then the capital of Bengal. The last independent Nawab of Bengal, Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah and the British East India Company were the warring forces. After Siraj-ud-daulah had become the Nawab of Bengal the year before, he ordered the British to stop extending their fortification. The British then bribed Mir Jafar, the commander in chief of the Nawab's army and promised him to make him Nawab of Bengal if he would defect. Mir Jafar changed sides, defeated the Nawab at Plassey in 1757 C.E., and captured Calcutta. Britain’s determination to overcome France in every theater was its primary goal. The British were fixated on an empire with world domination as its end game. Here again the honorable British are found with their hands dirty. Bribery, I’m shocked!


In 1758 C.E., the Cherokee had participated with the British in the taking of Fort Duquesne at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. However, they felt unappreciated after their efforts were not celebrated. In addition, the Cherokee had been promised supplies for their support and had received none. As the Cherokee traveled through Virginia they took horses they believed were rightly theirs. On their way home, several were murdered by Virginians. The Virginians killed and scalped between 30 and 40 of them. Later, the Virginians claimed the scalps as those of Shawnees and collected bounties for them. So much for the caring and noble British! Sounds a great deal like the British version of the Black Legend and the celebrated attacks upon the Noble Savage to me. Oh, but I forget. This only applies to the Españoles.


In Europe, Swedish forces were soon repelled and blockaded at Stralsund until their relief by a Russian force in 1758 C.E. During the Pomeranian War, renewed Swedish incursions into Prussian territory resulted in a small Prussian fleet being destroyed. Also, areas as far south as Neuruppin were occupied.


In 1758 C.E., at the urging of an American merchant, Thomas Cumming, the British war leader William Pitt dispatched an expedition to take the French settlement at Saint Louis, West Africa. Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegal's Saint-Louis Region. It is located in the northwest of Senegal, near the mouth of the Senegal River, and 320 km north of Senegal's capital city Dakar. Saint-Louis was the capital of the French colony of Senegal from 1673 C.E. through 1902C.E.


Cumming was an 18th-Century C.E. British-American merchant who built a large commercial empire in West Africa. He was born in New York City, and raised as a Quaker, something which later earned him the nickname of the "fighting Quaker." He is the best known for the role he played in the 1758 C.E. capture of Senegal in which he submitted a plan to the British war leader, William Pitt which advocated an attack on France's valuable but ill-defended African colonies and steal them.


The British captured Senegal with ease in May 1758 C.E. and brought home large amounts of captured goods. The capture and theft of Senegal was a part of a British strategy to weaken the French economy. They would do this by damaging her international trade. To that end, a succession of small British military expeditions landed in Senegal and captured the French settlements of Saint-Louis and Gorée.


Île de Gorée or Gorée Island, from the Dutch Goede Reede or good harbor, is one of the nineteen communes d'arrondissement or districts of the city of Dakar, Senegal. It is a 45-acre island located 2 kilometres at sea from the main harbor of Dakar.


The British seized French vessels and supplies. By late-1758 C.E., the Senegalese coast was entirely in British hands with local administration controlled by the first British Governor of Senegal, Lieutenant Colonel Richard Worge.


These successes convinced Pitt to launch further British invasions to take the French trading post on the Gambia. The Gambia River is formerly known as the River Gambra.  It is a major river in West Africa, running 700 miles from the Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea westward through Senegal and the Gambia to the Atlantic Ocean at the city of Banjul. It is navigable for about half that length. The river is strongly associated with the Gambia, the smallest country in mainland Africa, which consists of little more than the downstream half of the river and its two banks.


The losses of France’s valuable African colonies to the insatiable British appetite for conquest, power, and wealth further weakened her economy.


The Seven Years' War was to conclude with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 C.E. In effect, it returned Chandernagore and Pondichéry to France. This allowed the French to maintain trading posts in India. However, it did exclude French traders from administering them. The French agreed to support the resulting British client governments. This ended French ambitions of an Indian empire and made the British invaders the dominant foreign power of India.


The Prussian territory campaign of the Pomeranian War was aborted in late 1759 C.E., when the poorly supplied Swedish forces were unable to succeed in taking the major Prussian Fortress of Stettin (now Szczecin) or in combining with their Russian allies.


In August of 1759 C.E., Carlos III (January 20, 1716 C.E.-December 14, 1788 C.E.) of España had ascended el Trono Español or the Spanish throne as the King of España and the Spanish Indias from 1759 C.E. to 1788 C.E. At the time, Britain and France were at war, in the Seven Years' War. He was the fifth son of Felipe V of España, but eldest by his second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731 C.E., at 15 years of age Carlos became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, on the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese.


As the Duke of Parma, in 1734 C.E., he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily. Charles I and was crowned king on July 3, 1735 C.E., He then reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily. In 1738 C.E. he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years. She died in 1760 C.E.


On August 10, 1759 C.E., Carlos III succeeded to the Spanish throne as a proponent of enlightened absolutism. Enlightened absolutism is also known as enlightened despotism and benevolent absolutism. It is a form of absolute monarchy or despotism which was inspired by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs such as Carlos III embraced the concept of rationality. Many enlightened monarchs fostered education, allowed religious tolerance, freedom of speech, and the right to hold private property.


On October 6, 1759 C.E., Carlos III abdicated the Neapolitan and Sicilian thrones in favor of Ferdinand, his third surviving son, who became Fernando I of the Two Sicilies.


Carlos III attempted to rescue el Imperio Español from decay. He passed far-reaching reforms such as weakening the Catholic Church and its monasteries. The King promoted science and university research as a way of facilitating trade and commerce. Carlos modernized agriculture to improve his people’s plight. He also attempted to avoid wars, although at the time, Britain and France were involved in the Seven Years' War. He was unable to achieve satisfactory control over finances. This led to his borrowing to meet expenses. His various reforms proved limited and España returned to its old ways after his death.


In North America, some Cherokee leaders still called for peace with the British, others led retaliatory raids on outlying pioneer settlements. The Cherokee finally declared open war against the British in 1759 C.E. In this instance, they were fighting independently and not as allies of France. A number of Muskogee under Big Mortar moved up to Coosawatie. These people had long been French allies in support of the Cherokee pro-French faction centered in Great Tellico.


The governor of South Carolina, William Henry Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton (December 24, 1724 C.E.-September 1808 C.E.) embargoed all gunpowder shipments to the Cherokee. He then raised an army of 1,100 men to march against the Lower Towns of the Cherokee. Desperate for ammunition for their fall and winter hunts, the Cherokee Nation sent a delegation of moderate chiefs to negotiate. The twenty-nine chiefs were taken prisoner as hostages. They were later escorted by the provincial army and sent to Fort Prince George. Lyttelton made the assumption that this would ensure peace.


A Muscogee contingent under Big Mortar or Yayatustanage in support of the pro-French Cherokee then residing in Great Tellico and Chatuga reoccupied the former site of the Coosa Chiefdom in 1759 C.E. This was one step toward his grand plan of an alliance of Muscogee, Cherokee, Shawnee, Chickasaw, and Catawba. This would have made the alliance the first of its kind in the South. While the alliance did not come into being until the days of Dragging Canoe, Big Mortar was able to rise to the leading chief of the Muscogee after the French and Indian War.


In Europe, by January of 1760 C.E., a Prussian counter-attack of Swedish Pomerania was repelled. Throughout that year Swedish forces advanced into Prussian territory as far south as Prenzlau. This was before withdrawing to Swedish Pomerania in the winter.


Fighting during the French and Indian War in North America would continue through 1760 C.E. The British defeated French forces in Québec, Montreal, and Louisbourg seizing their military fortifications. One can only call the British, fixated. Their lust for power never ceased.

In the 1760s C.E., the Cherokee expanded their retaliatory campaign into what is today, North Carolina. They went as far east as modern day Winston-Salem. An attack on Fort Dobbs in North Carolina was repulsed by General Hugh Waddell. However, smaller British settlements in the North and South Carolina back-country fell quickly to the Cherokee raiders.


As a result Governor Lyttelton appealed to Jeffrey Amherst, the British commander in North America for support. Amherst’s Royal Scots and Montgomerie's Highlanders numbering 1,200 troops were dispatched to South Carolina under the command of Archibald Montgomerie. During the campaign Montgomerie razed some of the Cherokee Lower Towns, including Keowee. The campaign failed and ended in defeat at Echoee (Itseyi) Pass when Montgomerie attempted to enter the Middle Towns territory.


Later in 1760 C.E., the Overhill Cherokee defeated the British colonists at Fort Loudoun Tennessee and took the region over.


Governor Lyttelton of South Carolina then returned to Charleston. The Cherokee remained angry and continued attacking frontier settlements into 1760 C.E. By February 1760 C.E., they attacked Fort Prince George attempting to rescue their hostages. The Fort's commander was killed. In response, his replacement massacred all of the Cherokee hostages and fought-off the attack. One could say that a massacre of Natives hostages could be seen as an atrocity by the British upon the Noble Savage. No, this can’t be. Just ask most Anglophiles. I’m sure that they would defend these actions as just a minor misunderstanding as it didn’t involve the Españoles. If it had, the Black Legend and attacks upon the Noble Savage would have applied.


The Cherokee also attacked Fort Ninety Six, located today at a town in Greenwood County, South Carolina. Ninety Six was established on the frontier in the early-18th-Century C.E. For a short period of time the location was known as "Jews Land." This was due to prominent, originally Spanish, Sephardic Jewish families in London having purchased extensive property in the area. The Salvador and DaCosta families purchased some 200,000 acres, intending to help poor Sephardic families to relocate to the Nuevo Mundo.


The Fort’s defenders were able to withstand the siege.


The future American Patriot, Oliver Pollock sailed to North America at the age of 23 in 1760 C.E. with his father from his native Ireland to Philadelphia. He settled in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Two years later, he began his career as a merchant, trading from port-to-port with the Españoles in the West Indies, and was headquartered in Habana, Cuba. It was here that he became close with the Gobernador General Alejandro O'Reilly. O'Reilly was later made the Gobernador of Luisiana by the King of España.


Oliver Pollock began working as a merchant in New Orleans and, through his relationship with Don O'Reilly, was favorably received by Spanish Luisiana's officials, who granted him free trade within the city. He became the most successful businessman in the city as a result of the scarcity of provisions at the time, bringing in a desperately needed shipment of flour. However, instead of taking advantage of the Pobladores, Pollock sold the flour for half the going price.


In India’s south, the Seven Years' War continued with the French capturing Cuddalore, but failing in their siege of Madras. The British commander Sir Eyre Coote decisively defeated the Frenchman, Comte de Lally at the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760 C.E. and overran the French territory of the Northern Circars.


In the Caribe, Tacky's War or Tacky's Rebellion took place. It was an uprising of Aken that occurred in Jamaica from May to July 1760 C.E. At the time, they were then referred to as Coromantee slaves. In terms of its shock to the imperial system, only the American Revolution surpassed Tacky's War in the 18th-Century C.E. It was the most significant slave rebellion in the Caribe between the 1733 C.E. slave insurrection on Saint John and the 1791 C.E. Haitian Revolution.


The leader of the rebellion was Tacky or in the Akan language, Takyi. He was originally from the Fante ethnic group in West Africa. Before being enslaved Tacky had been a paramount chief in Fante land in the Central region of present-day Ghana. Prior to being made a slave, Tacky was a king of his village. Tacky supposedly spoke fluent English which was common for the ruling class of Fantes during the period. He sold his rivals of the Ashanti, Nzema, Ahanta, and other Akan states into slavery to the British as spoils of war. Ironically, he became a slave when a rival state defeated his army in battle and sold him off to slavery in Jamaica.


He, along with the Asante Queen Nanny or Nana, planned to take over Jamaica. It was their goal to remove it from British control and make it a separate Black country, but and not as allies.


Tacky and his followers revolted, killed their masters, and took over the Frontier and Trinity plantations while. Next, they made their way to the storeroom at Fort Haldane where munitions were kept to defend the town of Port María. Tacky and his mob stole 4 barrels of gunpowder, 40 firearms, and ammunition after first killing the storekeeper. The group then marched on the plantations at Heywood Hall and Esher and overran them.


Hundreds of slaves soon joined Tacky and his followers. The rebels stopped to celebrate their success at Ballard's Valley. A slave from Esher slipped away and sounded the alarm. Very quickly, 70 to 80 mounted militia and some Maroons from Scott's Hall were on their way to suppress the rebellion. The Maroons were African refugees. They escaped slavery in the Americas and formed independent settlements in inaccessible areas. There they hid and formed permanent communities. Later, they established a guerilla military force. Jamaica would eventually have five Maroon groups. These lived in the mountains. They were the Accompong and the Trelawney Maroons in the West. There were also the Mooretown, Scotts Hall, and Charlestown Maroons in the East.


Many of the rebels later returned to the plantations. However, Tacky and approximately 25 of his group decided to continue the rebellion.


These non-Spanish Europeans were all love and kindness. Tacky and his men were chased by the Maroons. Tacky was shot and his head cut off. His head was later displayed on a pole in Spanish Town. The remainder of Tacky's men committed suicide rather than going back to slavery and were found in a cave near Tacky Falls. The British found these rebels unappreciative of their masters and had their Native allies, the Maroons finish them off. No oppression here. There can be no accusations of Black Legend-like activities or attacks upon the Noble African Savage in these instances, as the perpetrators were not Españoles.


The Third Silesian War (1761 C.E.-1763 C.E.) with Prussia against Austria, better known as the Seven Years' War was on. Austria was once more attempting to regain Silesia.  Prussia for her part was grabbing for Saxony. This land grab exercise was a part of the pan-European Seven Years' War, which related to many nations of Europe. These were involved either collectively or in cooperation with one another. As a result of the collapse of the Anglo-Austrian Alliance in 1756 C.E., Britain had changed sides. In this Third Silesian War they would support Prussian efforts against the Austrians.


In the summer of 1761 C.E., another Swedish campaign of the Pomerania War was started moving into Prussia. However, this poorly planned effort was soon ended due to shortage of supplies and equipment.


Final encounters of the Pomerania War took place in the winter of 1761 C.E.-1762 C.E. near Malchin and Neukalen in Mecklenburg, just across the Swedish Pomeranian border.


The French capital of Pondicherry or Pondichéry, India fell to the British in 1761 C.E. during the Seven Years' War. With the fall of the smaller French settlements of Karikal and Mahé, this effectively eliminated French power and control in India. Again we find the Noble British taking whatever their kindly hearts desired. The phrase, world domination comes to mind!


France in its ongoing fighting against Britain suffered a series of setbacks. In response, it successfully negotiated a treaty with España known as the España and French Family (Bourbon) Compact which was signed on August 15, 1761 C.E. By a subsidiary secret convention, España had committed to making preparations for war against Britain.


On the North American Continent, the Anglo-Cherokee War between the Cherokee Natives and the British didn't end until 1761 C.E.


In 1761 C.E., Captain Montgomerie was replaced by Colonel James Grant who led a British army of 2,600 against the Cherokee. It was the largest force to enter the southern Appalachians to that time. His army moved through the Lower Towns, defeated the Cherokee at Echoee Pass, and proceeded to raze about 15 Middle Towns while burning fields of crops along the way. No application of attacks upon the Noble Savage here!

In November 1761 C.E., the Cherokee signed the Treaty of Long-Island-on-the-Holston with the Colony of Virginia. They made peace with South Carolina the following year in the Treaty of Charlestown. During the Timberlake Expedition, Lieutenant Henry Timberlake, Sergeant Thomas Sumter, Interpreter John McCormack, and an unknown servant traveled into the Overhill settlements area to deliver a copy of the treaty with Virginia to the Cherokee.


A pro-French leader, Standing Turkey, was deposed and replaced as "First Beloved Man" with the pro-British Attakullakulla.


The British-American John Stuart became British Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern District, based out of Charlestown, South Carolina. He then became the liaison between the Cherokee and the British government. Stuart was born in England in 1700 C.E. and came to North America as a young man. During his first twenty years in America he was a frontiersman and among the Natives a great deal. He learned their culture and lifestyle.


During the Seven Years' War in America, Stuart was on the Southern frontier and among the Southern Indian as a captain of militia. Captain Stuart had already spent half his life interacting with the Natives and would give the remaining years in faithful service to the British government.

In the early years of the War with France, Captain Stuart was assigned on the Southern frontier. When Fort Loudon was completed in 1756 C.E., he and his company proceeded and were posted at Fort Loudon in the heart of the Cherokee country. There he was made second in command of the garrison stationed there under Captain Demere.


After becoming the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern District, his first deputy was Alexander Cameron. Cameron had lived among the Cherokee. He was first at Keowee and later at Toqua on the Little Tennessee River. His second deputy was John McDonald. He lived approximately one hundred miles to the southwest, on the west side of Chickamauga Creek where it was crossed by the Great Indian Warpath. All three men knew the Natives well and were capable.


During the War, a number of Cherokee towns had been destroyed by British troops under the command of General James Grant. These were never reoccupied. The most notable of these was Kituwa. Its inhabitants migrated west, taking up residence at Great Island Town on the Little Tennessee. There they lived among the Overhill Cherokee. The War resulted in a reduced strength of Cherokee warriors from an estimated 2,590 warriors before the war in 1755 C.E, to 2,300 after. They had been victims of battle, smallpox, and starvation. No Black Legend-like situation here!


José de Gálvez y Gallardo Marqués de Sonora as Secretarío del Estado del Despacho Universal de Indias traveled to Nueva España in 1761 C.E. He had studied law at the Universidad of Salamanca and began his professional practice in Madrid. He was later to be made an Officer of the Consejo De Indias or Council of the Indias.

By 1762 C.E., Europe’s small and middle size powers had been active in various wars. However, unlike in the previous wars, many of these attempted to maneuver away from involvement in the ever escalating conflicts. One long-time British ally, the Dutch Republic, maintained strict neutrality. It did so fearing that the odds were too great against Britain and Prussia overcoming the great powers of Europe. The Dutch eventually went so far as to try to prevent Britain's domination in India. The Dutch were correct to fear Britain. She won the war.


Naples, Savoy, and Sicily had sided with Franco-Spanish alliance, yet they declined to join the coalition due to the fear of Britain’s growing military power.


During Third Silesian War in the years 1761 C.E.-1762 C.E., the Russian Empire initially aligned itself with Austria due to its fear of Prussian ambition to take over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Russian taxation of its people for the war efforts would cause the Russia considerable hardship. These new taxes were added to the taxation of salt and alcohol already begun by Empress Elizabeth in 1759 C.E. to complete an addition to her Winter Palace. Battles had gone well for Russian and Austrian forces.  Peter III’s ascension upon the death of Empress Elizabeth of Russia (died December 25, 1761 C.E. or on January 5, 1762 C.E.) suddenly left Austria abandoned by her one-time ally. By January 1762 C.E., Peter III of Russia recalled his army from within Berlin and Pomerania. Russia would later change sides in the War upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762 C.E.


The parties in the Pomerania War would soon agree on the Truce of Ribnitz on April 7, 1762 C.E. On May 5th, a Russo-Prussian alliance eliminated Swedish hopes for future Russian assistance. This alliance posed the obvious threat of a Russian intervention on the side of Prussia. As a result, Sweden was forced to make peace. The war was formally ended on May 22, 1762 C.E. by the Peace of Hamburg between Prussia, Mecklenburg, and Sweden.


Between May 5, 1762 C.E. and November 24, 1762 C.E., as España was bound by its Pacto de Familia with the French, the Españoles interceded on behalf of France in the invasion of Portugal. This was one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of España and France. The French phrase for this relationship is “Pacte de Famille.” Both are better known by the English phrase “Family Compact.” It is needless to say that Britain had unfinished business with España and France. The British had needs. Those needs included the taking by force of anything and everything France and España owned.


This was one of the campaigns of the Seven Year’s War. As France was involved, Britain came to the defense of Portugal. Together, España and France launched the failed invasion.


España had agreed with France to attack Portugal. She had previously remained neutral and was an important economic ally of Great Britain. It was hoped by France that this new front would draw away needed British forces, currently directed against France. On May 5, 1762 C.E., the triple Franco-Spanish invasion of Portugal in Europe began. Portugal was the main theater of this war and absorbed the lion's share of the Spanish war effort.


The invasion of Portugal was quickly was followed by a Spanish invasion of Portugués territories in South América, a secondary theater of the war. The first ended in humiliating defeat. The second front represented a stalemate. There was a Portugués victory in Northern and Western Brazil. The Españoles were victorious in Southern Brazil and Uruguay.


Between May 5th and November 24, 1762 C.E., at the age of 16 Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid served in this campaign in Portugal. This was during that conflict known as the Seven Years' War in Europe and the French and Indian War in North America. Bernardo participated in this failed invasion while serving there in a very select Franco-Spanish military unit, the Royal Regiment of Cantabre. He immediately obtained an appointment to the Regiment as a Teniente. España had begun its participation in January 1762 C.E. Bernardo had originally entered the regiment with ease as Cadete or Cadet, due to his noble family.


His parents had purchased the position from the French as it would to be very useful in his later career. Entry into the regiment gave Bernardo greater ease of ascent in the army France. The requirement was also indispensable as it provided for the possibility of command of a regiment. In addition, it allowed for appointment as an officer with the rank of Capitán. Interestingly, it was a French regiment and not Spanish. It has been said that this was due to his uncle, José, who had great influence with French authorities, as he had been an advocate of the French Embassy in España. The invasion stalled after the Españoles had captured Almeida that fortified village and a municipality in the sub-region of Beira Interior Norte and the District of Guarda, Portugal.


The Spanish invasion of Portugal was a major strategic area of operations of the wider Seven Years' War. España and France were decisively defeated by the Anglo-Portugués Alliance. In its initial stages, the conflict involved the forces of España and Portugal. Later, the British and French intervened, each on the side of their respective allies in the conflict. A national guerilla warfare effort in the mountainous country resulted in the cutting-off of supplies from España. These efforts were headed by a hostile peasantry who enforced a scorched earth policy. They did this as the invading armies approached, leaving them starving and short of military supplies.


The Commandante, Nicolás de Carvajal, Marqués de Sarria and his 22,000 Españoles first invaded the province of Alto Trás-os-Montes located northeast of Portugal with Oporto being their ultimate goal. Soon after occupying fortresses, Españoles were confronted with a national uprising. Bands of guerrillas taking advantage of the mountainous terrain inflicted heavy losses on the Españoles and almost cut-off their communication lines with España. This resulted in a shortage of critical supplies. The Españoles near starvation, attempted to quickly conquer Oporto. However, they were defeated in the battle of the Douro and at Montalegre before retreating to back to España. After this failure, the Spanish Commandante was replaced by Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y Jiménez de Urrea, Conde de Aranda.


The Conde de Aranda was born December 18, 1719 C.E., at Siétamo, España. He died on January 9, 1798 C.E., at Épila Zaragoza, Aragón. He was a Spanish general, diplomat, and minister. The Conde de Aranda was considered one of the most prominent reformers in the government of King Carlos III (1759 C.E.1788 C.E.). He would later be appointed ambassador to France in 1773 C.E., before the American Revolutionary War and remained until 1787 C.E.


De Aranda was a member of the Aragonese nobility. He initially prepared for the priesthood, before entering the Spanish Army. As an officer, he became director of the artillery, introducing the Prussian system of drill in the Seven Years’ War. It was during that time that he commanded this short campaign against Portugal in 1762 C.E.


While at war in Portugal, Bernardo de Gálvez received the first in a lifetime of serious wounds. During the conflict Bernardo impressed his comandantes and the rank and file with courage and sound judgment as a teniente de Infantería. After this service, Bernardo would be promoted to capitán in the Royal Regiment of La Coruña.


A Coruña or La Coruña is a city and municipality of Galicia, España and its provincial capital and was home to the Regiment of La Coruña. La Coruña is one long sea front which is adjacent to the seaport city of El Ferrol. In A Coruña the Palace of the General Military Headquarters stands in Plaza de la Constitución square. The original construction dates from the 16th-Century C.E., although in 1748 C.E. a new building was erected for the comandante militar and for the different court premises.


On November 24, the Spanish Conde de Aranda asked for a truce. It was accepted and signed by Lippe on December 1, 1762 C.E. This joint effort had become a reoccurring theme in the act of war.


At the end of the war, Bernardo de Gálvez left his regiment, which was dissolved shortly thereafter. He was in Pau, France by the end of 1762 C.E.


The Asian military theater of the Seven Years' War was primarily the British invasion of Filipinas which occurred between 1762 C.E.-1764 C.E. This was a proactive action of war. This episode in Filipinas’ history resulted from Britain’s strategic goal of controlling España’s Nuevo Mundo trade using silver shipments for Chinese goods. The British Empire moved to occupy the overseas Spanish provincia or province, its capital of the Manila, and the nearby principal port of Cavite.


During the Seven Years War there was a capture of Manila in the Filipinas by the British on October 6, 1762 C.E. At that time, Manila was a sophisticated city with walls built on the European model. It was the center of the Pacific portion of the Spanish trading empire. The British invaded and attacked Spanish forces who were assisted by Natives. Brigadier General William Draper and Rear Admiral Samuel Cornish led the British military contingents and ships. A force of 2,000 British soldiers and sailors, Indian sepoys or Indian soldiers, and French deserters were deployed ashore with a fleet of 14 ships in support.


The main formation in the British military force was the 79th Regiment. It was led by Lieutenant Colonel William Draper who in 1757 C.E., fought in India against the French.  By 1762 C.E., the 79th was a thoroughly battle hardened regiment. The 79th was disbanded at the end of the Seven Year War in 1763 C.E. on its return to Chatham.


The British land forces were equipped with musket and bayonet and small sword or hanger. Field guns are thought to have been provided by the Royal Artillery and East India Company. The heavy guns and mortars were most likely provided by the British ships.


The temporary gobernador of Manila was Arzobispo Manuel António Rojo del Río y Vieyra. Senior Spanish military officer, Marqués de Villa Medina, was in charge of the regiment of infantry troops at the guarnición. It held some 800 Spanish soldados and approximately 10,000 Natives.


The plan was to take Cavite before moving against the city of Manila. This plan was changed as Cavite could be dealt with later. Cavite would eventually fall to the British on October 11, 1762 C.E., as did some nearby provinces such as Cainta, Taytay, and Pasig.


In 1571 C.E., the Españoles established the Port Cavite, City of Cavite, and fortified the settlement as a first line of defense for the City of Manila. A defensive outer wall, normally known as the curtain wall was constructed. It encircles an area in need of protection and provides the first line of defence. The Spanish military engineers and builders put most of their skills and efforts into making the inner structure (fortress) hard to attack. The curtained wall was constructed the length of Cavite's western side.  It began from the entrance, "La Estanzuela," and continued to the end of Punta de Rivera, the peninsula. The eastern shore was left unprotected by a wall. Cavite contained churches, La Fuerza de San Felipe or Fort San Felipe, government offices, misión buildings, the Rivera de Cavite shipyard, and homes for Españoles. Docks were in place to construct Galeónes and galleys, but without a dry dock.


The construction of La Fuerza de San Felipe was completed between 1609 C.E. and 1616 C.E. The quadrilateral structure was built using curtained walls, with bastions at the corners, and contained twenty cannons facing the seashore. The Españoles garrisoned La Fuerza with three infantry companies of 180 soldados each. Additionally, they stationed 220 Pampangañ infantry at the Fort. The Kapampangan people, also known as Pampangueños or Pampañgo are a Filipino ethnolinguistic group native to and the seventh largest ethnic group in the Filipinas.


The British fleet approached Manila and three frigates bombarded the area where Spanish troops were assembled on the coast. The fleet then disembarked soldiers of the 79th Regiment and the ships marines. With no Spanish opposition the landing was successful. From the moment the British landed, Natives continued to skirmish. They attacked the fringe of the British encampment firing arrows in an attempt to cut-off small groups of soldiers and individuals.


Once the encampment was secured, a letter was dispatched to the Spanish Gobernador demanding he surrender the city. He declined. Next, a force of 400 Spanish soldados and 3 guns attacked from Manila. Under the command of the Chevalier Fayet, the force approached the British positions near San Jago’s church and opened fire. The British counter-attacked with a force of Sepoys, soldiers of the 79th, and others driving the Españoles back into Manila.


An assessment of the state of the defenses at the south-west corner of the city was made. Next, a construction of batteries from which to bombard the city walls was put in place. British ships began to fire on the City walls distracting the Españoles from attacking the British troops engaged in building the batteries. No attempt was made by the Spanish guarnición to interfere with construction of the siege works or later counter-fire against the British guns. Heavy bombardment started against the Bastion of San Diego at the south west corner of the city walls. This bombardment soon made a breach in the Bastion. An attack was then mounted by approximately 1,000 Natives on the British seamen’s camp. The attack was carried out by a force armed only with bows and lances. The 79th used its guns to turn the attackers away and they were soon driven off.


Immediately after this assault was repulsed another Spanish attack was launched. In the course of this fighting 40 soldiers of the 79th killed or wounded and 70 Spanish soldados and Natives were dead. The effect of their defeat caused around 1,500 Natives to leave Manila for their homes.


British troops assembled the next morning for the assault on Manila. In the covered way between San Jago’s church and the batteries and in the batteries’ storage area by the sea opened a heavy fire on the walls. At dawn a large force of Spanish soldados and Natives was gathered on the Bastion of Saint Anthony but the force was dispersed by mortar fire. This huge church was built of stone in 1739 C.E. It is directly linked with the first church built in 1578 C.E of bamboo and nipa by Spanish Franciscan friars. They constructed it shortly after they arrived in the Filipinas. The large stone edifice stood in Intramuros, the old walled city of Manila.


Immediately after this incident a British assaulting party of the 79th with 60 volunteers, followed by the grenadiers of the 79th rushed the breach in the Bastion of San Diego. Next, came more from the 79th and some seamen. The East India Company’s troops brought up the rear.


The assault force rushed directly into Manila. There they found little resistance except at the Royal Gate. A force of 180 Españoles and Natives held the guard chamber refusing to surrender. These were killed. The British force then moved to secure each of the bastions in the City’s wall and the various parts of the city. There continued to be resistance from soldados on the top storey’s of the houses in the Grand Square. These were found and killed. In the end, the Marqués de Villa Medina, his officers, soldados, and the remaining Natives within the city surrendered. The British captured Manila on October 6, 1762 C.E.


The early success at Manila was limited. It did not enable the British to gain control of all of the Spanish Filipinas. The resistance raised by the provisional Spanish government was immediate. The Spanish-Filipino forces were comprised mostly of Filipinos kept the British confined to Manila. Nevertheless, the British were confident of eventual success after receiving the written surrender of captured Arzobispo Católico Rojo or Catholic Arzobispo Rojo on October 30, 1762 C.E.


Members of the Real Audiència of Manila and their Filipino allies prevented British forces from taking control of territory beyond the neighboring towns of Manila and Cavite.


The Audiència Real or Corte Real de Justicia en España was the Royal Court of Justice in España and throughout the Imperio Español. This was a Spanish colonization period institution created in 1583 C.E. to assist the gobernador general to protect the people from abusive Spanish officials. The gobernador general acted as its presidente. The Audiència also had three justices, a prosecuting attorney, and other various officials.


A surrender proposed by the British was rejected outright as illegal by Don Simón de Anda y Salazar. It was he, who claimed the title of Gobernador General under the statutes of the Consejo De Indias. He and the Audiència led Spanish-Filipino forces that kept the British confined to Manila. Over a period of time, they sabotaged and finally crushed British fomented revolts in the Provincia. De Anda was able to intercept and redirected Galeón de Manila trade out of harm’s way to prevent further captures by the British. Ultimately, it was the failure of the British to consolidate their strategic and tactical position which led to troop desertions and a breakdown of command unity. This failure left the British forces paralyzed and in an increasingly untenable military position.


During the same year of 1762 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez would be sent to study military sciences at the Academia de Ávila or Academia de Administración Militar in España. His family members were a part of the Spanish elite. His father, Matiás, and uncles, José, Miguel, and António held important positions within the government. They understood the ongoing militarization of the opposing nations and where the world was headed. Conquest and war were to be ever present conditions with which España would have to cope. This is why they sent young Bernardo de Gálvez to study military sciences. It is from the Academia or Academy that he would graduate as a teniente.


The university is located at town of Ávila which is sheltered by the Sierra de Gredos Mountains. Ávila, España is located in the autonomous community of Castilla and León, and is the capital of the Provincia of Ávila. 


Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, behavior, the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force. In today’s world its main focus is on method, practice, and theory of producing military capability in a manner consistent with national defense policy. In the past, the use of military science served to identify the strategic, operational, technological, and tactical elements necessary to sustain relative advantage of military force. However, it did not stress economic, political, psychological, and social areas or condition. Nor did this education increase the likelihood and favorable outcomes of victory in peace or during a war.


In the 18th-Century C.E., there were few if any military scientists. These had not yet perfected the field of Military Science. Nor did they understand its complexity to the degree of today’s theorists, researchers, experimental scientists, or applied scientists. However, there were designers, engineers, technicians, and other military personnel with rudimentary knowledge. Army personnel of the day would have been taught military weapons and equipment use and military training to achieve specific strategic and tactical goals and objectives. Military science was also used then to establish enemy capability as part of technical intelligence.


This military education would form the basis of Bernardo’s technical knowledge of warfare and means of achieving political and administrative strategic goals and military objectives.


Bernardo De Gálvez would arrive later in Nueva España in 1762 C.E. as a capitán. He would fight the Apaches with his Ópata Indian allies in North America. These tribes were indigenous to today’s northern Méjicano border state of Sonora. While there, he would receive many wounds, several of them serious. This young man had already gone from Academia de Administración Militar in España as a military student to teniente de Infantería while serving in that war with Portugal. Then, while recovering from the wounds he received in Portugal, Bernardo was promoted to capitán in the Regiment of La Coruña and was assigned Nueva España to aid in the containment of the Apache threat.


The British Lion was on its continual prowl throughout España’s Nuevo Mundo. On the morning of July 26, 1762 C.E., a combined British and Miskito Sambu expeditionary force laid siege to the Fortaleza de la Limpia Pura e Inmaculada Concepción or Fortress of the Immaculate Conception. The action would later be called the Battle for the Río San Juan de Nicaragua.


The Miskitu are an ethnic group of mixed African-Indigenous American cultural ancestry occupying a portion of the Caribe coast of Spanish Central América. Specifically, they inhabit the Atlantic coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua which is known as La Mosquitia or the Mosquito Coast region. Modern ethnographic terminology uses the term "Miskito." Older documents, beginning with those of the Spanish of the early 18th-Century C.E., refer to the group as "Mosquitos Zambos." According to early accounts, slaves traveling on a slave ship revolted and took the ship over, but wrecked it near Cape Gracias a Dios.


Early accounts state that the Miskito Sambu were originally African slaves who took over a ship at sea in a revolt. They brought it to the coast. The Spanish account said the ship wrecked on an island while carrying the slaves to "Tierra Firme" (Panama). The slaves then swam ashore. The ship was supposedly Portugués carrying the slaves to Brasil or Brazil. One, Pedro de Rivera, writing in 1742 C.E. reported that the ship that was wrecked in 1650 C.E., "according to tradition" and that it was owned by "Lorenzo Gramalxo." This is probably Lorenzo Gramajo, a prominent Portugués merchant of Cartagena de Indias or Cartagena. The Africans next violently overthrew their Native hosts, and intermarried with their women.


The Fortress was a fortification located on the southern bank of the Río San Juan or San Juan River, in the village of El Castillo in southern Nicaragua. The Fortress or El Morro is a massive, stone fortress which is situated on the brow of a hill approximately 6 kilometers from the border with Costa Rica. It overlooks a strategic bend in the Río San Juan at the Raudal del Diablo rapids with its torrents of whitewater. The Fortress had three barracks, a chapel, an armory, several towers, a prison, and many bulwarks. El Morro is part of a system of fortifications that were built in the 18th-Century C.E. along the Central American isthmus. It was originally built to defend against pirate attacks on the City of Granada which can be reached by navigating upstream from the Caribe Sea along the Río San Juan into Lake Nicaragua. The Fortress’ construction had begun on March 10, 1673 C.E. and finally completed in 1675 C.E. as part of a series of fortifications along the Río San Juan.


The settlement of El Castillo and its fortress had continued to be strategically important to the Captaincy General of Guatemala until the late 18th-Century C.E. This is undoubtedly why the British took such a keen interest in it.


The attacking British force consisted of two thousand men and more than fifty boats. The soldados at the Fortress numbered only around a hundred. The guarnición comandante, Teniente Coronel Don José de Herrera y Sotomayor, had died unexpectedly on July 15, only 11 days earlier. Inspired by acts of heroism displayed by Herrera's 19 year old daughter, Rafaela, one of which included the killing of the British commander of the expeditionary force, the guarnición comandante Teniente Juan de Aguilar y Santa Cruz led the defenders to victory in a battle that lasted six days. However, the British troops had cut the Fort’s water supply after besieged it for 17 days and finally seized it. The British finally lifted their siege and retreated on August 3, 1762 C.E.


In Europe, peace talks had been in progress regarding a wider Third Silesian War when they concluded in February 1763 C.E. That next summer, Peter was assassinated before Catherine the Great succeeded him. Therefore, she could not bring Russia into an alliance. Unfortunately, for Austria, Peter had mediated an agreement between Prussia and Sweden which allowed Frederick II's forces to consolidate his position and bolster Prussia's claims by January and February. As a result, the Treaty of Hubertusburg confirmed Prussia’s Silesian possessions by then.


The “greater” Seven Years’ War would formally be concluded in 1763 C.E., with the Treaty of Paris and the Treaty of Hubertusberg. With the signing of the Peace of Paris on February 10, 1763 C.E., the British occupation of the Filipinas was ended as part of the peace settlement. Interestingly, at the time of signing the treaty, the signatories were not aware that the Manila was under British occupation and was being administered as a British colony. As a result, no specific provisions were made for the Filipinas. Fortunately for España, arrangements fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for in the agreements be returned to the el Imperio Español.


On the North American Continent, in 1763 C.E., a war that was launched by a loose confederation of elements of various Native tribes primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country. It should be noted that warfare on the North American frontier was brutal. Atrocities such as the killing of prisoners and the targeting of civilians were widespread. This ruthlessness and treachery on both sides of the conflict was simply a reflection of the great divide between the intentionally separate populations of the British colonists and Natives and a lack of justice.


These Natives were dissatisfied with the British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region employed after the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754 C.E.-1763 C.E.). Called Pontiac's War, Pontiac's Conspiracy, or Pontiac's Rebellion, it was named after the Odawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many native leaders in the conflict. Its warriors were from numerous tribes. They joined together in an uprising mainly in an effort to drive the oppressive British soldiers and settlers out of the region. Why isn’t a Black Legend-Like model applied here? Oh, that’s right, they’re not Españoles.


The war began in May 7, 1763 C.E., when Natives became offended by the policies of British General Jeffrey Amherst. In response, they attacked a number of British forts and settlements. Hundreds of British colonists were killed or captured. Many terrified colonists fled the region. Eight British forts were destroyed.


Also, on the North American Continent, the French and Indian War ended with the cession of Nouvelle-France to España and Great Britain on February 10, 1763 C.E. To clarify, at the beginning of the French and Indian War there had been approximately 65,000 European colonists in French North American portion Nouvelle-France. In comparison, the British North American colonies had a population of over 2 million. The obviously outnumbered French were dependent upon the Natives for all things military. The French-Native alliance failed to win the war primarily due to the strength with which Britain prosecuted the war. The British advantage was in her large population of colonists of military age and having readily available resources on the North American Continent.


The war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France, Great Britain, and España in 1763 C.E. It was also the Treaty of Paris that ended the French and Indian War. The Treaty would see France cede to Great Britain nearly all of France’s territories in Nouvelle-France, including most of Canada, Acadia, and almost all of the French holdings east of the Mississippi River, in parts French Louisiana. However, this did not include the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Another exception was the Île d'Orléans or Island of Orleans. It is located in the Saint Lawrence River about 3.1 miles east of downtown Québec City, in Québec, Canada. This was granted to España, along with the territory to the west that the larger portion of Louisiana. France awarded the Mississippi Valley to her ally, España to prevent it from coming under British control.


In addition to France having lost many of its colonies, it was to be burdened by heavy war debts which its mélange, a loosely structured financial system was barely able to support. The War debts alone left her a diminished power.


The British also gained España’s colony of Florida, a few Caribe islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, and control over French posts on the Indian subcontinent.


The British returned the possessions of Cuba and the Filipinas to España. By regaining control of her possessions in Cuba and the Filipinas, España would later be able to exert some control over Asian and Caribe waters which would help her in the next war with the British.


España had recovered Habana by ceding Florida. This included San Agustín, which they had founded in 1565 C.E. In the Caribe, the main Spanish effort and goal would be to prevent future British landings in Cuba. España remembered well the circumstances of the British expedition against Cuba which seized Habana during the Seven Years' War and did not want a reoccurrence. España’s other future goals were the reconquest of Florida which the British had divided into West and East Florida in 1763 C.E.


While it is true that España lost Florida on the North American Continent, she also gained French Louisiana. It would be from what was then Spanish Luisiana that she would later seek revenge against the British during the American Revolutionary War.


Additionally, España also wanted to resolve logging disputes with the British in Belize. Belize is a country on the eastern coast of Central América. It is bordered on the north by Méjico, on the south and west by Guatemala, and on the east by the Caribe Sea. Over half of Belize or Mayan for “muddy water,” is covered by forest with 700 or so different trees such as Mahogany. Mahogany was a much valued commodity by carpenters, furniture-makers, and shipbuilders in Britain. In short, the wood was critical to Britain’s manufacture of warships. This enabled her to continue her non-stop aggression.


The British returned the colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique to the French. Guadeloupe is located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antillas or Antilles in the Caribe with a land area of 629 square miles. While on his second trip to the Américas, in November 1493 C.E., Cristóbal Colón became the first European to land on Guadeloupe, while seeking fresh water. He called it Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura or Guadeloupe. Guadeloupe’s two main islands are Basse-Terre to the west and Grande-Terre to the east, often referred to as a single island. These are separated by a narrow strait which is crossed with bridges. Martinique is located in the Lesser Antillas of Antillas in the eastern Caribe Sea. It has a land area of 436 square miles.


It must be remembered that as a result of the Seven Years’ War, Britain emerged as the strongest European colonial power, particularly in North America and India.


It is an accepted fact that there had been a long history of enmity between the two powerful European nations, Britain and España. Each wanted to have the premier empire. However, only one could prevail. The long simmering anger over the British Seadog piracy of the 1580s C.E. and the defeat of the España’s Armada in 1588 C.E. remained flash points. It was the loss of Florida to Great Britain in 1763 C.E. which left the Españoles with fresh, open wounds. Therefore, España was determined to retaliate against the Britain and regain her territory in Florida.


Later, on the eve of the American Revolution it was this discontent with Great Britain that led España to aid the rebellious American Patriots. España and France together would avenge their defeat later in 1778 C.E., with the American Revolutionary War in hopes of destroying Britain's dominance once and for all. España would do so with arms, money, supplies, and eventually soldados.


The Treaty of Hubertusberg was signed by Austria, Prussia, and Saxony. It in effect restored peace to the European Continent. As a result of the War, King Frederick II of Prussia, also known as Frederick the Great, became one of the most powerful monarchs in Europe. Prussia’s influence as one of the strongest powers on the continent diminished the power of the Austrian Habsburgs and the entire Holy Roman Empire.


Just as Sweden had, Russia would conclude a separate peace with Prussia. While the war began disastrously for Prussia, good luck and a very successful military strategy saw King Frederick the Great manage to retrieve the Prussian position and return the political status of the region to its previously existing state of affairs. Prussia emerged as a new European “great power.” Although Austria failed to achieve its original goal of retrieving the territory of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was also noted by the other powers.


Unfortunately for España, Portugal, and Sweden their involvement in the War did not return them to their former status as European great powers. They had become nations with less power, prestige, and wealth. Over the years, Burbon France had led Borbón España to ruin.


When one reflects upon the significance of The Seven Years' War, he or she is left with the realization that it was in effect the first true world war. It took place almost 160 years before the 20th-Century C.E.’s World War I, called the Great War. The Seven Years' War would later influence many major world events around the globe by restructuring the European political order. The War allowed for the rise of Prussia and its involvement in the Germany's affairs. It spread the seeds for the beginning of tensions and rebelliousness in Britain’s Thirteen American Colonies, as well as France's eventual revolutionary turmoil of 1789 C.E. That War also paved the way for the beginning of British world supremacy in the 19th-Century C.E. It is also characterized in Europe by sieges and the arson of towns as well as open battles with heavy losses which would become the warfare of the future.


It must be remembered that the once all powerful España by the 16th and 17th centuries C.E., maintained a monopoly on trade over its Nuevo Mundo territories. Its competitors, the northern European powers, were increasingly attracted to the regions as they wanted potential trade and settlements. To challenge and then destroy España's monopoly, these powers resorted to piracy, smuggling, and war. España's spoils were taken by British buccaneers, Dutch freebooters, and French corsairs. Beyond being simply pirates, in times of war they were put into the service of their crowns as privateers legally encroaching upon España's Nuevo Mundo possessions.


España’s ministers had other concerns as well. Its European geographic neighbor, Portugal, was a British ally and on its doorstep. This was an irritant as Britain used Portugal as a convenient excuse to foment border disputes and take other aggressive actions.


España's wealthy Flota de Indias which sailed from Habana was under constant threat. The Flota de Indias was known by many names. It was also called the West Indies Fleet, the Silver Fleet or Plate Fleet. This was taken from the Spanish word plata meaning "silver." It was a convoy system developed and implemented by el Imperio Español from 1566 C.E. to 1790 C.E. It linked España with its territories in the Américas across the Atlantic. The Flota de Indias trade route was the first permanent transatlantic trade route in history.


Similarly, the Galeón de Manila was the first permanent trade route across the Pacific. Galeón de Manila Spanish trading ships made round-trip voyages once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean. The Galeón de Manila trade route was first inaugurated in 1565 C.E. It occurred soon after Augustinian fray and navigator Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the tornaviaje or return route from the Filipinas to Méjico. The first successful round trips were made that year. They originated at the port of Acapulco in present-day Méjico and made their way to Manila in the Filipinas. These were at the time, both part of Nueva España.


The term Galeón de Manila was also a reference to the trade route between Acapulco and Manila. Later, the name of the Galeón would change to reflect the city from which the ship sailed. The Galeón de Manila also became known in Nueva España as La Nao de la China or The China Ship. This was because it carried largely Chinese goods, shipped from Manila.


With the growth and expansion of her empire, these convoys became general purpose cargo fleets. They were used for transporting a wide variety of items. These included gems, gold, luxuries, pearls, silver, silk, spices, sugar, tobacco, and other exotic goods. It was the transference of wealth from across el Imperio Español to the Spanish mainland. Passengers and goods such as textiles, books, and tools were then transported in the opposite direction to various places with the Empire.


The Galeón de Manila sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to España cultural exchange, economic benefits, and their cargoes of luxury goods. These round-trip voyages lasted until 1815 C.E., just before the Méjicano Republic was founded in 1821 C.E. ending Spanish control of Méjicano ports.


While Bernardo de Gálvez was in Nueva España’s Apache country, the Conde of Ricla was appointed Capitán General of Cuba to safeguard this important Spanish asset.


The Conde had first entered the Spanish Army, and by 1760 C.E., he was representing España at the court of Russia. After the Treaty of Paris between England and España was signed, in July of 1763 C.E., the Conde de Ricla took possession of the island of Cuba in the name of the king of España. During his short administration, el Conde repaired the fortifications of the city of Habana and laid the foundations of the great fortress known as La Cabaña. Villalpando also organized the department of finances, the police, the miquelets, and the hospitals. All of this, he did to reinforce the fact that España intended to keep Cuba.


In North America, the Pontiac War's hostilities were brought to an end after British Army expeditions during 1764 C.E. forced peace negotiations over the next two years.


In 1764 C.E., at 18 years of age Bernardo de Gálvez was made a cadete or cadet in the Gardes Wallonnes, also known as Guardia Valona or Walloon Guards. The Gardes Wallonnes were an infantry corps recruited for the Spanish Army and assigned to the region now known as Belgium. The troops were mainly from Catholic Wallonia. As foreign troops, they were without direct ties to the Spanish population there and the Gardes Wallonnes were often used for the maintenance of public order. Eventually they would be incorporated as a regiment of the Spanish Royal Guard.


During some portion the next three years (1764 C.E.-1765 C.E.), Bernardo de Gálvez served in and out of France as an Alférez or sub-lieutenant comandante militar in the Regiment of Cantabria before leaving again for Nueva España. This is the rank was that of an officer in the army below the rank of Capitán.


The infantry Cantabria Regiment has its origins in Salinas (Guipúzcoa), in the year 1703 C.E. It was moved to Andalucía and placed under the command to the Maestro de campo or master of field, Tomás Idiáquez and Peñarica. This was where the unit first received the name of "the 3rd Guipúzcoa."


Reforms carried out by Felipe V of the Borbón Dynasty, in 1704 C.E. By the 1707 C.E., it became the "Regiment of Guipúzcoa" and participated in the War of the Spanish Succession. In the year 1714 C.E. the Álava Regiment merged with it. The Vizcaya Regiment would also merge with it one year later. By 1715 C.E., the Regiment was reorganized into two battalions and took the name, Cantabria Regiment.


The Regiment of Cantabria during the year 1718 C.E., fought in the wars of Italy, specifically in Sicily.


Undoubtedly in response to ongoing tensions with the British, the first modern Spanish military school was created at in Segovia, España in 1764 C.E. The Escuela Real de Artillería (Royal School of Artillery) was the first military Academia in España to be opened. This Academia remains present in the city today.


By 1764 C.E., the Spanish Nuevo Mundo was changing. Its ciudadanos were becoming more sophisticated. That year the Conde of Ricla founded La Gaceta de la Habana Gazette. The Calle de Ricla in Habana one of its most important streets was named in his honor.

By 1764 C.E., José or Joséf de Gálvez y Gallardo Marqués de Sonora, Bernardo’s uncle, was appointed a member of the Consejo De Indias. From 1764 C.E. José served as Regent and given autonomy by the Virrey of Nueva España, Visitador General or Inspector General so that he could take whatever measures necessary to improve the income of the Royal Treasury. These involved a tobacco monopoly, imposing charges on the alcoholic beverage derived from the maguey or pulque, and on flour. To combat smuggling, the Visitador General reformed the customs services of Veracruz and Acapulco. To control important financial and legal documents, de Gálvez introduced new accounting methods.


In 1764 C.E., Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Conde de Aranda returned to España to become Capitán General of València.


By 1764 C.E., Britain established dominion over East India after the Battles of Plassey (1757 C.E.) and Buxar (1764 C.E.). The Battle of Buxar was fought on October 22, 1764 C.E. On one side of the conflict were the forces under the command of the British East India Company led by then Major Hector Munro in the 89th Highland Regiment of Foot later to be promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. The opposing forces were the combined army of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; the Nawab of Awadh; and the Mughal King Shah Alam II.


The battle fought at Buxar, what was then a small fortified town within the territory of Bengal. It is located on the bank of the Ganges River approximately 130 km west of Patna. The Battle was to be a decisive victory for the British East India Company.


The British troops brought to bear in the conflict numbered 7,072. They comprised 857 British, 5,297 Indian Sepoys, and 918 Indian cavalry. The opposing force numbered an estimated 40,000. It has been stated that Mughal camp suffered from internal divisions.  A quarrel came about between the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-Daula the Nawab of Awadh; Mir Qasim due to reluctance on their part to engage the British.  Instead, went left the battle to collect tribute. Some have offered that this lack of coordination among the allies led to their decisive defeat.


In the end, the British had faced an opposing force five times as large. Major Hector Munro overcame the enemy and finally dispersed it. The enemy suffered 6000 troops killed and left 130 cannon pieces on the field. The British lost only 2 officers and 4 soldiers killed.


In North America, Fort Charlotte was named in honor of Her Majesty the Queen. It was to be the site of the first overt act of war during the struggle for American independence in South Carolina. It was the last fort erected in South Carolina during the colonial period. The Fort was originally built between 1765 C.E. and 1767 C.E. for defensive purposes in an effort to protect local European settlers near Long Canes. It was not constructed as a trading fort to be used for Native and European trading. Constructed of stone, its cost was £1,000 sterling. Built on the Savannah River, it is about forty-five miles above Augusta, opposite the mouth of the Broad River. The Fort is in the lower part of what is now Abbeville County, actually McCormick County. The 50' x 40', bastioned Fort’s actual site of is now under today’s J. Strom Thurmond Lake. It measured approximately 170 foot squared with bastions at every corner and a wall height of between 10 and 20 feet.


By 1765 C.E., King Carlos III would send Don O'Reilly to Puerto Rico. His mission was to assess the state of the military defenses and readiness of that settlement. Undoubtedly, this was another message to the British that España had every intention of preparing for its next war with her. As a result, Don O'Reilly became known as the "father of the Puertorriqueño miquelets.” He quickly took a very complete census of the island. Next, O'Reilly recommended numerous reforms. These included instilling strict military discipline in the local troops. He insisted that the men serving the defense of the realm receive their pay regularly and directly. Existing policy was that soldados received their pay indirectly from their commanding officers. This was a long-standing practice which had led to abuses. O'Reilly's recommendations also resulted in a massive 20-year program to build up the Castillo or Castle of San Juan de Ulúa. Once his work was done, he returned to Cuba.


Upon returning to Cuba, Don O'Reilly married into a prominent Cubano family. His wife, Doña Rosa de Las Casas, was the sister of Luís de Las Casas. Luís served as Gobernador of Cuba. As a side note, O'Reilly was also cousin to Juan MacKenna, a hero of the Chilean War of Independence.


José or Joséf de Gálvez y Gallardo became Visitador General to Nueva España. In the years 1765 C.E. through 1772 C.E., he held more power than the virrey during most of his tenure. He clearly understood the world and its politics. It was his vision that helped save el Imperio Español. For this reason and many others, Joséf de Gálvez would be pivotal to España’s success during his lifetime.


By 1765 C.E., José de Gálvez y Gallardo was present when a reorganization of the army was forced upon the Virrey Joaquín de Montserrat, Marqués of Cruillas (born c1725 C.E.; Virrey, 1760 C.E.-1766 C.E.). The result of de Montserrat’s failures was his replacement by the Marqués of Croix, Carlos Francisco of Croix.


Carlos Francisco de Croix, Marqués de Croix (1699C.E.-1786 C.E.) was born in Lille, France. He died in València, España in 1786 C.E. He was a Flemish nobleman in the service of España as a colonial administrator. It was Carlos who introduced French fashions and French cuisine to Nueva España.


In 1765 C.E., at age 19 years, Bernardo de Gálvez had already acquired fame in his participation in the War with Portugal and fighting against the apaches. He arrived in Méjico City for the first time as a part of the entourage of his uncle, José de Gálvez, the Visitador General, who undertook an inspection tour of the Virreinato of Nueva España. José’s field service in Nueva España as Visitador General of the affairs of public finance was from 1765 C.E.-1771 C.E.


On the North American Continent, on July 25, 1766 C.E. Pontiac and the Algonquian chiefs met at Fort Ontario located at what is now Oswego, New York to sign a final peace treaty to end The Pontiac War. Sir William Johnson, British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, presided. Natives had been unable to drive away the British. However, the uprising did prompt the British government to modify its policies which had for some time provoked the conflict.


The Conde of Ricla maintained the office Capitán General of Cuba until September of 1766 C.E. After the Conde of Ricla return in España, he was made Virrey of Navarra, Capitán General of Cataluña. During the reign of Carlos III, he became Secretary of War.


As Virrey of Nueva España (1766 C.E.-1771 C.E.), Carlos Francisco de Croix, Marqués de Croix was said to be genial, honest, and industrious. However, the true ruler was José de Gálvez, the Visitador General.


In España 1766 C.E., after riots in began in Madrid, Carlos III dismissed his Italian minister Leopoldo de Gregorio Squillace. He then called upon Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Conde de Aranda to be president of the Council of Castilla. The Conde de Aranda convinced Carlos that the riots had been the work of the Catholic Jesuits. The Conde next prepared a decree of expulsion of the Jesuits from España and the Spanish América in April of 1767 C.E.


The suppression of the Catholic Jesuit Order had been an ongoing process. It occurred in the Portugués Empire by 1759 C.E. and in France in 1764 C.E. Later, there were similar activities in the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma and throughout el Imperio Español by 1767 C.E. It was at the time considered a highly controversial issue. Those who have expertise in such areas have suggested that it was a result of a series of necessary political moves in each monarchy or nation-state rather than a theological controversy. The political entities of the era were attempting to centralize and secularize political power. These viewed the Jesuits as being too international in their approach, too strongly tied to the papacy, and too autonomous from the monarchs and nation-state in whose territory they conducted their affairs.


The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in South India over the last three decades of the 18th-Century C.E. These wars were between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency), and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other.  Hyder Ali and his successor Tipu Sultan fought a war on four fronts with the British attacking from the west, south and east, while the Marathas and the Nizam's forces attacked from the north.


The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767 C.E.-1769 C.E.) saw Hyder Ali gain some measure of success against the British, almost capturing Madras. The British convinced the Nizam of Hyderabad to attack Hyder, but the Nizam changed sides, supporting the Sultan. That was temporary however, and the Nizam signed a new treaty with the British in February 1768 C.E. Hyder did contend with a British Bombay army attacking on the west and a Madras army attacking from the northeast. However, Hyder's attack in the area of Madras resulted in the Madras government suing for peace, and the resultant Treaty of Madras.


Hyder Ali Khan (c. 1720 C.E.-December 7, 1782 C.E.) or Sayyid wal Sharif Hyder Ali Khan was the sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. He distinguished himself through military exploits and eventually drew the attention of Mysore's rulers. Hyder Ali Khan rose to the post of Dalavayi or commander-in-chief to Krishnaraja Wodeyar II. As a result he came to dominate the titular monarch and control the Mysore government. He also became the de facto ruler of Mysore as Sarvadhikari or Chief Minister by 1761 C.E.


Hyder strongly resisted the military advances of the British East India Company during the First and Second Anglo-Mysore Wars, and he was the innovator of military use of the iron-cased Mysorean rockets.


During this same period, many reforms were instituted in Nueva España. As stated earlier, the Jesuits were expelled in 1767 C.E.; and the Natives of Nueva España were subdued in order to open the California frontier. The nephew of Carlos Francisco de Croix, Teodoro de Croix (1730 C.E.-1791 C.E.) would become the comandante militar and provincial gobernador in Nueva España before becoming the Virrey of Perú (1784 C.E.-1790 C.E.). He put into operation reforms in the administration of indigenous peoples.


By 1767 C.E., José de Gálvez helped to mitigate the social effects of the expulsion of the Jesuits which were felt with particular intensity in the Virreinato of Nueva España. Carlos III had commissioned the catechizing via instruction in the principles of Christian religion of the Natives and the colonization of Alta California or Upper California. This was done in order to block the attempted expansion of Russia via Alaska into Nueva España. España had first claimed the Alta California coast in 1542 C.E., when Juan Cabrillo sailed along it and explored from what is now San Diego to San Francisco. Their claim was reinforced by Sebastían Cermano’s exploration in 1595 C.E., and by Sebastían Vizcaíno in 1602 C.E.


In North America, near Fort Charlotte’s completion date, the British Royal government abandoned the fort. Fort Charlotte was placed under the care and authority of the South Carolina government. In 1768 C.E., at that time several forts were closed in the area. In many cases guns, cannon, powder, bullets, and other military and war supplies were transported and held at Fort Charlotte.


It was in 1768 C.E., that King Carlos III of España officially appointed José de Gálvez y Gallardo Visitador General or ruler of Nueva España. Defending Nueva España and the other Virreinatos was of paramount importance to the Corona Española.


José de Gálvez y Gallardo Marqués de Sonora, Visitador General of Public Finance in Nueva España was the second son of António de Gálvez y Gallardo y Carbajal. His mother was Ana Gallardo Jurado. José was born in Macharaviaya Málaga, España, on January 2, 1720 C.E.


King Carlos III would later (1775 C.E.) make José de Gálvez Secretarío del Estado del Despacho Universal de Indias. The position allowed him to continue his work reorganizing the northern parts of Nueva España. He was authorized to establish and implement the Comandancia y Capitanía General de las Provincias Internas or Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas, which was to be independent of the virrey of Nueva España. This new political structure included Nueva Vizcaya, Nuevo Santander, Sonora y Sinaloa, Las Californias, Coahuila y Tejas and Nuevo Méjico. Chihuahua was its capital. Teodoro de Croix, the nephew of the former virrey, was named the first Commandante General.


Upon his arrival José de Gálvez found the Borderland defenses of Nueva España well beyond any defense cordon he could have imagined, given the available resources and manpower. José, the Uncle of the famous General Bernardo de Gálvez, found the Nuevo Méjicanos willing and able to defend their lands against those who would try to seize it. He also saw remote Nuevo Méjico as a wedge against hostile intentions of any powers and an anchor for moving the frontier northward from Tejas to Las Californias. José de Gálvez was also in effect reorganized España’s overseas administration.


By 1768 C.E., the famous Teniente Coronel Juan Bautista de Anza, I Juan Bautista De AnzaGobernador of Sonora, was active in the region. He shared España’s broad military strategic view. The complete vision was to extend España’s influence from Sonora, through Tejas and onto Luisiana. De Anza would later prove himself by successfully settling San Francisco Bay in Alta California. He was a man José de Gálvez y Gallardo could trust in. He was both a natural leader and resourceful. Under orders from de Gálvez, de Anza planned, organized, recruited, and successfully mounted two overland expeditions from Sonora through the California desert to Alta California.


De Gálvez also authorized the waging of war against the northern Natives, opening the way for expansion of the realm. It was his deployment of superior defenses that made Nueva España more secure against foreign and internal enemies. Among other accomplishments, he headed the settlement of California. With California populated by Españoles, Nueva España could better defend against the British and Russian incursions from the Pacific. This brings home the importance of the de Gálvez family to España’s security.


In 1768 C.E., José’s nephew, Bernardo de Gálvez was assigned to Nueva España’s northern regions of what is today Méjico and portions of the United States. Once again, he would be fighting the Apaches. This time it was to be in Nueva Viscaya and Sonora.


At age 23 Bernardo de Gálvez arrived in northern Nueva España in early 1769 C.E. There his uncle, José had been Visitador General in the region from 1765 C.E. On April 11, 1769 C.E., Bernardo went to Chihuahua, in Nueva Vizcaya, to participate in the military campaign against the Gila Apaches. He served under Capitán Lope de Cuéllar, Gobernador of the Rarámuri or Tarahumara and Tepehuána Natives and comandante of their borders. He was attached to the Presidio of Janos at what is present-day Chihuahua, Méjico. He commanded a military contingent of 700, which including Natives (Indians) in campaigns against the Apaches de Gila during June through December of 1769 C.E. His campaigns led to the destruction of 2 villages and some number of the Chafalotes Indians. 60 Indians were killed, 5 captured 15, and 2 Spaniards released.


The name, Gila, or Xila, was originally that of an Apache settlement west of Socorro, in southwest Nuevo Méjico. As early as 1630 C.E., the name was applied to the Apache residing for part of the time on the extreme headwaters of the Río Gila. It is suggested that the name Gila was applied to those Natives later known as Mimbreños, Mogollones, and Warm Springs or the Chiricahua Apache and later extending to include the Apache living along the Gila in Arizona.


After a few months of training in Chihuahua, Bernardo was made a Capitán in the Regiment of the Crown of Nueva España, thanks to the support of his uncle, Joséf and the virrey. He was commissioned at the northern frontier of Nueva España becoming Comandante Militar of military forces in Nueva Vizcaya and Sonora. He then led several major expeditions against Gila Apaches, whose attacks and plundering had seriously crippled the economy of the region.


In April of 1769 C.E., Mariscal del campo Alejandro O'Reilly was appointed Gobernador and Capitán General of Spanish Luisiana while in España. He received orders to immediately proceed to Habana. The Gobernador embarked 3,000 troops in Habana and left for his assignment. Upon reaching Spanish New Orleans in Luisiana in August 1769 C.E., Don O'Reilly formally took possession of the Territory and put down a revolt reestablishing order.


Spanish Luisiana had a small population. Its inhabitants were free Whites, free Blacks, slaves, and Natives (Indians). During the first decades of Spanish rule, Luisiana would grow quickly. However, the population’s percentage of Spanish was very low. Twenty years later, the period the Spanish population reached only 15% of the total. According to the Government census of implemented by Don O' Reilly, in 1769 C.E., it had 13,513 inhabitants, excluding Natives. Twenty years later, the population would grow to 31,433.


O'Reilly had crushed the uprising against Ulloa and Spanish rule. He had also and defeated the ringleaders who had led the Rebellion of 1768 C.E. O'Reilly then held trials and severely punished those French Creoles responsible for the expulsion of España's first Gobernador of Luisiana, Don António de Ulloa (1716 C.E.-1795 C.E.) from Luisiana.


Don O'Reilly continues to be remembered in New Orleans as "Bloody O'Reilly." This is because he had six prominent rebel French citizens executed, in October 1769 C.E. Other French rebels were exiled and some were sent for life imprisonment in the Castillo San Felipe del Morro also known as Fuerte San Felipe del Morro or Morro Castle in Habana, Cuba.


Alejandro then sent most of his troops back to Cuba and focused his attention on administrative issues. It was necessary for him to resuscitate Luisiana’s ailing economy and stabilize its food supplies. Don O'Reilly was also forced to quickly reform many of the French bureaucratic practices which had been in place since before Spanish rule.


During this time, the settlement of Ninety Six in South Carolina became the capital city of the Ninety-Six District when it was established in July 1769 C.E.


At the end of September, 1769 C.E., or the beginning of November, 1769 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez went to Pitic or Santísima Trinidad del Pitic and Presidio del Pitic where his uncle was seriously ill. Pitic is now called Hermosillo, that city located centrally in the northwestern Méjicano state of Sonora.


In December of 1769 C.E., Don O'Reilly allowed the French Canadian Acadians who had settled on the Mississippi River opposite Natchez to resettle on the Amite River near Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain. These Acadians were the descendants of the 17th-Century C.E. French colonists who settled in Acadia, some of whom are also Métis. The North America Métis were a specific indigenous people with their own culture and communities. Later, the early unions of the Métis between First Nations people would develop into a mixed-race. Descendants of Colonial-era European settlers and the Métis within generations developed a distinct Métis/European culture.


The Acadia colony was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island), as well as part of Québec, and present-day Maine to the Kennebec River. This increased the number of Spanish subjects in the region.


Just as he’d done on his 1765 C.E. mission to Puerto Rico, Gobernador and Capitán General O'Reilly's proclamations and rulings would affect many aspects of life in Luisiana. He gave slaves the ability to purchase their freedom and slave owners the ability to more easily release them from bondage, so much for the Spanish and the Black Legend. The Gobernador also banned ownership of Native slaves. What does this due to the Noble Savage indignations and the Spanish? Alejandro regularized the weights and measurements, regulated doctors and surgeons, and improved public safety through the funding of bridge and levee maintenance. The Corona Española had an interest in strengthening its Nuevo Mundo possessions. Should another war breakout, she would be prepared.


After restoring public order, O'Reilly assigned the post of Gobernador of Luisiana to the coronel of the Habana Regiment in December 1769 C.E. He kept the post of Capitán General for himself. Luisiana was firmly placed as a dependency of the military. It would be led by the political establishment in Cuba.


To offer some clarity on the transition of Luisiana from a French possession to a Spanish provincia, O'Reilly had made great strides in controlling the populace and its leadership. Alejandro O’Reilly, the “enforcer” had to establish order over the hostile Frenchmen and Germans living there in the wake of Gobernador Antonio de Ulloa’s tumultuous Governorship. The reconstituted, reorganized governance of the Provincia would hold. Future Spanish gobernadores such as Bernardo de Gálvez would not have to face these same issues.


One interesting note, Oliver Pollock (1737 C.E., Coleraine, Ireland-December 17, 1823 C.E., Pinckneyville, Mississippi), later to become an American Patriot, had arrived in Luisiana in 1768 C.E. Pollock would serve O’Reilly’s commercial needs. The two men became close friends. Pollock remained a friend of every Spanish gobernador who followed including de Gálvez.




Oliver Pollock is a story unto himself, a sincere Patriot, credited for financing the American Revolution in the west. He is often attributed with the creation of the United States Dollar sign in 1778 C.E., developing a symbol for the Spanish peso consisting of an elaborate “p” within an “S” which evolved into our American dollar sign. He was a merchant and financier of the American Revolutionary War, of which he has long been considered a historically undervalued figure.


Few of Pollock’s personal papers exist. Ironically, they were destroyed in the 1860’s C.E. by the U.S.S. Essex when it bombarded Saint Francisville during the Civil War. His portraits were destroyed. There is no known likeness of him. We have some indication of his commitment to his new country from a letter he sent to Congress after the Revolution. He wrote: “I have the pleasure to reflect that from the beginning to the end I was deaf to every motive except an ardent appreciation for our righteous cause.”


Between the years 1770 C.E.-1771 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez found himself in the northern provincias of Nueva España. After a few months, he was in command of 35 soldados and 50 Ópata and undertook his first raid against the Apaches. He was soon promoted to Comandante de armas or commandant of arms of Nueva Vizcaya and Sonora, northern provincias of Nueva España, currently Nuevo Méjico. Bernardo then returned to Chihuahua, in July or August of 1770 C.E. There he quickly became immersed in the campaign against the Apaches, who had left the area vulnerable to repeated incursions. During campaigns against the Apache along the Pecos and Gila rivers in 1770 C.E.-1771 C.E., Bernardo was wounded twice by an arrow in the left arm and spear in the chest. Despite this, he gained military experience that proved invaluable a few years later.


Upon Bernardo de Gálvez’s uncle, José, recovering from illness, Bernardo accompanied him to Méjico City in May, 1770 C.E. He then later returned to the northern provincias.


The Misión San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo was founded on June 3, 1770 C.E. in the nearby settlement of Monterey. However, it was moved to Carmel by Junípero Serra due to the interaction between soldados stationed at the nearby Presidio and the Native Indians.


On October 21, 1770 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez crossed the Río Grande. On November 1, 1770 C.E. he came to the Pecos River. By the end of year, the Apaches caused such havoc that Bernardo was ordered to end all offensive operations and to reinforce the presidios to focus on the defense of the territory against attacks by the Apaches.


By 1770 C.E., Oliver Pollock married Margaret O'Brien of New Orleans, with whom he had eight children before her death in 1799 C.E.


The year 1771 C.E., found José de Gálvez y Gallardo on a mission to Méjico City to settle difficulties that had arisen between the Audiència and the proprietors of the mines regarding revenue. He soon arranged everything satisfactorily, introduced improvements into the administration, and saved the government several millions of dollars yearly. José then made several trips into the interior to study the situation and the necessities of Nueva España.


Thanks to the support of the virrey, on February 26, 1771 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez was allowed to resume his offensive campaign in charge of a mixed Hispanic-Indian contingent. De Gálvez pursued the Apaches during the next several months who continued their attacks on Spanish settlements.


On October 11, 1771 C.E., while Bernardo de Gálvez was in pursuit of a band of Apache, he and his outnumbered 14 soldados were defeated. He was gravely wounded, by an arrow in the left arm and spear in the chest.


In December 1771 C.E., he made a new start against the Apaches with a major military force. While on maneuvers, Bernardo suffered a fall from his horse. The injury bothered him greatly afterwards. He then made a request of its uncle, José, to return to the Ibero Peninsula.


By December 1771 C.E., the transfer of the Misión San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo to Carmel from Monterey California was complete. A new stockade of approximately 130’x200’ became the new Misión Carmel. Simple buildings made of plastered mud were the first church and dwellings. These were followed by a more sturdy structure built of wood from nearby pine and cypress trees. The new structure was needed to stand up to the seasonal rains. This structure was also temporary. The replacement church, of a permanent stone edifice was built later.


In Nueva España, Bernardo de Gálvez was soon relieved of his command in Chihuahua and returned to Méjico City on February 10, 1772 C.E. This was done so he could accompany his uncle, José, on his visits throughout the region of Nueva España. However, his uncle could not wait for him and left on visitations. José de Gálvez returned in late of May 1772 C.E. José’s experiences in the border areas of the Virreinato caused him to have a great respect for the quality of the soldados of the presidios. It also gave him a better understanding for the reasons for the war with the Apaches. For the Apaches it was revenge for Spanish excesses. However, part of the problem was that they didn’t cultivate crops or maintained cattle for sustenance, thus, their continued raids.


After his return to España in 1772 C.E., José de Gálvez y Gallardo became the leading guide of the Council of the Indias. José’s stay brought new responsibilities. José was also a member of the General Council on Commerce, Coinage and Mining, a gobernador in the Consejo De Indias, and a councilor of state. He designed and drove many of them initiatives more outstanding within the set of decisions that integrated them, called the Borbón Reforms.

At age 26 in 1772 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez had returned to España in the company of his uncle, José de Gálvez. October 9, 1772 C.E., de Gálvez was promoted to Capitán of the infantry regiment of Sevilla, by then in Cádiz.


Meanwhile in the Maratha Empire in India, after the death of Madhavrao Peshwa in 1772 C.E., his brother Narayanrao became Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India. However, he was assassinated and his uncle, Raghunathrao became Peshwa. Narayanrao's widow, Gangabai, then gave birth to a posthumous son, Sawai Madhavrao. He was the legal heir to the throne. Soon, twelve Maratha chiefs initiated an effort to elevate the infant to Peshwa and rule under him as regents.


In 1773 C.E., Charles Lee, a man later to serve in the American Independence movement, moved to North America and bought an estate in Virginia. When the fighting began in the American War of Independence in 1775 C.E., Lee volunteered to serve with American Patriot forces. Lee was ambitious to become Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. However, this was prevented when George Washington was appointment of to that post.


Bernardo de Gálvez graduated from the Regiment of Sevilla on March 18, 1773 C.E.


Bernardo was sent to Pau, France in 1773 C.E., with the infantryman Regiment of Cantabria. Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, and capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Aquitaine, France. The city is located in the heart of the former sovereign State of Béarn, of which it was the capital from 1464 C.E. Bordered by the Gave de Pau, a city situated 62 miles from the Atlantic Ocean and 31 miles from España. There he spent the years furthering his knowledge of military science and learning the French language and culture. These would serve him well when he would later become gobernador of Luisiana.


Between 1770 C.E. and 1774 C.E., General de Teniente Alejandro O’Reilly reached the apex of his power and influence at the Corte Real Española.


Having received many honors from King Carlos III for his military reforms in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Luisiana O’Reilly was appointed Gobernador and comandante militar of Madrid in 1773 C.E.


From his position in Madrid, General de Teniente Alejandro O’Reilly accomplished one of his greatest professional military ambitions. In 1774 C.E, he established a new Spanish military academy for officers, “La Real Escuela Militar de Ávila” or The Royal Military Academy of Ávila.” Located at Ávila, España the Academy would follow the best European military models of planning and warfare. O’Reilly had experienced this European warfare himself during its formative years. However, Ávila would adapt these to a Spanish context for warfare.


The officers selected for the military academy were those who were most likely to be promoted in the Spanish Army. This was based upon the opinion of its Director, who was also the Inspector General de infantería or Inspector General of Infantry. Secondly, the instructors used books for military training in España considered to be the most advanced for the times.


Bernardo de Gálvez entered the Royal Military Academy of Ávila de los Caballeros for staff officers in April 1774 C.E. This was after its foundation under Alejandro O’Reilly in 1774 C.E. It is likely that he achieved this through the help of his uncle, Miguel, at the time a member of the Supreme War Council and O’Reilly under whom he had served previously.


His Uncle, Miguel de Gálvez y Gallardo was born at Macharaviaya, November 30, 1725 C.E. and died in Gotha, Germany on July 14, 1792 C.E. He was the third brother of the famous Gálvez y Gallardo family brothers (Joséf, Matiás, and António). Miguel became a jurist and Spanish politician. At his baptism, he was christened Andrés Luís, but later changed it to Miguel in 1747 C.E.


Miguel studied law at the Colégio de Santa María or León of the University of Alcalá. By 1770 C.E., he was appointed as Mayor of the Court. Four years later, he took up a new post of Minister of the Supreme War Council. He participated in the creation of the military mutual aid society, which was responsible for the support of widows and orphans of officers of the army. Later, he took part in the Foundation of the Economic Society of Friends of Madrid at 1775 C.E.


Together with his brothers, Miguel founded the montepío whereby wine-growers, and brandy makers and local growers deposited money made up of discounts. This allowed individuals of this body to assist their widows and orphans or for other assistance. They also made the import of figs, almond, and oil from Málaga, to improve regional conditions. The de Gálvez y Gallardo brothers also facilitated regional access to credit through an agricultural bank they founded and scholarships for the children in some universities Españolas.


For a period of 14 years, Miguel was President of the Royal Academy of Spanish law and public of Santa Bárbara. He soon introduced some American plants into the Iberian Peninsula, in order to improve trade and the economy. In 1766 C.E., he was appointed perpetual Mayor of Málaga, although he resided in Madrid. Miguel brought about a series of reforms and public works in the city to improve its economy. He later took a rest in his hometown in 1785 C.E. While there, he provided the town with several urban enhancements.


In the summer of 1786 C.E., he was sent as Plenipotentiary Minister-Ambassador to the Court of Prussia, in Berlin. While there, he developed excellent relations with Fredrick the Great. He was later sent to Saint Petersburg, Russia. He never forgot his beloved Málaga. While at Saint Petersburg, he opened a market for Spanish wines from Málaga.


Miguel de Gálvez y Gallardo became ill, and requested to be relieved. He left for España on June 6, 1792 C.E. While returning to España, Miguel died in the city of Gotha, Germany on July, 14th. A life-long bachelor, he left no descendents. His remains were later moved to the crypt-mausoleum in the parish church of San Jacinto in Macharaviaya, his hometown. The burial chamber construction had been financed by the de Gálvez brothers.

The Church of San Jacinto was rebuilt in the 18th-Century C.E. in the same location that the first church had been built two centuries before, in 1505 C.E. Its floor plan is that of a Latin cross with a single nave that measures 36 metres long by 9 metres wide. The building has a barrel vault and a graceful dome on the transept. The entrance to the church has a sober facade, done in facing brick and very much in the style of the era with Corinthian columns under a divided pediment. Over this appears a royal coat of arms. Adjacent to San Jacinto is the cemetery. This is also the location of the entrance to the Church’s crypt which occupies practically the entire underground area of the Church.


Unfortunately, the Royal Military Academy of Ávila’s existence was brief. Therefore, it was quickly forgotten and has been the subject of little study. Understanding the ideas and methods used, one can assume that this military academy was one of the major attempts of the 18th-Century C.E. Spanish army to modernize its officer corps. Its failure and end also meant the defeat of one of España’s largest projects to undermine privileges in the Borbón army.


In 1774 C.E., José de Gálvez y Gallardo was appointed president of the Consejo De Indias and Councilor of State. In this office, the most important in the kingdom after that of Prime Minister, he excelled. José rendered great service to the state and the territories. One of his key concerns was the growing discontent in the British colonies of North America. Their Thirteen Colonies were moving quickly to establish their own sovereign nation. Britain would have none of it.


By 1774 C.E., in India, the British were continuing their efforts of conquest. They occupied Salsette Island, Thana Fort, Fort Versova, and the island fort of Karanja in India.


The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775 C.E.-1782 C.E.) was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire in India. The war would begin with the Treaty of Surat and end with the Treaty of Salbai.


Raghunathrao of the Maratha Empire in India would not relinquish power and sought help from the British at Bombay. He signed the Treaty of Surat on March 6, 1775 C.E. In the Treaty, Raghunathrao ceded the territories of Salsette and Bassein to the British. It also contained provisions for part of the revenues from Surat and Bharuch districts to be given to the British. In return, Britain was to provide Raghunathrao with 2,500 soldiers.


In Europe, Bernardo de Gálvez became aware of España’s preparation of a military expedition against Algiers. Bernardo left France when he was transferred to Sevilla in 1775 C.E., at the age of 29. He departed to Madrid on April 10, 1775 C.E. with companions to participate in it. The objective of the campaign was to punish the Moroccan Sultan, Mohammed III for attacking Spanish held Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera in 1774 C.E. The Sultan did this despite a peace treaty having been signed between the two nations in 1767 C.E.


War was also a reality in North America. It has been reported that in the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 17, 1775 C.E., in addition to the Continental Army some number of Puertorriqueños volunteers fought the British. The Puertorriqueños were supposedly under the command of Capitán General Torre.


Bernardo had managed the return to his old Regiment of Sevilla which was to participate in the Algiers campaign and to obtain the command of a company of cazadores thanks to the influence of his uncle, Miguel, a member of the Supreme War Council. He then participated in the failed Algiers Expedition in July 1775 C.E., against the Ottoman Empire’s forces as Capitán de Infantería under Alejandro O'Reilly. The “Siege of Algiers” began when the town was attacked July 8, 1775 C.E. by a Spanish force of 51 ships of war and 26,000 men under Don Pedro González de Castejón y Salazar, the marqués de González de Castejón, Ministro de Marina of Carlos III and the Conde de O'Reilly.


It is important to place this attack in its proper context. Many historians and commentators do not or will not deal with the issue of Islam’s designs for the complete conquest of the West. They evidently misunderstand Muslim intentions of world domination. The issue was not a simplistic one for España, as Islam had every intention of reconquering her and regaining her sacred Islamic places of worship. Islam’s view of “once a conquered country, always a conquered country” is and was the order of the day. Therefore, Algeria and Algiers played more than a casual role on the world stage in these historic times.


Algiers is the capital, chief seaport, and largest city of Algeria and second largest country on the African continent. Located in northern Algeria on the slopes of the Sahel hills, the city extends for 10 miles along the west side of the Bay of Algiers on the Mediterranean Sea. Its strategic location allowed the city to easily access the Mediterranean region and its shipping lanes. She was at the time controlled by the Islamist Ottoman Empire, the enemy of España and all other Christian nations of Europe. The Ottoman Empire, also known as the Turkish Empire, was founded in 1299 C.E. by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.


By the early-14th-Century C.E., España ruled the City of Algiers. In 1302 C.E., the Españoles had occupied the islet of Peñón located in the front of Algiers Harbor. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and España. After conquests in the Balkans by Murad I between 1362 C.E. and 1389 C.E., the Ottoman sultanate was transformed into a transcontinental empire and claimant to the caliphate. The Ottomans were bent upon world domination. To prove the point, the Ottoman Mehmed the Conqueror ended the Christian Byzantine Empire with the 1453 C.E. conquest of Constantinople. The Eastern Roman Empire which had lasted for over a thousand of years was gone.


Piracy in the Mediterranean had existed since time immemorial. Algiers did not have great importance to the Europeans. That was until after the expulsion of the Moros from España in 1492 C.E., many of whom sought asylum in that city. The first great wave of Barbary piracy came at the time that these Moros had been driven from España.  Spanish vessels and coastal cities became their first targets. They soon grew in importance and power. As they did, the Islamic governors of North Africa were brought under their control. It was at this point that they became a greater threat to all of Europe. They plunder the cargo of merchant ships, took all Christian passengers hostage, and either ransomed them, or sold them off as slaves.


During the 16th and 17th centuries C.E., the Ottoman Empire was at the height of its power. Under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Empire was a multinational, multilingual entity controlling much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. It served the Ottoman Empire’s purposes to have Algeria and her capital Algiers act on her behalf as a terrorist client state. By the early 1500s C.E., Algiers became the main base of the Barbary pirates. From that protected location they would attack European shipping in the western Mediterranean for the next 300 years.


In the early 16th-Century C.E., España constructed fortified presidios at her outposts on or near the Algerian coast. She then took control over coastal towns such as Mers el Kébir in 1505 C.E. and Oran in 1509 C.E. By 1510 C.E, following their occupation of Oran, the Españoles occupied and placed presidios at Tlemcen, Mostaganem, and Ténès or Kartenas on the coast of North Africa. This strategy proved to be a costly and largely ineffective military endeavor. It did not guarantee access for España’s merchant fleet.


The Españoles quickly fortified the islet of Peñon and imposed a levy which was intended to suppress corsair activity. Barbary piracy was by then a full-fledged enterprise. 1510 C.E., The merchants of Algiers ceded one of the rocky islets in their harbor to España. The Españoles quickly established themselves on that small island in front of Algiers. Next, they persuaded the ruler, amir of Algiers Selim-bin-Teumi to accept their presence through a treaty and pay tribute. Fortifications were soon built on the islet, and a guarnición of 200 soldados was established. Selim-bin-Teumi then went to España and took an oath of obedience to Fernando of Aragón.


In 1516 C.E., the amir negotiated with the two corsair brothers, Arouj and Khair ad-Din Barbarossa to expel the Españoles. Arouj, with the assistance of Ottoman troops, arrived at Algiers and ordered the assassination of Selim. He then seized the town. Spanish expeditions were sent to take over the city. The first one was in 1516 C.E. under Don Diego de Vera. By 1518 C.E., the city of Algiers fell under the direct rule of the Ottoman Empire. The city was then enclosed by walls on all sides, including along the seafront. The wall’s five gates allowed access to the city. The five gates and the road from each gate divided the city and met in front of the Ketchaoua Mosque. Then in 1519 C.E., Don Ugo de Moncada, attempted to take the city and failed.


Khair ad-Din succeeded Arouj after the latter was killed in battle against the Españoles at the Fall of Tlemcen (1517 C.E.). The capture of Algiers in 1516 C.E. had been made possible with the support of the Ottoman Sultan Selim I. This support was discontinued with Sultan Selim's death in 1520 C.E., causing Barbarossa to lose the city to a local Kabyle chieftain in 1524 C.E., and to retreat to his fief of Djidjelli.


Suleiman the Magnificent declared war on Ferdinand of Habsburg in January 1529 C.E. He also decided to go on the offensive in the western Mediterranean. As a result, he chose to renew Ottoman support of Barbarossa.


Barbarossa received from the Ottoman Empire 2,000 Janissaries which were elite infantry units, artillery, and an important financial support. Through bribery Barbarossa first obtained a change in the allegiance of the supporters of the Algiers Sheikh. After taking power in the city, Barbarossa then started to lay siege to the offshore island forts El Peñón de Argel, the Spanish fortress at the entrance of the harbor. El Peñón de Argel is a small islet off the coast of Algiers, fortified by the Kingdom of España during the 16th-Century C.E. The islet was connected to the African continent to form a seawall and the harbor of Algiers.


After 22 days of heavy artillery fire, the Spanish Gobernador Don Martín de Vargas finally surrendered on May 29, 1529 C.E. He had only 25 men left and had received no help from the Spanish mainland. De Vargas was executed by being clubbed to death by the Islamists. The fortress was then dismantled and the stonework was used to build a seawall. The Moros used Christian slaves as workers on the project.


By 1556 C.E., the Ottomans had constructed a citadel at the highest point in the wall. A major road was placed running north to south, dividing the city in two. The upper city or al-Gabal consisted of about fifty small quarters of Andalusian, Jewish, Moorish, and Kabyle communities. What was called the lower city or al-Wata, constituted the administrative, military, and commercial center of the city. The area was inhabited by Turkish dignitaries and other upper-class families.


Unfortunately, the Barbary pirates that band of Moro brigands were protected by the Ottomans and their piracy was encouraged by the coastal cities of Northern Africa. These included Algiers, Djerba, Tripoli, and Tunis.


It is important to remember that at the beginning of the 17th-Century C.E., the Ottoman Empire comprised some 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some would later be absorbed into the Ottoman Empire. Others would be granted various levels of autonomy during the course of centuries. In effect, this powerful empire and Algiers actively collaborated with the pirates in their activities. To make matters worse, by the early-17th-Century C.E., many more Moros were expelled from España and sought asylum in Algiers.


What should be clear to the reader by now is that by 1775 C.E., the Españoles could no longer turn a blind eye toward Algiers and allow the pirates to continue to attack and pillage with impunity. Something had to be done. Thus, España attacked Algiers. After a severe conflict, the Españoles failed to dislodge their opponents. They retired after a loss of over 3,000 killed and wounded. The Algerines lost about 5,000.

As stated earlier, Bernardo de Gálvez made his way to Sevilla in 1775 C.E. From there, de Gálvez left for Algiers and participated in the disastrous expedition commanded by Alejandro O’Reilly. While capturing the fortress that guarded the city De Gálvez was seriously wounded in a leg during the fighting on the beaches. Though injured, he resisted being removed. After the unsuccessful expedition quickly failed, Bernardo returned to Cádiz. During his participation in the unfortunate Maghreb Expedition, he was allowed to ascend to Teniente Coronel. His was a part of a series of promotions which caused a great scandal, because they were awarded in many cases to comendadores who had led the failed campaign.


In North America, on July 12, 1775 C.E., Fort Charlotte located just west of Fort Ninety-Six on the Savannah River was seized in the name of the Council of Safety. This marked South Carolina’s entry into the Revolutionary War. The Council of Safety in Charlestown ordered Major James Mayson, commander of Fort Ninety-Six to capture Fort Charlotte.


On July 12th, a Patriot force of Ranger companies captured the Fort. They accomplished this without bloodshed or opposition. The only occupants of the fort were Captain George Whitefield, his family, and a few men of the garrison. The Rangers also captured 1,050 pounds of gunpowder, 18 cannons, 15 muskets, 83 casks of musket cartridges, 2,521 musket balls, and 343 iron cannonballs. Fort Charlotte also housed an undisclosed number of Prisoners-of-War. Exactly how many is unknown. However, given the number of loyalists living in the Carolina backcountry, their numbers may have been numerous.


Mayson and part of the SC 3rd Regiment would soon be stationed at Fort Charlotte to command the interior. Once there, the Patriots met with leaders of the Cherokee at Fort Charlotte in an attempt to sway the Cherokee in their favor. However, the talks failed and South Carolina entered the American Revolutionary War with both the English and the Cherokee opposing them.


Ninety Six would figure prominently in the Anglo-Cherokee War (1758 C.E.-1761 C.E.). It also was a site for various southern campaigns waged during the American Revolutionary War. The first land battle of the revolution south of New England was fought there in 1775 C.E. On August 1, 1775 C.E., American militia forces led by Major Andrew Williamson were ambushed by Cherokee and Loyalists near here in the Battle of Twelve Mile Creek. There were more than 4,000 Cherokee who waged war on a long front beginning in June, from Tennessee to central South Carolina. Francis Salvador, an immigrant from London, a planter, and a Sephardic Jew was one of the casualties. He was the first Jew to be killed fighting with the Patriots in the Revolutionary War.


In North America, the Corona Española held all lands west of the Mississippi River and the beautiful city of New Orleans. El Imperio Español’s Nueva España, in North America, where my progenitors lived was a part of a Spanish administered area that extended from Central América to the Arctic.


In an effort to counter its European rivals, Britain, France, and Russia, España began organizing its army in Nueva España’s borderlands from Tejas through California. By 1776 C.E., orders went to all border provincias of Northern Nueva España to properly deploy forces to unify the frontier and counter the influence of the British and other foreign forces. Most probably this was also in preparation for war with Britain in North America.


03/26/2017 07:54 AM