Chapter Seventeen

Bernardo Vicente Apolinar de Gálvez y Madrid, Vizconde de Gálvezton and Conde de Gálvez (July 23, 1746 C.E.-November 30, 1786 C.E.) and Post-American Revolutionary War  





Much is owed to the Internet researchers who provide a wealth of information included here.

It was the spring of 1783 C.E. and an exhausted Bernardo de Gálvez would begin preparation to return to España with his wife and two infant children for a brief rest. It would be after helping to draft the terms of the Paris Peace Accords in April 1783 C.E. that Mariscal del campo de Gálvez accompanied by his wife, the former Marie Felicité de Saint­ Maxênt d’Estrehan of New Orleans, and two infant children, Matilde and Miguel, for that rest. On May 17, 1783 C.E., de Gálvez left Florida and returned to Cuba. By May 28, 1783 C.E., King Carlos III of España by Royal Decree created the title for Don Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid and awarded him with Conde de Gálvez the Vizconde de Gálveztown (Tejas). This was done in appreciation for his heroic military merits at the Battle of Pensacola. In recognition of his work and help to the American cause, George Washington took de Gálvez to his right in the American Victory Parade of July 4, 1783 C.E. in Philadelphia.  

He left the Peace of Versailles behind in which Britain recognized the independence of the United States. France was to get Tobago, St. Lucia, and Senegal. España recovered Menorca, East and West Florida, and some areas in Honduras. However, she did not get the return of Gibraltar. After making certain provisions concerning the Government of Luisiana, on July 16, 1783 C.E., de Gálvez embarked for Cádiz. In September of 1783 C.E., de Galvez went to Madrid. The son of Matías and nephew to José, Bernardo de Gálvez arrived back in España a famous and celebrated man for much needed rest. While there, he began to advise the Government on matters Norteaméricanos. As de Gálvez saw it, it was convenient for España and France to advance the cause of the American revolutionaries.  

On September 3, 1783 C.E., representatives of King George III of Great Britain signed a treaty in Paris with representatives of the United States of America known as the Treaty of Paris and two treaties at Versailles with representatives of King Louis XVI of France and King Carlos III of España.  

In spite of his age and ill health, Matías de Gálvez was rewarded for his service in Guatemala. King Carlos III of España named him virrey of Nueva España. De Gálvez traveled overland to the capital, passing through Oaxaca and Puebla. Matías was the last virrey to make his formal entry into the city of Méjico on horseback, which he did on April 28, 1783 C.E.  

It is important to stop and recognize that Bernardo de Gálvez received many honors from España for his military victories against the British, including promotion to General de Teniente and Mariscal del campo. He was also made Gobernador and Capitán General of Luisiana and Florida which was by then separated from Cuba. His promotion had included being placed in the command of the Spanish expeditionary army in América. After the signature of peace at Versailles, on September 3, 1783 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez was rewarded by the title of Conde, the rank of General de Teniente, and was appointed Capitán General of Cuba. On the world stage, the Treaty of Paris would establish peace between Great Britain and the allied nations of España, France, and the Netherlands.  

Still the soldado, Bernardo de Gálvez was not finished. After returning to España, he would fight in a campaign in the Netherlands against the British. Earlier, both España and the Netherlands (1780 C.E.) had joined as allies of France against the British.  

Later, Bernardo de Gálvez while in España on his free time during his stay in Madrid became interested in genealogy and the aerostatica (a branch of statics that deals with the equilibrium of gaseous fluids). He proved a steering system for balloons on the Río Real de Manzanares or Manzanares River which runs through the heart of Madrid.  

That same year, of 1783 C.E., Bernardo’s uncle, António, became a coronel. He was the youngest of the brothers (Joséf, Matiás, Miguel) of the important de Gálvez y Gallardo family. He was born at Macharaviaya on September 29, 1728 C.E. António is considered by many to be the least important member, as he followed mainly a military career. Others have offered that António was the least gifted and less corrupt than his brothers who supposedly used their power for their own benefit.  

António married Mariana Ramírez de Velasco in 1750 C.E., with which he had no children. They adopted a girl, María Rosa Antónia, who some say was possibly his natural daughter. She was to become an author of some note and a remarkable success at the Corte real española  of Carlos IV.  

He was named general manager of the income for tobacco in the Islas Canarias through the influence of his brother, Joséf de Gálvez. After June 1787 C.E., when Joséf died, the Corona Española ordered an investigation of António’s work. The resulting facts did not lead to his conviction, thus leaving the family influence intact at the Corte Real Española. He was later relieved of his position with a pension.  

During António's stay in Cádiz, he managed to amass a considerable fortune. Unfortunately, economic troubles and waste left his widow in debt at his death in Madrid on December 29, 1792 C.E. In contrast to the rest of brothers, António asked that he be interred in the Royal convent of San Luís and not in the Pantheon that the family had in their hometown.  

On November 13, 1783 C.E., Matías de Gálvez granted permission to Manuel António Valdés Murguía y Saldaña to restart the national newspaper the Gaceta de Méjico which had first been started in 1722 C.E. by Juan Ignacio María de Castorena Ursúa y Goyeneche. It had later been revived by Juan Francisco Sahagún de Arévalo y Ladrón de Guevara in 1728 C.E., but then suspended since 1742 C.E. Valdés Murguía y Saldaña  had not been allowed to publish news not originating from the government.  

De Gálvez took a census of coaches in Méjico City. At the time, there were 637. He also established mutual aid societies for the indigenous population. Matías also ordered the collection and preservation documents relevant to the history of Nueva España. The Virrey had intended these to be used as reference material for the proposed project, Historia General de las Indias, which he had been working on earlier in Madrid and Sevilla.  

In India, the signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1784 C.E. would also change things. It made Nagapatnam or Negapatam a British colony. The island of Ceylon, which had been taken, was nominally returned. Further, the British gained the right of free trade with part of the Dutch East Indies.  

Also, by 1784 C.E., José de Gálvez y Gallardo Marqués de Sonora implemented a uniform excise tax on the importation of African slaves into the Indias.  

In 1784 C.E., Padre Serra, made one last tour of all the California misiónes. After that, he died and was buried at his request at the Misión in the Sanctuary of the San Carlos Church, next to his co-worker, Padre Juan Crespí who had passed the previous year. Serra was buried with full military honors.  

Junípero Serra's lifelong dream was to do misiónero work. At the age of 36, he joined a company of Franciscan monks headed to the Nuevo Mundo. The ship landed at the port city of Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz. Serra then walked from Veracruz to Méjico City.  

When he was 54 years of age, he was appointed head of the misiónes to be established in Northern California. Reports by those who knew Padre Serra, described him as even-tempered, humble, kind, quiet, and temperate. Some say the Padre had no enemies. He was also patiently devoted to the care of the Natives. It has been said that this devotion that often put him at odds with some in the Spanish government. Serra was to establish misiónes in California and introduce Christianity to the Natives, baptizing some 6,000, about ten percent of the native population during his misiónero work.

Historians have estimated that Padre Serra travels from misión to misión amounted to more than 5,500 miles by foot. Initially, the Natives helped run the misiónes. The proposed plan was to have the Natives take over the misiónes after ten years. During the last three years of his life, Serra walked from San Diego to San Francisco some 600 miles. He made this trek to visit the nine established misiónes. He suffered intensely from the crippled leg and pains in his chest, but refused medication.  

The April 6, 1784 C.E. Indian Treaty of Mangalore would restore Indian matters to the state they in which they existed before the war.  

The formal ceremony transferring control of Florida to the Españoles occurred July 12, 1784 C.E.  

By October 1784 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez was recalled from España to América to serve as Capitán General and Gobernador of Cuba, Luisiana, and the Floridas. This was just before Bernardo’s father’s death. Upon de Gálvez’s return to Habana, he found Oliver Pollock had been imprisoned. De Gálvez freed Pollock and ordered his property returned to him. As a further gesture to promote good relations with the newly formed United States, de Gálvez released all Américano sailors who had been imprisoned as smugglers.

The complexity in the governance of Cuba, Luisiana, and the Floridas was no easy matter. Once in position, Bernardo de Gálvez launched an investigation into the actions of Teniente Coronel Francisco Bouligny, Acting Comandante Militar of the Provincia, and Alférez Real, Mario de Reggio in the matter of the San Malo Trial which had been conducted earlier under Acting Gobernador Estéban Rodríguez Miro and Capitán General de Gálvez in Cuba.  

Teniente Coronel Francisco Bouligny had pursued those responsible for the atrocities committed by the savage Negroes (Runaway Slaves). Bouligny, also addressed their forming large bands, found that they had founded a village which they called Gaillard, and murdered five white men in an American launch who were residents of Bay St. Louis. This was all conducted under orders of their savage chief “Señor Malo” or Bad Man and his Teniente El Caballero de la Hacha” or Knight of the Hatchet. Additionally, the Negroes fired upon a detachment of twenty creoles ordered by the Government to pursue them.  

As a result, Señor Malo or Jean Saint Malo was condemned to death by hanging, on charges of murder. Alcalde Mario de Reggio carried out the execution on June 19, 1784 C.E., in front of St. Louis Cathedral at what is now present-day Jackson Square, New Orleans.  

De Gálvez ruled that Alférez Real, Mario de Reggio’s court was not inferior to Acting Gobernador Miro’s. Alférez Real De Reggio was found to have acted properly.  

De Gálvez also told Acting Gobernador Estéban Rodríguez Miro that the Cabildo had acted improperly toward the Reverend Fray Cirilo de Barcelona over the church slave, Baptiste.  

The Reverend Fray Cirilo de Barcelona had earlier addressed a letter to the Cabildo protesting the arrest of one of his servants, Baptiste, for being present at a crime committed by the Negroes during the quelling of the aforementioned uprising of Savage Negroes. A heated controversy later ensued resulting in the accusation that the priests had refused spiritual consolation to the condemned men.  

It was José de Gálvez y Gallardo who had appointed Padre Junípero Serra "Church President." When he died peacefully in Carmel, California on August 28, 1784 C.E., España lost a great man and a saint of the Church.  

October 20, 1784 C.E., a very ill Matías de Gálvez turned government functions over to the Audiència.  

A month after Bernardo’s arrival at Cuba, smallpox ravaged the Méjico City region. Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo, Bernardo’s father, died in the City of Méjico, on November 3, 1784 C.E. He had been active in mitigating the sufferings of the poorer class. This was a great blow to the de Gálvez family. He left no sealed instructions to be opened on the event of his death. Therefore, the Audiència turned over the administration of the Virreinato to Vicente Herrera until the arrival of a new virrey. As provided in his will, de Gálvez wished for his funeral services be a simple affair. His remains were interred in the church of the Apostolic College of San Fernando. This was done with due regard for his rank and the services Matías had rendered Nueva España. His son, Bernardo, the Spanish gobernador of Luisiana was to succeed him as virrey.  

Early in 1785 C.E., on the death of his father, Bernardo was appointed Virrey of Nueva España.   

That same year of 1785 C.E., George Washington, recently "retired to the country life," wrote a friendly letter to King Carlos III thanking him for a recent gift. Washington knew that the King had been generous in his support of the birth of the fledgling United States during its War for Independence. For at least five years, España had sent more supplies and money than had been requested to help the American Rebels succeed in what must have appeared to be an impossible dream. Españoles, men from the Ibéria Peninsula and throughout the Américas fought and died in that conflict.  

As for Bernardo de Gálvez, in 1785 C.E., that same year, he received another more, well-known honor to Tejanos. A group of Españoles, surveyors, landed on a Tejas Island inhabited by the Karankawa Natives and named the bay and the island for de Gálvez.  

In 1785 C.E., the American Congress cited Bernardo de Gálvez for his aid during the Revolution.  

In 1785 C.E., Oliver Pollock was released on parole for debts he was unable to pay and returned to Philadelphia. There he met a sympathetic Robert Morris, another financier of the war who had also incurred debts as a result. Morris collected a sum of money to buy Pollock time from his debtors.  

January 24, 1785 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez was named interim Virrey of Nueva España, due to the diseases suffered by father, Matiás.  

February 4, 1785, Bernardo de Gálvez arrived in Cuba and took office as Gobernador and Capitán General. In this position as he had done in Luisiana, de Gálvez relied on the local oligarchy. He then embarked on a ship bound for Veracruz.  

By May 26, 1785 C.E., Bernardo de Gálvez arrived in Veracruz. Succeeding his father, Matías, Bernardo officially took charge of the government on June 17th. De Gálvez and his family moved to Méjico City, which was still in the throes of famine and disease. The famine desolated the province and an epidemic broke out in the following year. Like his father, Bernardo became endeared to the people of Méjico City by opening up not only the resources of the government but also his personal fortune to help the populace through the difficult times. The Conde did all in his power to alleviate the public sufferings, giving large contributions from his private purse for the relief of the poor.  

Soon, Conde de Gálvez improved the working of the mines and augmenting the Corona Española’s revenue from them. At the same time, he protected their owners from the unjust exactions by the revenue officers. He also rebuilt the old theatre and repaired the causeways of the Piedad and Tlalpam. His two greatest achievements as virrey were the start of the reconstruction of the Castle of Chapultepec, today a showplace for the Méjicano nation, and the completion of the Cathedral of Méjico, the largest cathedral in the western hemisphere.

Bernardo de Gálvez made his formal entry into Méjico City in June 17, 1785 C.E.  

De Gálvez was active in civic improvements. He immediately began the installation of street lights in Méjico City, and the construction of the towers of the cathedral. Don Bernardo continued work on the highway to Acapulco and he took measures to reduce the abuse of Indian labor on the project. He also dedicated 16% of the income from the lottery and other games of chance to charity. Additionally, he promoted science in the area by sponsoring the expedition of Martín Sessé y Lacasta. This expedition eventually sent to España a comprehensive catalog of the diverse species of plants, birds and fish found in Nueva España.  

By 1785 C.E., José de Evia y Sus completed a survey of the Gulf Coast later called the Reconocimientos Del Golfo De Méjico 1783 C.E.-1796 C.E. This was completed for the Gobernador of Nueva España, Bernardo de Gálvez. It resulted in more accurate maps of the region. The information was not published until 1799 C.E. as the Carta Esferica que comprehende las costas del Seno Méjicano by the Deposito Hidrografico de Marina of the Spanish Admiralty but was still a vast improvement over previous maps.  

At the expense of over $300,000, he also constructed a palace for himself and his successors. It was on the site of the ancient summer palace of the Moctezuma II's, Chapultepec. He built it like a strong fortress with bastions and heavy artillery. De Gálvez began reconstruction Chapultepec Castle, which had been unoccupied. Virrey Bernardo’s stately home was at the highest point of Chapultepec Hill. Francisco Bambitelli, Teniente Coronel of the Spanish Army and engineer drew up the blueprint and began the construction on August 16, 1785 C.E.  

After Bambitelli's departure to La Habana, Cuba, Capitán Manuel Agustín Mascaró took over the leadership of the project. During his tenure the works proceeded at a rapid pace. Interestingly, Mascaró would later be accused of building as a fortress-like structure with the intent of it being used for rebellion against the Corona Española.  

During Bernardo de Gálvez’s administration two great calamities occurred. Firstly, there was the freeze of August 27, 1785 C.E. This led to famine and the plague of 1786 C.E. During the famine, he raised funds to buy maíz or maize and beans for the populace. Don Bernardo also took measures to increase agricultural production in the future. He introduced actions to reduce the abuse of Indian labor on various projects.  

Bernardo de Galvez also became concerned about popular reaction to the ideas found in public entertainment. In 1786 C.E., he ordered the drafting of a regulation on the theater which established censorship and banned all matters which could cause scandals. The regulation remained valid until 1894 C.E.  

In 1786 C.E., José de Gálvez y Gallardo Marqués de Sonora instituted another major reorganization of the Spanish colonial administration which introduced the Intendencias or intendancies throughout most of the Américas.  

Spanish Intendencias, as an institution were borrowed from France. They were first introduced by the Secretarío del Estado del Despacho Universal de Indias José de Gálvez, in the 1770s on a large scale in Nueva España. He envisioned that they would completely replace the Virreinato system. They had broad powers over tax collection and the public treasury and with a mandate to help foster economic growth within their districts. Those in charge of a public administrative office, intendente or intendants, encroached on the traditional powers of virreyes, gobernadores and local officials, such as the corregidores. These were phased out as Intendencias were established.    

Also by 1786 C.E., José de Gálvez y Gallardo Marqués de Sonora introduced the position of quartermaster, a methodology of administrative employed in France. The position mitigated the interference of Virreinatos and Audièncias in the areas of taxation and by passing this responsibility from the hands of mayors and other officials to professionals appointed directly by the Corona Española.  

By 1786 C.E., a calamity of famine occurred in the Méjico area due to poor harvests of maíz. There was also a plague and epidemics which killed about three hundred thousand people. These supposedly were the result of the freeze of August 27, 1785 C.E. During the famine, Bernardo de Gálvez launched various measures to relieve the hardship. He donated 12,000 pesos of his inheritance and raised 100,000 pesos from other sources to buy maíz and beans for the populace.  

That series of strange natural phenomena which ruined the harvests, beginning what was called “the year of hunger,” left the region pained and broken. De Gálvez used all the resources of the colonial administration at his disposal to feed to the most populous Virreinato of the Américas. Unfortunately, he did not hesitate to confront the powerful landowners that they speculated on food prices and cornered the market on foodstuffs. Bernardo had reminded them, in an order of October 11, 1785 C.E.: “These unhappy people, although poor, are that fattening the rich giving with one hand what they receive with another, and are those that enrich the realms with their people for the war, and with the contributions in their consumption.”  

De Gálvez had taken measures to increase agricultural production, however, the situation only improved at the end of 1786 C.E., with the new harvest.  

On one occasion, when the virrey was going on horseback to meet with the Real Audiència (according to his own report), he encountered a party of soldados escorting three criminals to the gallows. He suspended the hanging, and later had the criminals freed.  

The period during which de Gálvez was virrey brought about notable changes. Some evolved from previous governmental measures. During his tenure French cultural influence expanded as did and illumination philosophical ideas. There was more interaction between the privileged social classes and the commoner. He employed bullfights for entertainment, made unprecedented walks through towns, held dances, and mingle personally with the population. All of these earn him the favor of the masses. It was because of these gestures toward the common people that he enjoyed great prestige among the inhabitants of the Virreinato.  

Bernardo de Gálvez’s military reputation, youth, charm, the beauty of his wife Felicité (Feliciana) de Saint-Maxênt d'Estrehan y de Gálvez made him popular. According to legend, he was simple, amiable, gallant, and frank. He traveled about the city in an open, two-horse carriage, attended pilgrimages and public fiestas and was generally greeted with applause. Their presence in the streets, at bullfights, and at the theatre made him a very popular figure with the commoners. This was not the case with the powerful landowners and the Audiència. Neither group had a favorable view of the Virrey, de Gálvez.  

The Audiència were deeply suspicious of de Gálvez’s popularity. They feared that he would follow the American Colonist’s freedom loving example. It was their belief that he would declare Nueva España’s independence from España. The Audiència shared their suspicions with those at the Corte Real Española in Madrid. Those who shared these perceptions in Madrid were convinced of de Gálvez’s disloyalty due to his good opinion of the Américano leadership. As a result of these suspicions and accusations, the Corona Española severely rebuked de Gálvez. Afterwards, he was said to have become melancholy and unsociable.  

In September 1786 C.E., Bernardo Vicente Apolinar de Gálvez y Madrid, Vizconde de Gálvezton and Conde de Gálvez and hero of the American Revolutionary War fell ill. He was soon confined to his bed. Bernardo’s performed his last official act on October 13th. Dressed in full uniform, he gathered enough strength to receive religious communion sacraments while standing.  

Capitán Manuel Agustín Mascaró who had begun construction of a stately home for Bernardo at the highest point of Chapultepec Hill, died suddenly on November 8, 1786 C.E. The fact that Mascaró had been accused of building the fortress-like home on Chapultepec Hill with the intent of it being used for rebellion against the Corona Española caused some suspicions to be circulated about his death. It fueled speculation that he was poisoned. No evidence has yet been found which supports this claim.  

Later, lacking a head engineer, the Corona Española would order that the building be auctioned at a price equivalent to one-fifth of the expenditures made thus far on the construction of the structure. After finding no buyers, the Virrey Juan Vicente de Güemes Pachéco de Padilla y Horcasitas (La Habana, 1740 C.E.-Madrid 1799 C.E.), II Conde de Revilla Gigedo decided that the building should house the General Archive of the Kingdom of the Nueva España. The idea didn’t take hold, despite already having had the blueprints adapted for this purpose.  

Later in 1803 C.E., Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (September 14, 1769 C.E.-May 6, 1859 C.E.) the famed Prussian geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science would visit the site. He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767 C.E.-1835 C.E.). During his visit, von Humboldt condemned the proposed sale of the palace’s beautiful windows by the Royal Treasury. He felt that this was an inappropriate way to raise funds for the Corona Española. The building was finally purchased in 1806 C.E. by the municipal government of Méjico City.  

On that same day, November 8, 1786 C.E., Bernardo Vicente Apolinar de Gálvez y Madrid, the great Mariscal del campo and Virrey transferred all of his governmental duties except that of the captain generalship to the Audiència. There is some suspicion that his fate was sealed, as had been Mascaró’s.  

A short time later, after issuing a Testament, Bernardo said goodbye to his family and died at 4:20 a.m. on the morning of November 30, 1786 C.E. He passed at the age 40 in Tacubaya or Tacubaza, which is now a part of present-day Méjico City. His body was interred in the cemetery of San Fernando, in the city proper. Rumor had it that Bernardo was poisoned by his enemies with the approval of the Corte Real Española.  

The Virrey left some writings, including Ordenanzas para el Teatro de Comedias de Méjico and Instrución para el Buen Gobierno de las Provincias Internas de la Nueva España.  

De Gálvez and his wife, Feliciana had three children together. One was and Guadalupe born at Méjico City, Nueva España on December 12, 1786 C.E. Guadalupe de Gálvez did not reach adulthood. After Bernardo’s death, his wife and children moved to Europe and lived out their lives in España and Italy.  

At this juncture, it is important to recap who this remarkable man was. It is said that without his successes against the British the American Revolutionary War may have been lost. As one can see by reading the preceding chapters, the years before, during, and after his birth were filled with global war and destruction.  

Bernardo de Gálvez was born in small village in Málaga, España in 1746 C.E. He was called to Corte real española at the age of 16 years (1762 C.E.) by his uncle José de Gálvez y Gallardo, the minister while he was studying military sciences at the Academia de Ávila. Still 16 years old, Bernardo participated in the Spanish invasion of Portugal, which stalled after the Españoles had captured Almeida. During the conflict he was promoted to teniente.  

Sometime before the end of they year, Bernardo first arrived at the Nuevo Mundo in Nueva España (Méjico) in 1762 C.E. as a part of the entourage of his uncle, José, who was undertaking an inspection tour of the Virreinato. De Gálvez was soon a capitán fighting the Apaches with his Opata Indian allies.  

By 1769 C.E., at 23 years of age Bernardo had been commissioned to go to the northern frontier of Nueva España, where he soon became comandante militar in Nueva Vizcaya and Sonora. He led several major expeditions against Apaches, whose depredations seriously crippled the economy of the region.  

During campaigns along the Pecos and Gila rivers in 1770 C.E.-1771 C.E., at the age of 26, he was wounded twice on October 11, 1771 C.E., while Bernardo de Gálvez was in pursuit of a band of Apache. He and his outnumbered 14 soldados were defeated. He was gravely wounded, by an arrow in the left arm and spear in the chest.  

The military experience he gained would prove invaluable a few years later. The name Paso de Gálvez was given to a crossing on the Pecos River where de Gálvez led his troops to victory in a fight with the Apaches.  

He would enter the regiment of Walloon Guards as cadete. Wishing to perfect his capabilities in military science, at the age of 27, he obtained leave of absence in 1772 C.E. and went to Pau, France. There he served three years in the regiment of Cantabria and was promoted Teniente.  

In 1775 C.E., when King Carlos III declared war against Algiers, Bernardo returned to España and served as Capitán in the expedition of General O'Reilly. He distinguished himself in several encounters with the Moros. At 30 years of age, while fighting on the beaches de Galvez was wounded in a leg. Though injured, he resisted being removed. After the unsuccessful expedition quickly failed, Bernardo returned to Cádiz. He rose to the rank of coronel, and on his return in the same year was given the rank of General de brigada. In recompense Teniente Coronel de Gálvez was attached to la Real Escuela Militar de Ávila where he became a professor.  

In 1776 C.E., he was transferred to the faraway province of Spanish Luisiana and promoted to Coronel of the Luisiana Regiment. By 1777 C.E., he was Coronel and Interim Gobernador of the Luisiana province. At age 32, on January 1, 1777 C.E., he succeeded Luís de Unzaga as Gobernador of Luisiana. From 1777 C.E.-1779 C.E., de Gálvez supported the American cause for freedom by allowing the smuggling of desperately needs arms, material, and money to the American Patriots.  

During 1779 C.E., de Gálvez carried out a military campaign and defeated the British colonial forces at Manchac, Baton Rouge, and Natchez. He then was promoted to General de. He also founded Gálvezton that year. In addition, de Gálvez promoted colonization of Nueva Ibéria.  

In 1780 C.E., de Gálvez recaptured Mobile from the British at the Battle of Fort Charlotte.  

On April 12, 1781 C.E. at age 36, de Gálvez was wounded while on reconnaissance of the British fortifications of Pensacola. Battlefield command was formally transferred to Coronel José de Ezpeleta, a personal friend of de Gálvez.  

May 8, 1781 C.E. or May 9, 1781 C.E. a Spanish howitzer shell aimed from information given by an American loyalist deserter struck and blew up the powder magazine of the British Queen's Redoubt. The battle had finally turned in Bernardo’s favor. The shelling had destroyed the position and killed nearly a hundred British soldiers.  

De Ezpeleta moved quickly to lead the light infantry in a charge to take the devastated Fort. Spanish soldados began to quickly occupy the wrecked Fort and the Españoles moved forward to take possession of the position. The Españoles moved howitzers and cannons into it and soon had cannon in position to fire on Fort George from short range. The Españoles then began the heavy bombardment of Fort George. Later they opened fire on another British fort. Pensacola's defenders returned fired from Fort George, but were overwhelmed by the superior Spanish firepower. In the fierce fighting that followed, de Gálvez was wounded in the hand and stomach. Soon after being bandaged by his surgeon he returned to the battle to rally his troops to victory.  

Also in 1783 C.E., after returning to España, Bernardo de Gálvez fought in the campaign in the Netherlands against the British. Earlier, both España and the Netherlands (1780 C.E.) had joined as allies of France against the British.  

As one can easily see, Bernardo was a brave and capable soldado.  

By 1786 C.E., España in particular, watched nervously as the other European powers eyed her North American possessions. Minister of Interior, José de Gálvez y Gallardo, was one of those high Spanish officials who understood the threat. Bernardo’s uncle, José, made sweeping changes in colonial administration and set up a system of Intendencias modeled on the French governmental system. He was rewarded for his services with the title Marqués de Sonora. Additionally, in an effort to deal with the ongoing threats from Britain, France, and Russia the entire Nueva España northern frontier and bordering provinces were unified into a military command under a Commandante General reporting directly to the King.  

In the North American Continent’s northwestern realm of Nueva España, unidentified borders with Britain became of great concern to the Españoles. As a result, José ordered the reorganization of military forces. José also ordered the de Anza Expedition to Alta California. José additionally directed his nephew, Gobernador Bernardo de Gálvez of Luisiana, to begin clandestine assistance to the American Colonists.  

Unfortunately, even with all of his power and influence, José couldn’t help his nephew, Bernardo. The de Gálvez family had been too successful. Matías now dead, was no longer a threat. José was at the height of his power and perhaps untouchable. However, Bernardo was vulnerable. Earlier, Cristóbal Colón the "Admiral of the High Seas" had been vulnerable. He had been stripped of his title of Virrey of the Indias based upon allegations of his inability to properly administer the Nueva España’s territories. Later, Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of Méjico, had also been brought down by the Corona Española. Fearing it was losing its sovereignty over Nueva España, it revoked Cortés’ title of gobernador in 1527 C.E. Cortés was then replaced with a five person ruling council. So too, would Bernardo’s enemies betray him at the Corte Real Española, insinuating that he intended to declare himself independent of España.  

It has been said that as the Corte Real Española and government began to manifest distrust, de Gálvez became melancholy, arid, and reserved. He sought distraction in the chase. As a consequence of violent overexertion he fell ill. He died after a few days in the archiepiscopal palace of Tacubaya, in the City of Méjico, on November 30, 1786 C.E. Only two years after his father’s untimely death, España had lost one of its great heroes. On December 12th, eight days after his funeral, his widow gave birth to their third child, Guadalupe. His body was buried next to his father's crypt in the wall of the Church of San Fernando. His heart was placed in an urn and reposed in the Cathedral of Méjico.  

There are some who believe that he was poisoned. This they say was done to ensure that the hero and beloved Virrey of Nueva España would not attempt to take the prize of España’s Nuevo Mundo. After all, he had powerful friends among the French Bourbon aristocracy. Bernardo was admired and respected by the Américanos who could easily become competitors for North America. His soldados would follow him anywhere. The ciudadanos of Nueva España trusted and loved him. De Gálvez was also feared for his genius and unquestioned military ability. No one will ever know for certain. What is certain, his remains rest in the Church of San Fernando, in the city of Méjico, next to his father's ashes.  

Here it should be said that Bernardo de Gálvez and the government of España played an important role in the independence of the United States. The Congress of the United States of America has recognized this and has officially gave de Gálvez, by unanimous vote, American citizenship on December 5, 2014 C.E. The appointment of Bernardo de Gálvez as “Citizen Honorario” is one of the most important titles of the country. It boast only seven other people. Thus, we add his name to that of Winston Churchill, Mother Teresa of Calcutta or the General La Fayette. Recognition, promoted for years by the city of Pensacola, and various associations, came just four days before the portrait of the Spanish hero was hung at the Capitol. Finally, the agreed upon Congressional resolution of 1783 C.E. was accomplished.  

On Wednesday, September 9, 2015 C.E., his Majesty the King Felipe VI received a delegation of the Association Bernardo de Gálvez y Gallardo, Conde de Gálvez. His Majesty the King Felipe VI received the delegation of that organization devoted to promotion of that enigmatic figure of the 18th-Century C.E. He was a Spanish military officer of great distinction renowned in the United States as a hero of that country’s Independence. In fact, President Obama recently granted him honorary citizenship, an honor which has only been bestowed on seven other people.  

Both the president of the Association, Miguel Ángel Gálvez, and Eva García highlighted the support they have received from the Army and the Navy and the importance of the exhibition organized by the Institute of Military History and Culture which opened in December at Casa de América, in Madrid. Mr. Gálvez referred to that support during this speech.

For his part, the King expressed his appreciation for the work carried out by the Association, which was set up in 2008 C.E. He also offered a brief overview of the figure of Teniente General Bernardo de Gálvez and highlighted his importance at a time when he was preparing an official visit to the United States which was to commemorate another milestone in the Spanish-American relationship. This was the establishment by España of the oldest inhabited town in the country, San Agustín, over 450 years ago.  

Most certainly after his Bernardo’s death, España’s decline increased rapidly. In the end, the greater Spanish strategic vision of regaining Florida and challenging the British on all fronts was accomplished. The European threat was countered. However, the challenge of unifying the northwestern frontier from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean proved too great. The Native populations could not be absorbed rapidly enough and be made to accept España’s culture. The result was a frontier largely uncontrolled which demanded the continuing services of soldados like my progenitors, the de Riberas. Nueva España’s Northern reaches would eventually be taken by internal revolution and later by outside conquest.  

As for Oliver Pollock that great American patriot, both Congress and the state of Virginia had continually refused to clear his debts from the Revolutionary War, until 1791 C.E. when Congress passed an act discharging them, but in the same year he would return in poverty to Cumberland County, Pennsylvania.  

As for the British, they held world power for a time. Everywhere the world was changing and it would eventually impact Britain’s power and wealth.  

The Haitian Revolution was an insurrection which took place from 1791 C.E. until 1804 C.E. in the former French colony of Saint Domingue. It had an impact on the institution of slavery throughout the Americas. Slaves in collaboration with mulattoes freed themselves, fought to keep their freedom, and founded the state of Haiti. The tenacity of the rebels became a source of stories that shocked and frightened slave owners. Haiti would be ruled by non-whites and former captives.  

As a result, other rebellions broke out all over Jamaica. It took months for peace to be restored. More than 60 Whites lost their lives. Additionally, approximately 400 Black slaves died. This number included two ring leaders who were burned alive. Two others were hung in iron cages at the Kingston Parade, until they starved to death.  

The Rebellion, like many other Atlantic slave revolts was put down mercilessly. The Planters severely punished rebel slaves. When other slaves learned of the revolt, it inspired unrest and disorder throughout the island. It took local forces many years to reestablish order.  

In April 1791 C.E., a large Black insurrection against the plantation system turned violent. In cooperation with their former mulatto rivals, blacks ended the Revolution in November 1803 C.E. when they decidedly defeated the French army at the Battle of Vertières.  

The Haitian Revolution is not known as a single event. It is suggested that it was a number of conflicts that ended in a fragile truce between mulattoes and blacks. Haiti became an independent country on January 1, 1804 C.E. This occurred when the council of generals chose Jean-Jacques Dessalines to assume the office of governor-general.  The new nation's objective was the permanent abolition of slavery in Haiti.  

To bring the point home about the British and their lust for power and world domination, they continued their aggression well after the American Revolutionary War was lost by them. On February 17, 1797 C.E., the Gobernador of Puerto Rico, General de Brigada, Ramón de Castro, learned that Britain had invaded the island of Trinidad. He placed the local miquelets on alert to prepare the island's forts against any military action. It was de Castro belief that Puerto Rico was the next British invasion objective. By April 17, 1797 C.E., British ships under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby approached the coastal town of Loíza, which is east of San Juan.  

On April 18, 1797 C.E., British soldiers and German mercenaries or Hessians landed on the beach at Loíza. The British ships were attacked with artillery and mortar fire from both El Morro and the San Gerónimo fortresses then under the command of Ramon de Castro. The British twice tried to take a key passage to the San Juan Islet, the Martín Peña Bridge. The fighting was fierce. The Spanish forces of 16,000 Puertorriqueño Spanish troops, volunteers, and local miquelets defeated the British during both attempts. The British had also attacked Aguadilla and Punta Salinas. There, they were also defeated and the British troops that landed on the island were taken prisoner. The invasion finally failed and the British retreated back onto their ships on April 30th. By May 2nd, they set sail northward. Gobernador Ramon de Castro was promoted to Mariscal del campo and several others promoted and given pay raises by King Carlos IV as recognition for their victories.  

By 1800 C.E., Oliver Pollack again found himself in debt, but within a few years had accumulated property. Little is recorded of the last twenty years of Oliver Pollack’s life, from 1803 C.E to 1823 C.E. He ran for Congress in the district of his family home in Carlisle, Pennsylvania but was defeated. Pollock ran for Congress three times, but was never elected, despite garnering the popular vote.   

Oliver Pollock remarried in 1805 C.E., to Winifred Deady; they had no children.  

Oliver Pollack’s last petition to the Legislature of Virginia drew the comment: “He is a public servant, whose services, age, infirmities and misfortunes might be offered as sufficient causes to ask even more than this…though not more meritorious ground of right.” He spent the last nine years of his life, from 1814 C.E to 1823 C.E., in Pinckneyville, Mississippi just over the state line from his Tunica Plantation in Louisiana which he had been able to recoup from the possession of his creditor Charles Trudeau. He was living with his daughter and son-in-law, Dr. Samuel Robinson.  

Oliver Pollack’s home at Tunica Plantation can be found today at the intersection of the Old Tunica Road and the Angola Road (now the Tunica Trace) rotting into the ground from neglect of a State and Nation which have little regard for the contribution that this patriot made to American liberty.  

Oliver Pollock finally retired in 1819 C.E. to Mississippi, where he stayed until his death.  

It is this writer’s opinion that no one knew Bernardo Vicente Apolinar de Gálvez y Madrid, Vizconde or Viscount of Gálvezton and Conde de Gálvez better than Oliver Pollock. Pollock had also been de Gálvez’s Aide-de-Camp during many battles. He had been a close friend and confidant of de Gálvez’s brother-in law, Luís de Unzaga when Gobernador of Luisiana, who Bernardo replaced. Oliver also knew and worked closely with his life-long mentor, Mariscal del campo Alejandro O'Reilly, Gobernador and Capitán General of Spanish Luisiana.  

Here, I will only briefly deal with Méjico, officially the United Mexican States. She was birthed in 1821 C.E. in central Méjico, essentially Méjico City. The new nation quickly moved to absorb the northern regions of what had been parts of España’s Nueva España. These were, to name a few areas Las California, Tejas, Arizona, Colorado, and Nuevo Méjico. These outlying areas were quite different from Méjico proper both culturally and governmentally. Families in these areas had fought and died, explored and settled various regions of Nueva España on their own. This was quite apart from those residents of Méjico City proper. None the less, the United Mexican States forced its rule upon the northern reaches of Nueva España and its peoples.  

Méjico did little for these areas other than to expand the existing Land Grant structure to the detriment of the local Criollos in North America. The status of the Natives was changed on paper, but remained almost unchanged. Land Grants were for the enrichment for those favorites of the new state and their relatives coming from Méjico proper. They were to be given the spoils of an easy conquest. The Criollos or Hispanos in the outlying areas had little say in the matter. This love fest lasted only until 1846 C.E., a mere twenty-five years, until the Américanos arrived.  

Oliver Pollack died two years after the United Mexican States seized control of these areas of Nueva España in 1823 C.E. His grave is in the long lost Pinckneyville Episcopal Church cemetery. The simple marker of the American Veteran can be found just over the state line on the right-hand side of the road from his Tunica Plantation house in Mississippi.  

After the American Revolution, Pollock wrote to Congress: “It has not been my fortune to move on a splendid theatre where the weary actor frequently finds in the applause of his audience new motives for exertion. I dwelt in an obscure corner of the universe, alone and unsupported. I have labored without ceasing; I have neglected the road to affluence, I have exhausted my all and plunged myself deeply into debt to support the cause of America in the hours of her distress and when those who call themselves friends were daily deserting her. But these things I do not boast of… What I do boast of is that I have a heart still ready to bear new sufferings and to make new sacrifices…” As with de Gálvez, he was an enigma.

In 1846 C.E., the United States forced the lands from Méjico. Once in control, they evicted the Natives from their lands. The Américanos then forced them onto reservations and incarcerated them there, thereby excluding them from American society. If they chose to leave their areas of enslavement, the Natives were simply hunted down and butchered by Américano troops upholding Américano law.  

As for the Criollos or Hispanos, their lands were either taken legally by laws meant to fleece them, or stolen by illegal means. Their sin was to be Españoles, now considered Méjicanos. Even worse, they had lost the war. Criollos were inconvenient political luggage which had to be hidden away. Their lot in life was to become non-persons, living ghosts. Their European Spanish culture and religion (Catholicism) were despised and treated as such. Without land or wealth, they became the uncomfortable slave-class for the “Great Unwashed” of America who ventured “West” to make a new life for themselves at the expense of the non-persons, the Méjicanos.  

Further, 20th Century C.E. English-speaking cinema has played a great part in this deception. British and Anglo-American Anglophile film actors, directors, producers, and writers have since the industry’s inception been active participants in the creation of the negative image which portrays España and her Españoles as the killers of the Noble Savage and guilty of the Black Legend and its excesses. In contrast, Britain is always portrayed as good, noble, and caring. Yet the facts are clear. Britain was anything but noble. She was intent upon taking what she wanted by hook or by crook. Her worldwide strategy was to use any means possible for accomplishing the goal of world domination. Frankly, she had no qualms about the race, ethnicity, religion, or nation status of her victims. Any and all potential victims were welcomed to the fold and then fleeced. These words may seem harsh, as they should. Unfortunately, this appears to be the reality of man.  

Evil wasn’t practiced only by these monarchies, empires, and nation-states. It is a fact of life. Many have written that the Greatest Ape, Man, takes what he wants, when he wants it. He does so no matter the cost or the suffering of others. The reality of this view is that many times for humans there is no moral right and wrong. Life and its consequences are just what they are, outcomes. There is only the right of conquest and the plight of conquered peoples. The cynics see laws as pretend things put in place by the victors to make their actions less of a sin and more of a codified salve to sooth the victor’s conscience. After all, it’s all legal, it wasn’t theft or subjugation. It’s the old, “We won and the other fellow lost.”  

And now a bit more background on Bernardo de Gálvez’s progenitors, his immediate family, and Bernardo’s family after his death.  

Bernardo Vicente Apolinar de Gálvez y Madrid, Vizconde or Viscount of Gálvezton and Conde de Gálvez was born at Macharaviaya Málaga, España on July 23, 1746 C.E. He died on November 30, 1786 C.E. He was the son of Matías and María Joséfa de Madrid y Gallardo de Gálvez. Macharaviaya is a small mountain village perched on the side of a low ridge whose period of splendor came in the 18th and 19th-centuries C.E. as a result of the de Gálvez family, who set up the Royal Playing Card Factory and an agricultural bank (Banco Agrícola) in Macharaviaya. During his lifetime his family was one of the most distinguished in the royal service of España. Following family tradition, Bernardo chose a military career.  

Bernardo was a distinguished Spanish military leader and territorial administrator who served as gobernador of Luisiana and Cuba, and later as Virrey of Nueva España. De Gálvez also aided the Thirteen American Colonies in their quest for independence by leading Spanish forces against Britain in that Revolutionary War. He defeated the British at the Siege of Pensacola (1781 C.E.) and reconquering Florida for España. He spent the last two years of his life as Virrey of Nueva España, succeeding his father Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo. The city of Galveston, Tejas, was named for him.  

The name "Gálvez" has been viewed as having been derived from a patronymic surname of Basque origin. Patronym, or patronymic, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather, or an even-earlier male ancestor. It is also a means of conveying lineage. In such instances, a person is usually referred to by their given name, rather than their patronymic.  

Gálvez is actually a contraction of the names Gonzálvez, Gonzálvo which in turn is derived from the Germanic-derived Gundisalvo which means “the spirit of combat.” What an appropriate name for the history of the de Gálvez. They lived up to this meaning.  

In the 14th-Century C.E. it is mentioned that the town where persons with the name Gálvez resided was a place of hunting of bears and wild boars.  

In a document from the end of the 15th-Century C.E., it indicates that the name was previously referred to as "Toledillo" and only later Galbes or Gálvez. Gálvez is a Spanish town in the province of Toledo, in the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha. This may be the result of towns with persons with the name Gálvez having repopulated the area from Toledo after the Reconquista of España.  

Also, in the 15th-Century C.E., the name belonged to don Pedro Suárez de Toledo, founder of the mayorazgo de Gálvez, passing into the hands of the House of Montalbán in the 16th-Century C.E. What we know with greater certainty is the 17th-and 18th-Century C.E. de Gálvez de Macharaviaya.  

Don António Gálvez y García (1690 C.E./1691 C.E.-1728 C.E.) was born on March 12, 1691 C.E. and was baptized in Macharaviaya on March 17, 1691 C.E. He married Doña Ana de Madrid de Cabrera y Gallardo on June 1, 1716 C.E. She was born June 6, 1699 C.E. and was baptized in Macharaviaya on July 11, 1699 C.E. Don António died on August 9, 1728 C.E. and Doña Ana February 24, 1749 C.E. They had the following children:  

1st child: Don Matías de Gálvez (1717 C.E.-1784 C.E.), was born July 24, 1717 C.E., and was baptized in the parish church of Macharaviaya on July 29, 1717 C.E. On October 2, 1785 C.E. he married Doña Josefa de Madrid (1724 C.E.-1750 C.E.), and they had son Don Bernardo de Gálvez (1746 C.E.-1786 C.E.). He died on November 30, 1786, being virrey of the Nueva España.  

2nd child: Don José de Gálvez (1720 C.E.-1787 C.E.) was born January 2, 1720 C.E. and was baptized on January 7, 1720 C.E. In 1765 C.E., he was appointed Visitador General of Nueva España. In 1780 C.E., he was appointed Minister of State, and Secretary of State and the Office Universal de Indias. He married Doña María de la Concepción Valenzuela (sister of María de el Carmen Valenzuela and sources, Condesa de la Puebla of the valleys). In 1785 C.E., he received the title of Castilla de Marqués de Sonora which his daughter Josefa María (1776 C.E.-1817 C.E.) inherited. He was also appointed regidor perpetuo of Málaga. He died at the Royal Site of Aranjuez on June 17, 1787 C.E.  

His godfather, a neighbor, was José Gallardo, perhaps a relative of the family. His initial interests, under the influence of the bishop of Málaga, led José to the seminary, but he soon eschewed a priestly calling. After completing a degree in law, José gained recognition as a successful attorney in Madrid. On August 2, 1750 C.E., he married a French woman, Lucía Romet y Pichelin, his first wife having died without issue.  

José de Gálvez's legal accomplishments won him a royal appointment on November 25, 1764 C.E., as a civil and criminal justice (alcalde de casa y corte) of Castilla. In that capacity, he came to know the influential Conde de Aranda and Conde de Campomanes. After the Visitador General designate of Nueva España died unexpectedly, in February 1765 C.E. José de Gálvez received that post as well as honorary membership in the Council of the Indias. José also became the Visitador General of public finance in Nueva España.  

As Visitador General of public finance, José de Gálvez spent six years in Nueva España (1765 C.E.-1771 C.E.). His overarching powers were such that he could make recommendations on general colonial policy and its reform-recommendations that could not be contravened even by the virrey. Initially, de Gálvez found himself at loggerheads with the Marqués de Cruillas, who delayed reform for a time. But the recalcitrant virrey was replaced in 1766 the more cooperative Marqués de Croix. In the second half of his six-year sojourn, de Gálvez turned his attention to the northern frontier of Nueva España. His specific reform programs included overhauling revenue collection, strengthening crown monopolies, and expelling the Jesuits from the Virreinato. The Visitador General also initiated the permanent settlement of Alta California.  

When José de Gálvez returned to España in 1772 C.E., he assumed various responsibilities as an honorary member of the Council of the Indias and performed special services for King Carlos III. In 1776 C.E., Don José assumed the prestigious post of Secretarío del Estado del Despacho Universal de Indias, from which he could direct the Borbón reforms that affected the Spanish Empire from Argentina to Tejas. Changes in Nueva España included establishment of the Provincias Internas (1776 C.E.), a huge, shifting governmental unit that included Tejas for the remainder of the Colonial Period. In the previous year, de Gálvez married María de la Concepción Valenzuela and from that union had had a sole heir, María Joséfa.

Throughout much of his adult life, it is believed that José de Gálvez suffered from serious mental illnesses. One attack supposedly left him incapacitated during his visitation in Sonora (1769 C.E.-1770 C.E.). He died on June 17, 1787 C.E., of accidente, a term in that time for self-destructive insanity. His distinguished family included an older brother, Matías de Gálvez, who served as virrey of Nueva España. There was also his famous nephew, Bernardo de Gálvez, who was a military officer in Tejas, Gobernador of Spanish Luisiana, and who succeeded his father as virrey of Nueva España in 1785 C.E.  

3rd child: Don António de Gálvez was born March 27, 1724 C.E. and died while a child.  

4th child: Don Andrés Luís de Gálvez, known as Miguel, was born November 30, 1725 C.E. and was christened on December 1, 1725 C.E. He was Ambassador to Prussia, Minister of the Royal Board of Post Office, Counsel General of the troop of the Royal House and Artillery, General Superintendent of Penalties of Chamber of the Royal Treasury of war, Knight of the Royal order of Carlos III, Regidor Perpetuo de Málaga, and on the Supreme Council of War and Marina.  

5th child: Don Miguel Joaquín de Gálvez (1728 C.E.), also known as António, was born September 29, 1728 C.E. as a posthumous son, born after the death of his father. He was baptized on October 5, 1728 C.E. The date and location of his death are unknown. He was Mariscal del Campo of the Royal armies, and became Teniente Coronel and Comendador of the Guard (stewardship) of the Bay of Cádiz. He married Mariana de Velasco and had no offspring. But he was the father to an adopted daughter, Rosalia de Gálvez.  

In 1771 C.E., Don Miguel de Gálvez, then being a candidate for royal favors, presented to the King a certificate of genealogy over the signature of Ramón Zozo, King-At-Arms and Chronicler of Carlos III. This certificate, accompanied by eighty-nine instruments, such as titles, decrees, royal orders, certificates of marriage, and baptism purported to prove that Miguel was sprung from four male lines of descent or Varonías, namely, those of Gálvez, García, Madrid, and Cabreras. The arms of the de Gálvez family at Macharaviaya were reported to date from the historically unverified Battle of Clavijo, in the year 834 C.E., when members of the family were reputed to have won a new quartering for conspicuous bravery. It was reported that the night before the battle, San Santiago appeared in a dream to the leader of the Spanish forces, King Ramírez of Castilla, and promised him a victory over the Moros in the fields of Clavijo.  

His were the parents of Don Gálvez and Doña Ana de Madrid: or Don Francisco Gálvez y Rueda (1647 C.E.): Varonía Gálvez;

or Doña Elena García and Carbajal (1652 C.E.): Varonía of García;

or Don Matías Gallardo Madrid (1665 C.E.): Varonía of Madrid;

or Doña Catalina de Cabrera and jury (1667 C.E.): Varonía of Carbajal.  

Each one of these is from a male line. It starts four series of ancestors dating back several centuries:

or La Varonía of Gálvez: 7 generations, until the middle of the 15th-Century C.E.;

or García's Varonía: 8 generations, until the beginning of the 15th-Century C.E.;

or the Varonía of Madrid: 8 generations, until the beginning of the 15th-Century C.E.;

or La Varonía of Cabrera: 32 generations, until the end of the 7th-Century C.E.

1st) Don Antón de Gálvez (ca. 1470 C.E.), was born in the villa of Santaella. It is a village located in the province of Córdoba, España. He was one of the conquistadores of the Moro Kingdom of Granada. He married Doña Luísa Gómez Postigo (ca. 1475 C.E.). This was the branch of the de Gálvez family which conquered the Moro villa and castle at Santaella in 1240 C.E. The Reyes Católicos made this the family seat. In memory of this action their apelli-daron is Gálvez del Postigo. From this marriage was born:  

2nd) Don Alonso de Gálvez (ca. 1500 C.E.), he was (natural) in the area of Santaella, where he was a Knight of preeminence and Mayor by the noble status of the villa in 1572 C.E. Alonso de Gálvez married Doña Leonor López (ca. 1505 C.E.). She was a daughter of one of the noble families who settled in the Andalucía after the conquista of Sevilla and Baeza.  

3rd) Don Juan Gálvez el Bermejo (1526 C.E.), was the son of a 3rd marriage. He was baptized in the villa of Santaella on May 13, 1526 C.E. He married Doña García Rodríguez (ca. 1528 C.E.), a descendant of the conquistadores of Sevilla, and Baeza.  

4th) Don Alonso de Gálvez (1542 C.E.) was called el Bermejo, or the blonde one, by his father. He was baptized in Santaella on December 15, 1542 C.E. Alonso was twenty-four years of age (1566 C.E.) when he left home and went to war against the Moros who rebelled in the Alpujarra, and other places of the Kingdom of Granada. The Alpujarra is a natural and historical region in Andalucía, España, on the south slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the adjacent valley. The Moro inhabitants led successive revolts, in particular that which began in 1568 C.E. It was a fierce struggle. The Españoles deployed large forces. The revolts ended with the death of the last Moro leader in March 1571 C.E.  

He and the other caballeros of Santaella left their homeland and went on to serve under the orders of the Marqués de Vélez, Capitanía General of the army of the King. Alonso inherited some houses along with and several vineyards and fruit trees in the villa of Benaque. He was also given estates in the end of the villa and Macharaviaya. Alonso was awarded these for designated services. Possession of these was given by the administrator of the Royal Treasury Diego Rabz on January 21, 1566 C.E. He was resident of Macharaviaya in 1572 C.E. and alderman of Benaque in 1582 C.E. Alonso married Doña Ana Fernández de Carbajal (ca. 1544 C.E.), daughter of the illustrious branch of that family, established in Úbeda, when he was twenty-four. Son of Alonso and Ana was:  

5th) Don Diego de Gálvez (1571 C.E.) was born in the expresada villa of Santaella. He was baptized on April 30, 1571 C.E. Don Diego later went to Macharaviaya and married his cousin Doña María de Gálvez (ca. 1573 C.E.). She was the daughter of Francisco de Gálvez e Inés de Flores and granddaughter of Antón de Gálvez (natural) of Santaella, cousin of Don Alonso. Don Diego became Mayor of Macharaviaya in 1612 C.E. He died in Macharaviaya of the plague that took place at the beginning of the 17th-Century C.E. Most of his family papers were lost when his home burned and his archives were destroyed. From this marriage was born:  

6th) Don Miguel de Gálvez (ca. 1610 C.E.) married Doña Ana de Rueda Carbajal (ca. 1620 C.E.) in Macharaviaya on January 5, 1642 C.E. She was the daughter of Mateo de Carbajal y Andrea Pareja, who was a descendant of Rueda García, one of the ganadores or winners of Vélez-Málaga.  

7th) Don Francisco de Gálvez was born in 1647 C.E. and was baptized in the parish on May 5, 1647 C.E. He married Doña Elena García de Carbajal (Born 1652 C.E.) on February 4, 1665 C.E. She was the daughter of Inés de Carbajal, the daughter of Mateo de Carbajal y Andrea Pareja. She was baptized in Benaque on May 5, 1652 C.E. The son of Don Francisco and Doña Elena was:  

Don António de Gálvez, born 1691 C.E. He married Doña Ana Madrid y Cabrera (1699 C.E.), they had a son Don Matías de Gálvez.  

There are three de Gálvez that stand out as having the most distinguished careers. The first who is considered the most distinguished bearer of the de Gálvez name was Antón de Gálvez, the second was Don José de Gálvez (1720 C.E.-1787 C.E.). The third and perhaps the most well known of the three is Don Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Vizconde de Gálvezton, and Conde de Gálvez (Macharaviaya, Málaga, España July 23, 1746 C.E.-November 30, 1786 C.E.).  

Antón de Gálvez had a notable part in the wars against the Moros which resulted in the surrender of Granada in 1492 C.E. As stated earlier, their Catholic Majesties granted to Antón the privilege of sepulture and a permanent sitting in his parochial church, which are still conserved as the right of the family. Antón was the common ancestor of various branches of the de Gálvez family which became established in Andalucía. From early times they were registered as hijosdalgo or nobleman and occupied official positions fitting their stations.  

Interestingly, the Holy Office of the Catholic Church of España indentified the names of Gálvez and Gálves as being Sephardic (Jewish) surnames.  

Gálvez (*)(29)(46)  

(*) Name for which a coat of arms, crest or history has been found.


(29) "Sangre Judia" ("Jewish Blood") by Pere Bonnin. A list of 3,500 names used by Jews, or assigned to Jews by the Holy Office (la Santo Oficio) of España. The list is a result of a census of Jewish communities of España by the Catholic Church and as found in inquisition records.  

Surnames were drawn from lists at a given point in time by the Holy Office. These were from the censuses of the Jewish quarters and other sources that indicate clearly that the person bearer of the surname was Jewish or judeoconversa.  

(46) "Diciionario Sefaradi De Sobrenomes" or "Dictionary of Sephardic Surnames" is a reference which provides thousand of Sephardic names of immigrants to Brazil.  

After Bernardo de Gálvez’s death:  

After Bernardo’s death, his wife, Felicité (Feliciana), moved to Europe and lived out her life in España and Italy.  

One of Bernardo de Gálvez’s children with Felicité, Guadalupe de Gálvez, was born December 12, 1786 at Méjico City, Nueva España. She did not reach adulthood.


Two of Bernardo de Gálvez’s children with Felicité reached adulthood:

·       Doña María Matilde Galvez y Saint-Maxênt (b. January 9, 1777), III Condesa de Gálvez and III Marquesa de Sonora

·       Don Miguel Galvez y Saint-Maxênt (b. 1782), II Conde de Gálvez (1786-1825)  

Detail of the 1790 C.E. engraving:

·       Miguel de Gálvez y Saint-Maxênt

·       Adelaide d´Estrehan y Saint-Maxênt (half-sister): As stated earlier, she was the child of Felicité’s first marriage.

·       Matilda de Gálvez y Saint-Maxênt


It has been said that Don Miguel, II Conde of Gálvez considered himself to be French rather than Spanish. He had followed the flags of King José (Joseph) Bonaparte I.  

Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte was born Giuseppe Buonaparte on January 7, 1768 C.E. He died on July 28, 1844 C.E. He was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoléon Bonaparte. Joseph was made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806 C.E.1808 C.E.), and later King of España (1808 C.E.-1813 C.E.) as José I by Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte (Emperor on May 18, 1804). After the fall of Napoléon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.  

After the expulsion of the intruder King Bonaparte, Don Miguel went into exile. It is abundantly clear that Don Miguel was one of King Joseph's Spanish supporters, referred to as josefinos or afrancesados. These Spanish terms meant that Españoles like Miguel had become more like the French in form, character, and manners. The Spanish considered them “Frenchified.”


Miguel de Gálvez y Saint-Maxênt was born in 1782 C.E. He inherited his father’s title, Conde de Gálvez and was a Knight of the order of Calatrava. Miguel became close to the Count of Cabarrus and French industry. Under the influence of Count of Cabarrus, the Conde de Gálvez put money in a project to restore Carlos IV to the throne of España which was then occupied by his son Fernando VII. He participated in this conspiracy while in previous exile along with Godoy and the Conde de Toreno. The conspiracy was eventually foiled and Miguel was subsequently forced to flee España.  

Miguel’s farmhouse at Torremolinos in the municipality on the Costa del Sol on the Mediterranean, immediately to the west of the city of Málaga, was seized by the Government. Doña de Matilde, III Marquésa de la Sonora, appeared in July 1817 C.E., calling for the administration of her assets and those of her brother.  

Don Miguel was exiled to Paris. Upon his arrival, he was arrested. Miguel was finally pardoned. He then returned to España from exile. As multiple trips had caused huge losses, Don Miguel was forced to sell his goods and properties out of sheer necessity. In 1821 C.E., the partitioning of the inheritance of these two siblings was made through proxies. In one correspondence to Lord Don António de Gálvez, his uncle, Don Miguel warned him that his goods and properties could be disposed of by his heirs in need, as stated in a writing of 1822 C.E. Miguel de Gálvez then died childless in 1825 C.E. This left only his aunts María Joséfa de Gálvez and María Rosa de Gálvez as heirs, both already dead.  

His aunt, María Joséfa de Gálvez y Valenzuela was the daughter of Miguel’s uncle, the Minister José de Gálvez, II Marqués of Sonora and Lady of the order of Queen María Luísa. She was born in Madrid in 1776 C.E., and died in the same city, in 1817 C.E. Her widower, the Conde of Castro Area later contracted a second marriage.  

His other aunt, María Rosa de Gálvez y Ramírez de Velasco was the adopted daughter (Supposedly his natural daughter) of his other uncle, António de Gálvez. She was born in Málaga in 1768 C.E. She married her cousin José Cabrera y Ramírez, and they had only one daughter, Mariana de Cabrera y Gálvez, who died as a child. María Rosa became a famous playwright and poet. She died in Madrid in 1806 C.E.  

At the death of Miguel, his sister María Matilde Gálvez y Saint-Maxênt, the Marquisate of Sonora was made III Condesa Gálvez. Doña Matilda was born in 1778 C.E. in New Orleans. She married an Italian, Raimundo Capece Minutolo, the son of the Prince of Canosa in 1795 C.E. He served in Madrid in the Flamenco Company of the King’s bodyguards and he would achieve the military officer level of Mariscal del campo.  

While residing in España, Matilde participated in the distribution of two theatre works written by the Duke of Aliaga y Castellot, Agustín Pedro de Silva y Palafox represented in the author's House.  

From 1805 C.E., she and her husband, Raimundo left to live in Naples after his resignation from his post in the Spanish army. His reason given for leaving the post was to further his interests in Italy. Doña Matilde died in 1839 C.E., during a trip to Málaga, España. She had gone there to most probably stop the auction of family assets which had been announced by a Spanish Corte real española, a year earlier in 1838 C.E.  

The sale of a number of properties that belonged to the de Gálvez family became effective on December 2, 1838 C.E. A Madrid newspaper published an auction order by the judge, Don Miguel María Durán, of goods for payment of creditors:

·       A property named lagar de Linares or the party of bells, at the end of the village of Almogía, retasado was sold for 153,530 reales.

·       A farmhouse named pillar, a property in Arraijanal, a district of the City of Málaga, España, near Torremolinos, a municipality on the Costa del Sol on the Mediterranean. It is immediately to the west of the City of Málaga, in the province of Málaga. It was valued at 76,350 reales.

·       A farmhouse named cortijo de Gálvez in Rosas-Vélez, near the village of Periana which is located in the beautiful La Axarquía region of Málaga, just a 40 minute drive from the City of Málaga. The farmhouse is also located close to La Viñuela a municipality in the province of Málaga in the autonomous community of Andalucía in southern España, which is part of the comarca of La Axarquía. It was valued at 69,930 reales.

·       A garden named Los Ángeles or Don Matías, in the vicinity of Macharaviaya and close to the Iberian Brook. It was valued at the amount of 34,187 reales.

·       A House with an accessory portal sita on the street of the wall of Santa Ana, or alley in the irrigation channel of the City of Málaga, number 33 of the 83, retasada Apple 36.


Doña Matilde and Raimundo had three daughters Paulina, Adelaide, and Clotilde. They all resided in Naples. The daughters sometimes used the surname Capece Minutolo dalla Sonora which combined one of the titles which their mother held (Marquisate of Sonora). The three daughters are remembered in Italy for their extraordinary love of music.

Clotilde composed several musical pieces, and the remarkable file family musical form part today's Neapolitan public funds.  

Of the three daughters, only one married. This was Paulina Capece Minutolo, IV Marquis of Sonora and Countess of Gálvez

She was born in Vienna in 1803 C.E. Paulina married Francesco del Balzo, son of the Duke of Caprigliano, who died in Naples in 1871 C.E.  Paulina’s marriage produced four children, only two, Adelaide and Ernesto, reached adulthood.

Her son Ernesto de el Balzo was born in Naples in 1845 C.E., Duke of del Balzo, Duke of Caprigliano, V Marqués de Sonora and Count of Gálvez, bailiff of honor and devotion of the sovereign order of Malta. He married Lady Dorothy Walpole, daughter of the 4th Earl of Orford, cousin of Horace Walpole, the renowned author of the gothic novel in Florence, Italy in 1868 C.E. The couple had no offspring. Ernesto died in Naples  

His sister, Adelaida de el Balzo, Princesa de Strongoli de iure VI Marquesa de la Sonora y Condesa de Gálvez, was born in Naples in 1843 C.E. She became a Lady of the Queen Margarita of Italy. She married Ignacio Pignatelli, Prince of Strongli and Earl of Melissa a writer and translator. The couple was considered very cultivated. Once widowed, Adelaida devoted all her energy to the struggle for women’s education and equality. To this end, she founded the Faculty of Education at a convent which later became an innovative female secular school. The school’s objective was to train young women to compete for parity with men and obtain full intellectual emancipation. With the death of the Princess Adelaide in Naples 1932 C.E., the last known descendant of the famous Bernardo Vicente Apolinar de Gálvez y Madrid, Vizconde or Viscount of Gálvezton and Conde de Gálvez de Macharaviaya disappeared.  

Life, history, and the story of a family have many twists and turns. A family which won glory and honor soon after the founding of España in 1492 C.E., held a title and privileges by virtue of loyal service to the Corona Española. By 1786 C.E., with the death of Bernardo de Gálvez, the great soldado, hero of the American Revolution, and administrator, the title, “Conde de Gálvez,” passed to his son, Miguel. Later, the title would be passed down within the extended family until 1932 C.E., when there were no more heirs to receive it. This remained so until, 1955 C.E.  

Luís Alarcón de la Lastra, Marquis of Rende and Conde de Gálvez (November 24, 1891 C.E.-November 19, 1971 C.E., Sevilla) was a soldado, businessman and Spanish politician, General of the artillery Division, Member of the Republican courts, Minister of industry and Commerce during the second Government of Franco, and Procurator of the Francoist Cortés. Luís requested the title of Conde Gálvez’s rehabilitation as stated in the official bulletin of the State no. 48 of February 17, 1950 C.E. He finally obtained the title of Conde de Gálvez five years later, rehabilitation as stated. Luís Alarcón de la Lastra Marquis de Rende became the 7th Earl of Gálvez.  

The life of Bernardo Vicente Apolinar de Gálvez y Madrid, Vizconde de Gálvezton and Conde de Gálvez’s had meaning. A person’s life is more than a title or many titles. The sum of it cannot be judged by battles won or raises in military rank. The true measure of a man’s life is that which is left behind. It is those things which he demonstrated loyalty, honor, valor, and courage that contributed to the well-being of so many others. These had true meaning.  

España, the Nuevo Mundo, Nueva España, and the United States of American and its people are better off as a result of this man and his family. His life was what dreams are made of. Position, power, and prestige, earned and given, changed him little. Bernardo de Gálvez wore them well. At each juncture which he came to in life, these were only accoutrements. From cadete to Mariscal del Campo, these were only military ranks. From lowest to highest, he mastered them. As Gobernador of Spanish Luisiana or Virrey of Nueva España, Bernardo remembered his duty to king and country and the responsibility to care for the ciudadanos.  

Timendi causa est nescire, should always be remembered when attempting to understand that it was the ignorance of the Corte real española that caused fear of him. In Bernardo’s case, Forest fortuna adiuvat did not apply. No matter how brave, he most probably died by the hands of cowards. If so, fortune did not smile upon this great hero, though history has.


07/05/2017 04:37 PM