Somos Primos
 June 2006 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
Celebrating 20th Anniversary 


Book cover design by Melissa DiPiero-D'Sa
Click for information on the project and purchasing the book.
Click for more on the author.

The Superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions.  Confucius 


Content Areas

United States
. . . 4
Anti-Spanish Legends
. . . 48
Military and Law Enforcement Heroes . . 50
Cuentos . . . 55
Surname. . . 64
Spanish Sons of the  American Revolution. . . 69
Orange County, CA . . . 86
Los Angeles, CA
. . . 94
California . . . 103
Northwestern United States
. . . 117
Southwestern United States . . . 118
Black  . . . 126
Indigenous . . . 130
Sephardic . . . 135
Texas . . . 140
East of the Mississippi  . . . 153
East Coast
. . .154
. . . 158
. . . 189
. . . 193
. . . 196
. . . 200
Family History 
. . . 201
. . . 208
. . . 210

Meetings  Save the date July 22         


  Letters to the Editor : 

Dear Mimi:
Es para todos los Hispanos muy satisfactorio eléxito de la Marcha del 1o. de Mayo, la cual sin duda ya quedó señalada como un hecho histórico no solamente en los Estados Unidos, sino en todo el ámbito Internacional. 

Seguramente los participantes y todos quienes de una u otra forma contribuyeron para lograr este movimiento, se encuentran satisfechos de mostrar la fortaleza de nuestros paisanos.

Desde esta ciudad de Durango, recibe nuesto apoyo y sincero reconocimiento por tu contribución, el intercambio desiteresado que tienes con la gente por esta vía y en lo personal, recibe mi más sincero afecto.

Here is Somos Primos for May 2006.  As usual, it contains a wealth of information.  It includes material about Cuba, Spain, etc.  Do read some of the articles.  Mimi, you always do a great job.  Congratulations.  Jose M. Pena 

Mi más sincero deseo de éxito y bienestar para todos el entorno latino.

Anacleto Villarreal Vera

I repeat, your work with “Somos Primos”
is awesome!!   Gloria de la Torre

Once in a life-time while, we genealogist and historians find the most incredible treasure -- and I say this to you today: YOU ARE IT!

I have opened your attachment and decided to print all 203 pages because the material you have forwarded is an absolute treasure of information. There is that one rare and beautiful oyster pearl in the ocean -- there is that one huge and bright gold nugget in the mountains -- there is that one rare and magnificent ruby -- or diamond -- or significant other brilliant stone somewhere deeeeeep and hidden in some remote place waiting to be discovered only to be listed in the "who's who" of its kind. . . . all this said, I have to acknowledge your efforts, work, deliberations, etc., etc., etc. of the materials you have accumulated and allowed the rest of us to share with you -- Wow Mimi, you are as rare and beautiful as those special items mentioned above -- but you are a one-and-only unique and special human being! And to think that I am on your email list and that you forward this kind of information to me is MY reward. I am proud to be on your list. Please keep this wonderful work continuous. Love you to pieces!
Gloria Candelaria Marsh
Founder , VH-GHoST, Victoria Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Society of Texas


   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor

Johanna De Soto
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
Galal Kernahan
Alex Loya
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Michael  Perez
Ángel Custodio  Rebollo
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr
Data Entry: Kathryn Peralta

  Contributors to this issue:  
Ruben Alvarez 
Armando A. Ayala, Ph.D. 
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Eric Beerman, Ph.D.
Joaquin Blanco Peralta
Eva Booher
Miguel Angel Borrego 
Bruce Buonauro
Jaime Cader
Gloria Candelaria Marsh
Bill Carmena 
Richard Castro Guerrero
Robin Collins
Jack V Cowan 
Joan de Soto 
Melissa DiPiero-D'Sa 
Marcial Fernandez
Edna Y. Elizondo González 
Angie Galvan Freeman
Aida Garralda
Gloria Golden
Christine Granados
Lorraine Hernandez
Manuel Hernandez
Win Holtzman
Granville W. Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Alli Jessing 
Galal Kernahan
Jennie Lew
José L. Robles de la Torre
Alex Loya,
Micheal Lozano
Orlando Lozano
Pat Lozano
Alfredo Lugo
JV Martinez 
Cindy Mediavilla 
Alva Moore Stevenson 
Dorinda Moreno
Paul Newfield
Rafael Ojeda
Alfredo I. Peña Pérez
Jose M. Pena 
Sandra Peña-Sarmiento 
Adelaida Perez-Mau

Debra Perez Hagstrom
Nancy Perez
Antonio Piña 
Claire Prechtel-Kluskens
Elvira Prieto, 
Joseph Puentes,
Arturo Ramos 
Juan Ramos
Angel Custodio Rebollo 
Anita Rivas Medellin
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Rudi R. Rodriguez
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr
Frank Sifuentes
Brittany Skousen
Collin Skousen
Mira Smithwick
Barry Starr 
Gloria de la Torre
Ricardo Valverde
Marge Vallazza.
Janete Vargas
Cristina Villasenor
Anacleto Villarreal Vera 
Ted Vincent
Douglas Westfall
Clive Williams 
Theresa Ynzunza
SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Yolanda Magdaleno, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal

United States

National issues  
Wells Fargo, Sponsors " The Latino OC 100" 
The Mexican Border: Fleeing the Throes of Revolution (1912)

Se Si Puede brings HOPE and Dreams into Reality.
On Being Black at a Latino March
Of U.S. Children Under 5, Nearly Half Are Minorities
Immigration issue is complex and requires bilateral solutions 
100 Years in the Back Door, Out the Front 
Undocumented, Indispensable
Hispanic Influx to Hawaii

Action Taken 
Writing Letter to Editor and government officials by Frank Sifuentes
City of Monterey, California
Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America

Sky's not the limit for NASA astronaut Jose Hernandez

O.C. man uses his story to urge students to stay in school
Encouraging Young People 
Hispanic Magazine's Teacher of the Year, 
Assimilation Of Immigrants:  Fact, says UCLA Sociologist Edward Telles
Helping America's Youth
NCLR Takes Family History Curriculum to Communities
HHS-HEO Digest Features Federal Programs, health, education, etc. 

Hard work helps tear down some old walls 
Bullfights scaled down for 9-year old boy
Clay's Kitchen Mexican 
Congressional Gold Medal recipients
What Hispanic Awareness Means to Me
Hispanic vs Latino
Latinos or Hispanics?  A Debate About Identity 

But the language I speak is Spanish
Las Comaderes Para Las Americas  

National Latina Business Women Association
Hispanic business growth outpaces U.S. rate
Spanish language skills and Annual Incomes 
Hispanics set the pace in business ownership


National issues

Wells Fargo, Sponsors "The Latino OC 100" 
Best, Brightest Upcoming, Accomplished and Influential 

Dear Mimi, 

We are finally finished with the LATINO OC 100 list for 2005-2006 and would like to share it with you. A special THANK YOU to Wells Fargo for their vision and support of all of the positive Hispanic community contributions in Orange County.  This is the first 100 with 400 yet to go. 100 per year for the next 5 years!  Our mission is to produce a positive statement and image of the important contributions of people and organizations to the Latino community in Orange County. 

Using state of the art technology and networking, we will develop a product that is first class, visible and highly motivational to minority youth that will educate and inspire. 

The plan is to honor 100 people and organizations who make a difference in the LATINO OC every year for the next 5 years. A yearly Yearbook will be published and distributed to schools, colleges and universities in Orange County. The Yearbook will contain pictures and biographies of honorees as well as a community resources page listing non-profits and business organizations. A website will also be dedicated to the LATINO OC 100 as a reference and research guide as well. Each year a reception will be held to honor the selected. At the end of the 5 years, a formal gala will gather all 500 and their guests to honor their accomplishments. 

[[Editor: Although this is a county event, I am including it under U.S. because Wells Fargo is  national and is reaching out to the Hispanic communities all over the U.S. .  What I particularly like is the ongoing effect of the books which will sit on school library shelves and the website which will be a growing resource and encourage our youth to reach high, to expect great things of themselves. I an humbled to be among the first group of Latino leaders selected with this honor, because I know the fine work of many whose contributions should and will be made known. I am in the second row, on the left, with the light blue jacket.]]

Sy Abrego 
John Acosta 
Fredrick Aguirre 
Francisco Avalos 
Omar Avalos 
Steve Ambriz 
Mark Allenbaugh 
Dr. Alejandro Alva 
Dr. Gustavo Alva 
Santiago Avila 
Alfredo Amezcua 
Gustavo Arellano 
Alan Baldwin 
Luis Barrajas 
Ruben Barron 
Elizbeth Bowlin 
America Bracho 
Carlos Bustamante 
Luis Cachua 
Lou Correa 
Janet Cronick 
John Cruz 
Amin David 
Chris Diaz 
Frank Dominguez 
Ron Esparza 
Rosie Espinosa 
Heather Enriquez 
Eduardo Figueroa 
Ruthie Flores 
Don Garcia 
John Garcia 
Monica Garcia 
Paul Garza 
Minerva Gomez 
Ron Gonzalez 
Sara Guerrero 
Frank Guzman 
Christina Hernandez 
Eddie Hernandez 
Janice Hopper 
Nellie Kaniski 
Larry Labrado Sr. 
Dr. Juan Lara 
Maribel Larios 
Dr. Patricia Lazalde 
Armando de la Libertad 
Belinda de la Libertad 
Raquel Lomeli 
Sylvia Lopez 

Mimi Lozano 
Oscar Mazariego 
Lorena Maae 
Erilinda Martinez 
Michele Martinez 
Rueben Martinez 
Nancy Marmolejo 
Patricia McMaster 
Jill Mejia 
Henry Mendoza 
Teresa Mercado-Cota 
Manny Montanez 
Raul Montezuma 
Martha Montoya 
Marie Moreno 
Frances Munoz 
Sahara Navarro 
Danny Nguyen 
Fernando Nieblas 
Carlos Olamendi 
Elizabeth Orozco 
John Palacios 
Cathy Paredes 
Lorrena Penaloza 
Addie Perez Mau 
Enrique Perez 
Richard Porras 
Xylon Quelada 
Gladys Reynolds 
Sandra Robbie 
Esperanza Roman 
Manny Saldivar 
Patti Saldivar 
Gabriela Sanchez 
Lorretta Sanchez 
Lucy Santana 
Salvador Sarmiento 
Rosemary Serafin 
Bruno Serato 
Mel Silva 
Alice Solis 
Maria Solis 
Ruben Smith 
Deborah Vasquez 
Pat Velasquez 
Yesenia Velez 
Lynnette Verino 
Isabel Villasenor 
Peter Villegas 
Illiana Welty 

For information about the project or to make recommendations for 2006-7, please contact: 

Ruben Alvarez, President/Founder StayConnected -LATINO OC 100
Marcial S. Fernandez, Vice President/Partner

Ruben Alvarez,  your editor, Marcial Fernandez


The Mexican Border: Fleeing the Throes of Revolution (1912)

By John P. Schmal


Owing to the fact that Mexico has during the past year been passing through the throes of one revolution while still suffering from the effects of a previous one, affecting in ways various and complex the immigration over this border, it is manifestly difficult, if not quite impossible, to make comparisons of a thoroughly satisfactory and conclusive character with the immigration of previous years either as to underlying causes or possible future effects. During the early part of the year a great many aliens, rendered destitute by crop failures more or less directly due to the former revolution, sought admission to this country from Mexico, while during the latter part of the fiscal year large numbers migrated to the United States to avoid hardships incident to the revolts which broke out in February last and which are now in progress. It may be said, therefore, that conditions affecting immigration by way of the Mexican border have been abnormal throughout the year, and any attempted detailed analysis thereof would occupy an undue proportion of both time and space in its presentation and at best prove, it is feared, more or less speculative. It may be safely stated that the character of immigration received from Mexico has not measured up to the standard of previous years, as evidenced by the increase of debarred over the fiscal year ended June 30, 1911.


In previous reports under this heading illegitimate immigration over this border has been defined and especially discussed. As Syrians, among others, have been included within this classification and in fact constitute the chief element thereof….


No inconsiderable number of aliens, resident of Mexico, have sought refuge in this country, some of whom practically destitute, have been, as a measure of humanity, given asylum. In the cases so acted upon it was felt that the unusual and oftentimes harrowing circumstances influencing their applications justified a more than ordinarily liberal interpretation of the law.

There is every reason to believe that when the affairs of our sister Republic have become settled a large majority of these aliens will return to their native country.

Source: Report of the Inspector of the Immigration Service on the Mexican border, as quoted in "Annual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration to the Secretary of Commerce and Labor for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1912" (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1913), pp. 40-41.

Se Si Puede brings HOPE and Dreams into Reality.

The march on May 1st brought so many cherished & sad memories of my childhood experiences as I marched with my family in the UFW Marches in the San Joaquin Valley chanting "Se Si Puede". 

My son James marched May 1st .  He is 1/2 Mexican, 1/4 Chinese & 1/4 Irish.

Tears came to my eye's as I walked proudly to support my fellow brothers &sisters of my own experience growing up as a laborer. Working low paying back braking jobs, no insurance, no 401k, no day's off with pay, no stability, working in 110 degrees weather , working in the cold weather where your hands numb due to the respect, welcome to the real world.... injustices laborers face are not experienced by many people. (this goes for legal and illegal people) 

My father came to the US by working in the Bracero Program, he worked hard for many years in order to bring our family to the US . My parents taught us that hard work and saving money were essential. All my experiences have shaped me in being a compassionate, strong and determined person. I earned my Masters Degree, have become a recognized business women in Orange County and Nation wide while being a stay home mom. 

I strongly believe in Si Se Puede .... Cesar Chavez brought us hope & encouraged us to dream . I'm going for it!.... Anything is possible in the US con muchas ganas and working as a team.

Adelaida "Addy" Perez-Mau 

On Being Black at a Latino March
By Van Jones, Huffington Posted May 5, 2006.

Source: Dorinda Moreno

Just as non-blacks supported our freedom movement in the last century, I am determined to give my passionate support to this righteous cause. 

At Monday's "Dia Sin Inmigrantes/Day Without Immigrants" march in San Francisco, I saw a beautiful, exciting and hopeful vision of the future of this country. I also caught a glimpse of a familiar past, fading away. And I shed a few tears for both.

From the moment I boarded the BART car, I knew this May Day march and rally would differ from the Bay Area's usual protest fare. The trains headed into downtown San Francisco were filled with working-class Latinos, all wearing white; most had kids in tow. There were few protest signs or banners, but the stars and stripes were everywhere. One tyke on my train kept trying to poke his cousin with a little American flag.

Some of the teeniest kids were wearing their older sibling's white T-shirts with their shirt hems hanging down past their knees. The children were all well-scrubbed and happy ... and very proud.

So were their parents. They knew they were part of something new, and big, and promising.

The bright mood contrasted starkly with the dreary atmosphere that chokes most protests nowadays. On this march, I saw no resigned shuffling of already defeated feet. No sea of scowls. No pierced tongues, screaming. Nor could I spy a single person dragging behind her the weighty conviction that resistance -- though obligatory -- was futile.

To the contrary. Beaming, brown-skinned families walked off those trains with their heads held high. Sure, they may have been poor, facing tough challenges in the near term. But they stepped like they were marching into a future of limitless promise and potential.

Their optimism brought tears to my eyes. And not only for the obvious reasons.

Deep inside, I was grieving for my own people. I wished that my beloved African-American community had managed, somehow, to retain our own sparkling sense of faith in a magnificent future. There was once a time when we, too, marched forward together, filled with utter confidence in the new day dawning. There was a time when we, too, believed that America's tomorrow held something bright for us ... and for our children.

But those dreams have been eaten away by the AIDS virus, laid off by down-sizers, locked out by smiling bigots, shot up by gang-bangers and buried in a corporate-run prison yard. Now we cling to Black History Month for validation or inspiration. That's because Black Present Moment is so depressing -- with worse, almost certainly, on the way.

When Katrina's floodwaters washed our problems back onto the front pages, the once-mighty Black Freedom Movement could not rise even to that occasion. Our legendary "movement" has collapsed, fallen apart. It is now a hollowed-out shell -- with our "spokespersons," both young and old, trying somehow to live off our past glories.

Meanwhile, the white-shirted future was pouring itself down Market Street, chanting "Si, se puede!"

My feelings of solidarity quickly trumped my sorrows. Thousands of people were standing up, here and across the United States, for their right to live and work in dignity in this country. Deep in my bones, I felt their pain, knew their hopes and affirmed their dreams. And just as non-blacks had supported our freedom movement in the last century, I was determined, as a non-immigrant, to give my passionate support to this righteous cause.

So I joined the crowds in the street, trying to add my voice to the thunderous chants. But I quickly discovered that, good intentions notwithstanding, political solidarity is sometimes more easily felt than expressed.

My fellow marchers started roaring out: "Zapata! Vive! La lucha! Sigue!" I was like, Huh? What?

"Zapata! Vive! La lucha! Sigue!" Say what? Then louder, faster: "LaLuchaSigueSigue! ZapataViveVive!  LaLuchaSigueSigue! ZapataViveVive!"

Bewildered, but undeterred, I got myself a "chant sheet." I figured that I could use one of the official written guides to keep me in the know and on track. Sure enough, the handy leaflet spelled everything out very clearly: "Las Calles Son Del Pueblo! El Pueblo Donde Esta? El Pueblo Esta En Las Calles, Exigiendo Libertad!"

Unfortunately, those words looked precisely like alphabet soup to me. I found myself desperately trying to remember back to 11th grade, wondering what sound an "x" makes in Spanish.

Finally, I had to face the sad truth: I had B.S.-ed my way through all my high school and college language requirements. I had to admit that Mrs. Savage (from fourth-period Espanol) had been right, after all: I really hadn't cheated anyone but myself.

Now I had to accept the miserable results: as an utterly monolingual English speaker, I wasn't even knowledgeable enough about the Spanish language to shout out simple phrases, during most of the protest.

Okay, I told myself. Fine. I decided instead to just walk cheerfully along, clapping in time with the drummers. But even some of the Latin rhythms were unfamiliar, strangely syncopated. I couldn't always find the beat, despite my best efforts. (Suddenly, I was filled with love and sympathy for all those arhythmic white folks whom I used to make fun of at black rallies, parties and churches. I am so sorry, y'all!)

Well, needless to say, I was on the verge of giving up. Then I found a solution: I would simply listen for any chant that had the word "Viva!" in it. For some reason, there were lots of chants with that word in it. And then, whenever appropriate, I would just raise my fist and shout "Viva!" along with the crowd, as loud as I could.

And that was pretty much all I could do. I did it for a few hours, then went home. I hope it was enough. Because, despite feeling somewhat out of place, I was absolutely thrilled to see my sisters and brothers taking the future into their own hands. By simply standing up for their own kids and grandparents -- for their own dignity and futures -- activist Latinos today are pulling the nation to a higher level of fairness and inclusion.

They are posing a simple and devastating question: should U.S. society continue to profit from the labor of 11 million people -- many of whom pick our fruit, nurse our children, clean our workplaces -- without embracing them fully, without honoring their work, without extending to them the same rights and respect we would want for ourselves?

Can we countenance or tolerate a Jim Crow system -- in brown-face -- with a shunned tier of second-class workers, enriching society but lacking legal status and protections?

Or are we willing to change our laws, and change our hearts, to embrace those upon whom our economy has come to rest? This is a simple moral challenge. The right answers are not easy, but they are obvious.

I know there will be a backlash (there always is when people push for fairness), even coming from some black folks. But I also know that the Latino-led struggle for justice and inclusion offers hope to all of us. A national conversation about the true meaning of dignity, equality, opportunity and fair play in the modern economy can ultimately benefit every American community.

I am confident that it will. Because during the two prior centuries, it was the African-American community that performed this service for the country. And we paid a high and awful cost in blood and martyrs. Unfortunately, we did not achieve all of our aims. But we did tear apartheid from pages of U.S. law books. And in the course of that struggle, we improved the lot of all Americans; expanding social programs, democratic rights and social tolerance for all people. And our efforts opened the doors for today's equality struggles. Our marching feet moved the whole nation forward.

I cannot help but mourn the loss of a black community strong enough to put this nation on its back, and carry it forward, step by step, toward justice ... as we once did. But my pain only amplifies and underscores my joy that this marvelous new force has arisen, one that is capable -- in this tough, new era -- of deepening and extending the struggle to transform and redeem.

Strong brown hands have grabbed hold of the U.S. flag. They are pulling it away from those who have monopolized it, from bullies who have abused the nation's symbols for their violent and illegitimate ends.

I am glad. Because only a mass movement with broad shoulders -- and rough hands -- will have the power to win the coming tug-of-war for the heart and soul of this country. The Latino community has birthed just such a movement. If history is any guide, as Latinos and other immigrant communities raise core questions about their children's access to education, health care, jobs and safety, every American community will benefit hugely from their efforts. Including my own.

Van Jones is executive director of the Ella Baker Center for Human Rights in Oakland, California. 

Of  U.S. Children Under 5, Nearly Half Are Minorities
Hispanic Growth Fuels Rise, Census Says
By D'Vera Cohn and Tara Bahrampour, Washington Post Staff Writers, 
 May 10, 2006;
Sent by JV Martinez

Nearly half of the nation's children under 5 are racial or ethnic minorities, and the percentage is increasing mainly because the Hispanic population is growing so rapidly, according to a census report released today.

Hispanics are the nation's largest and fastest-growing minority group. They accounted for 49 percent of the country's growth from 2004 to 2005, the report shows. And the increase in young children is largely a Hispanic story, driving 70 percent of the growth in children younger than 5. Forty-five percent of U.S. children younger than 5 are minorities.

The new numbers offer a preview of demographic shifts to come, with broad implications for the nation's schools, workforce and Social Security.

One in three Americans is now a member of a minority group, a share that is bound to rise, because the non-Hispanic white population is older and growing much more slowly. The country already is engaged in a national debate about how government should respond to growing immigration, legal and illegal.

In some parts of the country, the transformation is more visible than in others. Large swaths of the upper Midwest are still mainly non-Hispanic white. But minorities are a majority of children younger than 5 in the Washington area, according to previously released census numbers. That is also true in Miami, Houston, Los Angeles and other high-immigration regions.

William H. Frey, a demographer with the Brookings Institution, predicted that the United States will have "a multicultural population that will probably be more tolerant, accommodating to other races and more able to succeed in a global economy."

There could be increased competition for money and power, he added: "The older, predominantly white baby-boom generations will need to accommodate younger, multiethnic young adults and child populations in civic life, political decisions and sharing of government resources" in places such as the Washington suburbs.

In some suburban communities, government officials face a cultural generation gap as they weigh demands from older white residents for senior citizen centers, transportation and other aid against requests from younger, mainly minority residents for translation assistance, preschools and other services.

Experts say immigrant families are becoming more concerned with the quality of their children's early education, aware that it can affect their future academic success. That is one reason there is a waiting list at the Child and Family Network Centers, a preschool in Alexandria.

The centers, which also operate a preschool in Arlington, provide free and subsidized preschools for about 200 children from low-income families. They serve many immigrants, including those who don't qualify for other programs. The waiting list is 150 children long. Eight out 10 speak English as a second language, and 70 percent are Latino.

"Oh, here's the chrysalis," said teacher Maria Cruz, pointing to a picture in a book as 4- and 5-year-olds crowded around her for story time yesterday. "Every day, the chrysalis looks the same -- we can't see anything happening, but inside, something is happening."

Emely Lopez, 5, raised her hand and pointed to a real butterfly cocoon in a container by the window. "Hay una alli" -- there's one there -- she said in Spanish, pointing at it. Cruz nodded encouragingly.

"Yes," she replied in English, "it's the same thing we have happening here."

In the next room, bilingual signs displayed the English and Spanish words for "computer," "rest time" and "snack." Across the hall, a group of children sang a song in Spanish.

Cruz said she has seen a huge difference in children's abilities from when they start the program and when they move on to kindergarten. She pointed at a 5-year-old girl from Mexico who was prattling about butterflies in English: Last year, Cruz said, "she came with zero English -- zero."

William O'Hare, a senior fellow at the Annie E. Casey Foundation, said he is not sure the country is prepared to provide the extra help that immigrants' children often need to become well-educated workers and the future supporters of retirement programs for a predominantly white elderly population. Some Americans, he said, will not welcome the news that minorities are nearly the majority among young children.

"Part of the people will see this and say, 'Gee, these kids are really our future parents and workers, and we need to take care of them,' " O'Hare said. "The other would say it is time to send them all home."

The census figures show that the number of Hispanic and Asian children younger than 5 grew by double-digit percentages since 2000. The number of black children grew more slowly. The number of non-Hispanic white children younger than 5 declined for two years this decade before increasing again.

The nation's Asian population growth still is dominated by immigration, the census report shows, but among Hispanics, births added more to the population growth than immigrants did this decade.

That means the growth trend among the youngest Hispanics "is only going to accelerate under almost any scenario you can think about, even without immigration," said demographer Jeffrey S. Passel of the Pew Hispanic Center. "As the children age, they are the ones who in 20 years will be having children."   © 2006 The Washington Post Company

Immigration issue is complex and requires bilateral solutions 
Historian David Montejano Discusses Immigration Issues 
Carlos Guerra, San Antonio Express-News (May 9, 2006) 
Sent by Howard Shorr

When David Montejano discusses United States-Mexico issues, the historian's analyses are often punctuated with chuckles. The San Antonio native and prize-winning author of "Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas" teaches at UC-Berkeley and is chairman of its Center for Latino Policy Research. Recent immigrant-rights marches "are giving immigrants voices," he says, and 500,000 people marching through Dallas must have been particularly disturbing to anti-immigrant leaders. 

He also dismisses some of the changes anti-immigration groups want as simplistic and ill-informed. 
"We already have (employer sanctions) laws but we don't enforce them, except for the showcase raids last week on a pallet maker," he says, while major U.S. corporations were given a bye. 

Montejano also dismisses guest-worker proposals as unrealistic. "A guest-worker program that is anything like the bracero program — even with better protections — is not a solution to the structural problem," he says. "It will actually create even greater immigration." 

And while most have forgotten about them, fervent anti-Mexican sentiments are hardly the first registered in the United States. "In the 1920s there was a whole 'Mexican problem' that newspaper editorials and politicians — including those from Texas — were ranting and raving about," he says. 

"And did that generation lead to the undoing of America?" the professors asks. "No, that generation's sons fought World War II, and their daughters served in the factories." And their grandchildren were the first who attended universities in significant numbers. 

"You also had Operation Wetback in the 1950s, and there were protests, but they didn't get the attention these latest protests have commanded," he continues. "The major difference (between the two waves of protests) is that now you have leading elected officials who can present the case, and that represents an advance." 

Montejano also points out that U.S. immigration policy has long been of two minds. "They want Mexican labor, but they don't want them to stay around," he says before laughingly dismissing the notion of sealing the borders and deporting all the undocumented immigrants. 

"They're not serious about deporting 11 million people, it's about creating cheap labor; they just want to create an underclass," he says. "Making them all felons would really lower wages by practically creating prison labor." 

But he is also clear that the current wave of protests still hasn't addressed an element key to the entire immigration conundrum. "At some point, the protests ought to focus on Mexico, too, because two governments are involved in this situation, not just one," he reasons. "Nobody wants to talk about how NAFTA has contributed to this national dislocation of mexicanos, but that is what it is: A dislocation by a policy that was signed by the elites of both countries to benefit the elites of both countries." 

Mexico's mass out-migration, and soon, Central America's, is from their collapsed agricultural sectors, and it will continue because those countries cannot compete with the United States' agricultural sector, price-wise. This non-competitiveness has already turned Mexico, where corn was first developed, into a net importer of corn, an important staple. 

"At some point," he says, "we are going to have to look at a developmental program for Mexico." 
To contact Carlos Guerra, call (210) 250-3545 or e-mail

Photo: Bettmann/Corbis

100 Years in the Back Door, Out the Front 
By Nina Bernstein, The Nation, Week in Review,,  May 21, 2006
Sent by Jose M. Pena 

1919 Early last century, Texans brought in tens of thousands of Mexicans to pick its cotton each year. Then it invited them to leave. The Texas cotton lobbyist tried to reassure Congress that the tens of thousands of Mexicans who labored in the fields of the Southwest were not a threat to national security. There "never was a more docile animal in the world than the Mexican," he told the Senate committee. 

Then he offered a way around the political problem the congressmen faced in extending the program that had let the workers in. "If you gentlemen have any objections to admitting the Mexicans by law," he said, "take the river guard away and let us alone, and we will get them all right." 

They did — and that was in 1920. Almost a century later, the debate over illegal immigration from Mexico often makes it sound like a recent development that breaks with the tradition of legal passage to America. 

Quite the contrary, say immigration scholars like Aristide R. Zolberg, who relates the anecdote about the Texas cotton grower in his new book, "A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America." A pattern of deliberately leaving the country's "back door" open to Mexican workers, then moving to expel them and their families years later, has been a recurrent feature of immigration policy since the 1890's. 

"Things are not the same today, but the basic dynamics do not change," said Mr. Zolberg, a professor of political science at the New School. "Wanting immigrants because they're a good source of cheap labor and human capital on the one hand, and then posing the identity question: But will they become Americans? Where is the boundary of American identity going to be?" 

Nearly every immigrant group has been caught at that crossroads for a time, wanted for work but unwelcome as citizens, especially when the economy slumps. But Mexicans have been summoned and sent back in cycles for four generations, repeatedly losing the ground they had gained.

During the Depression, as many as a million Mexicans, and even Mexican-Americans, were ousted, along with their American-born children, to spare relief costs or discourage efforts to unionize. They were welcome again during World War II and cast as heroic "braceros." But in the 1950's, Mexicans were re-branded as dangerous, welfare-seeking "wetbacks." 

In 1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent Gen. Joseph Swing to "secure the border" with farm raids and summary deportations that drove out at least a million people. At the same time, growers were assured of a new supply of temporary workers through the "braceros" program, which soon doubled to 400,000 a year. 

The pattern grew during the years between the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act and the quotas of 1929, as rising legal barriers drastically narrowed the nation's front door. The goal was to preserve the country's "Nordic character" against Italians and Eastern European Jews who had begun arriving in large numbers.

Yet Congress refused to close the back entrance to a growing flow of Mexicans, even though by the lawmakers' own racial standards, Mexicans were even more objectionable than the "degraded races" of Asians and Southern Europeans whom they were increasingly replacing in fields, factories and railroad work. 

A convenient way was found to reconcile the contradiction, said Camille Guérin-Gonzales, a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin and the author of "Mexican Workers and American Dreams." No quotas were necessary to keep Mexicans out because they were not going to stay. "Not wanting to 'mongrelize the race,' but needing cheap labor, Americans constructed Mexicans as 'birds of passage,' " she said, using the phrase coined to describe Italian immigrants. "The proximity of the border made that even more believable."

The cotton pickers cited by the Texas lobbyist had arrived by way of a program intended to address World War I labor shortages. But as commercial agriculture created "factories in the field," undocumented entry became the norm. Growers pointed out that no willing field hand could afford the "head tax" that went with legal entry. And employers regularly cited informal entry as a feature that made Mexicans more desirable than cheap foreign laborers like Filipinos, because they were easier to deport. As one rancher quoted in Mr. Zolberg's book remarked to a Mexican hand: "When we want you, we'll call you; when we don't — git." 

The full, brutal weight of that formula hit in the Depression. Roundups of Mexican families in public places, summary deportations — and well-publicized threats of more to come — sent panic through Mexican-American communities in 1931. The tactic was called "scare-heading" by its architect, Charles P. Visel, the director of the Los Angeles Citizens Committee on the Coordination of Unemployment Relief. It worked. Even many legal immigrants were panicked into selling their property cheap and leaving "voluntarily." 

It was a time when crops went unharvested for lack of buyers and white families like those in "The Grapes of Wrath" poured West, desperate for work. "They gave you a choice: starve or go back to Mexico," a resident of Indiana Harbor, Ind., recalled later, as Roger Daniels relates in his book "Guarding the Golden Door." A Santa Barbara woman said she would never forget seeing trains organized by the railroad transporting families to the border in boxcars. The same rail lines had long been maintained by Mexicans who had settled not only in the Southwest, but in Indiana, Illinois and eastward. 

"I have left the best of my life and strength here, sprinkling with the sweat of my brow the fields and factories of these gringos, who only know how to make one sweat and don't even pay attention to one when they see one is old," said one worker, Juan Berzunzolo, interviewed in California in the 1920's by a Mexican anthropologist and quoted by Devra Weber in "Dark Sweat, White Gold: California Farm Workers, Cotton and the New Deal." 

At the other side of the border, Ms. Guérin-Gonzales said, an 11-year-old American-born girl who had been "repatriated" from California told an interviewer in the 1930's, "I would be in the fifth grade there, but here, no, because I didn't know how to read and write Spanish." A boy recounted how a Mexican policeman upbraided him for speaking English. But by 1943, with the economy ascendant and employers crying of wartime labor shortages, the cycle began anew. 

Today, the nature of the deal can no longer be disguised, said Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco, co-director of Immigration Studies at New York University. "It's a bad-faith pact," he said. "We can't have it both ways — an economy that's addicted to immigrant labor, but that's not ready to pay the cost."

And Mr. Zolberg said the old resort to mass expulsion is less likely, since the naturalization of millions of Latinos, including those from the 1986 amnesty, changed the rules of the game. "Mexicans, and Latinos generally are more in the situation today that Italians and Jews were in the 20's and 30's," he said. "They began to have some electoral clout, because there were more people of that national origin who could stand up."

Undocumented, Indispensable 

We like our cheap houses and our fresh fruit. Our government likes taking taxes from workers whose existence it will not recognize.
By Anna Quindlen, Newsweek, May 15, 2006 issue
Sent by Jose M. Pena  

On May Day a persistent rumble came from Market Street in San Francisco, but it was not the oft-predicted earthquake, or at least not in the geologic sense. Thousands of people were marching down the thoroughfare, from the Embarcadero to city hall, holding signs. NO HUMAN BEING IS ILLEGAL. I AM A WORKER, NOT A CRIMINAL. TODAY I MARCH, TOMORROW I VOTE. I PAY TAXES.

The polyglot city by the bay is so familiar with the protest march that longtime citizens say it handles the inconveniences better than anyplace else. Some of them remember the Vietnam War marches, the feminist rallies. The May Day demonstration bore some resemblance to both, which was not surprising. Immigration is the leading edge of a deep and wide sea change in the United States today, just as those issues were in their own time.

Of course, this is not a new issue. The Founding Fathers started out with a glut of land and a deficit of warm bodies. But over its history America's more-established residents have always found ways to demonize the newcomers to the nation needed to fill it and till it. It was only human, the contempt for the different, the shock of the new.

Today, because so many immigrants have entered the country illegally or are living here on visas that expired long ago, the demagoguery has been amped-up full throttle. Although the conventional wisdom is that immigrants are civic freeloaders, the woman with a sign that said i pay taxes was reflecting the truth. Millions of undocumented immigrants pay income taxes using a special identification number the IRS provides. They pay into the Social Security system, too, even though they're not eligible to collect benefits. In fact, they may be helping to keep the system afloat, with $7 billion currently in a designated suspense file, much of which is believed to have come from undocumented workers.

A man carrying a sign saying I AM A WORKER, NOT A CRIMINAL said he pays taxes, too, through his construction job. All three of his children were born in the United States. Although he said he had a hard time deciphering government forms—and don't we all?—he had applied for a green card and had been waiting for four years. In 2004 there was a backlog of more than 6 million unprocessed immigration petitions, a record high. So much for suggestions that immigrants are lax about regularizing their status. Clearly the laxity is at least partly federal.

It's true that immigrants use government services: schools, public hospitals. It's also true that many pay their way through income and sales taxes. Despite the rhetoric, no one really knows whether they wind up being a loss or a gain for the economy. Certainly lots of them work. A state like Arizona, for instance, could not keep pace with the demand for new homes at reasonable cost without immigrant workers, many of them undocumented.

The counterargument is that that drives down the wages of American citizens. It's galling to hear that argument from members of Congress, who have not raised the federal minimum wage for almost a decade. Most of those politicians blame the workers for their willingness to accept low wages. Don't hold your breath waiting for significant sanctions against those companies that shut their eyes to the immigration status of their employees—and that also make large political contributions.

Americans who are really incensed by millions of undocumented immigrants can take action, just as those marching in the streets did. They can refuse to eat fruits and vegetables picked by those immigrants. They can refuse to buy homes on which they worked. After all, if a migrant worker like Cesar Chavez could organize a national boycott of grapes, then opponents of immigration could surely organize something similar. But they won't. We like our cheap houses and our fresh fruit. And our government likes the bait-and-switch, taking taxes from workers whose existence it will not recognize. The borders are most porous in Washington, D.C.

Full disclosure: I'm the granddaughter of immigrants, and I know how much of the melting pot is a myth. My grandparents always referred to my father as "an American boy," which meant he was not from Italy. It was not a compliment. They didn't melt; their daughter did, although one of the only times I ever saw her bitter was when she explained what the word "dago" meant.

There are big decisions to be made about the vast wave of undocumented workers in this country, issues that go beyond slogans and placards. But there's no premium in discussing those issues in xenophobic half-truths, in talking about what undocumented immigrants cost the country without talking about what they contribute, in talking about them as illegals when they are nannies, waiters, roofers and the parents of American citizens. One fact is indisputable: the essence of America is free enterprise and human rights. It's why people come here in the first place. WE ARE ALL IMMIGRANTS, read signs on Market Street. Some of us just got here sooner.

Hispanic Influx to Hawaii
by Alexandre Da Silva, AP via Orange County Register, 3-25-06
From 1990 to 2004, Hawaii's Hispanic population surged to nearly 100,000 from just over 80,000, a 25% percent spike, according to the Census Bureau. 

Honolulu.  Cesar Gaxiola was looking for work. Martha Sanchez just wanted to visit paradise. Despite leaving Mexico years for different reasons, both Gaxiola, the manager of a nonprofit on Maui and Sanchez who owns a market on Oahu, made Hawaii their home.

They are among a growing number of Hispanics who, lured by Hawaii's warm climate,, diverse population and, most of all, jobs, are beginning new lives in this remote island state which is a straight shot across the Pacific from Latin America's long Western shoreline.

Gaxiola was a 21-year-old farmworker when he immigrated to Hawaii in the 1980s. He now helps as many as 1,300 immigrants on Maui each year through Enlace Hispano, or Hispanic Link. People visit his office to find out how to use public transportation, enroll kids in school, file taxes and take) advantage of work benefits.

"The employer might sit down with them and they might say, 'Yes, yes, yes,' but understand very little," said the 40-year-old Gaxiola, whose organization is paid $110,000 annually by the county for its services.  "'We definitely need some-thing much larger to be able to provide services to everybody," he said.

Action Item

Writing Letter to Editor and government officials by Frank Sifuentes

We are all aware of the ultimate importance of communicating.  And yet we have gradually lost our sense of how important the written word remains to use the written word: Not only in influencing public opinion to affect policy but also for it to become a permanent document of our times.

Curiously in a democratic society with freedom of the press, editorial policy demands and must be provided ‘feed back’ from the reading public.

If educated chicano latinos do not bother to write letters to the editor it becomes easy for editors to thin we cannot write; and therefore our community does not matter.

Therefore no matter how often we read newspapers and magazine – and no matter how much we know about the important issues of our times – we are letting others do it for us; as if we had full trust in their attitudes and opinions.  Almost as if we are saying ‘go ahead and speak for me.’

No wonder OC Weekly’s talented journalist A.A. has a hit with his column, "Ask a Mexican" column.  Almost as non Mexicans do not know there are millions of Mexicans in Southern California they can ask questions to..

This speaks for how separated we are as a multi-cultural Multi-racial environment.  Non Hispanic workers can drive from the Westside to the Inland Valley everyday and not have awareness that the majority of the population lives in between the coming and going to work or play.  As if they may know the numbers, and yet are not seeing as human beings with dignity and talents.


Example of a change being made:  Galal Kernahan is convinced that historical history can be teased into accuracy by contacting the right people.  

Viewing the website of the city of Monterey, California, Galal discovered a historical inaccuracy. 
Text dated December 29, 2005 stated that Jacinto Rodriguez was the only Monterey-born delegate to the California Constitutional convention  in 1850.  The implication was that there were no other Early Californios involved.  Actually, there were three.

Galal wrote to the city and pointed out their error.  March 20, the website was correct to read, Jacinto Rodriguez, a California or native Californian, was a delegate to the Californian Constitutional Convention. 

The history of Monterey begins in 1770 with the founding of a Spanish mission and presidio, making Monterey one of the earliest European settlements in California. In 1822, after Mexico seceded from Spain, Monterey prospered as California's sole port of entry for foreign.


Here is another example of a correction made as a result of a letter.
Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America

Dear Sir:
    I enjoyed your web site very much but when I read the history of the Texas Longhorn, I was shocked that probably the most important history of the Texas Longhorn was totally omitted.     
    That's right, in August 1779 the very first trail drive in American History was approximately 1800 head of Texas Longhorns from San Antonio and La Bahia (Goliad) to Nacogdoches, TX to Natchitoches, LA and on to the Mississippi River and beyond in support of the AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 
    This is FACT and there is a historical society visiting schools, colleges and organizations educating individuals as to this most important part of Texas/American History. This organization, originally sponsored by the Sons of the American Revolution is The Texas Connection to the American Revolution Association (TCARA) and you can read the abbreviated story of the Texas Longhorn's saving of the American Revolution on its website at www.TCARA.NET
    It is only natural that TCARA and the TX Longhorn Breeders Assoc. have a full mutual knowledge and support of each other and I would appreciate any introduction advise you may care to impart.
    Thanks for your ear and time,
    Jack V Cowan
    President, TCARA
    (210) 651-4709
    P O Box 690696
    San Antonio, TX 78269

Date: 5/8/2006 2:38:15 PM Pacific Standard Time 
Mr. Cowan: I am sorry for the omission of the first trail-drive in American history. I assure you it was not intentional. Some of the information that we are using on our Web site is the product of
several  years of editorials. Let me look into your Web site and see what we can add to ours.
Please copy this reply to your friends. 
Carolyn Hunter, Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America
Texas Longhorn History group


Sky's not the limit 
At Santa Ana College, 
José Hernandez talks about his quest to be an astronaut.
By Erica Perez, OC Rgister May 27, 2006
Shared by Nancy Perez and Aida Garralda

ROLE MODEL: NASA astronaut José Hernandez visits Santa Ana College’s Planetarium and meets with elementary school students from Laguna Beach and Anaheim Hills. He mingles as teachers snap pictures of their students.
Photo Mindy Schauer
José Hernandez
Undergraduate degree, electrical engineering from University of the Pacific; graduate degree in signals and systems.Career: Lawrence Livermore National Lab, 14 years; became NASA mission specialist in 2004. Finished astronaut training in February.

SANTA ANA – At the end of a long day working in the fields of central California, a 9-year-old José Hernandez would come home to watch the Apollo missions on his family's black-and-white television - and dream of walking on the moon one day.Three decades later, after applying to be an astronaut 10 times, he would be accepted into NASA's program as a mission specialist. Hernandez shared his story Friday with students from Santa Ana College and local elementary schools, inspiring some to pursue dreams despite the odds."My quest to be an astronaut was more a story of perseverance," Hernandez said.

"Imagine if I had quit the first time they told me no." Hernandez, 43, spoke at the Santa Ana College Planetarium to some 50 college students in the school's Math Engineering Science Achievement program. He also visited about 100 elementary school kids there on a field trip.

His two-day visit to Orange County, sponsored by the city of Santa Ana and the Latino Youth Leadership Institute, was meant to inspire more minorities to go into math, science and engineering.

According to the Center for the Advancement of Hispanics in Science and Engineering Education - which partners with NASA - Latinos made up 12 percent of the population in 2003, but less than 3 percent of the engineering and scientific community.

As kids, Hernandez and his siblings would finish working in the fields - dusty and sweaty and tired - and their father would say, "This is your life if you don't study."

That pushed Hernandez to work hard in class. Then when he was in high school, he was hoeing a row of sugar beets when he heard on his transistor radio about the first Latino astronaut - Costa Rican native Franklin Chang-Diaz.

"I thought, 'I have no excuses for myself now,'" Hernandez said. Hernandez's journey from migrant worker to space explorer inspired Santa Ana native Marco Arzate, 24. Arzate is studying aeronautical engineering at Santa Ana College.

He asked Hernandez how he kept reaching for his dream for so long. "That light looks so dim," Arzate said. "It was such a silly dream, so improbable. But here I am," Hernandez said. "Don't be afraid to reach for the impossible because guess what? Suddenly it becomes possible."

O.C. man uses his story to urge students to stay in school
Man uses his story to urge students to not drop out.
By Amy Hamblin, Orange County Register, May 16, 2006
Sent by Ricardo Valverde

SAN JUAN CAPISTRANO - Ramon Diaz set out to pick $9 worth of grapes - a dollar to celebrate every year he had been alive. Something clicked in the child's mind. "There was a better way in life," he realized. The son of itinerant farm workers resolved to do whatever it took to forge a different path.
                                                                                                            Photo by Mark Rightmire
This is part of Diaz's life story that he shares with junior high and high school students at schools with high dropout rates. "I always go back to: 
This is what people do to survive out there," he said. "Without an education, life is bleak."

The San Juan Capistrano resident has been delivering the message to students for 30 years through the Orange County Youth Motivation Task Force, which celebrated its three decades last week. He has been with the group from its start here. Sometimes students just need to hear the message from someone other than a teacher or a parent, Diaz said. Someone who has been there.

Diaz's father struggled to support the family as a grocery clerk in Compton. They ate food the store would otherwise have thrown out, cutting off the rotten parts. It wasn't enough.

So, the decision was made to uproot the family and move to a place where all the children could work alongside the parents in the fields.

As the family traversed California, Diaz would receive his education in increments - three weeks here, another four weeks at a different school. The "learning seminars" ended in eighth grade when he was able to settle into one school back in Compton.  Diaz found part-time work as a school janitor until he graduated from high school.  Students can relate to his struggles to earn a diploma, Diaz said. He is aboard for most of the 18 visits the organization makes each year to schools.

The organization was founded in the late 1960s in response to the Watts Riots in 1965. The idea was to raise educational attainment and thus economic opportunities.
The organization would partner with businesses to send their employees into the classroom for a few hours. In 1972, Diaz's employer, IBM, asked him if he would visit a ninth-grade class. "I got hooked," he said. "It was love."

Several years later he started discussing adopting the program in Orange County with some other community organizers. They launched the program with about 30 volunteers; now they have 150 to 200.

Diaz, 57, retired from IBM as a customer engineer six years ago, after 30 years there. His résumé is extensive - past chairman of the Fair Housing Council of Orange County, past director on the board of the United Way Orange County, past chairman of the Service Employment and Redevelopment Santa Ana Project. The list goes on.

"He's a dynamo - always busy, always going somewhere," said Jerry Dominguez, who has worked with Diaz on the GI Forum and the Fair Housing Council. Diaz has no intention of slowing down anytime soon. "If you lock yourself into a rocking chair, you'll miss life," he said.

Motto: "Education is freedom, and freedom is everyone's business," from the American GI Forum. 

His advice to students 
o Show up and be on time. Ninety percent of success is taking the first step. 
o Set goals and emulate those who achieved what you want. 
o Know the English language well - effective communication is an asset in all aspects of life. 
o Be careful whom you hang out with. You will become like them. 

To learn more about the Youth MotivationTask Force, call (714) 569-0822 or visit


A more practical approach to schoolOrange County Register, 4-13-06     

Santa Ana: Partnership between district, chamber of commerce will create vocational programs for Valley High students. For students at Valley High, courses in reading, writing and arithmetic will soon have to make room for those in dental assistance, computer-animated design and robotics.

Santa Ana Unified trustees have approved a plan to enter into a partnership with the Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce to start seven vocational and technical schools at Valley High, one of Orange County's poorest performing high schools.                                                                                                                  






Dental-assistant students, Damian Ferreyra, Jenny Vasquez and Joe Romero  Photo: Leonard Ortiz

The goal is for more students to finish high school better prepared to join the work force, or succeed in college, depending on what career they choose, officials said. Valley High would be the county's first school with such a comprehensive vocational and technical program.  "Our students will now gain additional skills that will make them more marketable when they come out of school," said Lewis Bratcher, district assistant superintendent of secondary education.

Valley High's vocational and technical schools model is similar to a new effort to overhaul the nation's high schools. One of the early concepts of that change is the "schools within a school" idea. These are smaller schools, centered around career themes, contained in larger campuses.

Many educators, lawmakers and parents have said high schools today should emphasize the real-world relevance of what students learn. This would help curb high dropout rates and improve overall student achievement, they said.

Valley High's seven schools, called academies, will be run by the district with the chamber's help. The program will start in the 2007-08 school year, after a renovation of the campus is completed. The academies will train students in careers in business, health care, new media, transportation, automotive, manufacturing and construction. The chamber will provide professionals from each of those fields to teach in classrooms, labs and workshops at the campus. The chamber will also help students with mentors, internships, apprenticeships and assistance in applying for a job once they graduate if they opt to forgo college.

For the chamber, which conceived the idea about three years ago, the goal of the program is to meet local companies' demands for skilled workers who not only know the most current technology, but can work in groups, communicate well and compete in a global market, said Michael Metzler, chamber president.

"This will be a win-win situation for the district and the business community," Metzler said. "We now will have students finishing high school with better experience and training."

Most high schools already offer some vocational and technical training through Regional Occupational Program classes. But in recent years, budget cuts have forced many districts in Orange County and throughout the state to slash spending for those types of programs.

Enrollment in Valley High's academies will be voluntary for the school's more than 2,500 students, said Superintendent Al Mijares.  "The academies are not intended to replace the traditional classes. They are supplements to what students already learn," Mijares said.

Sylvia Ordoñez, a parent of a freshman at Valley High, said the idea for the academies is long overdue. "The work force is more competitive today than ever before," Ordoñez said. "Students in this program will have such a greater advantage over all the other students."

Program boosts: 
Vocational education courses in public high schools have steadily declined since 1997. But a new local and national movement could reverse the trend.

Fewer drop-outs: Many educators and lawmakers, and some studies, nationwide have said that increasing funding and resources for vocational education would result in fewer high school drop-outs. Students are more likely to stay in school if they have more career training relevant to today's work force, they said.

More funding: Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger has added $20 million to this year's budget and proposed an additional $50 million for next year's budget for vocational education. The governor has said vocational education has been under funded and neglected because of tight budgets and increased pressure on educators to improve standardized test scores.

Valley High’s seven Preparatory Academies
Some careers the academies will train students for when they open in the 2007-08 school year.

Healthcare Academy: training for careers in dental assistance, medical assistance, nursing, and preparation for medical degrees

Automotive Academy: training for career as auto mechanics, and auto repair technicians

Transportation Academy: training for careers in the aviation industry, truck drivers and other transportation and moving occupations

New Media Academy: training for careers in computer-animated design, motion graphic design and Web design.

Business Academy: training for careers in finance, real estate, investment, and commercial retail

Manufacturing Academy: training for careers in engineering, factory assembling and robotics

Construction Academy: training for careers in architecture, building, planning and contracting


Sal Tinajero Confidence builder 
Fullerton educator named 
Hispanic Magazine's Teacher of the Year 

Says above all, students need self-assurance.
The Orange County Register, April 1, 2006, 
A PUSH TOWARD COLLEGE: Fullerton Union High School teacher Sal Tinajero, 34 year-old, gives suggestions to his speech students. Since he started at the school five years ago, nearly all of his students have gone on to college. Photo: Paul E. Rodriguez

FULLERTON – For Fullerton Union High teacher Sal Tinajero, the difference between a student who just does well and one who flourishes is simply confidence. So as coach of the school's speech and debate team, Tinajero above all has tried to teach his students to believe in themselves. 

"Students not only need to learn to read and write," said Tinajero, 34, a Santa Ana resident. "They need a strong self-assurance to lead them to college and beyond."

Since he began at the school five years ago, virtually all of his debate students have gone on to college, many earning full scholarships to prominent universities throughout the country.  And under his tutelage, the speech and debate team ranks as the defending Orange County champion and one of the state's top programs. 

That's why Hispanic Magazine named Tinajero its 2005 National Teacher of the Year.  Tinajero will travel to Washington, D.C., on Thursday for a ceremony in his honor, and a tour of the White House with first lady Laura Bush.

Tinajero was nominated for the award by parents at the school. U.S. Rep. Loretta Sanchez, D-Garden Grove, Santa Ana Mayor Miguel Pulido and several other local politicians sent letters of support. 

"This is an incredible honor for someone to say I am one of the best teachers," said Tinajero, who is also a Santa Ana Unified School District board member. "I never had a clue this was coming."  He beat out more than 100 finalists from across the country for the award, which is co-sponsored by the Nordstrom department-store chain.

"There is no other person in my mind who deserves this more," said Manny Gonzales, a parent with one current and one former student in Tinajero's program. "He should not only be the teacher of the year, he should be the teacher of the decade."

Gonzales credits Tinajero with turning his shy, introverted daughter Krystyn into a well-spoken, self-assured student. Krystyn is a freshman at Bradley University in Peoria, Ill., one of the country's top colleges for speech and debate.

"Krystyn would not be where she is today without Mr. Tinajero's help," Gonzales said. "It's incredible how she grew as a person in the time that he worked with her. But he does this for all his students, not just a select few."

Tinajero often contacts universities on behalf of his students and persuades recruiters to visit competitions in which his students compete.  "Getting students into college is definitely his first priority," said Bronte Nelson, a sophomore in Tinajero's program.  "When students say they want to go to college, but it cost too much money, Mr. T tells them not to worry because he will find them a scholarship."

Nelson said Tinajero works well with students because he seems more like a friend and not a teacher. "He still demands a sense of respect, but in return, he also respects our ideas," she said.

Tinajero grew up in Santa Ana. As a student at Saddleback High, he always knew he wanted to go to college, something his Mexican immigrant parents strongly promoted. After college, he returned to Santa Ana to teach. At Lathrop Intermediate, one of the county's poorest-performing schools, he started a speech and debate team in an effort to give students that self-confidence.

He was hired at Fullerton Union High in the 2001-02 school year to resurrect the school's once-fabled speech and debate program, which had trained former President Richard Nixon.

Today, parents, teachers and students say the program is better than ever, not only because of all the trophies the team brings in, but also because of the success its students achieve after they graduate.

"This is all because of Mr. Tinajero," Nelson said. "If anyone could describe a perfect teacher, it would be him."

What Makes a High School Great?  
Gold stars: The answer depends on the school, and the student.
With its annual list, NEWSWEEK honors top schools that help regular kids succeed in college.
By Barbara Kantrowitz and Pat Wingert, Newsweek
With Dan Brillman, Michal Lumsden, Le Datta Grimes and Dave Kotok
Sent by Dr. Armando A. Ayala

May 8, 2006 issue - If you want to understand what's happening in some of America's most innovative public high schools, think back to your own experiences in that petri dish of adolescent social stratification known as the cafeteria. Were you a jock? A theater geek? A science whiz? Part of the arty crowd? Whatever your inclination, it defined where you sat. Now imagine that each of those tables was a school in itself—with a curriculum based on sports, drama, science or art and a student body with shared interests and common aptitudes. That radical idea is transforming thousands of high schools. A one-size-fits-all approach no longer works for everyone, the new thinking goes; a more individualized experience is better. "We are changing the goal of high school and what it's possible to achieve there," says Tom Vander Ark, executive director of the Gates Foundation's education initiative, which has spent $1 billion in 1,600 high schools in 40 states plus the District of Columbia over the last six years.

For parents and students, these schools mean an often bewildering array of choices—small schools within larger schools, specialized charter and magnet schools for things ranging from fashion design to computer programming, even public boarding schools for budding physicists or artists. On the plus side, students get more adult attention and are less likely to be lost in the crowd. They can focus on subjects they really care about while still getting a grounding in the basics. But some educators think this boutique approach comes with a cost: the loss of a common experience that brings everyone together under one big roof. Maintaining quality is another major obstacle. "I think we're still flailing around," says James Anderson, a professor of educational-policy studies at the University of Illinois. "A lot of this is more theater than substance." Vander Ark agrees that the new schools need to prove they're providing a markedly better alternative to regular public schools. "We want to make sure people raise the bar," he says.

Educators have been demanding reform for decades, and it has often seemed as if ferocious policy debates were the biggest obstacles to improvement. Reformers in the 1980s wanted to make all students college-ready with a rigorous core curriculum. A decade later, school choice and testing were the big buzzwords, with some activists arguing that the entire public-school system should be dismantled. More recently, small schools—first proposed decades ago—have gained traction with funding from organizations like the Gates Foundation and the New Schools Venture Fund.

With our Best High Schools list, NEWSWEEK recognizes schools that do the best job of preparing average students for college. By dividing the number of AP and IB tests taken at a school by the number of graduating seniors, we can measure how committed the school is to helping kids take college-level courses. We think kids at those schools have an edge, no matter their economic background. But many schools not on our list are also challenging students in innovative ways—proof that the national experiment in high-school education is just beginning. Ask yourself, "What is high school really for?" Then look around at the options available to today's teenagers: diverse and compelling answers abound. Here are some of them.

Create Good Citizens 
Everyone pays for public schools, so it makes sense that a primary mission should be teaching students to participate in the democratic process. A generation ago many schools required civics courses; far fewer do so today. "There is so much emphasis on preparing kids to survive economically," says Constancia Warren, senior program officer and director of urban-high-school initiatives for the Carnegie Corp. of New York. "As a result, are we really preparing kids for citizenship?"

In the past decade, many schools have started requiring community service. The César Chávez High School for Public Policy pushes that idea all the way to Capitol Hill, which, fortunately, is within walking distance. In addition to a rigorous college-prep curriculum, students work as interns in Congress, at think tanks and advocacy groups in Washington. As seniors, they write a thesis on a public-policy issue and give a presentation before an audience that forces them to defend their stand.

The school is the brainchild of Irasema Salcido, who emigrated from Mexico as a child and now holds a master's degree from Harvard. "I saw that the young people who live here were not included in the world of policymakers," says Salcido, who had been an assistant principal at another public school. "But who better than these students to develop policy changes that would affect the quality of their lives, in terms of poverty, unemployment, crime?"

Chávez now has 500 students, the majority from low-income families. They're budding activists like 17-year-old Eusevia Valdez, who had no idea what public policy was when she enrolled in the fledgling charter school as a freshman. Four years later, she not only understands public policy, she lives it. She wrote her senior thesis on flaws in immigration laws, something she understands from personal experience. Her parents are legal immigrants and she was born here, but the family has struggled to bring her older siblings to the United States from their native El Salvador. Her oldest sister was 21 before the paperwork was approved and, as a result, has been refused permission to immigrate. Her years at Chávez, she says, "taught me to fight for what I believe in."

Celebrate Liberal Arts 
Practical concerns—like helping kids figure out a career path—were not on the minds of the founders of Tempe Preparatory Academy in Arizona a decade ago. Instead, they created a charter school whose goal is to turn out students engaged in "the lifelong pursuit of truth, goodness and beauty," according to the school handbook. For 330 students in grades 7 to 12 that means providing a strong foundation in the arts, science and the humanities. The curriculum is based on the Great Books concept—the basis of Western Civilization, starting with the Greeks. "We don't want kids to specialize," says Daniel Scoggin, CEO of Great Hearts Preparatory Academies, the organization behind Tempe and two other similar schools in the Phoenix area. "We want them to get a broad, well-rounded education." All students take music, art, drama, math and science, languages (including Latin or Greek or a modern language), English and history.

Tempe's rigorous program impresses other educators. "It feels like a private prep school," says Stephanie Saroki, education analyst for the Philanthropy Roundtable, "but it's free and available to kids living in a lower-middle-class area." The school is so popular that there's a lottery for admissions. The education is a hard six years, but worth it, says senior Joseph Irvine, 17. "They don't just feed us information," he says. "They teach us how to learn." Irvine recently put that spirit to good use for the school. There are no computer courses, so he proposed an independent-study project on programming in his sophomore year. He spent that time creating a software program for the admissions lottery. The school used Irvine's program this year to select the incoming class at Tempe Prep and the other Great Hearts schools—a very practical benefit of a lofty goal.

Prepare for Work 
Most high-paying jobs require some education beyond a high-school diploma, but kids from many families often struggle to get a college education. Early-college high schools can get them on track. By taking a combination of high-school and college courses over four or five years, students graduate with both a high-school diploma and an associate's degree—the equivalent of the first two years of college—at no additional cost. From there, they can enter the work force or finish the last two years of college. In North Carolina, Gov. Mike Easley is trying to expand that concept to include students from all of the state's 100 counties by 2008 (there are just 13 of these schools now). North Carolina's Learn and Earn schools, Easley says, are based on the theory that if you learn more, you earn more. "In North Carolina, a lot of people grew up expecting to work in the textile mills, just like their parents did, and their grandparents did," says Easley. "But now, those jobs have gone to Asia." Education is the answer, he says: "We're trying to create the best work force in the world."

The early-college concept has its critics. "No one knows what the right model is," says Saroki of the Philanthropy Roundtable. "We're still very early in the process." Many admissions officers at elite colleges don't like it much, either, because they generally want students to take all their courses on campus. "I think they're just trying to rush them through all of this quicker," says Cliff Sjögren, former dean of admissions at the University of Michigan. "If this is the way we're going to go, then I feel sorry for the future of the country." But early-college supporters say the concept could inspire students. "This may be enough to flip the switch for some kids and provide them with a sense of motivation," says Vander Ark.

Help Boys and Girls Succeed—Separately 
The first American public high school, established in Boston in 1821, was only for boys. But as the high-school movement spread, new schools quickly became coed, says David Tyack, an education historian at Stanford University. "Almost right from the beginning, society believed in integration by sex," he says. Now a small group of educators—bolstered by studies that show boys and girls learn differently—are turning to single-sex classrooms as a way to re-engage students, especially in low-income communities. One of the first to gain national attention was the Young Women's Leadership School in New York's East Harlem, now considered one of the best public schools in the city. Research on the effect of single-sex schools is mixed, and there are no studies on single-sex classrooms in schools. Experts who study single-sex schools say there's considerable evidence that smaller class sizes would help just as much, especially for middle-class kids. But for boys from poor families, that extra attention and focus can make a difference, says Cornelius Riordan, a sociology professor at Providence College who is directing a study on single-sex schools for the U.S. Department of Education.

Schools all over the country are experimenting with the idea. At Lloyd Memorial High School in Erlanger, Ky., freshmen and sophomores were separated by gender last fall for all classes except one, their elective. At the end of the year, the consensus among teachers and the principal is that single-sex works. Students have mixed views. "You don't have the distraction of boys sitting in your classroom," says Katie Brown, 15. "You can just come to class and you're actually in it to learn, not to impress." But after an exuberant all-boys science class (the centerpiece was a generator sending off electric sparks), 14-year-old Zack Craddock thought he would have had just as much fun if there were girls in the class. "I think it's personal," he says. "Some guys would have acted the same and some guys would have acted different. I would have been the same." Principal John Riehemann originally backed the idea as a way to help boys, who were consistently lagging behind in reading. One issue: too much of the material was girl-oriented. That led to the even more radical move of segregating almost all classes. Riehemann said there were no objections from parents or teachers, and the experiment has worked so well that they're expanding it to juniors in the fall.

Emphasize Science and Technology 
Competency in science and math are critical to the nation's economic strength, and districts around the country are looking for ways to get as many students as possible ready for technical careers. "High-school reform used to be the province of bleeding-heart liberals," says Van Schoales of the Colorado Children's Campaign. "Now it's different because the stakes are higher." That means reaching kids who might not have thought about science as a career. The Denver School of Science and Technology, an 18-month-old charter school, has attracted 229 students in grades 9 and 10—about 60 percent minority and 45 percent from low-income families. The plan is to expand by a grade each year. With a sleek brick façade, the school looks more like it belongs in Silicon Valley than a Denver neighborhood in the midst of redevelopment. Every student gets a tablet laptop for taking notes and the whole school has wireless access.

A big hurdle, says head of school Bill Kurtz, is getting every kid to the same academic level. Some of their previous schools had little math or science or even good reading programs. Summer courses, small seminars and a tutoring program taught by local college students help fill that gap. The day begins with a morning meeting, where all students gather and get a chance to talk about what's on their minds. "At this school, everybody knows everybody," says 10th-grader Nico Lujan, 15. That community support has inspired him to aim for a career in engineering.

Reach Out to Everyone 
When Britney Spears first appeared in Omaha for a 1999 concert, she didn't tell the screaming teens in the audience that she was a recent graduate of a Nebraska high school. But the Louisiana native is one of many teen celebs who've earned diplomas or class credits at online high schools that trace their roots to a correspondence course started in 1929 as a way to bring high school to far-flung ranch and farm kids. Andrea Bowen (Julie Mayer on "Desperate Housewives"), Justin Timberlake, Emmy Rossum and Andy Roddick all signed up for the University of Nebraska's Independent Study High School. The public school's student body is spread out over all 50 states and 145 countries (mainly Americans overseas). Callaway McCann, a 16-year-old pro-tennis hopeful from Kentucky, signed up so she'd have more time to practice. "I've been in school my whole life and I loved it," she says. "But I love this more." It costs her $1,500 (Nebraskans get a 10 percent discount) for five classes: English, chemistry, Spanish, government and geometry. And she's still going to the prom with friends from her old school. "It's like I never left."

Creating a connection is even more important for kids at the opposite end of the economic spectrum who desperately need to be brought under the tent. Denver's Street School's west campus serves about 50 students who have previously failed at high school because of drugs, fighting, pregnancy or other personal problems. It's a "second chance" school, with students referred by counselors, pastors, probation officers or social workers. The Denver school is one of 43 Street Schools around the country whose mission is to reach students in trouble. Despite the students' difficult backgrounds, the school is surprisingly violence-free. Founder Tom Tillapaugh says that's because the kids know that if they're kicked out, they won't be allowed back in. The school is faith-based; there's chapel once a week. That's as important to the school's success as behavior rules, says Tillapaugh. He hopes to teach them that "someone created me for a purpose—I matter," along with the basics of math and reading. This year, the Street School will graduate at least seven seniors—kids who made the most out of their second chance. That's the kind of success that could put any school at the top of the list.

Assimilation Of Immigrants A Fact, Says UCLA Sociologist Edward Telles
Sent by John Schmal

Texas A&M News Archive

Immigrants from Mexico are assimilating into American life, gradually losing their dependence on their native tongue and manifesting a love for their adopted country, a sociologist noted for his research into Hispanic and Latino issues told a Texas A&M University audience on Tuesday.

"Social science evidence shows that Mexican-Americans are highly patriotic and lose Spanish skills over generations since immigration," said Edward E. Telles, who received his doctorate from the University of Texas and now teaches at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). "But there is a persistent lag compared to white Americans in the education and socioeconomic status of these immigrants.

"This problem, however, is due not to the unwillingness of Latinos to adopt American values and culture but rather to the failure of societal institutions, particularly public schools, to successfully incorporate these individuals, as they did for the descendants of European immigrants."

Telles delivered his remarks on "Latinos: Building America and Becoming America," a lecture co-hosted by Texas A&M President Robert Gates and Executive Vice President and Provost David Prior at the Annenberg Presidential Conference Center. Gates noted that he sees such lectures as a means of provoking thoughtful debate on international issues as they impact the nation.

Telles bases his conclusions on empirical research, including his own study of the changing situations of Mexican-Americans living in San Antonio and Los Angeles surveyed by another group of researchers in 1965, then again between 1998 and 2002 by Telles and his colleagues.

"We started out to locate all the respondents to the 1965 survey who were under 50 at that time, and we found two-thirds of them," Telles said. "Then we went on to survey a random sample of their children and grandchildren."

Telles' survey results revealed that the trajectory of Mexican-American assimilation into United States culture followed a path similar to the experience earlier immigrants from Europe and Africa, but also exhibited many differences from both these groups. Most of those surveyed had learned English by the second generation, and by the fourth generation, only five percent of them spoke Spanish to their children.

"As far as adopting American culture, other researchers have found Mexican-Americans to have similar attitudes toward such things as patriotism as 'regular' Americans," Telles said, "although this particular study was concerned more with behaviors than with attitudes.

"One point where the Mexican-American experience deviates from that of earlier immigrants concerns the stubborn persistence of low levels of educational attainment, with school completion statistics for second generation immigrants topping those for later generations."

Telles points to a lack of a supporting immigrant community as later generations move away from their cultural roots, as well as diminishing optimism on the part of parents as they remain in unskilled, low-paying jobs, despite educational striving, as factors helping to produce this educational lag. These problems may be exacerbated by the loss of high-paid industrial jobs in the United States, jobs traditionally occupied by recent immigrants who used their resulting prosperity to gain a better life for successive generations, and by a continued dependence on immigrant labor in some low-paying occupations. In addition, many immigrants attend public schools in the inner cities or in poor rural districts, where schools are the worst, resulting in a high dropout rate, Telles said.

Telles' lecture was seen as a counterpoint to an October talk at Texas A&M given by Samuel P. Huntington of Harvard. At that time, Huntington alleged that Mexican-Americans are failing to assimilate into American culture as past immigrants have done, potentially culminating in the U.S. splitting into two nations with two languages and two different cultures.

Telles characterized Huntington's views as based on flawed analysis and anecdotal evidence, not supported by hard empirical research. Such unsupported opinions may contribute to "Mexico bashing" and bolster a hard line on immigration among some Americans.

"Our research - and common sense - show that assimilation occurs unconsciously, as immigrants participate in the daily life of their new country, as they enter better, more middle class jobs, work alongside non-ethnic co-workers and move into non-immigrant neighborhoods," Telles noted. "The pace of assimilation may vary across immigrant groups depending on the economic opportunities available, the assistance individuals receive from the government, the human capital immigrants bring with them, and racial and social constraints, but, over time, it occurs.

"These new waves of immigration offer Americans the opportunity to embrace the country's intricate ethnic heritage, but for Mexican-American immigrants to fully join mainstream society, more emphasis must be given to educating them to bridge the gap," he concluded.

Contact: Judith White,, (979) 845-4645.


Sent by Juan Ramos
Planning tool kits, learning service curriculum guides, and other resources are available at:


During his 2005 State of the Union Address, President Bush announced that Mrs. Laura Bush would lead a new initiative, which has been named Helping America's Youth, focused on connecting at-risk youth with family, school, and their community in order to help children and teens reach their full potential. Nine Federal agencies have come together to contribute their knowledge and programs to the Helping America's Youth initiative by developing The Community Guide to Helping America's Youth. The Guide will help communities build partnerships   assess needs and resources  and select from program designs that could be replicated in their community

The adolescent years are a time of life that brings special challenges and opportunities. Not yet adults and no longer children, teenagers make important choices that influence their immediate and future health, safety, and well-being. During this period of exploration, youth also start to make choices about their future and develop ideas about who they are in their communities and the world at large. These years provide an important opportunity for families, schools, and communities to support and encourage teens to make wise and healthy choices that will help them successfully transition to adulthood.

* The Importance of Family: Parents and family are the first and most important influence in every child's life, providing a foundation of love and support.

* The Importance of School: Schools equip children and youth with the knowledge and skills to be successful throughout their lives.

* The Importance of Community: What matters most in a child's life is a loving, caring adult, whether that is a parent, teacher, coach, pastor, or mentor. The needs of youth are best addressed by communities working together-parents and families, schools, faith-based and community groups, businesses, and government.

Most American youth receive support and guidance from their families, schools, and communities. Today, fewer youth are smoking, using illegal drugs, and drinking alcohol. More youth, including older teens, are enrolled in school and they're more likely to complete high school. Unfortunately, many young Americans are still at risk of not making a successful transition to adulthood. They may live in unsafe environments; their families may not be able to provide the structure and nurturing essential for healthy development; and they may engage in such risky behaviors as using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs; early sexual activity; unsafe driving; and violence. These risky behaviors jeopardize young people's health, safety, and well-being, and engaging in multiple risky behaviors puts them at even great danger.

HHS Offers Improved Computer Tool in Spanish and English; 
National Council of La Raza Takes Family History Curriculum Back to Communities

Calling on all Spanish-speaking Americans to "know their family history," U.S. Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona, M.D., M.P.H., announced the availability of an updated version of a free, computerized tool in Spanish, designed to help Spanish-speaking families gather their health information. In addition, he praised the National Council of La Raza's Institute for Hispanic Health(NCLR/IHH) for developing its own family history consumer outreach program for Spanish-speaking Americans based on the framework made available by the Surgeon General's Family History Initiative.  

To help families organize their health histories, the Surgeon General developed "My Family Health Portrait," a computerized, information-organizing tool that makes creating a family health history easier and more efficient for both patients and health-care professionals. Now, a new, free, Web-based version of the tool is available in Spanish. It organizes a family's health history into a printout that people can then take to their health-care professional to help determine whether they are at higher risk for disease. The Spanish version of the tool is available on the Internet at  For additional information about the U.S. Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, please visit . NCLR/IHH has provided 33 "promotores de salud" (lay health educators) with linguistically and culturally appropriate materials to communicate the value of genetic information, and its relation to family history, to Spanish-speaking communities in an effort to improve their health. NCLR/IHH launched the yearlong education and training program in spring 2005.  For more information on NCLR, please visit


HHS-HEO Communities' Digest 
Information on Federal Programs regarding health, education, etc. 

The HHS-HEO Communities Digest Listserv features information on Federal programs and other sources related to health, social services, education and related topics. In addition, information
is provided on employment and grant opportunities. The information's gleaned from Federal agencies such as the Departments of Health and Human Services, Education and Labor, as well as various organizations and institutes associated with the health and social services areas.

The Digest reaches over 1,000 community-based organizations and individuals, and continues to grow. To retrieve back Issues of the HHS-HEO Digest please click on the following URL for the archives at:

To subscribe: send an E-mail message to LISTSERV@LIST.NIH.GOV   In the message area, type SUBSCRIBE HEO-INFO-L Firstname Lastname  (Type Your Name Here)   Send Message


Hard work helps tear down some old walls
Yvette Cabrera, Orange County Register, Register columnist

Not many people own up to their biases and prejudices. In fact, most of us would like to believe that we're beyond that in this post-segregation, post-affirmative-action era that we live in today.
Yet are we? Growing up in Texas during the 1960s and '70s, BJ Hickman says she was raised to believe that Hispanics were lazy.

Then seven years ago she became a restaurant waitress, working as a server at BJ's Restaurant & Brewery in Seal Beach and then the Yard House restaurant in Costa Mesa.

"I remember thinking within a week, where in the world did that come from," she says of the lazy stereotype.  She'd start to bus a table and within seconds her assigned busboys would appear, take the plates from her hands and whisk everything away.  

"That was my job; that wasn't their job," says Hickman. "They did that because of the relationship that we built. ... It has a lot to do with the humanity. They just know that we respect them as people."

They were more than just fellow employees; they were friends to her. So over time, she learned that one busboy worked a 3 a.m. breakfast shift at Taco Mesa until early afternoon, slept for two hours, then arrived at the Yard House to work a nine-hour shift. Another busboy hadn't seen his wife for three or four years, but sent his wages from the restaurant and his newspaper delivery job every month to Mexico. "I remember thinking that's so noble and that's such an example to society of what we should all be and how committed we should all be," says Hickman, a mother of two grown children.

All across Orange County, from Ruby's Diner, to fast-food chains like Pick Up Stix, to swanky restaurants like Mastro's Ocean Club, you'll find the same scenario: It's the Latino immigrant who is washing the dishes, preparing the food or busing the tables.

For many, these workers might be invisible, but not for Hickman or her 24-year-old daughter Lyndsea Tim Tim, who became a restaurant server at 18 and continues to work at BJ's Restaurant & Brewery in Huntington Beach to pay for college.

"People take what they get from them, and they don't really acknowledge them as human beings most of the time," says Hickman, who stopped waitressing three years ago.

Tim Tim, who learned Spanish in high school, says learning a language gave her an appreciation for the effort Latino immigrants make to learn a second language. So at work, she says, the staff learns both English and Spanish from each other, and you're more likely to hear the servers ask for "más pan," not "more bread."

"My mom and I have the philosophy where we take care of them and they take care of us," says Tim Tim, whose husband is Filipino.  Not all servers have this attitude, however. Some servers would confess to Hickman that they felt uncomfortable when the cooks or busboys spoke Spanish to each other.

"They've not done anything, said anything, but (the servers) built that wall," says Hickman. "I just always made sure that the wall wasn't there." 

It's a wall that she's had to break down brick by brick over time. In Greenville, Texas, a small town of about 20,000 people just northeast of Dallas, her parents had friends who were African-American, and yet Hickman says they used the N word. Her mother once said "I'm not a racist, I'm a nationalist. I just believe that people should stick with their own race."

Greenville's high school was integrated in the early '70s while Hickman was a student. There were riots on campus and fights in the halls, and although Hickman had friends who were African-American, because of the volatility at school she says she still feared blacks.

"Prejudice is such an insidious thing because it's there when you think it's not. It's lurking all the time and it's something we always have to be aware of and fight against," says Hickman. By the time she graduated, her class was fully integrated, she says, and she had friends of all races.

Today, Hickman says she strives to learn something new every day and to be open-minded because she's learned that so much of what she was taught wasn't true.  As she hears the animosity and anger of people who vilify undocumented immigrants, she thinks back to the prejudices she grew up with and the reality she experienced working with Latino immigrants.

"The answer for me is to just love people, to look for an opportunity to close that gap and to teach my children and grandchildren the same thing," says Hickman.  What would happen if more people were as honest as Hickman and willing to admit the prejudices we all have? Would we have activists clamoring to build a wall between Mexico and the United States? I don't think so.

We may have gotten past segregation, but there are still many walls that divide us as a community.

Bullfights scaled down for 9 year old boy

by Mark Stevenson, AP via O.C. Register, 5-8-06

Mexico City"s Rafita Mirabal does what few would when faced with an angry, 400-pound animal charging at him: He holds his ground.

He is armed with nothing but a red cape and a short sword. He is also 9 years old.  Rafita already has had about two dozen fights in bullrings since 2005 including his latest challenge Sunday in Texcoco, near Mexico City. •

His contests differ slightly from a regular bullfight. The animals are younger and somewhat smaller, and he does not give the matador's final death blow with his sword. The ban on sword play is to protect the sport's reputation.

Rafita isn't strong enough yet to drive a full sword into a bull's heart, and as a result, "he might just wound the animals, and then they would repeat the thing about (the sport) being a massacre," said his manager, Jose San Martin, citing protests by animal-rights activists. San Martin expects Rafita to be killing bulls by the time he's 11 or 12. Most bullfighters start when they're 15 or older.

In Texcoco, Rafita challenged a 2-year-old "vaquilla"  a cow with horns - and nearly lost. The cow tossed him in the air, then to the ground between its horns and then trampled him, but left him unharmed. Two older bullfighters who accompany and observe Rafita in the ring  but avoid interfering in his fights - distracted the animal, giving Rafita time to dust himself off and return to the fight.

"That was nothing," he said, his eyes tearing "from emotion" and a bruise appearing to form on his cheek. "It was good, very good." San Martin discovered Rafita at a bullfighting school in Aguascalientes state. "He stood out from the rest of the boys even though he's small in stature, because of his seriousness, and his great devotion," San Martin said.


Clay's Kitchen Mexican 
Recommended site by Joan de Soto
Lots of recipes that look fairly simple to prepare. May we all be inspired!!


Congressional Gold Medal recipients
Sent by Rafael Ojeda RSNOJEDA

Education: Dr. Antonia Pantoja (Puerto Rico)
Film: Rita Moreno (PR),
Music/singer: Placido Domingo (Spain)
Law: Cruz Reynosa
Activist: Cesar Chavez & Mario Obledo
Head of State/Gov: Luis Munoz-Marin & Luis A. Ferre (Both Governors of PR)
Religion: Sor. Isolina Ferre, Famous NY Nun, sister of Gov. Luis Ferre.
Sports: Roberto Clemente (PR)
Gama (Brazil), Naon (Agentina) & Saurez-Mojica (Chile) and Manuel De la Puente 



by Rogelio Gomez Jr. 9/00
Sent by Dorinda Moreno
Source: Johnny Silvas

I was born into several inclusive familias without having to go out of my way to join them. I was born in Texas and took my first breath as a baby humano. I was now a member of the human family. A few days later, my birth certificate said I was an Americano. I was happy being an Americano until I was old enough to understand that in South Texas, with a name like Gomez, the law recognized me as a Mexicano. I was cool with that since everyone picking cotton alongside my family was also Mexicano and it was good to be with a group that was warm and referred to each other as comadre or compadre.

When I started school, I found out that because I was born in the great state of Texas, I also have the distinction of being a Tejano. At that stage in my life, it was great to be a Tejano because all my heroes were cowboys and what better place to be from if you wanted to be a cowboy. I went through school being a Humano/Americano/Mexicano/Tejano and it was great to belong to my growing family. 

After graduation, I joined the military as many Humanos/Americanos/Mexicanos/Tejanos did and as a result of that, I became a Veterano. One of the benefits of being a Veterano was that I was able to attend the University in the early 70's. If you were an Humano/Americano/Mexicano/Tejano/Veterano student in Califas in the early 70's, you naturally became a Chicano. I liked being a Chicano and finding out about my roots in the first of many Mexican-American Studies classes taught by real Chicano professors. 

After college, I settled into a government job. I was happy but still felt I lacked a connection so, being the Humano/Americano/Mexicano/Tejano/Veterano/Chicano that I had become; I joined LULAC and became a United League Latino. I was happy being a Latino and working to improve our community. Belonging to these great familias filled me with a sense of responsibility and pride.

A few years back, I found out that I am an Hispano as defined by the good ole U.S. of A. and that time had been set aside every fall to make others aware of my new and expanding family.

I did not choose to be an Humano/Americano/Mexicano/Tejano/Veterano/Chicano/Latino/ Hispano nor any other label. The choice I had was in how these labels would affect and impact my life. I could reject them and say I'm a member of the human family only, as some have said, or I can embrace them as a gift of life and let my actions define who I am, as some have done. 

Having lived, loved and celebrated every occasion is what I will remember when I finally become an Humano/Americano/Mexicano/Tejano/Veterano/Chicano/Latino/Hispano/Anciano. 


A new poll finds that the term 'Hispanic' is preferred
By Christine Granados

Are you a Hispanic or a Latino? We have been asking ourselves this question since the seventies when the government adopted the term "Hispanic" to keep population statistics and monitor compliance to Affirmative Action laws. And the answer isn't as clear-cut as one might expect. Choosing one term over the other means taking a political, social, and even a generational stand.
Stereotypically, those who call themselves Hispanic are more assimilated, conservative, and young, while those who choose the term Latino tend to be liberal, older, and sometimes radical.
A recent presidential tracking poll by Hispanic Trends, Inc., a polling firm associated with this magazine, wanted to put the identity issue to rest once and for all by asking registered voters which term they preferred-Hispanic or Latino. The result was something of a surprise: A majority prefer the term Hispanic.

Sergio Bendixen, president of Hispanic Trends, says his company decided to put the question in its poll for obvious reasons. "It's something Hispanics and Latinos have been debating for years, and no one seems to have asked the question. So we decided to ask it," he says.

Of the 1,200 Latino registered voters polled, 65 percent preferred the term Hispanic, and 30 percent chose to identify themselves as Latino. Regionally, the results were similar. This random sample showed that 67 percent of Mexican Americans in Texas preferred the term Hispanic, as did 52 percent of Latinos in California and New York. 

Bendixen, who has been conducting polls for 25 years, says the results surprised him. "I thought the term Latino would be the overwhelming winner, because I've worked in California for Univisión and Telemundo, and I was not allowed to say Hispanic on the air. When I did, we got a lot of complaints." 

But 24-year-old Daniel Villaruel, a student at California State University Northridge, was not surprised by the poll results. "That makes sense," says the fourth-generation Spanish American.

"Because registered voters tend to be second- and third-generation Hispanics and they tend to be more assimilated."  Bendixen explains it this way, "I think that the people who don't like the term Hispanic are very vocal." 

'I thought the term Latino would be the overwhelming winner ... I've worked in California for Univisión andTelemundo, and I was not allowed to say Hispanic on the air.'
- Sergio Bendixen, Hispanic Trends 

Like author and poet Sandra Cisneros, who has identified herself as Latina, Chicana, Tejana, and Mexican American, but never Hispanic. Cisneros is so offended by the term that she has refused to be pictured on the cover of this magazine. [HISPANIC Magazine uses the terms interchangeably.] "The term Hispanic makes my skin crawl," Cisneros, 45, says. "It's a very colonistic term, a disrespectful term, a term imposed on us without asking what we wanted to call ourselves." 

What she finds most objectionable about the word Hispanic is that the younger generation is accepting the term without questioning where it came from, and who gave the term to them. She blames the Reagan Administration for applying the unwanted label back in the eighties (although the term itself is much older). "How would Reagan feel if we said, 'We're going to call your people "los gueros"? We're just going to group you all together-the Irish, Polish, Lithuanian, English-and we're going to call you 'pinkies' without asking." 

Cisneros believes that the "dominant culture" imposed this label on Latinos as a way of erasing their identity and their past. And she finds this carefree labeling the most insidious destruction of all. "I'm a poet, so words have their resonance. People don't think about how language can be creative and destructive," Cisneros says. 

'We'll never have agreement on what to call such a diverse group of people. We're not going to solve the debate in my lifetime.'-Sylvia Martínez, Editor-Latina

Celestino Fernández, a professor of sociology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, objects to the term Hispanic for the same reasons Cisneros gives. "It's like the difference between African American, Colored, or Negro," the 51-year-old doctor of sociology says. "That's the issue: Who is naming you? The dominant structure came up with the generic Hispanic term."

He says that the term Hispanic has been used for many years now, beginning at least two censuses ago, and it's fairly ingrained in the daily language. "I have found that the older generation prefers the term Latino and the younger population prefers Hispanic," he says. "I've seen some change over time. Many more people are confused about the term Latino. They don't know where the term comes from, especially the native-born Hispanics." 

The word Hispanic is derived from the word España, the country that led the conquest of the New World and whose language and culture has dominated Latin America. The word Latino traces its roots back to ancient Rome and some say it's more inclusive, encompassing Latin American countries such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and others, according to Himilce Novas' book, Everything You Need to Know About Latino History. 

Zachary González, a 27-year-old human resources specialist, attending Roosevelt University in Chicago, is more comfortable with the word Hispanic. "It's a more politically correct word that people outside the race can understand," he says. However, if he had his druthers, "I'm American first, Hispanic if pressed," says the Mexican American raised in Texas.

Villaruel, the 24-year-old studying for a bachelor's degree in business at Northridge, says he also prefers the term Hispanic because his parents are of Spanish Portuguese descent. But he prefers to refer to himself as Spanish American.

Which leads to another point: "If people were given the choice among several terms they would not pick either Latino or Hispanic, but a term closer to how they think of themselves," says Fernández. "Most people think of themselves as Mexican Americans, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans." 

María E. Martín, executive director of Latino USA, a radio journal of news and culture that is heard on National Public Radio, isn't exactly comfortable with the term Hispanic, but her views regarding the term have shifted somewhat. "My reaction to the term back then [in the seventies] was that it was the dominant culture's attempt to homogenize Latinos," Martin, who is in her forties, says. 

But, "[Hispanic] has become much more a part of our reality, and it doesn't feel so much as something that was imposed on us." In fact, the radio journal uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably depending on the person being interviewed. They are sensitive to what each interviewee prefers to be called. 

As does Latina magazine. The fashion, beauty and health magazine for Hispanic women chose its name based on focus groups. Women responded to the term Latina more positively than other terms, says editor-and-chief Sylvia Martínez. The bilingual publication is sensitive to a person's preference. She, like Martin, is finding that more and more people are accepting the term Hispanic. 

"It's been a debate that's been going on forever," the 39-year-old Mexican American says. "I'm not hung up on what someone calls me, but I'm also mindful of what term I use whenever I'm speaking. 

Rick Dovalina, the national president for League of United Latin American Citizens, thinks the debate is ridiculous. "I really don't have any comments on this topic because I think it's silly. I don't like to get into that here because there are more important issues for us to discuss out there," the 52-year-old Chicano says.

"The most important thing is whatever you decide to call yourself you need to be in tune with each group. Latinos in South Florida need to be in tune with Hispanics in South Texas and Arizona." 

Perhaps the 37-year-old Puerto Rican, Colombian writer and actor John Leguizamo summed up the younger generation's sentiment about identity best. He said he used to call himself Spanish, but now prefers the term Latino. But he doesn't have a problem with Hispanic. "Now 'wetback, greasy spic,' that's offensive," he told Novas. 

Perhaps finding a term that all Hispanics can agree on is an elusive goal. "We'll never have agreement on what to call such a diverse group of people," says Latina's Martínez. "One thing I know for sure is that we're not going to solve the Latino/Hispanic debate in my lifetime."

What the Hispanic Trends poll did definitively prove was that the debate over the terms Hispanic and Latino will continue to rage. H 

Methodology: The Hispanic Trends Inc. poll is based on a survey of 1,200 Latino registered voters interviewed between September and November 4. The margin of error is +/- 3 percentage points. Hispanic Trends is a polling firm owned by Hispanic Publishing Corporation, which publishes HISPANIC Magazine. 

That is an interesting debate and one that I can only speak for myself. 

I'm from Texas of Mexican decent and I don't have a problem with the word Hispanic. I realized this is a term originated by Census Bureau in order to track the growth of the Spanish speaking population. I also realized that this is a term used exclusively in the United States. However, I'm more than just Latina. I'm also an American, a Texan, and from Mexican, Native-American, French, and Spanish decent. I'm a "Mutt" and very proud to be such a glorious mixture. 

It reminds me of school math problems where you have sets and subsets. Being Latin or Latino includes people whose origins are Latin base; it refers to the root of their language. This includes individuals coming from France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Albania, and Romania. To me being Hispanic includes only those whose language of origins is Spanish. This means all "Hispanics" are Latinos, but not all Latinos are Hispanic. 

It is our responsibility to assure that our culture and people are portrayed as accurately as possible. If we must be categorized, then let us be categorized with a term that unites us, rather than divides us. The term Hispanic, includes all of us accurately without regard to race, creed, color or national origin. --- Wendy 

Ten years ago, the definition of Hispanic was "an American of Spanish or Latin American Descent". Now, Webster says "a person of Latin American descent living in the U.S.; especially one of Cuban, Mexican or Puerto Rican origin". So now, the Spanish "thread" is gone. In essence, Webster says that a Hispanic is a Latino/Latina. How much does this matter? 

Gabriela DeWitt 

Hispanic identity is further complicated by still another factor.  Pat Rose, head of Orange County, California's FBI's anti-terrorist squad, when asked about racial profiling concerns, answered. That would be a mistake, she said. "We have our own American-raised individual who have converted to Islam," she said, "as well as Arabs coming to the U.S. who are trying to Westernize their appearance and pass for Hispanic." 

Frank Mickadeit, Orange County Columnist, May 25, 2006, pg 2 Local


Latinos or Hispanics?  A Debate About Identity 

By Darryl Fears
© The Washington Post

On a recent summer's day, Sandra Cisneros walked into Valenzuela's Latino Bookstore and thought she had discovered a treasure. It was one of the few independent book sellers in her home town of San Antonio, and on top of that, she said, its name appealed directly to her. 

But within minutes, her mood changed. A clerk innocently used a word to describe a section of books that made Cisneros's skin crawl. "She used the word Hispanic," Cisneros said, her voice dripping with indignation. "I wanted to ask her, 'Why are you using that word?'

"People who use that word don't know why they're using it," said Cisneros, a Mexican American poet and novelist. "To me, it's like a slave name. I'm a Latina." 

That declaration -- "I'm a Latina" -- is resounding more and more through the vast and diverse Spanish-speaking population that dethroned African Americans as the nation's largest ethnic group a few months ago. It is also deepening a somewhat hidden but contentious debate over how the group should identify itself -- as Hispanics or Latinos. 

The debate is increasingly popping up wherever Spanish speakers gather. It was raised last month at the National Council of La Raza's convention in Austin. The Internet is littered with articles and position papers on the issue. Civic organizations with Hispanic in their titles have withstood revolts by activist members seeking to replace it with the word Latino. 

Cisneros refused to appear on the cover of Hispanic magazine earlier this year because of its name. She relented only after editors allowed her to wear a huge faux tattoo on her biceps that read "Pura Latina," or Pure Latina. 

Another Mexican American writer, Luis J. Rodriguez, only reluctantly accepted an award from a Hispanic organization "because I'm not Hispanic," he said. Some have called the argument an insignificant disagreement over words that is being blown out of proportion. 

But others believe such labels can change the course of a people, as advocates of "black power" showed when they cast aside the term Negro during their crusade for self-determination amid the 1960s civil rights movement. "I think the debate reflects the flux this community is in right now," said Angelo Falcon, a senior policy executive for the Puerto Rican Legal and Education Fund. "It's almost like a story where you ask, 'Where might this community be going?' " 

Although the terms Latino and Hispanic have been used interchangeably for decades, experts who have studied their meanings say the words trace the original bloodlines of Spanish speakers to different populations in opposite parts of the world. Hispanics derive from the mostly white Iberian peninsula that includes Spain and Portugal, while Latinos are descended from the brown indigenous Indians of the Americas south of the United States and in the Caribbean, conquered by Spain centuries ago. 

Latino-Hispanic is an ethnic category in which people can be of any race. They are white, like the Mexican American boxer Oscar de la Hoya, and black, like the Dominican baseball slugger Sammy Sosa. They can also be Ameri-Indian and Asian. A great many are mixtures of several races. More than 90 percent of those who said they are of "some other race" on the 2000 Census identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino. "As a poet, I'm especially sensitive to the power a word has," said Cisneros, who wrote the books "Caramelo" and "The House on Mango Street." "It's not a word. It's a way of looking at the world. It's a way of looking at meaning." 

Duard Bradshaw has a different opinion. "I'll tell you why I like the word Hispanic," said the Panamanian president of the Hispanic National Bar Association. "If we use the word Latino, it excludes the Iberian peninsula and the Spaniards. The Iberian peninsula is where we came from. We all have that little thread that's from Spain." 

A survey of the community conducted last year by the Pew Hispanic Center of Washington found that nearly all people from Spanish-speaking backgrounds identify themselves primarily by their place of national origin. When asked to describe the wider community, more than half, 53 percent, said both Hispanic and Latino define them. A substantial but smaller group, 34 percent, favored the term Hispanic. 

The smallest group, 13 percent, said they preferred Latino. A survey by Hispanic Trends magazine produced a similar finding. But advocates for the term Latino were unfazed. "The very fact that it's called the Pew Hispanic Center tells you something," said Fernando Guerra, the Mexican American director of the Center for the Study of Los Angeles at Loyola Marymount University. "The fact that Hispanic is in the name of the organization . . . biased the question." 

The term Hispanic was given prominence by the Nixon administration more than 30 years ago when it was added to the census questionnaire in 1970. Although that year's count of the large Mexican American, Puerto Rican and Cuban American populations was a disappointment, a seed had been planted. By the 1980 Census, Hispanic had become fixed as the official government term. It appeared not only on census forms, but also on all other federal, state and municipal applications for employment, general assistance and school enrollment. 

"It's a great gift that the government of the United States gave us," said Vincent Pinzon, the Colombian president and founder of the Americas Foundation. "If you want to acquire political muscle in this country, and you say you're just Argentinian or Colombian, then you have none." But Mexican American activists in California and Puerto Rican activists in New York were not pleased. They favored a term that included the brown indigenous Indians who they believe are the source of their bloodline. "Hispanic doesn't work for me because it's about people from Spain," said Rodriguez, author of the book "The Republic of East L.A." "I'm Mexican, and we were conquered by people from Spain, so it's kind of an insult." 

Rodriguez's views are typical of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles, the epicenter of immigrants from that country, and the Chicano rights movement. The term Chicano is thought to have originated as slang that described immigrants and refugees from the Mexican revolution. The term later evolved to define the uprising of Mexican American reformers and rights activists as well as farm laborers and other workers who lived in squalor while toiling for low pay. As activists from other Latin countries joined the movement, Latino was adopted as an umbrella term for all groups. "In L.A., if someone says he's Hispanic, and he's not from the East Coast, you begin to question this guy," said Guerra, the Loyola Marymount professor. "It means he didn't grow up in a Latino neighborhood." 

In Washington, where the Pew Center is located, Salvadorans who dominate the area's large Central American population say "somos Latinos" -- we are Latinos -- according to José Ramos, director of the United Salvadoran American Civic Committee. "Hispanic is a category for the U.S. Census," he said. "It's a formality. For me, the correct term is Latino. It identifies people who speak the same language, people who share a vision of the historical meaning of our community. I am Salvadoran, and I am Latino." 

But Cuban immigrants in Miami, conservative Mexican Americans in Texas and a group of Spanish descendants in New Mexico are among the groups that strongly identify themselves as Hispanic. 

The word Latin dates to an 18th century spat between England and France, according to a historical resource guide written by journalist Frank del Olmo for the National Association of Hispanic Journalists. Latin was used to distinguish Italy, France, Spain and their conquered territories in the Americas from the British empire and its colonies. 

Latino was popularized during the social movements of the 1960s, Guerra and other historians said. The disagreement over the pair of ancient terms is an annoyance to some. When the subject came up at the National Council of La Raza's annual meeting, Lisa Navarette, the group's Cuban American spokeswoman, dismissed it. "We've got so many real important issues to work on, we can't be bothered with this nit-picking." The community indeed faces daunting challenges: high unemployment, a skyrocketing high school dropout rate, widespread opposition to immigration reform and crowded communities. But the issue isn't apt to disappear. A few years ago, Bradshaw's group, the Hispanic National Bar Association in Washington, had to fight off a resolution by a group of members to remove the word Hispanic from its name and replace it with Latino. Last semester, students at Southern Methodist University in Dallas talked about changing the name Hispanic Student Services. And earlier this year, Cisneros, the author who abhors the word Hispanic, refused to accept an award from a Hispanic organization. 

At the Latino bookstore Cisneros visited, owner Richard Martinez didn't know what to think. "I don't know which is correct," he said. "I'm a Mexican, a Latino, a Hispanic, whatever. Be who you are. Be proud, like everyone else."

Latin? Hispanic? What's the difference? Actually Latino and Hispanic are not synonymous. 

The word "Latin" comes to us from a tribe in early Italy called the Latins. The Latins lived in Latium whose capital city was Rome. Their language was called Latin. According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, as Rome's Empire grew their language, Latin, spread throughout the Roman Empire later evolving into several "Romance" languages; Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and French. People from these countries are referred to as Latin, their language is derived from "Latin". These languages are very similar as explained by Dr. Lorenzo LaFarelle, a Chicano Studies professor at the University of Texas at El Paso, the word for cave in Spanish is "cueva", in Portuguese is "cova", in Italian is "cava". 

When the Romans invaded the Iberian peninsula they found a city already there called Hispalis (Seville). The name Hispalis appears to be derived from Greek since Hispalus is a mythical Greek hero. Later on the Romans annexed the Iberian peninsula making it a province named Hispania. The Romans spent seven centuries in Hispania leaving a legacy not only of language but of social and cultural characteristics such as family, language, and religion which tied Hispania to the rest of the "Latin" world forever. Sometime later the name evolved from Hispania to España. The word Hispania thus refers to the people and culture of the Iberian peninsula, Spain in particular. The term Hispano (Hispanic) later was used in referring to Spain and its subsequent New World - New Spain, conquered territories which covers most of Latino America. Hispanic thus refers to people whose culture and heritage have ties to Spain and, in the case of second and third generation Hispanic-Americans, who may or may not speak Spanish. 

In the U.S. the term Hispanic (Hispano) gained acceptance after it was picked up by the government and used in forms and census to identify people with Spanish heritage. Hispanic is not a race but an ethnic distinction, Hispanics come from all races and physical traits. The term Hispanic is merely a translation of the Old World word Hispania (Latin) or Hispano (Spanish). 

Latin America is a geographic location. People from Latin America are all Latin but not all are Hispanics. Brazilians speak Portuguese, which makes them Latin but not Hispanic. In the 20's and 50's the term "Latin American" became very popular. Back then people of Mexican descent born in the United States preferred to be called Latin Americans since they were not actually born in Mexico, they felt the term Mexican did not exactly fit them. Besides that often the term Mexican was used with a derogatory note. In 1928 in the Corpus Christi - Laredo area a group of Hispanics spearheaded LULAC (League of Latin American Citizens) to help combat discrimination and prejudice and to help Hispanics acculturate. 

Prior to Texas joining the Union, old Hispanic native families in Texas called themselves "Tejanos". After 1820 the Anglo population called themselves Texans and the term Mexicans was used for all Hispanics whether newly arrived or not. 

The term "Chicano", is a more exclusive term used solely in reference to people of Mexican descent. Chicano was probably first used by the Conquistadores. The original Mexican Indians were called Mexicas. That term was changed to Mexicanos by the Spaniards and probably the "me" was dropped and thus the term Xicanos or Chicanos was born. Sometime ago a popular and elite group of Mexican nationalist fighters called themselves "Los Chicanos" and the name was picked up in the 1970's by young militant Americans of Mexican descent to make a political statement. Although the term "Chicano" is an "old" word, many elderly Hispanics of Mexican descent don't like it because the term had been used, long ago, as derogatory reference to Mexican peasants or peons. 

Boricua is a term used exclusively for Puerto Ricans. The Taíno Indians called their paradise Borikén, the term Boricua derives from that.  So what are we? We, Spanish speakers or people of Spanish heritage are Hispanics or Hispanos. 

Jaime Cader answers a statement left on a internet bulletin board: 
I left the following message in the Hispanic Genealogy Forum, 5/23/2006 

You wrote: "But the language I speak is Spanish."

My response: Well just to show an example, I am now writing in English, and I can speak English, but I'm not English.

I don't have a problem with the word Hispanic, I sometimes say that I'm Salvadoran if people want to know what my origins are. I never have liked the word "Latino" when referring to Hispanics in the English language. I know that that word is now even included in English dictionaries, but I won't use it, -I may however, when speaking English use the term Latin for myself.

I think that it is ridiculous that some individuals think that these words have political connotations. I once told someone that rather than get into some controversy about the words Hispanic and Latino, that I just refer to myself as Salvadoran. That person then told me that Hispanic was the term conservative people use and that Latino was the word liberals use, and that because I called myself Salvadoran -that I must be somewhere in between.

In my humble opinion, if I were you I would say that I'm Colombian and on occasion say that I'm Hispanic.  By the way, if any "Hispanic" insists that the word "Latino" should be used, then I would refer them to two articles published in  written by two different authors. They both say that neither Hispanic nor Latino should be used because these terms negate the Indigenous heritage. Those articles can be found by going to the previously mentioned website and they are titled "Over the years I've been called a lot of things -just don't call us Latinos" by John M. Renteria, and "We are not Latino, not Hispanic" by Olin Tezcatlipoca.

Other related articles in that website are "Si -Chicanos? Latinos? Hispanics? Hyphenated Americans? Brown People? What are we? Should we care? Arose by any other name..." by Ricardo Castanon, "Si...! Present-day Hispanics have an identity problem!" by Ricardo Castanon, "How did Hispanic moniker get chosen instead of Latino or some other ethnic name? The Roots of 'Hispanic' -1975 Committee of Bureaucrats Produced Designation" by Darryl Fears, and "Hispanic Heritage of the United States" by Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Ph.D.

[[Editor:  About 15 years ago, I happened on a Latin American studies book among the private book collection of a UCLA historian that had passed away. The book used the word Hispanic to describe all the descendants of the Spanish colonization. It was a college text written in the mid 1930s. The introduction said the term was used by historians as an all-inclusive term for countries whose history was shaped by Spanish colonization.]] 



Las Comaderes Para Las Americas  is an informal internet-based group that meets monthly, in several US cities, and growing, to build connections and community with other Latinas. Since April of 2000 we have been building relationships, doing business together, helping each other find jobs, sharing news and introducing friends. We invite you to grow with us. There are no dues, no officers, no commitments. All you need is an email address. Join us! more information about Las Comadres, 
email Nora de Hoyos Comstock, Ph.D. 
or call 512.928.8780.


National Latina Business Women Association

left to right, Lorena Maae, founder of the OC Chapter and Past President, Community Relations Officer for Citibank; Zeneida Mendoza, President of the LA Chapter and founding member, owns her own business Nuevo Ink Designs; Sylvia Rios, President Elect of the SAC chapter, owns her own business SReyes & Associates; Norma Andrade, Past President of the SAC chapter and Founder of SAC chapter, is a financial planner for AG Edwards; Theresa Ynzunza, Founder of the organization and President of National Board, owner Ynzunza & Associates, Public and Government Relations company; Carolina Camacho, President of OC chapter, owns CPA firm Camacho and Associates, Janet Cronick, Immediate Past President of OC chapter and owns her own business, Ultimate Gifts; Kenia Davalos Romero, West Coast Chair of the National  Board and partner of Perini Enterprises, Tanya Zabalegui, VP of OC chapter, owns Crafts from Argentina, and your editor, Mimi Lozano. 

National Latina Business Women Association

On May 25th, the National Latina Business Women Association held a state-wide meeting at the Embassy Suits in Garden Grove, California with California chapter officers. A major focus was a packet to assist women in other parts of the U.S. to start chapters in their areas.

In 2002, the need for a national group of business women to mentor and assist the growing numbers of Latina stepping into the area of business came to Theresa Ynzunza. As past president and founder of the  National Hispanic Business Women, Theresa commenced the steps of promoting and organizing the concept nationally.  In January 2003,  her vision guided the first meeting of a group of women that shared her enthusiasm.  The organization was created to meet the needs of the growing ranks of Latina Entrepreneurs, Executive and Professionals.  

NLBWA mission is to encourage Latinas to develop their business and professional goals through education, mentoring, business referrals and networking. The purpose of NLBWA is to create more representation, visibility and business networking and mentoring opportunities for Latinas in the world of business and at the executive levels throughout the Country.

Your editor Mimi is serving on the National LBWA Board as historian, to integrate and promote heritage and cultural activities as part of the community outreach of the National Board and its chapters. For more information on the National LBWA and/or to locate or start a chapter in your area, please contact National President, Theresa Ynzunza,


Hispanic business growth outpaces U.S. rate.  

It increases at three times the U.S. average from 1997 to 2002.  The number of Hispanic businesses rose 31% percent to almost 1.6 million, bnerating about $222 billion in revenue.   The Hispanic market in the U.S. is about $700 billion a year, "bigger than the GDP (gross domestic product) of Mexico and the GDP of Canada and we expect that to be $1trillion by 2010," said Michael Barrera, president and chief executive of the U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. OC Register, 3-22-06

Spanish Language Skills and Annual Income 

2003 survey showed that Spanish-only families in Miami averaged an annual income of $18,000, English-only $32,000, and bilingual families $50,376.
Source: Bernd Debusmann,  Sent by Juan Ramos


Hispanics set the pace in business ownership
Strong growth in a field where failure is more likely than not
By Frank Green, Union-Tribune staff writer,  May 13, 2006
Sent by Collin Skousen
David Salazar, a first-generation Colombian-American, is one of a growing number of Hispanics taking their places in the small-business ranks. David Salazar at work in Culturati Research's Mission Valley office. The firm founded two years ago earns $2 million a year providing Procter &Gamble, Nestle and other companies with marketing data on the booming Hispanic marketplace.
Culturati Research, a marketing-research firm he co-founded in San Diego two years ago, earns $2 million a year providing Procter &Gamble, Nestle and other companies with marketing data on the booming Hispanic marketplace. “There are so many business opportunities out there. . . . You just have to get your hands dirty," said Salazar.

The ranks of Hispanic-owned businesses in the United States grew 43 percent, to 1.6 million, from 1997 to 2002 – quadruple the growth of all companies. The companies generated about $222 billion in revenue, up 19 percent, according to a new report on Hispanic businesses from the U.S. Census Bureau.

The rate of growth in Hispanic businesses exceeds the growth rate in the country's Hispanic population, which increased 23 percent to 37 million.  “Hispanics are rapidly assimilating into mainstream U.S. culture. . . . They comprise the fastest-growing market in the U.S.,” said George Belch, chairman of the marketing department at San Diego State University.

In California, the number of Hispanic-owned businesses grew 27 percent, to 427,800, from 1997 to 2002, according to the new report. Comparable population growth figures are not available, but the state's Hispanic population grew 43 percent in the 1990s, according to the San Diego County Chamber of Commerce.

In San Diego County – where starting a business is relatively expensive – Hispanic-controlled firms grew 17 percent, to 33,000 companies, during 1997 to 2002, the Census Bureau said.

The country's Hispanic population grew 47 percent, to 751,000, during the '90s, according to the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce.

“The cost of living is very high here, and many Hispanic entrepreneurs go to Los Angeles,” said Ruben Garcia, district director of the U.S. Small Business Administration. The majority of Hispanic companies in the United States overall and in San Diego County are in construction or service businesses, such as repair and maintenance, the Census Bureau said in its report.

Diana Zuniga, for instance, opened her one-person insurance company in Escondido two years ago, using $70,000 she'd saved from training agents for another firm. The company now has about 200 clients.

About 87 percent of Hispanic-owned companies – both nationally and locally – are one-person operations. Despite that, the county's Hispanic-owned firms did $3.5 billion in sales in 2002.

Language barriers and lack of access to financing and education were cited as the primary hurdles facing would-be Hispanic entrepreneurs in a recently issued study on Mexican-American entrepreneurship.

The study, co-written by economics professor Christopher Woodruff at UC San Diego, found that the median net worth of native-born and foreign-born Mexican Americans were $28,690 and $6,276, respectively, compared with $76,685 for white non-Hispanics.

The disparity in educational levels was equally striking: Non-Hispanic whites average 13.7 years of schooling, compared with 12.6 years for U.S.-born Hispanics of Mexican descent and nine years for Mexican-born immigrants.

Woodruff, director of the Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies in San Diego, said one way to bring more Hispanics into business ownership is to provide greater access to business loans and other financial support.  “The Hispanic population, in general, uses the financial system at lower rates,” he noted.

Hispanic entrepreneurs who have trouble taking their small operations to the next level typically face the same problems as any business owner, said the SBA's Garcia. “They're underprivileged, in the wrong industry or not qualified,” said Garcia, noting that 60 percent of all small businesses fail in the first year. Moreover, 50 percent of Hispanics prefer doing business in Spanish, limiting their marketing potential, he added.

Zuniga agreed that some Hispanic businesspeople have trouble marketing to other cultures partly because of language barriers. “They are in their comfort zone in their own culture,” she said.  Garcia said his agency works with about 80 loan and venture capital companies to assist Hispanic-owned and other small businesses.

Area nonprofits, such as Accion San Diego, also provide loans to micro-enterprises that are not big enough to land assistance from banks and loan companies, he said.  “The resources are there if people want them,” Garcia said. Frank Green: (619) 293-1233;

Anti-Spanish Legends

Britt Lomond, 'Zorro' villain, dies at 80
So-called Spanish Flu of 1918


Britt Lomond, 'Zorro' villain, dies at 80
1950s TV role brought him fame before he started a second career behind the camera. 
The Orange County Register , March 25, 2006

Actor Britt Lomond, best known as the villainous Capitan Monastario on the 1950s TV series "Zorro," died this week in Huntington Beach. Lomond appeared on dozens of television shows in the 1950s and '60s, mostly Westerns, including "Death Valley Days," "Colt .45," "The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp" and "Zane Grey Theater," according to 

However, none of those roles brought him the same level of global fame as his stint on the Walt Disney series "Zorro," which starred Guy Williams in the title role. Lomond's 2004 memoir, which is available through retailers such as, is titled "Chasing After Zorro." 
In 2004, a postage stamp depicting him as the Capitan was issued by the Netherlands. "He has a huge following in Europe," his widow, Diane Lomond, said Friday. "It's amazing how something like that can live on." 

[[Editor: I find it fascinating that 50 years after the series ran on TV, that a foreign country would issue a postage stamp recognizing the Spanish villain!!]]

Lomond was born in Chicago and grew up in New York City. He served as a paratrooper in the Pacific during World War II and was awarded three Purple Hearts and both the Silver and Bronze Stars. After the war, Lomond went to New York University, where he received a master of fine arts degree and took up fencing. 

He came to Southern California to work as an illustrator, but his fencing skills soon led to a new career in the movies. Lomond found regular work doing the swordfighting scenes in movies such as "Scaramouche," in which he doubled for Mel Ferrer. Lomond was put under contract by Disney, which led to his part in "Zorro." After the show ended, he remained busy as an actor through the late '60s. 

So-called Spanish Flu of 1918

"Flu survivor's blood may hold key to stronger vaccine, AP, via OC Register, May 20,2006
Buffalo, N.Y. A 92-year-old woman who survived the Spanish flu in1918 has given 10 vials of her blood to medical researchers who are trying to develop more effective vaccines against bird flu.
Dorothy Horsch was in kindergarten when she contracted the illness, which killed 20 million to 40 million people worldwide."

[[Editor:  I have long questioned the use of the term Spanish Flu, as an indication of Anti-Spanish sentiments.  Recent research is questioning the origination of the 1918 flu.]] 

What happened on Cape Cod in the 1918 flu epidemic?
By Duncan Oliver
Yarmouthport Register, MA - Dec 15, 2005
... now believe that the virus started in Haskell County, Kan., in January 1918. ...  still going on, the military quickly and inadvertently brought the flu to Europe ... 

Military and Law Enforcement Heroes

A Legacy Greater than Words
My Dad Marcelino R. Bautista in A Legacy Greater Than Words Book
Recommended websites to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month 
The Story Behind "Before You Go" 
Greatest Play In Major League Baseball - Rick Monday 
Vietnam riders impressed with Leakey Hospitality 
Hispanic Military Heroes

A Legacy Greater than Words

 Stories of U.S. Latinos & Latinas of the World War II Generation

Hi, Mimi,
Our new book is out -- this is the one we worked on steadily for over a year -- with 250-word summaries of 425 our Interview Subjects' stories, divided into 20 chapters and subchapters, featuring historical context and excerpts from interviews, a big intro and a big epilogue. Chapters include: various major battles of WWII, women in the military, Latina women working for defense contracts, Mexican citizens who worked in the U.S. as "braceros," folks involved in civil rights, people who excelled in academic pursuits afterwards.

We borrowed maps from various sources and used most of our own photos for chapter/subchapter entries and the reproduction is fabulous... We're getting a wonderful response from those who have gotten it. And we're trying to get the word out in the next several weeks.

This is a major fundraiser for us, as it took us more than $45,000 in staff time and overnight shipping services to produce this book over the past year. (We got additional details, like DOBs, Units, spouses' names, etc. and often had to get better photos than what we already had.) That doesn't include the $$ it's taking us to pay for the actual printing of the book, on high-quality paper for maximum photo reproduction, and using more expensive stitching, rather than gluing. When you see it, I think you'll understand how labor intensive it has been (I don't get paid, of course, but I have had a small army of people working on it). I've started a new motto: We do our best because they gave their best.

It's a self-published book, although UT is distributing it, and we're hoping to recover our costs -- so I'd appreciate it if you'd get it directly from us. It's a $30 donation per book, plus $5 in shipping. If we use your Fedex number, of course, we won't worry about shipping costs. I really wish we could give it away, esp. to our interview subjects, but we simply don't have the $$ for that.

So, Mimi, send in your order if you want one -- send a check made payable to the University of Texas, with a notation that it is to the U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project.
let me know -- and hope to see you something in 2006 or 2007 --

Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, School of Journalism
University of Texas at Austin
1 University Station A1000
Austin, Texas, 78712

[[Editor:  I was so touched by the book cover that I asked Melissa the artist to share her feelings about being asked to design the book cover. She thanked me for the opportunity and sent . . . ]]

When asked to create the cover for this book I knew it was a large responsibility. The cover is responsible for selling the content. And the content is invaluable. The stories within the book are about men and women who sacrificed for a country that barely recognized them as citizens--before, during and after the war. They held their heads up with pride as American citizens regardless of how the government and the people treated them. Therefore, I wanted the message to be powerful, I couldn't just single one photo or a few to represent the whole, so I decided to put all the individual stories on the cover, and the idea for the flag came from the stories themselves. They are Latinos and Latinas who deserve recognition for their American heroism. And I believe that by looking at the cover, you can get a sense of what you will be reading on the inside.

Melissa J DiPiero-D'Sa cell: (512) 784.0167

My Dad,  Marcelino R. Bautista in A Legacy Greater Than Words Book

Dear Mimi,
There are not enough words to show my gratitude for all the help and encouragement you have given me thru the years. Thanks to you, the article I wrote about my dad Marcelino R. Bautista came out on this wonderful book. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez a courageous lady, who believed in this wonderful project and her staff, in particular a young lady Yazmin Lazcano who kept me informed about the progress. The stories of U.S. Latinos & Latinas of  World War II were amazing, their voices are finally heard thanks to Maggie. (not many textbooks mentioned our people) 
Just to let your readers on Somos Primos know how interesting this book is, I'm sending you the Contents of the book, there are also many Veterans photos, men and women as well as Mexican men who worked for the Bracero program, including my dad. 

This is a wonderful book with great information, I hope you get to read it. 
Love, Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Chapter 1
The European Theater
North Africa and Italy
Fighting From the Air and the Sea
The Battle of the Bulge
Witnesses to the Nazi Concentration Camps
Fighting into Germany
German Surrenders
Chapter 2  
The Pacific Theater
The U.S. Enters the War
The Battan in the south and Central Pacific
Liberating the Philippines
Mexican Squadron
Invading Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Ending the War
Chapter 3: 
Beyond the Main Fronts
The China-Burma-India Theatre
In the Pacific
In Europe
Chapter 4: Latinas in the Military
Chapter 5: Brothers in Arms
Chapter 6:
Latina Civilians who Served
Chapter 7: Everyday Lives of Latinos and Latinas during WWII
Chapter 8:  Mexican Civilians who Worked in the U.S. during WWII
Chapter 9:   The Fight for Civil Rights
Chapter 10:   The Value of Education
Chapter 11:   Community Notables
Chapter 12:   Military Service Beyond WWII
The European Theatre, Overview and Timeline
Southern Approaches to Europe
Northwestern Europe, Combined Bomber Offensive
Northwestern France, Beaches of Normandy
Ardennes Area; Maximum German Penetration
Europe, Major Nazi Camps
Germany, Crossing of the Rhine
Central Europe, The End of the War
The Pacific Theatre, Overview and Timeline
Far East and the Pacific, Major Japanese War Objectives
The Philippine Islands; The Bataan Death March
Far East and the Pacific, The Coral Sea and Midway Battles
Southeast Asia, Final Allied Offensives in the Southwest Pacific
Final Operations on Luzon
The Western Pacific, Allied Invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
The Western Pacific, Allied Plans for Invasion of Japan
India-Burma, Allied Lines and Communication
The Far East and the Pacific
Northern Europe
The United States
Recommended websites in preparing to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month 

Dear Mimi. Here are some great web site that I have on one of my letter that I sent out during our Hispanic Heritage Month. I hope that this info will help inspire some new Latino historians. 
God Bless. Rafael Ojeda

1. General Pete Quesada:      
2.Bridgidiar Gen. Robert Cadenas: 
3. Medal of Honor recipients: Judy Baca: .
5.Dr. Luis Alvarez: 

Greatest Play In Major League Baseball - Rick Monday  
Sent by Alfredo Lugo  Source: Henry Villanueva 

It was thirty years ago, April 25, 1976.  Turn up the volume.............

Vietnam riders impressed with Leakey Hospitality

Penny Maguire The Leakey Star
Vol II, Issue 53, March 17, 2006 God Bless America
Sent by Willie Perez

Nearly 100 motorcycle riders were served a complimentary breakfast brunch at the Frio Canyon Motorcycle Stop in Leakey this past Tuesday while participating in the 4th Annual Vietnam Memorial Ride. Vietnam veterans along with other war veterans and some riding to lend support left Oklahoma last week on their way to Brownsville, Texas. The veterans stayed the previous night in Junction, and reported that two of their riders blew a tire near Ballinger, resulting in a serious accident that sent both to the hospital in San Angelo. Organizers say this is the first accident since beginning the memorial ride. They were fortunate that other riders were able to avoid collisions and were all saddened by the incident.

The ride, which has grown and continues to draw attention throughout Texas, serves to simply give “Vietnam vets a proper welcome home.”

Several riders remarked that The Frio Canyon Motorcycle Stop is considered the number one stop for the riders complimenting the exceptional hospitality. The stop provides riders an opportunity to rest and members of the Frio Canyon Chamber of Commerce and community help Bob and Robin Albright, owners of the stop to provide a brunch at no charge. One rider said, “This is the nicest stop on our trail. The owners have done a remarkable job here.”

The ride gives Leakey citizens an opportunity each year to say thank you to the vets and pay tribute to those who lost their lives.  Thank you Vietnam Vets for your Service You are not forgotten.
Continue to pray for our great nation and our soldiers in Iraq.

Korean War veteran and current University of Texas English professor, Dr. Rolando Hinojosa writes, “This book is an authoritative work that dispels any doubt about the Hispanic presence and service to our country." Dr. Hinojosa adds, “Deep, through research is but one attribute to this book.” Dr. Hinojosa concludes, “This is a must buy, a keeper."

Hispanic Military Heroes
by Virgil Fernandez

Distributed by Atlas Books, Hispanic Military Heroes details the exploits of the 42-Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients.

Hispanic Military Heroes is a newly published book (April 2006) by University of Texas graduate, Virgil Fernandez, that chronicles the accomplishments of Hispanic-Americans in the U.S. military. This historical review includes contains more than 100 bibliographic entries, and more than 180 black and white photos of these brave and patriotic Latinos. The thirteen chapters include Hispanic generals, admirals, astronauts and many other Hispanic military heroes.

Virgil has it on sale from $34.95 to $29.95 until next SEP. You can order a
copy by email or calling: 1-800-247-6553.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda



A gathering of Grandmother Wisdom-Keepers at MANA meeting
Iona St. Therese Patricia Marie Jordon:  Carnival Girl by Frank Sifuentes
Oral History, Los Cuentos de Kiko
OTIUM, online magazine
Micheal Lozano Embarks on a Journey of Self-Discovery, Part 2


My 20th the Orange County, California chapter of MANA hosted three women from Women of Mother Beauty "A gathering of Grandmother Wisdom-Keepers" 

August 29th, 30th, 31st on Catalina Island
September 1st Angels Gate, San Pedro

Contact: Debra Perez Hagstrom at or 949-275-7487 for more information.

Morning Star Foundation/W.O.M.B. are dedicated to the Honoring of Indigenous Grandmothers and their Traditional Medicine Teachings. All generations of women from the Four directions of Mother Earth are drawn together by a calling to celebrate a cultural awakening of Spirit. We invite you back to the W.O.M.B.

From left to right, Gloria de la Torre Wycott, Debra Perez Hagstrom, Valerie Cardemas Dobesh, Angela Arismendi-Pardi,  MANA OC Vice-President, Patricia Gazda de Sullivan, MANA OC President .                                                  

"The gathering during the MANA meeting was a new experience for me from the aspect of honoring our indigenous Ancestors; although I am involved with a group of women from the Círculo Sagrado Femenino. I would love to be part of the “coalition of grandmothers” which Debra has talked about. The opening I used was adapted from the opening salutation used in the Círculo Sagrado gatherings which actually greets “the Spirits of the four directions of the universe. Whereas, for Debra’s and Valerie’s focus, I had to change the salutation to a welcoming of the Ancestors…" 
Gloria de la Torre Wycott

California State librarian  . . .
Sounds very interesting! my grandmother (from Spain) was something of a curandera and knew how to use natural elements to help cure ailments. her favorite was eucalyptus leaves. I always knew when someone was sick in the family because the house would smell of eucalyptus. To this day, that smell reminds me of my grandmother and makes me feel loved.  Have a good day! 
Cindy Mediavilla

Iona St. Therese Patricia Marie Jordon: The Carnival Girl 

by Frank Sifuentes 

It was late morning and I was under the house escaping the ever increasing heat as inclement as our mid Texas summers could get. And I was entertaining myself in the only cool spot in the entire vicinity. I loved the smell of the cool dirt which seemed good enough to taste; however when I did the mixture of saliva failed to recognize it a palatable: Plus my teeth could not really chew it, so that the remaining grainy quality of it ended up being rejected by my stomach, which for me was not a matter of simply needing it a food, since mama homemade tortillas, refried beans and papas fritas had me still pacified.

After a couple of attempts to spit it out in  I ended up having to go to the backyard to the water fountain for water to aid me in spitting the dirt out; which turned out to be an effort, I would not have made even if it had been nourishing.

I finally realized how futile smells can become when real food is not in the picture.

My first effort when I started playing under the house was to finds ways to add things to the miniature ranch, I had build with popsicle sticks woven into tiny walls and connected by strings and fine wires. Then I wove another one for the roof.

I also used them as little "rafts' during heavy rainstorms created almost instantly a varying number of 'raging' creeks.

I had built a fence around the ranch house also with popsicle sticks tied together by string. Leveling out the ground and making paths was also pleasurable. . But after that: What? Built a pig pen or a barn, with no idea of how I could get little pigs, nor straw for the barn, and no chickens either. Worse of all, no horses.

Therefore, I had to invent a new games. One that always intrigued me was removing the fine dirt shaped like an inverted little cone created by doodle bugs as a home to hide in. They were tiny little creatures, shaped like a miniature light tan colored boxing gloves.

And I discovered I could victimize small insects, like flies and doodle bugs by flinging them at the black widow's web beneath he front door steps; and then watch the drama of the awesome poison-laden spider with a white spot on its back that come out of its hole and ever so gradually in stop and starts make its way towards the kill, and takes back into its nest  the victim to feast on their juices.

There was no thought that  I was doing the spider a good deed, for it did not need my help to capture food.

From my vantage point, I was able to watch Olivia Lopez and my sister Carmen - who were 9, a year and a half older than me. They were engaged in a duel for the rope jumping championship de la Calle Siete y Chicon.

Olivia was ahead with 101 jumps without a miss, and Carmen was dead set on surpassing her; though the strained look on her face and apparent shortness of breath revealed she was not going to do so.

Just then I saw a l939 GMC truck pulling huge trailer-bed, with a tarp covering large sections of metal and machinery, throwing up clouds of dust. And I immediately realized the carnival was arriving, and shouted: Mira!! El Pulpo..ya viene el carnaval !! And it made Carmen skip a jump, giving her a good excuse to start again after a short rest. However she and Olivia forget about jumping rope and their emerging egos, since they were caught up with the intrigue and excitement of the arriving major event of our long summers.

Carmen, Olivia and I took long looks in both directions of 7th St. to be sure there were no cars, or wagons pulled by horses heading for downtown after unloading huge piles of cotton at the Gin Mill; and then crossed running as fast as we could.

Olivia who was taller and slim darted ahead, as if she was flaunting her zebra like speed. While Carmen and I had the good fortune of actually being fat and resigned over being slow pokes.

Before we knew it Olivia had almost reached the spot where the truck had stopped. And just about that time a l932 Chevy came into the lot, pulling a trailer where the carnival  people slept and cooked. The man driving it honked his horn and signaled Olivia to go no further.

"Go back home you kids, you are just going to get in the way. We don't want you to get hurt! he said with sufficient authority. 'Go tell your friends and family the Octopus is here, and I'll give you all a free ride.

Olivia dashed off to announce to her mom that the carnivals' el Pulpo had arrived.

Carmen and I stood far away enough to remain staring at the trailer, and saw a girl about Carmen's age, a slim, thin, frail looking white girl with long honey blonde hair come out carrying a pan of dirty water to throw out.

When she saw us she decided to come close to us before dumping the water.

"Hi, you'al' my name is Iona St. Therese Patricia Marie Jordan. What's you all's name?"

"My name is Maria del Carmen and this is my brother Kiko. We lived in that house across the street". pointing to our home with a new found sense pride of ownership.

Iona looked at it with a longing and said: "Gosh, I wish I had a neighborhood and a home like yours."

Well, if you like it, why don't you come and visit and play house with us," Carmen said filled with compassion.

Then we heard the voice of a woman inside the trailer shout:.".Iona! Git your little tail over here right now! You know you won't have time to play until we get settled in."

"Alright, mama I coming," Iona shouted back.

"See ya, she said, and be sure to come back. My dad really means it, and will give you a free ride on the Octopus,"  she said as she was leaving.

Carmen and I had only one choice: To run home as fast as we  could screaming: Ama, ama ya vino el CARNAVAL

"Mother the carnival has arrived," Carmen announced in perfect English after entering the house.

It was a Sunday and mama had a day off from her job as a maid for the Stephen F. Austin Hotel, the day Carmen could enjoy the entire day without even having to pick up a broom as soon a mother got home early afternoon on Saturdays.

We both stood in silence looking at the direction where mama was toiling away ironing our clothes. Carmen was more emboldened that I was, so she went up to mama and just looked at her closely. Then she turned around and picked  up the broom, as a way to remind mama that she was the woman of the house when mam was away at work, and therefore most deserving. And she swept faster and more efficiently than she normally did. For she was not going to take any chances, if in fact Mama had coins to spare for us to enjoy the thrills available in an entire block and a half filled by rides and booths and the house of mirrors, etc.

Mama looked at my direction and knew she was going to have me approach her next.  "Ama..'bas a tener dinero pa poder ir al carnaval?"

"Hay, mi'jo, no se donde voy a encontrar el dinero para eso," which to me sounded like a downright maybe.

Carmen continued sweeping the entire house as well as any full grown woman. And then passed by mama rather closely and said: "Ya acabe, mama!"

Then she motioned to me to leave the house with her, and cross the street again. This time we went to the left corner where an old black gentleman had established a Black Smith Shop in a building that had been a Round House for servicing the trains nearby.

We headed straight to the China Berry Tree to enjoy the shade. But we stood on the side where an old horse was tide up awaiting to be shoed. It was a kind of pathetic gentle old creature. And we both decided to get close enough to touch it on it's left side.

The old gentleman who always smiles at us and waved said, "Hi you'sall."

"Hi Mr. Bernard ," we responded, isn't great the carnival is here?.

"Yes, it is I just may get a little work here and there from it,"  he said as he smoked his pipe and set his mind to thought. And then he broke the spell and smiled at us again and said, "When you get tired of the carnival, you're always welcome to come a hear a story or two."

"Sure will' Mr. Bernard we said as we left to get closer to the action.

We saw how fast Iona's dad and his assistants had connected the parts to make the Octopus ride ready for the thrills ahead.

Iona had seen us and came up to us again. Carmen and I were so fascinated by El Pulpo that we scarcely paid attention to her.

"I know its exciting," Iona told us, "but the truth is, I'm sick of it."

"I'm sure you enjoy being in your trailer and traveling around," Carmen said in the sharpest English she could muster since she was speaking to an Americana.

"It aint no fun at'al," Iona said. Nothing better than a real house she told us as she looked at our house with longing.  'Then she said, "sometimes I think I'll go crazy living in a tiny old trailer."

"At times". she said with a tone that betrayed dark secrets, "I feel like I am going to suffocate in the stupid junky trailer."

"IONA..WHAT DID I TELL YOU, we have a lot of chores to do before you can go off and play in the neighborhood." "Well, I have to leave, but I’ll remind my dad to be sure you get the ride he promised."

"Daddy, my friends are ready any time you say," she screamed. "I know, honey, I know. Just another couple of minutes," and then he turn on the juice and started the the eight tentacles with its large metal whirling chairs swirling in the air.

Carmen and I stared at it and saw it was ready for us.  "Climb on board Iona's friends. We need to test this thing a little more anyway, " Iona's dad said.

He put us on board but not together. Each of us was going to ride alone in a separate tentacle. And off we went raising up high and having the seat whirl around. However there was one problem, the speed was faster than any other previous ride on the Octopus, So fast that both Carmen and I
were starting to feel panic.

The fact that we were the only ones on it, unnerved us, as we held on for dear life. Apparently Iona's dad was intent on giving us the longest Octopus ride of our lives.

And it appeared that he had just walked away to let us keep enjoying the ride as long as we wanted. But before long Carmen started yelling "Stop this stupid thing! I want off!"  but was not heard.

Finally she started screaming hysterically "Help, help.. get me off this stupid thing!" I didn't yell but was just as terrified as Carmen. And also was at the point of crying and then screaming too.

"STOP THIS THING, DAMN IT..STOP". Carmen kept yelling until finally they heard her. and brought the ride to a stop.

Carmen and I got off quickly and started leaving area. 'I'm going to tell everyone in the  neighborhood not to ride that monster!" she said giving Iona's dad one of those looks that killed. "Come on, Kiko..forget this carnaval!"

Iona's dad was enjoying a good laugh, as we ran home. "Hey, you'al don't you want another ride. we got this thing fine tuned now?"

"You can keep your stupid rides," Carmen shouted back.  The ride had been normal however. It was just that we were each alone in our seat and since the other 12 tentacles' seats were empty, and the effect was the opposite of enjoyment not having others smiles and laughing.

Iona, went over to speak with her father, wanting to know why Carmen was upset; and all he could do was shrug his shoulders. Besides we forgot about it not too long after.

It turned out our sister Juanita who was 7 had gotten back from he stay with Mamagrande Lupe; and she had gone across the Street with Emilia and Tina Sanchez and together they struck up a conversation with Iona. And when they got back Juanita said she had invited Iona to come a play with her.

And sure enough the following mid-morn Iona came over. Carmen had not gotten upset with her or nothing; so soon all three of them were playing with dolls my sisters had gotten the past couple of Christmases.

Then they started playing Jacks in which they bounced a tiny red ball while picking up a jack until all of them had been gathered. And I decided to join in to show I had a talent for the game.

Each turn we took we had to increased the number of Jacks to pick up until we ended the game and declared ourselves the winner, after we scooped up all 12 of the jacks up at the same time.

Iona made herself at home and walked all around it, and even jump on the beds to try them out. Oh, boy.. how nice to have a real bed of your own to sleep on, she told us.

As the director in charge Carmen decided we should formally start playing house in the back yard where we had an old mattress we enjoyed jumping up and down on. And Carmen started giving us instructions handing a broom to Iona and telling her to sweep an area to rid it of rocks. And then she went into the house to get materials. like an old large sheet to cover the mattress and pillows. Then she found some old curtains and hung them on the back side of the house. And sent me to bring out some chairs and a small table. We used an old crate as a piece of furnisher. And before long we had a 'house' to play in with what was supposed to be a stove to cook on and some pots.

We put the old sheet on the mattress and pillows. And I became the man of the house and Janie was to be the wife with me on the the bed. But Iona decided she wanted to be a wife also, and got on my other side. And since she had literally seen what wives do, she put her arms over me and pretended to smooch.

Alright now, Carmen said, Kiko get up and get ready to go to leave for work. I told Carmen that I was going to get ready to go hunting for foxes, since I was actually the King.

Iona came every day for the entire week to play everything we could think of. Her imagination was somehow better than ours in playing the part of my wife. Which though I was only 8 actually seemed real enjoyable. Janie no longer wanted to be a second wife though.

By the last day before the carnival got dismantled, me, Iona and my sisters had become bonded. And it was really sad when we had to say goodbye.

"Sure have enjoyed myself." Iona told us; and I will be sure to look you all up when we come back next year as she walked away. We stood there and watched her go all the back to her trailer where sometimes she felt she would suffocate.  

Oral History, Los Cuentos de Kiko

I'm so happy to introduce Frank Moreno Sifuentes to the Nuestra Familia Unida podcast community. In this series of Oral History Cuentos expect to hear about one family, but the experiences are those of an immigrant nation. In the introductory Cuento "Las Lagrimas de Mama Grande Juanita - 1938" You'll hear of a family that endured hardship as immigrants in this country in the hopes of a better life for "la familia."

===> "Las Lagrimas de Mama Grande Juanita - 1938" by Frank Moreno 

===> "1915 - Mexican Immigrant" by Frank Moreno Sifuentes

Sent by Joseph Puentes,
Webmaster of:

OTIUM . .  an innovative online magazine open to all writers of prose: stories, novellas and novel excerpts, memoirs, performance scripts, creative nonfiction, hypertext, mixed media and anything and everything in prose. Seeking nuances of voice, character, and conflict while encouraging originality in form and style, we believe good prose evokes otium — leisure or ease — the notion 
connecting play with work, pleasure with critical thinking.  

Sent by Angie Galvan Freeman  who writes that the editor Achy's father was a Crypto Jew in Cuba. "She now teaches in Chicago. I met her with group in Portugal in '04.
Shalom, Angie"

Micheal Lozano Embarks on a Journey of Self-Discovery, Part 2

When I was born in 1954, something went wrong with me as a newborn. I was not taking the nourishment necessary to survive. The doctor tried to save me, but my tiny stomach would not assimilate the milk needed for normal health. The doctor gave me less then a 50 –50 chance to live. But finally he was able to get my stomach to respond. I started to hold the vital nourishment that my body needed. My parents were so happy that they wished to name me after the doctor, Michael Brand. However, they misspelled my name, and named me" Micheal." My mother just changed the order of the "a" and the "e" in Michael. I always had a weak stomach as a kid, but I never paid much attention to it. I just accepted that I had stomach aches occasionally. When I started working in my early adult years I began to suffer from acid reflux. This was a terrible case of indigestion. For years I took over-the-counter antacids. My condition worsened until I could not even drink a cup of coffee without throwing up. I went to see a gastrointestinal specialist. He recommended surgery. He would perform a procedure that tightly wrapped the esophagus so that acid could not come back up the esophagus from the stomach. After the surgery I was better for the next ten years. But, then one night I woke up in the middle of the night and passed out on the bathroom floor. My wife found me and immediately took me to the emergency room. I spent one month in the intensive care unit in the hospital. They diagnosed me with internal bleeding. Blood was leaking out of my stomach and eventually, I began hemorrhaging violently. I was given a total of 40 units of blood transfusions. The doctors again gave me less than a 50-50 chance of survival and suggested that I take my last rites. I underwent surgery and they removed three quarters of my stomach. I am convinced that taking over-the-counter pain relievers caused the internal bleeding. I went through many months of rehabilitation. 

I finally was able to go back to work, but a year later, I had to undergo additional corrective surgery. Two years after that, I was rushed again to the emergency ward for severe stomach pains. The doctor said that he had to once again operate in order to save my life. I reluctantly agreed even though I didn’t think I could handle another operation. After the surgery, I underwent another lengthy period of recuperation. Then one year later, I was again hospitalized with severe stomach pains. This time they said I had a gall stone attack, and recommended that I undergo another immediate surgery. After considering everything that I had been through, I decided to try an approach other than surgery. I would try to beat this with alternative medicine. I found a doctor who said that there was a new drug that would dissolve the gallstones in my body. I would try this approach, but I risked having another attack and possibly having surgery again on the eve of my expedition of discovery. I decided to take the alternative medicine route, accept the risk, and not let anything stand in the way of achieving my dreams.

At first, I intended to either walk the entire way across America or perhaps take a canoe across the same route as Lewis and Clark. Several factors were to play a role in influencing my eventual decision to drive. After high school I joined the United States Marine Corps. We were young and tough. I was lucky to get a commanding officer who was interested in hiking. He asked a group of us to hike through about half of the Appalachian Trail. The memory of that trek encouraged me to consider making my dream expedition by foot. That was an unforgettable experience, but now I was 49 years old. I hadn’t really kept myself in shape, although I even tried training for the walk. My wife Kathy and I walked in our neighborhood every day. We went about two or three miles on each walk. I came home from those walks very sore and fatigued. After about a month I felt that I was not making enough of an improvement to satisfy my goal of walking across America. In addition, I would be carrying 40 to 50 pounds of equipment in a backpack. I tried carrying the loaded pack but it was such a miserable experience that I began to plan an alternative mode of transportation. Another factor was my limited financial resources. I had enough money for 3 or 4 months, but walking across America could take roughly 9 to 12 months. I heard of some people who took as long as four years to make a similar trip. With my physical condition, it would probably take longer to complete the trek. 

Since I wanted to discover my own, and our country’s, history while on this expedition, it would be necessary to collect and carry equipment that would assist me with the history component of this expedition. Doing this out of a backpack would be next to impossible. I was going to be taking a lot of equipment much like Lewis and Clark did when they prepared for their Corps of Discovery. Meriwether Lewis began preparations for their journey starting at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. There were stops in Philadelphia, Lancaster, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania before the expedition finally assembled at the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Along the way they learned everything they could about medicine, natural history, navigation and the use of scientific instruments. Lewis and Clark had to gather all kinds of equipment and provisions. 

The two and a half year expedition would require a long list of supplies. They packed weapons, clothing, trade goods, paper, medicines, scientific instruments, reference books, maps, tools and camping equipment. They would have to augment the food they hunted with brine, flour, honey, ground corn, salt, sugar, coffee, lard and whiskey. Lewis and Clark had boats and horses to transport everything that they would need for their journey. The supplies I needed were maps and all the research papers on my family genealogy. This file filled a packing box. It would come in handy when I reached Mexico. I needed camping gear. I would be bringing a tent, lantern, stove, cooking utensils, cooler, food, hunting and fishing equipment. I planned to stop at famous battlefields and to participate in Civil War reenactments. 

Since I would be reliving history, I planned to take all my Civil War reenactment equipment and clothing. It was obvious that the scope of my journey was going to either be scaled back or I was going to have to decide on a more practical mode of transportation. I decided to drive. Another influencing factor was the disturbing news that my father and mother were suffering from health issues. My father had just been diagnosed with cancer. My mother had fallen and had broken her leg. They were both 80 years old, so I felt an urgency to get to southern Texas to see them. Traveling by foot would be out of the question. It would take way too long. Traveling by canoe would require a partner and I did not have anyone to help me. Many of the river routes were no longer navigable because of dams. I could not go by water. These key factors shaped my decision. I only had to plan my route and say goodbye to family and friends.

I would begin my journey on June 12, 2004. I did not know when I would return. It was possible that I would be in some areas for an extended period if circumstances dictated. I knew that I might run out of money and would have to get a job while out on the road. I packed clothes that would be comfortable in summer and winter. Even though I thought that I would have enough room in my truck for everything that I needed, it became apparent that I was starting to overcrowd my truck. The back of the truck barely had enough room for me to lie down. My wife was totally supportive of my journey. She always knew of my need to travel and explore. When we were young college students at Indiana University she knew that I had hitchhiked from Chicago to Boston and back to work a summer job at a summer camp that both she and I worked at. After we got married, I took the family on long trips in the car. I think that getting out on the road was in my blood.

My son, Michael, thought at first that I was crazy. But since he traveled around Europe when he was in college, he was more accepting of the fact that his dad was leaving everything to pursue such untraditional goals. I felt good that I had my son’s support. My daughter, Leigh, was indifferent to the whole affair. She was reluctant to show any support, and at times, she seemed to be annoyed by anything that detracted from her own life. I felt like the hassle of just getting together with her to say goodbye was too much for her. We finally did get together. My daughter had always made me proud, especially when she decided to study Spanish at Boston University, eventually studying in Spain. She seemed to have an interest in her culture that I did not see in my son. Since I was embarking on a journey to discover my Mexican roots I thought she would show more interest. Ever since my daughter went to college, she has seemed to be drifting away from the family. My wife and I found her distance frustrating.

My wish is that my children have all of their dreams fulfilled. I think that parents seek approval from their children just as much as children desire the approval of their parents. I found it surprisingly difficult to explain my trip to others. My hope is that someday that all my family will understand why I had to take this journey and come to appreciate the good things that resulted from my explorations. My close friends Orlando and Linda Corona are very liberal thinking individuals. They hate George Bush and are involved in the peace movement. Orlando was a "Moonie" when he was young. Linda was the type that would go to nude beaches when she was young. We have found both of these grown-up flower children to be fun and entertaining and we relate to them in many ways. Orlando is part Mexican and his father still lives in Mexico. Orlando and Linda were supportive of my journey, but I think that Linda was hoping that Orlando would not be tempted to join me because of his home commitments. They have two sons who are still in school. I knew that Orlando wished that he could do what I was attempting to do. I had wished that Orlando could be  the William Clark to my Meriwether Lewis. It was better for me that my children were grown up. I would have hated to leave my wife with the responsibility of having to take care of the family by herself. Even though some occupations, such as being a soldier, require people to leave loved ones. Orlando and Linda focused mostly on the self-discovery aspect of my journey. I didn’t at all feel that this was the major reason. It was one of several reasons that were all of equal importance. 
I was equally interested in the traveling, history and genealogy aspects of my journey. They loaded me up with all kinds of self-discovery books and tapes before I left. On the morning 
of the journey, my two dogs did not have a clue that I would be separating them. Dudley, the male, is one and a half years old. My female beagle, Judge Judy, is about eleven years old. I had to make a decision about whether to take Judy. The two dogs have never been separated. There was not enough room in the front seat of the car for both of them. Judy tends to be more of a wanderer when she is on her own. I was afraid that she would run off if I took her. I finally decided to ask my wife to take care of her even though Kathy does not really like the dogs. I was a little concerned that Kathy and Judy would have a difficult time living together since I was the one who always took care of the dogs. When the day arrived for me to leave, I felt very excited and tired at he same time. I didn’t sleep very well the night before. The thought of going into the unknown is something that explorers over the centuries have had to contemplate. When Lewis and Clark embarked on their journey, it was equivalent today to going to the moon. Many feared that they would never return. Captain Lewis was known as a man who would fret, fume and worry about details. It is easy to assume that he didn’t get much sleep on the night before he started on his Voyage of Discovery. There was a sense of mystery surrounding my journey and concern for how it would unfold. The world’s original explorers were the native peoples. They have migrated across the earth since the beginning of man. There was a practice passed down from generation to generation of natives that was called vision quest. As translated in English, vision quest is a personal journey into Nature’s remoteness where isolation, introspection and deprivation brings the traveler into a new and more focused awareness of one’s existence and helps the individual to achieve a state of harmony in his life. I now was embarking on my own vision quest. Isolation, introspection and deprivation would lead me to my vision quest.

I awoke before dawn and made last minute preparations such as getting Dudley comfortable for the long journey and putting together my food supplies. Kathy and I stopped at the local supermarket to pick up groceries and ice. Kathy and I followed each other in our separate vehicles for about 20 miles. We then pulled over on the side of the road, said our final goodbyes and gave each other a kiss. Dudley and I were on our own. I drove about an hour and then detoured to Orlando’s and Linda’s house to say a final good bye to them. They invited me in for some breakfast. It made me feel good that we could spend these last few minutes together. I then settled into my keel boat with wheels and headed towards Connecticut. Once the adrenalin wore off, I got very tired so I was only able to go 25 miles before I had to pull over at the first rest park to take a nap. It was not a good start but I had to get used to life on the road. I would need to drive much further between stops if I ever was going to travel the first 2,500 miles of my journey.
My wife Kathy. 

Dear Mimi, Yes my wife and daughter do look like each other.  These pictures were taken when they were both about the same age.  Kathy and I got married about when that picture was taken.  She was 19. My wife now is an Executive Director of a YMCA in Boston.  My daughter is a benefits specialist in Human resources for Investment Bankers Trust in Boston. My son is an architect that works as a senior project Director for a Neighborhood Development Corporation in Providence Rhode Island.

The Plazola Family in México


By: Alfredo I. Peña Pérez-Plazola II

The Plazola surname appears in Italy, Spain and México. There are several variations to the name, such as Plazaola, Plazolo, but the variation that has been a constant throughout the centuries has been Plazola or Plasola.

The earliest record in México seems to be the marriage between Pedro Plazaola and Cathalina Montaño. They were married on the 3rd of March, 1686 in Guadalajara, Jalisco.

In South America, the earliest record of a Plazola is the one for Ignacio Plazola when he married Juana Lorenza Hernández around 1728 in Venezuela.

In Europe, the earliest records are the ones of Ramona de Llano y Plazola, daughter of Francisco de Llano y Plazola and María de Llano. She was baptized the 2nd of March, 1782 in San Pedro Apóstol, Labaluga, and Vizcaya, Spain. And the one for Ramona Antonia de Llano y Plazola, baptized the 25th of January, 1764 in San Pedro Apóstol, Labaluga, Vizcaya, Spain. She was daughter to Francisco de Llano y Plazola and Nicolasa de Garay. This Francisco de Llano y Plazola y very possibly the same one married twice.

In the sate of Jalisco, México, the Plazola family settled mainly in the towns/cities of El Grullo, Autlán, Mascota, Cocula, Ocotlán, and Ciudad Guzmán. Even though there are Plazola's all over México, the main state where this family settled is Jalisco.

The Family Seal
This family is surrounded by legend, mystery and a very mysterious silence among the members of the family. Also, they have a saying that has survived the centuries, is exclusive of this family and is the "family seal" that identifies the family members. The phrase says:

"When you see a Plazola, greet him because he is a relative." 
(Cuando veas un Plazola, salúdalo porque es pariente)

How many recall these words? I'm sure there are many... practically every member of this family. I have seen young and old, laugh when I mention it to them. They remember it right away. And for all those Plazola that think they're not related to other Plazola's, quickly change their mind as soon as they hear this phrase. They immediately identify it as one that they had been hearing their parents and grandparents mention throughout the years.

The Legend of the Four Brothers
This legend has also survived for quite some time. This is also a very interesting story. It doesn’t mention a time frame, or an event that would help to establish in what century it happened but, from the dates that we have for the first Plazola’s in México, we can safely say that it was possibly at the end of the XVII century. The story says that four Plazola brothers came from Italy to México. All of them went to the state of Jalisco. One settled in Mascota, Jalisco, the second brother in Cocula, Jalisco, one more in Autlán, Jalisco and the last Plazola brother settled very possibly in Ciudad Guzmán.

The story goes on to say, that years later, an emissary from Italy, went to Jalisco looking for them. He told the brothers that they had been mentioned in the last will and testament of a family member. The story doesn’t mention if the family member was a parent or not, but they were to receive an inheritance. None of the brothers accepted to go, because they could not afford the trip. At least, that’s what they told the emissary. The emissary went back and never came back.

Whether this story can be backed with proof, is not known, but the curious thing is that all the branches of the family know about this story.

Plazola Family: Italian or Spanish?

In Italy, there are many references to families bearing this name. Also, in Spain you can find the Plazola surname. But so far, the Plazola’s that settled in México are all from Spain. The story about the four Italian Plazola brothers, contradicts the origins of the Plazola’s found in Mexico. The earliest records of this family in México, state that they were Spanish, not Italian. Nevertheless, the story is very interesting and will remain a mystery until it can be proved.

The family could very well have Italian roots. We could be talking about an Italian family that moved to Spain and then to México. So far, my research has not taken me to Italy. I am still working on the Mexican side of the family connecting as much branches as possible and discovering the hidden history of the Plazola‘s.

Plazola, Jalisco, México

Believe it or not, there is a small town in the state of Jalisco, called Plazola. Could this be the first settlement of this family? It’s likely... but unknown. Only 2,316 people are said to live in Plazola, Jalisco. This place is also referred to as a cerro (hill) called Plazola near La Huerta, Jalisco.

Sense of Family... From a Distance

The Plazola family is very proud of its history, stories, anecdotes, relatives, etc. but they do not frequent each other. At least, not like other families. They know they are related to each other but nobody knows exactly how. Only a handful of family members know the ins and outs of the family relationships.

Why there isn’t a closer relationship between its family members, may never be known. But the fact is that the Plazola family is proud of its origins and the history of the family.

Silence in the Family
For some strange reason, this family doesn’t talk to its members about the history of the family. They do not transmit any genealogical data and do not frequent, as I already mentioned other family members. Why is this? Nobody can explain it. But it’s a fact that continues to this day. The very few family members that know genealogical or historical information have a hard time obtaining it because no one can explain or transmit anything. And yet, they support the recognition of the family by transmitting what I call the seal of the family: "When you see a Plazola, greet him because he is a relative."

It’s surprising that with so much silence, information has survived to these days. Thanks to the elders of the family that were interested in preserving genealogical data and anecdotes, is that we have the very little information about this very interesting and mysterious family.

Even the names of the family members that died were left in the past. The recent generations had no idea of the existence of uncles and aunts. And some of these were the siblings of the parents and their existence was kept in the dark. They were never mentioned. Almost 130 years later I began to uncover the names of several siblings within the family that had never been mentioned because nobody knew they existed and the parents or grandparents never said anything about them. In other families, this kind of information was passed down and the knowledge of aunts and uncles from other times was present in the minds of the newer generations.

Family of Founders and Personalities
El Grullo, Jalisco, is located toward the southwest of the state and to the east of the Autlán region to which it belongs. Unión de Tula and Ejutla are to the north of El Grullo, Autlán is to the south, and on the east side are El Limón and Tuxcacuesco. El Grullo used to be a hacienda that belonged to Don Pedro Regalado Michel Corona since the early years of the XIX century. In 1860, there were only 32 houses on the hacienda grounds. In total, the population was 120. These 120 were the members of the 10 families living on the hacienda grounds. Their last names were: Rosas, López, Naranjo, Espinosa, Pimienta, Villa, Preciado, Zamora, Barbosa and Plazola. Carlos Plazola Horta and his wife Mariana Cobián Madrueño were married on the 20th of February, 1854 in San Miguel, Ejutla, Jalisco, and México. They were the ones that were the co-founders of El Grullo, Jalisco.

El Grullo became a municipality on the 14th of December, 1912. 50 years later, El Grullo received the title of city the 27th of December, 1962. Many descendants of the Plazola family have become distinguished personalities. 

Among them is Lic. Héctor Pérez Plazola. Mr. Pérez Plazola is considered a living legend of the PAN political party. His family was one of the five families that founded the political party in 1939. He also ran for governor of the state of Jalisco in 1988, was the mayor of Guadalajara, Jalisco in the year 2000, was the Secretary of State from 2003 to 2005 and is currently running for senator. Other members of the family became mayors of El Grullo, Jalisco during the 1920’s and 1930’s.

The Plazola family is related to several of the oldest families in the state of Jalisco. Among the many families are the Michel, Corona, Pérez, Peña, Cobián, Hernández, Robles, and Díaz-Infante family.                             Lic. Héctor Pérez Plazola


The Importance of Names in Mexican Genealogy
By: Alfredo I. Peña Pérez-Plazola II

You thought you had only your first name and last name? Think again! After working on your genealogy for a few months, you realize that you belong to hundreds of families, and have in your past hundreds and hundreds more of surnames.

For many, reading the last names that their ancestors had seems complicated and confusing. But not at all. It just takes time for you to get used to the idea that "in the old days", many circumstances came into play when choosing a name for the baby. For example, preserving family names, surnames that would otherwise be lost forever, surnames that symbolized aristocracy or royalty, etc. A combination of all these could also be found among some of the largest and most ancient families in Mexico.

Church Records and Civil Records
In 1521, Hernán Cortés embarks on a monumental project to conquer Mexico. From that moment, when the Spaniards introduced Catholicism to the natives, church records became the only way to do things. Such as: recording baptisms, marriages, confirmation, etc. There are many records that have survived to these days and are a wonderful source of information for any Mexican genealogist seeking to find his connection to one of the many conquistadors that settled in Mexico. To accomplish this, is a magnificent and very compensating goal.

By the 1860’s, when Benito Juarez was the president of Mexico, a new set of laws came into play that put a strain on the church, called the Reform Laws (Leyes de Reforma.) Now, the law required for all citizens to register also with the government. That meant, that you not only had to baptize your child to have a church record of your child’s birth but you also had to take the baby to the civil registry (Registro Civil) and have a “birth certificate.” The same thing happed with those wanting to marry. You married by the church, but also had to do it at the civil registry.

Some people gave their babies one name at the baptism ceremony and a slightly different one at the civil registry. Although it is not common, it can confuse people. The good thing is, that in Mexico, you find the names of the grandparents in the records. This helps you to make sure that you are looking at the right person that you are researching.

Short and Long Names
Whatever name appears on the records, is the legally recorded name and surnames for the person in question. You should not cut or alter in any way the person’s name just because you think it’s too long. You wouldn’t want someone to cut yours now, just because someone doesn’t like it or thinks it’s too long, right? Well, the same goes for your ancestors. Some people had very simple names such as Margarita Plazola Guerrero. Margarita being her first name, Plazola her father’s surname and Guerrero her mother’s surname. This is the order that you should find and write your ancestor’s name. In American genealogy, the middle name becomes the mother’s maiden name if the baby doesn’t have a middle name. If you do this in Mexican genealogy you will confuse yourself and complicate things for yourself. Keep it the way you find it. That’s the way it’s done in Mexico.

In my research I came across very long names such as: Petra Maria Catarina Ruiz-Esparza Fernandez de Palos. Petra was her first name and Maria Catarina could be taken and two middle names. Ruiz-Esparza, a hyphenated name that has survived this way for more than 500 years, was the father’s surname. Fernandez de Palos was her mother’s maiden name. This woman, was also a descendant of Moctezuma, Mexico’s emperor. Another name that I found was Maria Justa Rufina Garcia de Alba Perez de Alencastre. Maria being the first name and Justa Rufina the two middle names. Garcia de Alba was the father’s name and has survived this way. Many members of this family cut it to just Garcia but the original name is Garcia de Alba. Perez de Alencastre is also a name that was used this way for at least 250 years but did not survive into the XIX century. Many with the last name Perez can be traced back to this family but not all of them. Not all people with the last name “Perez” can claim to be descended from this family.

Even though some of the names that I have mentioned are very long, do not cut them. That was their given and legal name and should be kept that way. Another reason for keeping the name just as you found it, is that if it’s a hyphenated name% 2C it will help you narrow down your family among the many others with a similar surname. For example, the Perez family that I have mentioned, helped me realize that I could discard the many other families that I thought were related. As I went back in time, some of the families that I was about to combine into one, began separating each other from the rest. The same happened with the Garcia de Alba family. Also, hyphenated names tend to be related to very important ancient families that will help you go even further back into the past. Families seeking to preserve their surnames tended to add them to the mother’s name, combine them into one, or give the child both of the father’s surnames and both of the mother’s surnames. It all depended on the importance of the families.

In conclusion, names short or long, ugly, pretty, weird, common, not common, etc., all of them, have a reason for being that way. It takes time and patience to figure out the why, what, where, who and how. Once you do it, an entire world will open up for you. A world that will take you hundreds of years back in your family history search. 

Spanish Sons of the American Revolution

The Story of a Cricket Buckle and Pinching the Spanish Main - All of it!
Early Games in the Americas, Stick Ball or lacross
In Using Hough and Hough Spanish Patriot Series
Moving Gold to Mexico City
Texas Longhorns 


By Clive Williams


C.L.R.James and the finder, Clive Williams, examined a meter-square enlargement 
of the buckle -earliest illustration of a sport player in the entire Americas.

When an exquisite engraved brass buckle emerged from the waters of the River Tweed between England and Scotland it was soon causing ripples of interest and great surprise around the entire global world of cricket! It has proved to be the earliest known international illustration of cricket being played and is confirmed as the earliest illustration of any kind of sport-player in the New World of the Americas! Close investigation has shown that in the original 13 American Colonies who declared for independence Cricket was the #1 summer sport and remained so right through to the times of the Civil War around the 1860‘s when baseball took over.

The buckle shows a well-built mulatto slave playing cricket and ,after research, was shown to date from the middle years of the American Revolution; most likely 1780 and depicting cricket being played in that year in the West Indian island of Barbados in a location in modern Bridgetown, the island’s capital.

The depiction was viewed by the world’s greatest experts and chosen to appear on postage stamps for the governments of Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago, in 1988 , three enormously successful cricket-playing nations, and part of the famous West Indies Cricket Team which has reigned supreme for many years and constantly puts pressure on all the world’s most powerful countries at the highest level. Royal Mint gold and silver coins and trophies for matches between West Indies and England at the top level also depicted the unique buckle illustration.

As the lucky finder of the artifact, something of an amulet for most West Indian people, it was a matter of incredible luck that I had always been a keen player and supporter of cricket and, in fact, had worked for a while in the nineteen-sixties based in the Caribbean and actually lucky enough to play some cricket and other sports there in Trinidad and in Barbados. Now I’ve returned to England and enjoying cricket there, albeit sometimes longing for the sunshine and the sporting fervour of my cricketing West Indian friends. In England I met with the late, great West Indian historian, Mr C.L.R. James. His remarkable book "Beyond a Boundary" is pretty much top-of-the-list reading for any serious watcher of International cricket and he hacked metaphorical paths through the 18th century history jungles in which I would have surely perished, without ever finding the hidden military, naval and cricket links in American Revolution history to the Buckle Story.

It took about 12 years of searching through the dusty files of eighteenth-century papers in dozens of locations all around the United Kingdom, and prevailing on cricket-minded friends to help me with searches in Ireland, in France and elsewhere. At that point, a lucky find was made in the Public Record Office (PRO) at Kew near London. It showed that the single most important contributor to the creation of the huge global business of cricket was in Barbados in the middle period of the American Revolution period and his name struck a dramatic cricket history chord!

St. Johnnelson

He was George Finch, 9th earl of Winchilsea, the man who was most instrumental in setting up the first Lord’s Cricket Ground in London and also the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC), both of which aspects of early cricket worked tirelessly to create the rules of cricket, or the so-called "Laws" of the Game .

A Colonial Office letter from General John Vaughan’s Adjutant confirmed the arrival of the 86th., 87th., 90th. and 91st. Regiments of Foot in Barbados. The Adjutant Ferguson noted that the 87th Regiment of Foot arrived in the troop carriers "William and Mary","Swan","Polly" and "Grand Dutchess of Russia". The 87th Foot was nominally under the command of Viscount Chewton, a future earl of Waldegrave, but in fact commanded by Finch.

George Finch and his group of cricket-lovers established MCC and the Laws of the game just a few years after returning from his military service in the Revolution in 1786/7. His health and strength were at a very low level when he first returned after mostly being required to serve as Marines on board Royal Navy ships, which were then battling with American Privateers, the French Navy, the navy of the States-General of Holland and the Spanish Navy.Crucial document found in London: 


Much still remains to be established of what went on in the Caribbean Theatre of Operations and in the areas of Central America and the South American aspects of the Spanish Mainland too. Great attention has always, logically been paid to Revolution events on the Mainland of what became the United Colonies [States] of North America. It is a significantly neglected area of the history of the Revolution period, in relation to the 1775-1783 times as also the "second American War " which saw the burning of the White House, chasing British forces down to New Orleans and beyond and a great deal of worldwide strife, which is hardly reported.

George, Prince of Wales, (the eventual King George IV - "Prinny" the Prince Regent of the Regency Age) wrote to his brother Frederick, Duke of York commenting in the most glowing terms about "Finch" Winchilsea, when he was still quite groggy on his way home to England through Lisbon. It is fascinating to me that in that same letter to the Duke of York the Prince of Wales mentions that he will soon send some buckles to Frederick by a future messenger, while his brother was serving in command of the army in Hanover.

Early in the buckle research program it became clear that there were a group of influential, aristocratic people who had been at Westminster School, which in terms of cricket importance then held as much sway in the eighteenth-century as Eton College and Harrow and Winchester Schools would command in the nineteenth. They were described as "the lucky hits of Westminster" in allusion to their prowess in cricket and to their later achievements in their chosen careers, business and politics.

Any investigation of such early cricket needed some study of the likes of Old Westminster schoolboys like the second Duke of Richmond [known as the Duke who was cricket] and his close and influential pal from schooldays and Prime Minister, Thomas Pelham Holles, Duke of Newcastle. The "lucky hits" shown below can easily be connected directly to these prime movers in cricket during the mid-eighteenth-century, so it was clear that the last quarter of that illustrious century could safely make these connections and crucially see the setting up of MCC and Lord’s.

Commodore of the West India Squadron of the Royal Navy was William, 1st Baron Hotham, whose four cricketing brothers are also on the "hit list". The others of the list are Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, only son of the Duke who was Cricket; John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset, a nephew of Lord George Germain; George Onslow - 1st Earl Onslow- who was a Treasury Commissioner and would have been well placed to help with the secret funding of task forces off to the West Indies and the Spanish Main; George Keppel the 3rd Earl of Albemarle and his two brothers - Admiral Augustus Keppel and General William Keppel; and four of the five sons of Lord Archibald Hamilton and his wife Lady Jane, (who was a reputed mistress of Frederick Prince of Wales -father to King George III)

After Saratoga and the loss of "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne’s army to American General Horatio Gates the news reached London and seems to have been greeted with stunned incredulity. It was echoed later in the Revolution when the news of the capitulation at Yorktown reached London through Cornwallis’s reports.

That came to hand just as the Lord North Administration were arranging King George III’s speech from the throne at Westminster announcing the forthcoming legislative program. His prepared speech was delivered virtually unchanged, except that mention was made of some ‘setback’ in Virginia Colony. Clearly the writing was on the wall but none of Lord North’s Tory Government were prepared to face the facts, bolstered as they were by "the King’s Party" marshalled in the House of Commons by the Minister at War, Charles Jenkinson. It was Jenkinson who beavered away from mid-1779 onwards to put together so-called "Loyalty Regiments" and secret task forces planned with Lord George Germain to work in profound secrecy for completely global objectives.

A great deal more investigation of events during the 1779-1782 period of the Revolution is called for given the amount of evidence which has now been unearthed by the researching of the Barbados Cricket Buckle Program. What it seems was on the cards with King George, Lord Frederick North the Prime Minister, Lord George Germain and such as Charles Jenkinson, Treasury Secretary John "no sooner say Jack" Robinson, John Montagu Earl of Sandwich as First Lord of The Admiralty added up to a secret range of politicking and naval and military attempts to, quite simply, hold the Empire together.

After Saratoga the French treaty of Amity with Benjamin Franklin and the American Congress had shocked London to the core. Two Etonian cricketers, who were contemporaries on the playing fields on Eton’s riverside with George Finch, were deputed to travel with Henry Clinton and "Governor" George Johnstone to Philadelphia and attempt to meet and treat and calm the "rebellion which subsists"; they were Frederick Howard, earl of Carlisle, the nominal head of the Commissioners and the real - though still ineffectual - force, William Eden the eventual Baron Auckland. Their relationship at school at Eton seems to have been mirrored when they were turned away by Congress. They were civilly entertained but simply the Congressmen had determined that there would be no "meeting and treating" on matters of substance until British forces were removed from the 13 colonies. At Eton the older boy, William Eden was the driving force in this inseparable duo, and the somewhat effete Howard simply fell in line.

Until Yorktown news struck London like a thunderclap it seems that there might have been a simple intention to promote, probably with Benjamin Franklin and his pre-war friends and associates in Paris, a concept of a negotiated "independence" for the 13 colonies and, broadly, a plan to see off the French and Spanish navies and armies in the Caribbean Basin and to attack the relatively-lightly defended Spanish Main by a masterstroke.

Troops would be built up like the four regiments mentioned above, and perhaps another 10 such regiments, and additional drafts of manpower from the 13 colonies and Canada. Simultaneously, with the still ‘most secret’ advantage of having tamed "the longitude problem" with Harrison’s accurate chronometer, there would be task forces assembled with a specific intent. These would be projected to sail around the Cape of Good Hope in Southern Africa and, by all reports, to sail on to the Indian subcontinent where French attempts were known to be afoot to take control of some of the great "factories" with their high profitability. The naval commander for France was to be Admiral De Suffrein!

In fact, these sizeable British fleets and troops allotted would sail direct from the Cape to the Western seaboard of Central America and seek to link up with the British forces in the Caribbean and to force a bridgehead along the boundary of, approximately, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. A substantial. shallow-draught gunship called H.M.S. "Lord George Germain" would be deployed on the Rio San Juan D’Oro and the two lakes, connecting to the Paciific Ocean by forcing a mere 11 miles of canal, presumably using slave labour, and a secured bridgehead allowing for the British forces to deploy north and south from the bridgehead and to seize the Spanish Main - all of it!

"The British Army in The American Revolution", by Edward E Curtis, (Yale University Press 1926) explains a great deal of the troubles which Jenkinson, North and Germain had in putting together such regiments as those who arrived in early 1780 at Barbados, let alone higher-numbered regiments similarly scoured out the gaols and prisons of Britain and Ireland, whose private soldiers were to have cost up to an amazing 8 or even 10 guineas per man in ’bounty money’ to join the colours.

In fact just about all of the rank and file of those regiments mentioned above were to perish from the "unseen bullets" of Malaria, Yellow Fever and Blackwater Fever and, so far as is known they never did meet any of the King’s "rebellious Americans".

Some skirmishing with Frenchmen occurred in various parts of the southern and eastern Caribbean, but apparently none with Spanish fleets and armies . In East and West Florida, which had not joined with the 13 original colonies in declaring independence, at Pensacola and at Mobile, British forces were able to make some advances, but, in time, the forces of King Carlos III under the guidance and command various members of the Galvez family, were to rout what remained of very weakened and sickly troops, some chased and harried almost up to the Great Lakes. It may be that many tens of thousands of troops which were deployed to these grandiose schemes were lost to killer diseases, but not all the Regimental Records for all or any of such green and inexperienced troops seem to have survived.

All the grandiose plans which Germain and his planners had apparently dreamed up at The Cockpit in Whitehall were to fall to the ground. Mostly the sicknesses of tropical jungle life took their toll, but a final straw broke the camel’s back in October of 1780.

Many of the Royal Navy warships which would be needed to carry out the plans and not a few of the freighters and troopships which were crucial to logistical support were savaged by a massive hurricane. It set on at Barbados and, missing only Antigua, tracked northwards through the Antilles and wrought awful destruction on land and at sea up to Jamaica and beyond to the Bahamas and Bermuda.

That put paid to schemes like prevarication with Ben Franklin in Paris and, say, picking off General Washington and the Congress at a later stage, for the taking of any portion of the Spanish Mainland simply did not materialize. There are indications that the pivotal taking and holding down of the Rio San Juan and Lakes Nicaragua and Managua was to employ a Halifax, Nova Scotia built kit-form ship.

The planned shallow sailing pre-fabricated H.M.S. Lord George Germain might be the vessel I have found to be lost in the Caribbean under the captaincy of the eventual Admiral Sir Alexander Ball. He was one of Admiral Horatio Nelson’s famous "band of brothers" when battling with France under the leadership of Napoleon I rolled around onto history’s world stage.

King George wrote to Germain and made mention of The Rio San Juan D’Oro plans, but whether it was clever smokescreening or perhaps a bit of arrogance and a celebratory mood after a recent successful and lucrative raid on Omoa in Honduras is not clear. The King called it "the John River".

In early 1781 Admiral George Rodney, with General Vaughan, mentioned above, took alternative action and captured one of the Congress’s main import centres, St. Eustatius, in the Dutch Antilles [together with other tiny islands and Demerara now Guyana] and it fell to William Hotham to convoy a massively valuable assemblage of ships back to England. He was jumped by the French Navy in the Western Approaches ( through the brilliant espionage work of a French spy living in Bond Street, London) and as much as £5 Million of contraband was made available to the uses, one imagines, of Rochambeau, Lafayette and perhaps George Washington in time for the "setback in Virginia Colony" that was Yorktown.

Writers on Naval history matters have on occasion alluded to some of the aspects of this story but, until the cricket story revealed by the buckle showed so many top drawer aristocratic connections in considerable secrecy, like George "Finch" Winchilsea ,on duty and rubbing shoulders with the likes of people who linked up with turncoat Benedict Arnold for his raids in Virginia and up in Connecticut at New London.

It is also fascinating that cricket memorabilia items have survived from the early years of MCC and Lord’s and one such is an embroidered handkerchief which shows, among others, a portrait of cricket-lover Colonel Tarleton, who had the temerity to chronicle his own stories of his activities in the Southern Colonies. This memorial of cricket and cricketers so soon after the American Revolution might be significant in that it appears to date from a time when Winchilsea was pretty much king of all he surveyed at MCC and Lord’s. Finch and Tarleton must surely have been known to each other - maybe even on military duty in the Revolution battles.

If the 1814-built wooden pavilion at Lord’s Cricket Ground had not burned down on the night of July 28th., 1825 , a few hours after a Winchester versus Harrow match, we might have much more considerable evidence of cricket played in a fairly modern and a sophisticated way in a patch of cleared sugar cane field in Barbados in 1780.

Intriguingly, recent discoveries made through the Internet lead to suggestions that the newly acquired British colonies of New Zealand and Australia may have formed part of the planning from Lord George Germain and Charles Jenkinson and their war planning people. Given that Captain James Cook had been able to accurately determine longitude in his cruising around the Pacific Ocean, it is now suggested that British fleets headed for the Western seaboard of the American continent may have indeed been intended to round the Cape of Good Hope, thence to visit New Zealand for "wood and water" and Botany Bay, Australia for additional manpower.

In John R Alden’s 1969 "History of the American Revolution" (London:Macdonald) he included an ‘Essay upon Authorities’ which at length tells of many shortcomings in the telling of the Revolution story. The 37 years since Mr Alden’s great book do not appear to have filled many of the gaps and my own experience has shown that documents are still archived and available which tell all!

There can be no reproduction permitted of the text or illustrations in this article without the express approval of the author. For more information, or if you have information to share, please contact the author directly:
Clive Williams
One of the 5-set postage stamps issued in 1988 by Barbados (showing Sir Frank Worrell, West Indies Cricket Captain) alongside the Buckle. Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago also issued sets of 5 stamps with local heroes depicted.




Other Early Games in the Americas, Stick Ball

Dear Mr. Williams, 
I think you are probably correct in finding the earliest "illustration" of a native game in America. There is the game of lacross, or stick ball, as it was called which was played by Indian tribes all across Eastern America. I believe the first one to see and describe a game was Hernando De Soto, the Spanish explorer of the Southeast in the early 1600 era.. When he was just north of Mobile, he was entertained by the Creeks and Choctaws, who still had a common Muskogean language. After the men played, the women took over and played in their barest of uniforms, something like a leather bikini. The tall and lithe Creek women were able to win the game as well as the hearts of the Spanish soldiers. This was something I read long ago, but I think the actual playing of the game was fairly common. When I tried to learn the game at West Point, I got hit over the head more frequently with the lacross stick than I was able to capture and pass the ball. 

After the Creeks were moved to the Indian Territory, or Oklahoma, they still played the game and had regular schedules for the teams. Their playing field was across the road from my wife's grandmother's house, so that my wife could get to see the games from a safe distance. This was on the outskirts of Henryetta, OK, named for Henry and Etta, the two Creeks who had the only general store in that part of the Creek nation. The little city of Henryetta grew up around Henry and Etta's store. With my regards, Granville W. Hough

In Using Hough and Hough Spanish Patriot Series

Hello Professor Hough,

I recently discovered your informative research project on Spanish Patriots of the American Revolution. I was surprised to find the name of my ancestor Gabriel Antonio Mallen de Navarrete on this list. I am an amateur genealogist who has been researching my ancestors who were sent from Spain in the late 1600's to govern Northern Mexico during the Colonial Period. My research indicates that Gabriel was a public notary and Ensayador of the Real of Alamos in Sonora Mexico. I am currently working on a large family tree of his descendants. I am wondering how you determined that the above mentioned Gabriel Mallen de Navarrete was a Spanish Patriot? I am sure you are busy but if you do have any information on this person It would be greatly appreciated.

Joaquin Blanco Peralta

Dear Joaquin: 
Please note that I have changed my address to The listing is on page 95 of Part 8, Patriots and Near Patriots from South of the Border. For those where we saw documentation that they were in service, we placed an asterisk next to the name. For those where we could not define why they were mentioned, we made no designation. Gabriel Antonio Mallen de Navarette has no designation, no we do not know why he was mentioned in a document to 
commandante-General Teodoro de Croix of the Provincias Internas. Nor did we have access to DRSW 041-:2182, where he was mentioned. The documentary Relations of the Southwest (DRSW) is a large collection of Spanish documents at the Library of the University of Arizona at 
Tucson. There are brief summaries in English of key persons mentioned and the general subject matter which we could access on the internet. To get the whole document one can go to Tucson and study the microfilm of the original documents, which are themselves at Mexico City, or in Spain, or in other depositories.

We used the term "Patriots and Near-patriots" for the listing. Among the Near-patriots such as your ancestor, some will be in a military role, and some not. However, some of those not in a military 
role contributed money or other resources to help de Croix build up the Provincias Internas defenses. That would put them in the Patriot listing. So it is a matter of researching the documents of the period, as you are doing, to find out just what activities your ancestor engaged in.from 1779 to 1783. 

If you are near Tucson, I would suggest you go to the University library and look up the document on microfilm. Your ancestor may be mentioned in other documents, but we only listed one for brevity. Thank you for your information and interest. I hope you success in your efforts. Yours sincerely, Granville W. Hough,

From:   To:

Moving Gold to Mexico City
    One of the current topics of great interest to Rev. War historians is how the war was financed and where the gold and silver came from.  We know that everything moved from the mines, mostly in Northern Mexico, to the mints and processing centers in Mexico City, then to Veracruz.  
There the newly minted coins were carefully packed and shipped to Havana, thence to Spain, then on to France and Holland, or sometimes direct in French ships to the French forces in America.  American pickups generally had to go through Havana.  Now it would be of interest to know how the supply side worked, which mines were operating, and how the gold and silver was moved from the mines to Mexico City.  It would appear that you ancestor was a mining assayor and a responsible official in that chain.  Clearly, Commandante-General Teodoro de Croix was involved in some way.  Soldiers had to guard the shipments, but that would have been a minor part of the total logistics.  As an essential resource in the war, the mines also had to be guarded and supplies of 
black powder assured to them for their blasting operations.  So I encourage you to continue your research.         With my regards, Granville W. Hough.


PATRIOT ANCESTORS FROM CUBA, (Part 6, continued, S – Z)

Granville W. Hough

This is the last part of the listings for those Spanish soldiers, sailors, and other Patriots who served Spain while it was in the war against England from 1779 into 1783. For the names showing an asterisk, the authors, Granville W. Hough and N. C. Hough, saw records which would
qualify a descendant to join the Sons of the American Revolution. Others may also have served during the war years, but descendants would have to find the supporting records. Previous editions of Somos Primos have listed the references used. Those interested in joining the Sons of the
American Revolution may get advice and assistance from Granville W.
Hough at
*Joseph de Saavedre (1734- Utrera), Capt. in 1782 and 1786, Havana Regt. married. Tanner:202, 204, Captain in post-war East Florida. Legajo 7264:XVI:1, Lt Col, Havana Inf, 1799.
*Juan Saez (1744- Ciudad Burgos), at Mobile in March 1780 and Pensacola,16 Oct 1780, 1st Sgt, Havana Regt, 1780, married. Legajo 7291:VIII:60, Sub.Lt of Grenadiers, Inf Regt of Louisiana, 1792.
*??? de Saint Domingue. MP:217, 231, Captain of the frigate Courageuse in 1781, which was to take Saavedra to Veracruz.
Juan Safores. Sgt, Inf Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XII:45.
*José Salaberría. Beerman:181, 182, naval Comandante at Havana and chief of squadron, 1782.
*Juan Salado. Ch1:21, Capt, gunboat, San Diego, Feb 1781.
*Bartolomé de Salas (1744-), entered service 1778, Surgeon, Havana Regt, 1786 and 1788.
Manuel de Salas, entered service as a Lt. with this unit in 1786, possibly with prior service in some other unit. Lt, 1789, Inf. of Cuba, Legajo 7260:VIII:29.
Ignacio Salazar. Lt, 1799, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7264:XVI:38.
Nicolás Salazar. Surgeon, 1799, Bn Mil Inf, Cuba & Bayamo, Legajo 7264:XI:7.
*Sancho Salazar/Zalasar (1746-), entered service 1763, Capt, 1789, Inf Vets of Havana, Legajo 7260:VIII:12.
*Pedro Salcedo/Salzedo (1743 - ), entered service 1759. Legajo 7261:XXVII:4, Capt, Arty Corps of Havana, 1787 and 1791.
*José Saldivar/Saldibar (1751 - ), entered service 1769, Capt, Blancos of Havana, 1787.
*Alfonso Saldos (1752 Logrono, Castilla Vieja - ), 1st Sgt in Feb 1783 and 1786, Havana Regt, single. A4:XVI:83, 2d Lt, c 1789. Legajo 7259:XII:77, Sgt, Havana Inf, 1786.
*Leandro Salgado. A3:XII:22, soldier, c 1782.
*Joaquín de Salva. Capt de llaves, 1800, Staff at San Cristóbal, Havana, Legajo 7264:II:3.
*José Samartin (1734-), entered service 1748. Adjutant, grad Capt, 1787 and 1795, Mil Inf, Havana, Legajo 7262:IX:67.
Antonio Sánchez. Sgt, Inf Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIII:92.
*Bartholomé Sánchez (1758 Florida-), entered service 1777, SubLt in 1781 and 1788, Havana Regt, single. Legajo 7264:XVII:28, Adjutant, Cuban Inf, 1799.
*Domingo Sánchez. Legajo 7264:XI:11, Capt, Bn Inf Mil of Cuba y Bayamo, 1799.
*Domingo Eugenio Sánchez (1740 - ), entered service 1755, SubLt, 3rd Comp, Cuba Blancos. Legajo 7263:XVIII:2, Lt, Cav, Cuba y Bayamo, 1797.
Francisco Javier Sánchez. Cadet, Comp. Cav, Urban, of Cuba y Bayamo, 1797. Legajo 7263:XVIII:5.
*Francisco Sánchez Griñan (1742-), entered service 1761, Sub-Inspector, Pardos, Cuba y Bayamo, 1787. Adjutant, 1799, Bn Inf Mil, Cuba & Bayamo, Legajo 7264:XI:2.
*Ildefonso Sánchez (1716 Florida - ), entered service 1735, Capt in 1777 and 1786, Dragoons of America, married. Legajo 7260:III:8, Capt, Escuadrón de Dragoons de América, 1790.
*Josef Sánchez Griñan (1769 Cuba - ), Cadet in Jul 1783 and 1786, Havana Regt, Legajo 7264:XVI:48, SubLt, Inf of Havana, 1799.
Juan Sánchez. Legajo 7260:X:69, Sgt, Cav Mil of Havana, 1789.
Juan Sánchez Griñan. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVI:89.
Manuel Sánchez. Sgt, Inf Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIII:114.
Miguel Sánchez. Distinguished Soldier, Cav Militia of Havana, 1793. Legajo 7262:XX:87.
*Pedro Sánchez (1758 - ), entered service 1776, 1st Sgt, Inf Blancos, Havana, 1787.
*Pedro Sánchez Griñan (1771 Cuba - ), Cadet in Jul 1783, Sub.Lt, Inf of Havana, 1799, Legajo 7264:XVI:49.
*Pedro Antonio Sánchez. K:122, Col, militia of Cuatro Villas, 1792. Legajo 7261:IV:1, Col, Bn Mil de Cuarto Villas, 1792.
Pedro Gabriel Sánchez. Cadet, Bn Militia of Cuatro Villas, 1799. Legajo 7264:X:68.
*Ramón Sanchez (1766 Havana - ), Cadet, March 1783 and Cadet, 4th Comp, Dragoons of America, 1786, single. Legajo 7265:II:183, Lt, Dragoons of America, 1809.
Salvador Dionisio Sánchez. Cadet, Militia of Cuatro Villas, 1799. Legajo 7264:X:69.
*W. San Martin. M:350, Capt, brig galley El Correo de Cadiz in May 1782 invasion of Nassau.
Torcuato Sanson. Cadet, 1789, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7260:VIII:78.
*Antonio Santa Cilia. Capt, 1797, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7263:XV:8.
Pedro Santa Cilia. Lt, 1800, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7264:XVII:33.
Ramón Santa Cilia. Lt, 1799, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7264:XVII:42.
*Marqués de Santa Clara. Historia:229, Archer:45, Capt-General of Cuba, 1796.
*Agustín Santa Cruz. Legajo 7261:XI:28, Lt, Havana Inf, 1792.
Joaquin Santa Cruz. Col, Inf Militia of Havana, 1809. Legajo 7265:I:3.
*Juan de Santa Cruz (1744 - ), entered service 1763, Capt, Blancos of Havana, 1787. K:185, Capt, age 37, 1781, in Cuban militia. Legajo 7262:IX;5, Capt/Lt Col, Inf Mil of Havana, 1795.
Juan Santalices. Chaplain, 1799, Plana Mayor del Bn Pardos, Havana, Legajo 7264:V:11.
Domingo Santaya. Lt, 1800, Staff, San Cristóbal, Havana, Legajo 7264:III:8.
*José Santaya (1750 - ), entered service 1768, 1st Sgt, Inf Blancos of Havana, 1787. Lt, 1800, Staff, San Cristóbal, Havana, Legajo 7264:III:12.
*Elías Santiago. A2:IX:7, soldier, c 1779.
*Juan Santin. C&C:101, soldier Regt of Havana, killed at the Village, 1781.
*??? Santo Domingo. Beerman:198, naval capt of the French frigate, Courageuse, involved in money transport for Havana, October 1781. This is the ship mentioned by Saavedra as carrying 1,000,000 pesos, at the same time the vessel he was on was carrying 300,000 pesos to support the
invasion of Jamaica.
Gabriel Santoyo. SubLt, Militia Dragoons of Matanzas, 1799. Legajo 7264:VII:16.
Lorenzo Sanz. Sgt, Inf Militia of Havana, 1793. Legajo 7262:XXI:88. N. Sapian. MP:151, Captain of the Carmen. Mir:174, at Pensacola, 1781.
Francisco Saquet. A2:VI:7, soldier, c 1776.
Juan Sarabia. Lt, 1800, Corps Prov Cav Lanceros de Veracruz, Legajo 7276:XIV:14.
Mariano Sarachaga Adjutant, 1800, Vol Inf de Santa Marta, Legajo 7282:XVI:6.
*Lordo Saratain. M:350, Capt brig galley La Susana in May 1782 invasion of Nassau.
Manuel Sarate. A3:XI:1, mentioned, c 1781.
José Sardina. Distinguished Soldier, Cav Militia of Havana, 1793. Legajo 7262:XX:110.
*J. B. Sarrgoitia. M:350, Capt brig galley La Begnona in May 1782 invasion of Nassau.
*Josef Sastre (1751 Ceuta - ), entered service 1762, Lt, Capt grad in 1781. M:114:App G, Lt, Navarra Regt, recommended for promotion after Mobile, 1780. Lt, Capt grad in 1786 and 1788, Havana Regt, married. Legajo 7264:XVI:2, Lt Col & Commandant, Inf of Havana, 1799.
José Cayetano de Sastre. Cadet, Inf of Havan, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVI:99.
José Sauri. SubLt, Militia of Cuatro Villas, 1799. Legajo 7264:X:27.
*Phelipe Saussier. Mob:611, Capt, balandra Besaña, at Mobile, 1781.
*Pedro Savatie. Appeals Case 95, boatswain, Nov 1782 on the Spanish San Antonio.
*Felipe de Sayas/Zayas (1741 - ), Capt, Inf Vets of Havana, 1788. Col Commandant, 1800, Castillo del Morro, Staff, San Cristóbal, Havana, Legajo 7264:II:6.
José Rafael de Sayas. SubLt, Bn Inf, Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIV:26.
Manuel de Sayas. Cadet, Bn Inf, Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1799. Legaj9 7264:XIV:43.
*Melchor de Seguera. Lt in 1780, served at New Providence and Havana, 1782, Capt, San Carlos de Perote, Regt Corona of New Spain, 1800, single, Legajo 7277:???
José Sehiso. Sgt, Inf Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIII:113.
*Antonio Seidel (1742 - ), entered service 1756, Sub-Inspector, grad Capt, Morenos, 1787. K:123, SubInspector, 1789, Cuban militia. Legajo 7264:VIII:1, Col, Bn de Morenos of Havana, 1799.
*Gregorio de Selva (1744 - ), . Sgt, 1788, 2d Comp, Squadron, Dragoons of America, Legajo 7259:III:23.
Rafael Sequeira. Cadet, Inf of Cuba, 1792. Legajo 7261:XII:54.
José Esteban Serantes. Cadet, Inf of Cuba, 1791. Legajo 7261:XXVI:68.
José Ramón Serantes. SubLt, Inf of Cuba, 1797. Legajo 7263:XV:52.
*Pablo Serra of Havana. Chávez:225, in 1781 lender of money to the French navy.
Antonio Serrano. Sgt, Comp of Inf from Cataluña in Havana, 1792. Legajo 7261:IX:19.
José Serrano. SubLt, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:72.
José Toribio Serrano. Distinguished Soldier, Cav Militia of Havana, 1792. Legajo 7262:VII:110.
*Juan Serrano (1740 Moratalla - ), 1st Sgt in 1769, SubLt, Havana Regt,1786, single. Lt, 1799, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7264:XVI:30.
*José Serrato. MP:153, Capt of frigate, commanding chambequín/tender Caymán, Pensacola, 1781.
*Iñigo Sevilla. Beerman:204, operated prisoner transport and clandestine operation from Havana, 1781-82.
*B. Seyrera. M:349, Capt, letter La Mesericordia in May 1782 invasion of Nassau.
*Vicente de Siera (1751 - ), entered service, 1761, SubLt, Inf Vets of Havana, 1788. Lt, 1797, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7263:XV:29.
*Francisco Antonio de Sierra. A2:IX:48, soldier, c 1779.
*Francisco de Silva. Lt, 1793, Comp Cav, Urbana, Cuba & Bayamo, Legajo 7262:XXV:2.
*Joseph Silva. A3:XI:12, 1781, and A4:XVI:19, soldier, c 1789.
*Gabriel Sistaré. Lewis:86-87, interpreter at Nassau, 1783.
Miguel Socarras. Cadet, Bn Inf Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIV:50.
Ubaldo Socarras. Cadet, Bn Inf Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIV46.
*Marques del Real Socorro (1751 Havana - ), entered service 1767, Col Blancos of Havana, 1787.
*Francisco de Sola (1741 - ), entered service 1760, Lt Inf Vets of Havana, 1788. Woods:79, Sgt of pickets, Prince's Regt, marr. wit., 1779, New Orleans. Legajo 7264:II:11, Capt, Commandant of the Castillo de la Punta, Staff of San Cristóbal, Havana, 1799.
Francisco Sola. Cadet, Comp Inf of Cataluña in Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:VI:21.
*Josef Solano y Bote, Marqués del Socorro, also called José de San Martín (1726 Zorita, Cáceres – 1806 Madrid). Caughey:208, Harrmann:127, Spanish Chief of Squadron at Pensacola. Starr:205, he arrived with 1600 Spanish soldiers. Tides:169, made 1780 report on Gulf of Mexico. Floyd:157, Chief of Squadron at Havana who provided 13 ships for the Black River Campaign in 1782. C&R:125, wife was Rafaela Ignacia Ortiz de Rojas of Buenos Aires, and their family was in Santo Domingo for part of the war years.. Beerman:75, 79, 167, 296, received title of Vizconde de
Feliz Ardid in 1780.
*José Soler. Mob:18, Capt, galley La Pura y Limpia Concepción, at
Mobile, 1780. M:349, Capt same vessel in May 1782 invasion of Nassau.
Fulgencio Solis. Cadet, 1790, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7260:IV:75.
Felix Solorzano, Cadet, 1789, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7260:VIII:90.
Bernardo Sori. Cadet, Militia of Cuatro Villas, 1799. Legajo 7264:X:55.
*Pablo Sori. Capt, 1793, Mil de las Cuatro Villas, Legajo 7262:XVII:7.
José Sosa. Sgt, Squadron of Dragoons of America, 1799. Legajo 7264:XV:31.
Juan de Sosa. Sgt, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVI:87.
*Manuel de la Sotarriba. Cadet, Feb 1780, SubLt, May 1780, in Havana and New Providence Expeditions, 1782, Capt, San Carlos de Perote, 1800, Inf of the Crown, single, Legajo 7277:III:27.
*Antonio Soto (1762 Ciudad Cadiz - ), sailed from Cadiz in 1780 and stopped at Isla de San Christóval. Cadet, 1786, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7259:XII:114.
*José de Soto. Sgt Major, 1799, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7264:XVII:4.
*Francisco Sotolongo (1762 Havana - ), Cadet in 1781 and 1788, Havana Regt, single. Legajo 7261:XI:40, SubLt, Havana Inf, 1792.
José María Sotolongo. Cadet, Cav Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XII:81.
*Juan Sotolongo (1735 - ), entered service 1751, Lt, Blancos of Havana, 1787. Legajo 7264:III:11, Staff, San Cristóbal de La Havana, 1800.
*Tomás Domingo de Sotolongo (1750 - ), entered service in 1780, Capt, Havana Cav, 1787. K:185, Capt, Vol Cav Regt, age 31 in 1781. Legajo 7264:XII:7.
*Josef Suárez de Navarre. Ch1:19, unm CI recruit who joined Matanza Dragoons in Havana, Aug 1779.
José Antonio Suárez. SubLt, Bn Inf Militia of Cuba 6 Bayamo, 1799. Legajo 7264:XI:18.
*Joseph Antonio Suárez (1762 - ), entered service, 1778, Cadet, 1st Comp in Cuba of the Blancos, Cuba y Bayamo, 1787.
Fermin Subiran. Sgt, Inf of Cuba, 1792. Legajo 7261:XII:43.
Diego Sucre. ???, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVI:12.

Juan Tabela. Adjutant, 1799, Plana Mayor del Bn Morenos of Havana, Legajo 7264:VII:9.
*Gonzalo Tablada (1721 - ), entered service 1732, Sgt Major, Grad Lt Col, 1787 and 1791, Bn Inf Mil of Cuba y Bayamo, Legajo 7261:XVII:2.
*Andrés Tacón. NavChronIV:355, Capt of the Santa Rosalía, 34 guns, on the voyage to West Indies in Apr 1780 under Admiral Solano. MP:166, Starr:208, Naval Captain, 1781, at Pensacola. Mob:446, in 1780 Pensacola convoy. C&C:94, Capt, frigate, Santa Rosalía, at Pensacola.
Hilario Tamayo. Lt, 1797, Comp Cav Urbana of Cuba y Bayamo, Legajo 7263:XVIII:7.
José Fabino Tamayo. SubLt, Bn Inf, Militia of Cuba Y Bayamo, 1799, Legajo 7264:XI:42.
Manuel Vicente Tamayo. Cadet, Bn Inf, Militia of Cuba y Bayamo, 1993. Legajo 7262:XIX:46.
Marcos Tamayo. SubLt, Comp Cav, Urban, of Cuba y Bayamo, 1793. Legajo 7262:XXV:5.
*Fermin Tarro (1748 Barcelona - ), in the conquest of Providencia in 1782, Sgt, Havana Inf, 1788, single. Sgt, 1789, Comp Inf of Catalonia in Havana, Legajo 7260:V:16.
*Carlos Telles (1758 Havana - ), entered service 1775, at Pensacola 16 Oct 1780, SubLt, Havana Regt, 1786, single. SubLt, 1792, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7261:XI:32.
*Joseph Tenton. Cummins:64, Spanish observer in Santiago, Cuba, who reported on British activities in Jamaica.
*Luís Lorenzo Terrazas. Beerman:82, 83, Lt of the navy in Mobile operation, 1780.
*Carlos Testona/Festona of Havana. Chávez:225, in 1781 lender of money to the French navy.
*Antonio Tirada. M:350, Capt, sloop galley San Diego in May 1782 invasion of Nassau.
*Juan Tirri/Terry y Lacy. Col, 1809, Dragoons of America, Legajo 7265:II:174.
*Antonio Toledo(1731 -), entered service 1748, Capt, 1786, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7259:XII:19.
*Antonio de Toledo (1762 Florida - ), entered service 1777, at Pensacola 16 Oct 1780, SubLt of Bandera, Havana Regt, 1786, single. SubLt, 1788, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7259:II:50.
Benito Toledo. Distinguished Soldier, Cav Militia of Havana, 1793. Legajo 7262:XX:108.
*José de Toledo (1764 Havana - ), entered service as Cadet in 1782, Cadet 1788, Havana Regt, single, Legajo 7259:II:85.
Miguel Tornes. Lt, 1797, Mil Inf of Havana, Legajo 7263:XI:20.
*Salvadór del Toro (1738 - ), entered service in 1753. Ch1:23, Lt, Arty, of Havana Regt, aboard Caymen, Feb 1781, for Pensacola. Capt in 1788, Corps of Arty, Havana, Legajo 7259:IV:3.

José Torralva. Sgt, Inf of Cuba, 1792. Legajo 7261:XII:48.
*Antonio María de la Torre (1726 Havana - ), entered service in 1740, grad Lt Col in 1781, Sgt Major and Plana Mayor, Havana Regt, 1786, widowed. K:126, Sgt Major of 1st Bn, Cuban Inf Regt, in 1788. Legajo 7263:XXII:2, Comandante/Col, Havana Inf, 1796.
Antonio María de la Torre. Cadet, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:101.
*Bernabe de la Torre. Legajo 7264:XIV:4, Capt, Bn Inf Mil, Puerto Príncipe, 1799.
*Joaquín de la Torre. Mob:813, signed the map of Mobile, 1781. Legajo 7264:XVII:65, SubLt, Cuban Inf, 1799.
Joaquin de la Torre y Cardenas. SubLt, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:73.
José Francisco de la Torre. Sgt, Bn Militia of Cuatro Villas, 1799.Legajo 7264:X:30.
José Ignacio de la Torre. SubLt, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVI:60.
José María de la Torre. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1797. Legajo 7263:XIV:93.
*José María de la Torre (1756 Havana - ), entered service in 1769, Lt in 1782 and 1786, Havana Regt, married. Legajo 7261:XI:47, SubLt, Havana Inf, 1792. Legajo 7264:XVII:13, Capt, Cuban Inf, 1799.
*Marquís de la Torre, Felipe de Fonsdeviela y Ondeano (1725-1784). ND5:1339-1340, Cummins:208, Captain General of Cuba, 1771-1777.Abbey:58, Spanish official, 1776. Historia:215, MP:99n69, former Governor of Havana in 1777.
Rafael de la Torre. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVI:114.
*Seb. Torrens. M:349, Capt, letter St. Vincente Ferrer in May 1782 invasion of Nassau.
*Antonio Torres. A2:IX:16, soldier, c 1779.
*Manuel de Torres (1758 - ), entered service in 1775, 1st Sgt, 1788, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7259:II:75.
Manuel Torres. SubLt, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:62.
Matías de Torres. Sgt, Inf of Havana, 1797. Legajo 7263:XIV:83.
*Miguel Torres (1751 - ), entered service 1769, 1st Sgt, Inf Blancos of Havana, 1787.
*Miguel Torres. Soldier and Cpl in 1780-82 in Grenada, Veracruz, Havana, and Guarico operations, 1st Sgt Grenadiers, Inf of Mexico, 1800, single, Legajo 7277:IV:65.
*George Townson. Lewis:121, ship captain who took messages from Havana to Nassau, c 1783.
*Angel de los Toyos (1743 - ), entered service in 1761, 1st Sgt, 1787 and 1789, Mil Cav of Havana, Legajo 7259:VI:56.
Francisco Toyos. Sgt, Cav Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XII:72.
*Jaime Tremoll. Mob:448, Capt, galley Jesús María y José, Pensacola convoy, 1780. Mob:611, Capt, galley San Francisco de Paula, Mobile, 1781.
Luis Trevejos. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:VVI:90.
*Antonio Tur (c 1745 Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain - ), entered service 1764, 1st Sgt in 1781 and 1786, Havana Regt, married. H:224, Sgt 1st Cl, Dragoons of America, md.
Henríque Turen. BR:710, soldier of Light Inf of Cuba, bur 14 Aug 1792, SJO.

Francisco Uberty. Sgt, Squadron of Dragoons in America, 1797. Legajo 7263:XIII:22.
*Antonio Ugarte. SubLt, Inf of Havana, 1789. Legajo 7260:X:20.
*Domingo de Ugarte. Capt, 1799, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7264:XVI:7.
*Martin de Ugarte. Sgt Major, 1792, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7261:XII:2. Prob same as Martin de Ugarte, Col, 1799, Cav Mil of Havana, Legajo 7264:XII:1.
*Tomás Ugarte (1757 Havana - ), entered service in 1775, wartime service in Louisiana Regt, Capt of Grenadiers, grad Lt Col, Havana Regt, 1786. Capt, grad Lt Col, 1799, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7264:XVII:8.
*Luís de Unzaga/Unzaya y Amezaga (1717 Málaga – 1793 Granada & Málaga). Beerman:296, Caughey:55-56, Governor of Louisiana from 1769 into 1776 who began helping Americans. Abbey:57, footnote 1, ordered to collect info on English in 1775. Woods:97, wife was Elizabet de St Maxent of Louisiana, bap ch in 1776 and later. Tanner:17, 21, Governor of Cuba, 1782. Cummins:208, Captain General of Cuba, 1782-85. Legajo 7259:XVI:54, Lt Col, Inf of Havana, 1765.
*José Uriarte y Borja. Ch1:23, Lt of frigate, San Ramon, Feb 1781.
Vicente de Uriarte. Surgeon, 1799, Mil Inf of Havana, Legajo 7264:XIII:59.
*Diego de Urra. Lt, 1788, Corps of Art of Havana, Legajo 7259:IV:10.
*Juan de Urra. K;185, SubLt, 1st Bn, Vol Inf of Cuba, 1781.
*Juan Ignacio de Urriza. MP:100n74, Caughey:192, Spanish Intendant of the Army in Havana reporting to José de Gálvez, Minister of the Indies, 1781. Cummins:65, Intendant of Cuba, 1777, arranged aid for the American Revolution. Lewis:35-37, Indendant of the Exchequer, Havana, Cuba, 1781-1782.
*Manuel Urrutia (1760 - ), entered service in 1776, SubLt, Blancos of Havana, 1787. Capt, 1799, Inf Mil of Havana, Legajo 7289:XIII:12.
*Sebastián Uruño. Adjutant, 1787, Plana Mayor del Bn Pardos of Havana, Legajo 7259:VII:3.

*Antonio Vaillant Bertier (1758 Cadiz - ), entered service 1772, Lt Havana Cav, 1787, Capt 1799, Staff of Bn Pardos Militia of Cuba y Bayamo, Legajo 7264:IX:1.
*Juan Bautista Vaillant (1736 Cataluña - ), entered service 1753, Col, Havana Cav, 1787. Historia:242, K:121, 126, Havana militia officer, commander of Cav Vols, 1778, later Governor of Santiago. Legajo 7259:VI:1, Col, Vol Blancos, Cav of Havana, 1787.
*Diego Valderas/Valladares. Mob:610, 667, Capt, packetboat, Jesús Nazareno, at Pensacola, 1781.
*Andrés de Valderrama. Tides:70, Captain ship San Juan Nepomuceno at Havana, 1775. Rush:55, frigate captain at Pensacola, 1781.
*Juan Valentin (1730 - ), entered service 1748, Capt, 1787, Mil Inf of Havana, Legajo 7259:V:4.
*Antonio Valenzuela (1744 San Agustín de la Florida - ), entered service 1758, 1st Sgt of Grenadiers, Inf Blancos of Havana, 1787. Lt, 1797, Mil Inf of Havana, Legajo 7263:XI:74.
Francisco Valera. Cadet, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:98.
Miguel Valera. SubLt, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:52.
Juan Valiente. Cadet, Bn Inf of Cuba y Bayamo, 1799. Legajo 7264:XI:29.
*Pablo José Valiente. Tanner:114, Cuban intendant, 1787.
*Antonio Valland Bertier. Capt, Plana Mayor, 1799, Bn Pardos Mil, Cuba & Bayamo, Legajo 7264:IX:1.
*Antonio Ramón del Vallé. Cummins:129, 164, Secretary to the Captain General, 1779, arranging aid for the American Revolution. MP:100n73, Capt of Engineers, Secretary to the Captain-General throughout the war years.
Fernando de Valle. Cadet, Militia of Cuatro Villas, 1799. Legajo X:56.
*Juan Martínez Vallejo (1742 - ), entered service 1761, Adjutant Mayor, Grad Capt, Havana Cav, 1787.
Francisco Vallejos. SubLt, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:63.
*Conde de Vallellano (1750 - ), entered service 1764, Capt, grad Lt Col, Havana Cav, 1787. Commandant, grad Col, Cav Mil, Havana, Legajo 7264:XII:4.
Joaquín de Vallenilla (1733 la Fuerza, Araya - ), married by 1787. Lt, 1779-1787, Inf Vets Cumanà, Legajo 7293.
*José Vallière/Valiere. Beerman:58-59, Spanish officer, born in France, took the Bernardo de Gálvez war diary from Havana to Madrid, 1779.
*Marcos Valls/Balls. ZPR:199, Corporal, normally at San Fernando de Omoa, Honduras, but absent in the Castillo de San Juan, Nicaragua, 1779.
Antonio Valverde. Cadet, Squadron of Dragoons of America, 1799. Legajo 7264:XV:32.
*José Valverde (1724 Valladolid - ), entered service 1735, Capt Proprietario in 1764, Capt Dragoons of America, 1786, married. Lt Col, grad Col, 1799, Escuadrón de Dragones of America, Legajo 7264:XV:1.
*Pedro Valverde (1754 Havana - ), entered service 1772, SubLt of Grenadiers in 1782, Lt, Havana Regt, 1786, single. Adjutant, grad Capt, 1796, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7263:XXIII:17. Chávez:225, paymaster, Inf. Regt of Havana, in 1781 lender of money to the French Navy.
Vicente Varas. SubLt, 1790, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7260:IV:41.
*Francisco Varela (1741 Tordezillas - ), entered service 1759, Lt Grad in 1781, Lt in Havana Regt, 1786, married. Capt, 1796, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7263:XXII:10.
*José Ignacio Varela (1740 - ), entered service 1758, Lt, 1787 and 1799, Cav Mil of Havana, Legajo 7264:XII:20.
Miguel Varela. Cadet, Inf of Cuba, 1792. Legajo 7261:XII:68.
*Nicolás Varela of Havana. Chávez:225, in 1781 lender of money to the French navy.
*Alfonso de Vargas. Lt, 1789, Mil Inf of Havana, Legajo 7260:IX:74.
José de Vargas Manchuca of Havana, Cuba ( - 1780), he and wife Juana Rodríguez had ch during war years.
Manuel de Vargas. Sgt, Staff, Bn Pardos Militia of Cuba y Bayamo, 1799. Legajo 7264:IX:8.
Agustín de Varona. Cadet, Comp of Cav, Urban, of Puerto Príncipe, 1797. Legajo 7263:XIX:6.
Esteban Varona. Cadet, Bn Inf Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIV:47.
Fernando Varona y Cespedes. Cadet, Bn of Militia Inf of Puerto Príncipe, 1793. Legajo 7262:XXVII:45.
*Ignacio Varona. Capt, 1799, Bn Inf Mil, Puerto Príncipe, Legajo 7264:XIV:5.
José Varona. Cadet, Bn of Inf of Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIV:42.
Serapio Varona. SubLt, Bn of Inf Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIV:22.
Andrés Vasallo. Sgt of Grenadiers, Militia of Cuatro Villas, 1799. Legajo 7264:X:29.
*Antonio Vásquez Urriola. Capt, 1796, Bn Inf de Castilla de Campeche, Legajo 7297:I:32.
*Francisco Vásquez (1743 - ), entered service 1764, Capt, 2d Comp in Bayamo, Blancos of Cuba y Bayamo, 1787. Legajo 7264:XI:36, Capt, Bn Inf Mil, Cuba y Bayamo, 1799.
*José Vázquez. Legajo 7261:XII:13, Capt Cuban Inf, 1792.
*José Vázquez (1751 - ), entered service, 1768, Legajo 7259:II:20, Capt, Havana Inf, 1788.
*Juan Salvador Vásquez (1764 - ), entered service, 1780, Cadet in 2d Comp in Bayamo, Blancos of Cuba y Bayamo, 1787. Legajo 7264:XI:50.
*Lorenzo Vásquez (1758 - ), entered service, 1773, SubLt of Bandera, Blancos of Cuba y Bayamo, 1787. Legajo 7264:XI:45.
Manuel Vásquez. SubLt, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:69.
*Pedro Vásquez. Tanner:24, naval captain, 1784.
*Rafael Vásquez (1754 - ), entered service 1769, SubLt, 6th Comp in Bayamo, Blancos of Cuba y Bayamo, 1787. Legajo 7264:XI:43.
*José de Vega (1736 Granquillo - ), 1st Sgt in 1763 and 1786, Havana Regt, married. Sgt, 1788, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7259:II:135.
Agustin Velasco. SubLt, Bn Inf Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIV:20.
*Cristóbal Velasco. Capt, Bn Militia of Inf at Puerto Príncipe, 1791. Legajo 7261:XX:4.
Joseph María de Velasco. A3:XII:51, mentioned, c 1782.
Juan de Velasco. SubLt, Bn Inf Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1799. Legajo 7204:XIV:21.
*Vicente Velasco (1754 - ), entered service 1771. Legajo 7260:IX:96, Sgt, Inf Mil of Havana, 1787 and 1789.
Juan Bautista Velazquez. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVI:116.
Luis Velazquez. Cadet, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:119.
*Francisco Velez (1749 - ), entered service in 1770, 1st Sgt, 4th Comp in Mayamo, Blancos of Cuba y Bayamo, 1787.
Ignacio Pablo Velez. Lt, 1797, Comp Mil Cav of Trinidad, Legajo 7263:XVI:2.
Juan Francisco Velez. Lt, 1799, Bn Inf Mil Cuba & Bayamo, Legajo 7264:XI:40.
Ramón Velez. Cadet, 1789, Inf of Cuba, Legajo 7260:VIII:91.
*Pedro Venero. A2:IX:46, SubLt, c 1779.
Alonso de Vera. Sgt, Inf Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIII:42. 
José Antonio Vergera. Surgeon, 1799, Plana Mayor del Bn Morenos of Havana, Legajo 7264:VII:12.
*Francisco Verna (1754 - ), entered service 1772, SubLt, Havana Arty, 1787. Lt, 1796, Corps Arty, Havana, Legajo 7263:XXII:11.
*Joseph Vial/Viel. Appeals Case 95, mariner in Nov 1782 on the Spanish San Antonio.
Francisco Viamonte. Cadet, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:116.
*Nicolás Viamonte. K:185, SubLt, age 39, in 1781 Cuban militia.
*Alonso/Alfonso de Viaña (1756 Almazán - ), entered service 1772, at Mobile and Pensacola in 1780, SubLt, Havana Regt, 1786, married. Lt, 1800, Staff, San Cristóbal, Havana, Legajo 7264:III:10.
*Andrés Viciedo (1728 - ), entered service, 1748. Lt, grad Capt, 1795, Inf Mil of Havana, Legajo 7262:IX:64.
Juan Viciedo. Cadet, Inf Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIII:122.
*Antonio Pasqual Vidal. M:350, Capt sloop galley San Juan Evangelista in May 1782 invasion of Nassau. Lewis:130, ship captain posted at Fort Montague, New Providence, 1782/83.
*Ignacio Leite Vidal (1742 Oporto, Portugal - ), SubLt in 1781 and 1786, Havana Regt, married.
Ramón Vidarrueta. Sgt, Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XIII:97.
*Antonio Viejo. Lt, 1793, Mil de Cuatro Villas, Legajo 7262:XVII:13.
Joaquin Vigil. SubLt of Bandera, Militia of Cuatra Villas, 1799. Legajo 7264:X:70.
Pablo Vigil. Sgt, Militia of Cuatra Villas, 1797. Legajo 7263:VIII:56.
*Julián Vilar (1736 Baza - ), entered service 1752, Lt, 1st Comp, grad Capt, Dragoons of America, 1781-86, single. Capt, 1794, Escuadrón of Dragoons of America, Legajo 7262:XII:7.
*Juan Vilaró. Mob:19, Capt, brig San Juan Bautista, at Mobile, 1780.
*Juan Vilaró (1749 Barcelona - ), at Mobile and Pensacola, Sgt, Havana Regt, 1788, married. Legajo 7262:XI:13, Sgt, Comp Inf, Cataluña in Havana, 1794.
*Pedro de Villa. Capt, 1797, Comp Mil Cav, Trinidad, Legajo 7263:XVI:1.
Pedro José de Villa. Cadet Militia of Cuatro Villas, 1799. Legajo 7264:X:65.
*??? De Villages. Beerman:197-198, navy captain who transported one million pesos from Havana to Yorktown, 1781, with the frigate Amazona.
*Pedro Villalobos (1744 - ), entered service 1762, 1st Sgt of Grenadiers, Inf Blancos of Havana, 1787. Lt, 1799, Mil of Cuatro Villas, Legajo 7264:X:14.
*Benito Villalon (1755 Cuba - ), SubLt in 1778, SubLt in 1786, Havana Regt, married. Capt, 1799, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7264:XVI:19.
*Jose Villanueva (1764 - ), entered service as a Cadet in 1782, 4th Comp, Dragoons of America, still a Cadet in 1788, SubLt in 1809. Legajo 7265:II:185.
Diego Villar. Cadet, Inf of Cuba, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVII:121.
*Juan Villar (1729 - ), entered service 1751, Lt, 1787 and 1791, Mil Cav, Havana, Legajo 7261:XVIII:10.
Marcus Villar. Sgt, Comp of Inf from Cataluña in Havana, 1794. Legajo 7262:XI:22.
*Agustín Villarreal (1754 Havana - ), entered service 1772, SubLt in 1779 and 1786, Havana Regt, single. Capt, 1799, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7264:XVI:20.
*Seb. Villaseca. M:351, Capt, sloop La Leche in May 1782 invasion of Nassau.
*Juan Pablo Villasoca. A3:XII:3, Capt, c 1782.
Juan Villavicencio. Distinguished Soldier, Cav Militia of Havana, 1793.Legajo 7262:XX:73.
José Vilena. Cadet, Inf Militia of Havana, 1792. Legajo 7261:VI:43.
*Jorge Villers (1771 Havana - ), Cadet in March, 1783 and 1786, Havana Regt, single. Legajo 7264:XVII:53, SubLt, Inf of Cuba, 1799.
*Juan Villers (1770 Havana - ), Cadet in 1782 and 1786, Havana Regt, single. Legajo 7264:XVI:44, SubLt, Inf of Havana, 1799.
*Ramón de Villers (1740 Igualada - ), entered service 1755, Lt, 2d Comp, grad Capt, 1782 and 1786, Dragoons of America, married with “vastante familia,” “su muzer y 7 hijos…” Capt, 1799, Squadron of Dragoons of America, Legajo 7264:XV:15.
*José Villuendas (1753 Obonlugar, Aragon - ), entered service 1774, in 1st Bn at Pensacola 16 Oct 1780, 2d Sgt Grenadiers, 1782, 1st Sgt, Havana Regt, 1786, single. Adjutant of the Plaza, 1800, Staff of San Cristóbal, Havana, Legajo 7264:II:2.
*??? Virgili. Mob:667, Capt, frigate, Santa Rosalía, Pensacola, 1781.
*??? Vitori. Mob:447, head of transport boat, Pensacola convoy, 1780.
*Manuel Vizcayas (1728 - ), entered service 1744, Sub-Inspector, grad Lt Col, with Pardos, 1787.

Francisco Werty. Sgt, Squadron of Dragoons of America, 1794. Legajo 7262:XII:20.
*Federico Winterfeld. Capt, Inf of Cuba, 1791. Legajo 7261:XXVI:16.
*William Woodsides. Lewis:116, 121, pilot for the Spanish fleet during the Expedition to the Bahamas, 1782.

*José Ximénez (1736 - ), entered service 1743, Lt Blancos of Havana, 1787.
*Juan Ximénez (1753 Sadava, Aragon - ), entered service 1773, in Expedition to Providence, 1782, 1st Sgt Havana Regt, 1786 and 1788, married.

Juan Yague. Legajo 7262:XI:19, Sgt, Catalonian Comp of Havana, 1794. 
*Mateo Ydoyage. M:349, Capt, ship San Luciano in May 1782 invasion of
*Gaspar Yeo/Feo (1737 Canary Islands - ), entered service 1755, SubLt,
Havana Cav, 1787.
*Felipe de Yturrieta. Lewis:86-87, 96-97, 136, Intendant of New Providence at Nassau, 1783.
Félix Yusta. Sgt, Cav Militia of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XII:67.

*José Zaldívar. K:185, Lt Col, Vol Inf Regt of Cuba, age 60 in 1781.
Legajo 7263:XI;6, Capt/Col, Inf Mil of Havana, 1797.
*José Manuel Zaldívar, first Conde de Zaldivar. K:185, SubLt, Vol Inf
Regt of Cuba, age 30 in 1781. Legajo 7265:I:81, Lt Col/Col, Havana Inf Mil, 1809.
Martín Zaldívar. Legajo 7262:XXI:42, Cadet Inf Mil of Havana, 1793.
*Manuel Zárate. A2:X:25A, soldier, c 1780.
*Rafael Zarilla. A3:XI:37, Cpl, 1781.
*Felipe de Zayas (1741 Malaga - ), Capt in 1776 and 1786, Havana Regt, married. Legajo 7259:II:6, Capt, Havana Inf, 1788,
Félipe de Zayas. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1797. Legajo 7263:XIV:98.
Francisco de Zayas. Sgt 1st Cl of Grenadiers, Bn Inf Militia of Cuba y Bayamo, 1799. Legajo 7264:XI:22.
Francisco de Borja Zayas. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVI:113.
Francisco de Paula Zayas. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1797. Legajo 7263:XIV:102.
*Joaquín de Zayas. K:185, Capt, 1781, age 36, Cuban militia. Legajo 7259:V:10, Capt, Inf Mil of Havana, 1787.
Joaquin María de Zayas. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264:XVI:93.
José Pablo de Zayas. Cadet, Comp Cav, Urban, of Puerto Príncipe, 1797. Legajo 7263:XIX:5.
*Juan Bruno de Zayas. K:185, Capt, 1781, age 36, in Havana militia.
Manuel Zayas. Cadet, Bn Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1795. Legajo 7262:X:45.
Rafael Zayas. Legajo 7262:X;29, Sub Lt, Bn Inf Mil, Puerto Príncipe, 1795.
Manuel Zenea. Cadet, Inf of Havana, 1797. Legajo 7263:XIV:109.
Manuel Zequeira. Adjutant, Inf of Havana, 1799. Legajo 7264::XVI:29.
Manuel José Zequeira. Cadet, Bn Inf Militia of Cuba y Bayamo, 1799. Legajo 7264:XI:55.
*José Zerralbo (1751 born in Don Sancho country - ), at Mobile and Pensacola, 1780, Sgt, 3rd Comp, Dragoons of America, 1786, single.
*Antonio de Zespedes/Cespedes (1768 Havana - ), in Providence Expedition in 1782, SubLt of Bandera, Havana Regt, 1786, single. Legajo 7260:IV:37, SubLt, Inf of Cuba, 1790.
*Fernando de Zéspedes/Cespedes. Tanner:12, 17, 23, Lt in attack on Mobile, one of 50 men from the Havana Regiment, on 14 Mar 1780. He was son of Vicente Manuel de Zéspedes. His battalion was transferred to Spain at the end of the war. Woods:100, md Catalina de la Ronde in 1782.
*Thomas de Zéspedes/Cespedes. Tanner:23, in 1784 with a regiment in Spain. Son of Vicente Manuel. This may be Tomás de Cespedes, Capt, 1800, Staff of San Cristóbal, Havana, Legajo 7264:III:6.
*Vicente Domingo de Zéspedes/Cespedes (1757 Havana - ), SubLt in 1775, Lt in Havana Regt, 1786, single. Tanner:23, sub-lieutenant in Havana Regiment, 1784, went to East Florida with his father. Lt, Inf of Cuba, 1791, Legajo 7261:XXVI:24.
*Vicente Manuel de Zéspedes/Cespedes y Velasco. Wright:136, 142, 143, Tanner:xi, 12, Governor of East Florida, 12 Jul 1784-1790. He had been in charge of Havana defenses during the war and later Lieutenant Governor at Santiago, Cuba. In 1782, he loaned money to the Army during a financial emergency. His wife was María Concepción Aróstegui/Anostegeri. Woods:100, Col. from Havana. Capt, Lt Col grad, 1765, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7259:XVI:3.
Felix Zocarras. Legajo 7263:XIX:2, Lt, Cav Urban Comp of PuertoPríncipe, 1797.
*Jose Zocarras. Legajo 7263:XIX;1, Capt, Cav Urban Comp of Puerto Príncipe, 1797.
José Tomás Zocarras. SubLt, Comp Urban Cav of Puerto Príncipe, 1797. Legajo 7263:XIX:3.
Miguel Zocarras. Cadet, Bn Inf of Puerto Príncipe, 1795. Legajo 7262:X:51.
Ubaldo Zocarras. Cadet, Bn Inf Militia of Puerto Príncipe, 1795. Legajo 7262:X:48.
Mariano Zubieta. Cadet, Comp of Inf from Cataluña in Havana, 1788. Legajo 7259:I:28.
José Claudio de Zuñiga. Lt, 1799, Inf of Havana, Legajo 7264:XVI:37.
*Maricio de Zuñiga (1749 - ), entered service 1761, Capt, Inf Vets of Havana, 1788. C&R:153, in Pensacola battle, later its commandant. Legajo 7264:XVII:11, Capt, Cuban Inf, 1799.
CubaPat6, 6 May 2006..

Texas Longhorns 
In August 1779 the very first trail drive in American History was approximately 1,800 head of Texas Longhorns from San Antonio and La Bahia (Goliad) to Nacogdoches, TX to Natchitoches, LA and on to the Mississippi River and beyond in support of the AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR.  To participate in the July 4th Washington, D.C. parade contact Jack Cowan.  210-651-4709



Ramon Peralta Adobe Mural
Orange County oral histories of war veterans made into documentary, 
June 3: screening of student produced documentary on Orange County  
June 6: NLBWA-OC's "Emerging Latinas Program"
LULAC Westminster Council #3017 2006 2006 Scholarship Recipients
June 10: Bernardo de Galvez Re-enactor to present to SARs
Historic block party
Steve DeMara: Genealogist/ Historian honored
Capistrano honors native Frances Louise Sherrill,
Rios Family of San Juan Capistrano 
Click for report on May 27th SHHAR meeting

Anaheim Hills' first museum opens in adobe, by Diane Reed, The Orange County Register, Monday, May 1, 2006

Anaheim The newest thing in Anaheim Hills is also the oldest.
The Ramon Peralta Adobe, built in 1871, is the Hills' first museum.

Matthew Southgate of Orange is painting a 40-foot mural showing the history of Santa Ana Canyon for the Ramon Peralta Adobe. He wants to paint on the museum’s exterior.  Photo: Joshua Sudock

Collections of historical objects fill the previously bare Ramon Peralta house, built in 1871. Sandra Day and Connie Cooper-Ness, president of the historical council, are co-chairwomen of the museum. Cooper-Ness is a descendant of the pioneering Lugo, Peralta, Yorba and Dominguez families. "We've worked very closely on this project  
for more than a year," Day said.

Museum organizers solicited items dating to the Rancho/Adobe period for part of a historical collection. They range from Spanish swords and riding saddles to animal skins, quilts and kitchen utensils of the era. Many are on loan from descendants of pioneer families. The adobe has long been a field-trip destination for Orange County schoolchildren and Scouts. The building had been preserved but had few furnishings and no museum collection until now.

The most striking feature of the new museum is a 40-foot mural by Matthew Barrios Southgate, 34, depicting the history of Santa Ana Canyon. The Orange resident, who decorated the Bowers Kidseum and the La Habra Children's Museum, has also created a large family tree depicting how the early families intermarried.

"Someone saw my work in La Habra and contacted me about this project," Southgate said. "Ranger Sam Edwards came up with the (mural) ideas."

Although Southgate's arms are weary from working on the ceiling-level mural, he hopes to paint on the exterior. He said he's learned more than just local history during many late-night painting sessions. "As far as I can tell, there are no ghosts in the Peralta Adobe," he said.

Two grand-opening events were held on the weekend. On Friday, the Santa Ana Canyon Historical Council hosted "Fiesta Fandango," a benefit for the museum's endowment fund.

Anaheim Mayor Pro Tem Richard Chavez cut the ribbon, opening the 125-year-old building to guests Friday night. On Saturday, the county held a public open house. Descendants of early settlers conducted tours at both events.


The adobe is the only such structure from the era of the Spanish and Mexican land grants still surviving in the Santa Ana Canyon area. Built in 1871 in what was then known as the town of Peralta, the adobe stood in a fledgling community of nine such adobes, a combination saloon and pottery shop, and a school. In 1920, the Peralta Adobe was converted into a roadside restaurant and gas station, and, for the next four decades, catered to the increasing motor traffic between Riverside and Orange counties on the newly paved Santa Ana Canyon Road. The county acquired the property in 1977 and had the structure restored as a historic site. Source: Orange County Parks Department


Ramon Peralta Adobe

Address: 6398 E. Santa Ana Canyon Road
Information: (714) 476-2086
Hours: Open to the public from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. on the first Saturday of every month
Admission: Free

CONTACT US: (714) 704-3787 or  

Orange County war veterans documentary 
O.C. Register, 5-8-06
Nine students from Santiago High School collected personal stories from Orange County war veterans. The students formed an hour-long documentary called "Freedom is Not Free: A Tribute to Our Veterans." The students made the film for a video class. The finished product was shown at the Garden Grove Community Meeting Center on May 10. Information (714) 663-6215.


Their 'O.C.' Is About Striving, Not Glitz
Student documentary covers immigrant marches, life in working-class, neighborhoods--and hope. (Excerpt of article) By Jennifer Delson, Times Staff Writer, May 22, 2006

When a group of Santa Ana students made a film about Orange County, they didn't turn their cameras on the multimillion-dollar houses, Botox parties or rich high school students featured on TV shows such as "The OC," "Laguna Beach" or "Real Housewives of Orange County."

Instead, the students, most of them Latinos from immigrant families, focused on poetry, their recent school walkouts in support of immigrants, and their hardscrabble neighborhoods. 

They hope "I Am Orange County," their 30-minute documentary, provides a real-life contrast to the golden ocean views and indulgent lifestyles on the shows that carry the county's name.

"I am Orange County," declares 12-year-old Gabriela Garcia of Carr Intermediate School, reciting a poem in the film. "I am the ceramic tile filled with first steps, the grill loaded with carne asada, noisy neighbors, the smell of bread."...

Sandra Peña-Sarmiento, the film's producer, said the documentary's message to minority students was that they, too, are a part of the county's image. 

"In every single representation of Orange County, these kids are not part of it," said Sarmiento, who teaches at the Orange County Children's Therapeutic Arts Center. "What we wanted to show is that they have a place here."

The film was the result of a $50,000 grant from the Community Technology Foundation of California to the arts center, a nonprofit organization that promotes the arts to at-risk, troubled and mentally disabled children and youths...

Sarmiento and instructor Victor Payan gave students disposable still cameras, one of which was used to shoot the spontaneous student walkouts. 

When students left classes on several days in mid-April, Israel Ochoa, 16, of Santa Ana High School took photos that were incorporated in the film. 

"I feel good because I know we are showing what Orange County is really about," Ochoa said. "I think what I've learned is that even though we are poor, we do have power. When something happens, we can stand up."

Read the full article at:,1,4825474.story?coll=la-headlines-california

* The OCCT Arts Center will screen the film at 5 p.m. JUNE 3 at its new location, 2215 N. Broadway, Santa Ana (S. of Buffalo and Main Place mall). Eeeet'll be a family friendly event. *

NALIP members, Sandra Peña-Sarmiento and Victor Payan, announce their newest documentary project, "I am OC" which features the lives of Latino youth living in Orange County. The documentary is scheduled to air on KOCE in the fall and will begin it's rounds on the festival circuit soon. For more info, visit or write to:
Hope you can join us for the film's opening on June 3rd in the heart of OC -- where U can meet our amazing kids! Sandra Peña-Sarmiento


This six-week program will cover: "Business Basics 101" 
Entrepreneurial training program designed to teach the basic tools to operate a successful business!

Concept Feasibility
Strategic Business Planning
Basic Business Principles 
Legal Aspects
Business Structure
Financials & Record keeping
Marketing Plan 
Marketing Strategies
Writing a Business Plan
Access to Capital
Much more!!!
Tuesday Evenings: June 6, June 13, June 20, June 27, July 11, July 18
6:00pm - 8:30pm
Delhi Center - 505 E. Central Ave., Santa Ana, CA
*** $100 for NLBWA-OC members only ***

Limited space! Last day to register was Friday, May 26, 2006, but Call (714) 724-7762 or email:

Program valued at $1,000 per person includes: - Six hands-on workshops - All classroom material - Textbooks - Business plan writing software - Free credit report - Access to one-on-one business coaching - Dinner/refreshments at each class - Graduation celebration!

NLBWA-OC's signature program will provide entrepreneurial training for members seeking to learn how to start a new business or expand an existing one!

Thank you to our Emerging Latinas team Program Facilitator:
Alicia Maciel, MBA Harvard Business School
Francisca Gonzalez-Baxa - Law Offices of Francisca Gonzalez-Baxa
Maggie Rodriguez, State Farm Agent 
Kathleen Urquidez, CPA - Bezich, Rose &Urquidez, CPAs 
Mark Mitchell - SBDC Orange County 
Linda Pinson - Out of Your Mind and Into the Marketplace 
Greg Hellman - Citibank

For membership information contact:
Jody Agius, Membership Co-chair at:
Patty Saldivar, Membership Co-chair at:
For any other questions, call our office at 714.724.7762
Visit our website at   to learn more about our organization.
National Latina Business Women Association - Orange County Chapter
888 W. Santa Ana Blvd. #150, Santa Ana, CA 92701 - Phone 714.724.7762

LULAC Westminster Council #3017 2006 2006 Scholarship Recipients

STUDENT         SCHOOL          MAJOR 
Lindsay Nicole Castillo UCLA Psychology
Jose Alberto Cruz GoldenWest College Undeclared
Joanna Estefania Gallo Moreno UCSanta Barbara Undeclared
Rafael A. Garduño GoldenWest College Registerd Nurse 
Ricardo Juan Medrano CSU Long Beach Biology
Margarita Mosqueda GoldenWest College Business
Maria Soledad Mosqueda GoldenWest College Education 
Jorge Luis Perez CSU Long Beach Health Care
Laura Elena Perez CSU Los Angeles Undeclared 
Laura Leticia Ponce Loyola Marymount University Biology
Andres Julian Santos GoldenWest College Computer Information Technology 
Cristhian Camilo Santos GoldenWest College Architecture
Lorena Patricia Santos Santa Ana College Mathematics 
Miguel Angel Torres Orange Coast College Electrical Engineer 
Salvador Torres CSU Long Beach Financial Management 

Each student to be awarded $250.00 
Sent by Cristina Villasenor

Bernardo de Galvez Re-enactor to appear at the June 10th Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) chapter meeting. For more information, please contact Bruce Buonauro or go to

Other scheduled performances are scheduled for July 7th, 8th and 9th performances in Los Angeles, with a tentative performance in  Baldwin Park, August 24 and 25.

Steve DeMara: Genealogist, Historian 

Mimi,  My name is Richard Castro Guerrreo and I have had the pleasure of receiving an email from you several years ago. You were kind enough to send my Sister-in-Law Leticia Bustos and I an invitation to the formal release of the LDS 1930 census that was held at USC. Leticia and I were very excited that we would be able to meet you that day but unfortunately you were unable to attend. We are both very grateful for your invitation. We met some wonderful and interesting people.

I have been doing genealogical research for almost 6 years now and I have had the opportunity to meet some very nice people. One of those was "Steve DeMara". Steve wrote an article for Somos Primos where he described his ancestors history from Sonora to Southern California. Utilizing the internet, my search for Steve took me up and down the State of California. Mr. Eddie Grijalva played a major role in helping me locate Steve in the City of Orange. 

My first meeting with Steve Demara was very memorable. He welcomed me into his home and we talked for several hours concerning his past and family history. He shared his documented family genealogy research with me. Steve was a WWII veteran and was very active in social change around Orange County. Steve was suffering from several medical problems and was pretty much housebound at the time of our meeting. During our conversation, he asked me if I wanted to see more of his research which was located just off the dining room area. As he openned the door, I noticed that all the walls were covered with family trees, old photos and Native Amercian art and trinkets. It was an amazing site to see. he had been researching his family for over 50 years and he had kept all his research papers and documents in that room. Steve was kind enough to let me photocopy his genealogy family trees and sheets.

Several months after that intial meeting, Steve was put into an assited living home in Santa Ana. I was able to contact him and we planned another meeting. I will never forget standing in front of his door and thinking about all his life experiences and now he is secluded alone in "Room 100". Steve was excited to see me and I was really shocked and happy that his daughter had brought and hung some of Steve's family history momentos on the walls. During our conversation, Steve interruppted and asked if I wanted to see something he had made. He pointed me towards the closet and there inside was a Native American buckskin outfit that Steve had made by hand. It was incredible. I could see that Steve wanted our meeting to continue longer but his health was preventing him from doing so. Abrazos were exchanged and I wished him well.

Months went by and I decided to visit Steve once again. I called and was a shocked to hear from the receptionist that Steve had passed away. I haven't been able to find any relatives of his, but again my Internet research has discovered that Steve DeMara passed away in December 2005. The short time I knew him will be cherished forever. 

I wanted to share this story with. It was through "Somos Primos" website that I was able to meet such an interesting, kind and great man.

Thanks for all your efforts................  Richard Castro Guerrero

Historic block party
By Nellene Teubner, (949) 454-7353  
O.C. Register, May 5, 06  

SAN JUAN CAPISTRANO – On May 6th, eight historic buildings opened their doors to one of the oldest streets in California. The tour featured eight homes and buildings in the National Register Historic District. 

The buildings include:
The Montañez Adobe, built in 1794.
The Victorian Garcia/Pryor House (now the O'Neill Museum), built between 1870-1880.
The Rios Adobe, built in 1794, continuously occupied by 10 generations of the Rios family.
The recently restored Stanfield House, built in 1925. The district also includes a cafe and tea house, as well as a petting zoo.
All proceeds from the tour go to the city's Historic Preservation Fund.
Through the years 
Los Rios Historic District stands today as California's oldest residential neighborhood. It dates back to the late 1700s when 40 adobes were built for workers and soldiers - 20 years after Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Juan Capistrano.

An 1875 township map shows Los Rios Street as Calle Occidental. The name wasn't changed until 1934. 

In 1971, the trash-collection business Solag moved to a 3-acre lot along River Street. Three years later, Los Rios was named a special area in the city's General Plan.

Also in the 1970s, the Montañez Adobe owner donated it to the city, which restored the nearly 200-year-old building.

The 106-year-old Forster house was moved to Los Rios from Camino del Avion in 1997. 

NOW: The Montañez Adobe in San Juan Capistrano’s Los Rios Historic District is home to the law office of Stephen Rios, a 10th-generation family member who also resides there. The city restored the building in the 1970s.

Photos City of San Juan Capistrano 

Capistrano honors native Frances Louise Sherrill,
Eighth-generation Los Rios resident has American Indian burial.
Oct. 3, 1925 to April 27, 2006
Orange County Register,

SAN JUAN CAPISTRANO – Traffic stopped Friday as 200 mourners walked through the streets of town following eighth-generation Los Rios resident Frances Louise "Mona" Sherrill to her final resting place, a traditional funeral procession reserved for the community's founding families. Sherrill died April 27 at age 80.

 Her family has lived in the Rios Adobe on Los Rios Street since 1794, qualifying it as the oldest continually occupied home in the western United States. She was a proud member of the Acjachemen Nation and was credited for helping to revive its culture in the 1970s with her aunt Juanita Rios.

"She was a culture bearer," her daughter Jacque Nuñez said between hugs from loved ones. Nuñez continues to keep Acjachemen traditions alive through basket weaving and as an award-winning storyteller.

Sherrill's grandson Jackson Rolling Thunder Nuñez, adorned in a feather headdress and vibrantly colored regalia, led the procession. Others waved boughs of smoking sage, rattled bamboo instruments and chanted. Representing her Catholic faith, two parish priests and acolytes also joined in the walk.

The usual bustle of Ortega (74) Highway was halted as people in cars and those at gas stations were transfixed by the scene. The last such funeral remembered in town was about 15 years ago for city matriarch Evelyn Villegas Lobo.

The procession left the Mission Basilica San Juan Capistrano after a funeral Mass, crossed the San Diego (I-5) Freeway overpass and ended at the Old Mission Cemetery. Only residents tracing their ancestry back to the early mission days are buried there. A drumbeat and American Indian song echoed through the graveyard. The sounding of a conch shell ended the burial ceremony.

Those closest to her remember Sherrill as a fun-loving woman, always ready for a party. She was known for her glamorous appearance - makeup, long red nails and false eyelashes. A package of them was tossed on top of her casket.

"I called her the first Acjachemen diva," Jacque Nuñez said.

Family said Sherrill's health started to decline after her son Kevin's slaying in 1989. But it wasn't until her stroke nine years ago that the outgoing and active woman became bedridden. She lost her ability to speak but her room had no door, so she could continue listening in on the activity in her daughter Jacque's home. She suffered a second stroke in January.

When she was in better health, she was a docent for Mission San Juan Capistrano and loved to weave baskets, a challenge given her long nails. She worked as a nurse for a few years before giving birth to her four children.

Sherrill's efforts to pass her heritage to future generations will be missed.

"Every time we lose someone like her it hurts because who's going to take her place?" said Ernie Longwalker, a spiritual leader for the Dakota Nation.

RIOS Family of San Juan Capistrano 
Descendent Obituary 
Sent by Rita

FRANCES LOUISE RIOS PLACENTIA SHERRILL  passed away April 27. She was known as "La Mona" and was most proud of her Native Californian heritage. An eighth generation RIOS descendent from San Juan Capistrano, and grand-daughter of DAMIAN RIOS Rios, and great, great, great grand daughter of SANTIAGO RIOS who first built &owned The Rios Adobe (1794) on Los Rios Street, Mona was an active member of the Juaneno Band of Mission Indians/Acjachemen Nation. She was one of the first "second generation" docents of the Mission, where she proudly served her family and community with dignity and style. Mona is survived by daughters Judy, Jacque and son Daniel. Mona was Nana to many grandchildren 
who will miss her. She was preceded in death by her oldest son, of Vallejo, Ca. An old San Juan Capistrano custom was followed after the May 4th Mass as La Mona's casket will be carried by family and friends up to the Mission Cemetery off Ortega (74) Highway.


June 3:   Talamantes-Farias Reunion 2006 
June 24  East L.A. Beginning Family History, Viola Sadler & Mimi Lozano 
July 24 & 31:  UCLA Extension, Family History research, Michael Perez 
July 7-9 and August 24-25th: "Sons and Souls of California"

The Glory of Their Times, the Chorizeros
Family Programs at the Getty Villa
Los Tapatiós de California: Returning to Their Jalisco Roots

Talamantes-Farias Reunion 2006 

To all of our Cousins out there. We are going to have our 2nd Official Reunion and our first picnic 
on June 3, 2006. Time is 11 am - 4 pm. 

Held at the Chevron Park in El Segundo. Located west, off Sepulveda Blvd. on El Segundo Blvd. turn left through the gate to park at refinery. We will be in the Picnic Shelter below the Clubhouse. Look for the Reunion sign. 

All of the Picnic needs are there, water, sink, Bar-B-Que's picnic tables with benches, if you have older people bring them a comfy chair. Bring all your picnic food and supplies, enough for your family only, tablecloth, ice chest for your drinks, etc.. Beer and wine is allowed. Bring charcoal if you are going to Bar- B-Q No glass objects in the park. Bring a dessert to share with your cousins, we will have a dessert table. 

Please sign in at the registration table when you first come in, giving us your Name and 
Address and family line you are from. We would like to take a family picture of you on arrival. 
Bring pictures, tell us a family story, share what you know about our family. Sing us a song, we all love music. Looking forward to being with you all and getting acquainted with our cousins. For information, contact Eva Booher

June 24:  Los Angeles
Beginning Hispanic Family History Research
 Viola Sadler & Mimi Lozano 

 1:30 p.m. Free of Charge
Public is Invited
East Los Angeles, County of Los Angeles Public Library. 
The workshop is open to the public, starts at 
4837 E. 3rd St.  Los Angeles, 90022
For more information, call, Liana Juliano, 323-264-5841

For the first time, UCLA Extension is offering a series on how to begin family history research.  SHHAR Board member, Michael Perez is leading off the series with the first two classes, scheduled for July 24th and 31st.  For more information, please email Michael at  

You haven't missed it. The hit show is continuing its tour of Southern California. The next stop will be at the well known and respected Found Theatre of Long Beach. Play dates July 7th, 8th and 9th. Friday and Saturday will be at 8pm and Sunday the 9th will be at 5pm. Admission is $10.00. Cesar Chavez y Bernardo de Galvez. Two men who helped shape the foundation of California and the United States. These two dramatic one acts encompass these two Men's individual struggles to help change the existing oppression of those who could not speak for themselves. For reservations for the Found Theatre contact 562-433-3363. Parking is Free. The Found Theatre, 599 Long Beach Blvd, Ca, 90820 

You have no excuse and you haven't missed it. The hit is playing it's largest venue to date. This stop is the beautiful and Modern Baldwin Park Performing Arts Center. Play dates August 24th and 25th. Friday and Saturday Night will be at 8pm. General Admission is $20.00. Cesar Chavez y Bernardo de Galvez. Two Men who helped shape the foundation of California and the United States. These two dramatic one acts encompass these two Men's Individual struggles to change the existing oppression of those who could not speak for themselves. For reservations for the Baldwin Park Performing Arts Center contact 626-856-4550 or 818-337-9267. There is parking. Baldwin Park Performing Arts Center, 4650 Maine Ave Baldwin Park Ca 
Sent by Bruce Buonauro

The Glory of Their Times, the Chorizeros

The Chorizeros were the Yankees of East L.A. in the years after World War II. In the barrio, baseball wasn't just a game, it was an event.
By David Wharton, Times Staff Writer, April 6, 2006,0,1211902.story?coll=la-home-headlines
Sent by Johanna De Soto

On a Sunday morning washed bright and blue near the start of baseball season, only ghosts ramble around an empty diamond at Fourth and Evergreen streets. There is a puddle out by second base and kids playing soccer down the foul line. Hard to imagine how it used to be. You have to squint your eyes against the sunlight, look back a ways.

Back to the late 1940s, when baseball at Evergreen Park was a genuine social event in Boyle Heights. After church, whole neighborhoods congregated there, wives and friends, gossip and laughter, children hanging on the fence to watch.

The memories run hazy with smoke from carne asada on the grill, an old man selling nuts from a cart. The adults brought beer to drink as they sat on crude wooden bleachers and listened to mariachis. On special occasions, a local priest blessed the field.

They came by the hundreds — sometimes thousands — for the Carmelita Chorizeros, the New York Yankees of barrio baseball. In the years after World War II, the Chorizeros ruled over a loose affiliation of Latino amateur and semi-professional teams that played every weekend throughout Southern California and across the border into Mexico.

"I mean, we had some players," recalls Armando Perez, who joined the Chorizeros after three seasons of minor league ball with the Baltimore Orioles. "This was our existence."

The man who ran the club — he owned a chorizo factory down the road — made sure the lineup was always well-stocked, his guys dressed in crisp uniforms. The Chorizeros won strings of games, claiming one city championship after another, but this wasn't about just hits and runs.

Fifty years later, as Los Angeles roils with demonstrations over proposed immigration changes, the legacy of the Chorizeros is entwined with the story of the Latino community. Frank Lopez, the owner's son, could see it in all of those faces at the games.

"There was a lot of prejudice in those days," Lopez says. "This was a way to do something. Something for us."

Old photographs of Mario Lopez Sr. show a fit man with jet black hair, an avid ballplayer as a kid growing up in Chihuahua, Mexico. Immigrating to the United States in the early 1920s, he eventually opened a gas station called Mario's Service, then tried another line of work. 

At the time, despite a growing influx of Mexicans to Southern California, few grocery stores carried ethnic foods.

"You couldn't find chorizo anywhere," recalls Saul Toledo, a longtime friend of the Lopez family. "So Mario started making that and pickled pig's feet and chicharrones."

The original factory on Carmelita Avenue turned a healthy profit with its pork sausage, the kind that is crumbled into eggs for breakfast, and Lopez became known for his generosity. This trait extended to the ballclub he first organized at his service station, then continued with his new business.

The Chorizeros — the "chorizo makers" — had uniforms with the team name stitched in cursive across their chests, smart-looking ball caps and jackets. Lopez brought packages of chorizo to give away in the bleachers, and afterward invited everyone to a nearby restaurant, picking up the tab for tacos and cerveza.

"Oh, we'd run up a big bill," says Rich Pena, one of nine brothers who for many years formed the core of the Carmelita roster. "It was nothing but first class with him."

Lopez also arranged for a good manager, Manuel "Shorty" Perez, who guided the team for a quarter-century. No one can recall Shorty yelling or acting gruff, but if a player had a bad game, chances are he would be out of the lineup the next week.

The Chorizeros inhabited a gray area somewhere between the top recreation leagues and the lower rungs of semi-pro ball. The infields were all dirt, so Shorty would arrive hours before the first pitch to drag the surface smooth. Pena recalls a particular Sunday, after a week of rain, when the ground was too soggy to play.

Shorty, who ran a gas station in Boyle Heights, showed up anyway. "I was taking my wife to the movies and I saw him out there," Pena says. "He sprayed gasoline on the infield and lit it on fire. Flames shooting up. I swear to God. He was trying to make it dry."

Years later, the manager fell ill. Pena arrived at his house to find the family in tears and Shorty laid up in bed. "Hey, Rich," Shorty whispered to him. "We're home team tomorrow, so you've got to get out there early and drag the field."

Evergreen wasn't the only home for the Chorizeros. They played at nearby Fresno and Belvedere parks. The major leagues had yet to land in Southern California, so championship games were held at the city's two largest ball fields, Wrigley and Gilmore, where the Los Angeles Angels and Hollywood Stars of the Pacific Coast League played. But Evergreen is the place that players — the ones still living — recall most fondly.

The park sits in the middle of Boyle Heights, with shade trees at the edges and a recreation center in back. The way it was configured then, left field ran short, so anything over the wall was a ground-rule double. To earn a homer, batters had to hit the ball farther out, past a chain-link fence and into the community pool.

"Each team brought one new ball to the game — you could call it a two-ball league — and the winning team got to keep both balls," says Al Padilla, who rooted for Carmelita as a boy. "There was a guy who jumped in the pool to retrieve the ball and throw it back."

Padilla later played for Ornelas Market, one of many rivals that included Manuel's All Stars and Jalisco Athletic Club. The Chorizeros also took on Mexican teams, either in Los Angeles or south of the border, and ventured outside barrio baseball to compete at the highest level of the municipal leagues.

"If we were playing the Watts Giants or one of the Caucasian teams from the other side of town, it was a machismo game," Frank Lopez says. "It was hard baseball."

That meant an occasional brush-back pitch or runners sliding into second with spikes high. Amid families who watched from the stands, the picnics and bilingual chatter, gamblers circulated.

These men would hang around the dugout, asking players how they felt, was anyone hurt, Armando Perez recalls. During games, a fair amount of cash changed hands.

"They'd get in fights," Perez, who was no relation to Shorty, says of the gamblers. "You got a feeling that baseball was sort of important, so you'd better play hard."

The recreation and parks department does not have records for its municipal leagues from the 1940s through the '60s, but the Lopez family claims that Carmelita won 19 city championships. Players recall several 20-game streaks, including one that was ended by a young pitcher named Joe Moeller, on his way to becoming a stalwart for the Dodgers. After the final out, with the team sitting around dejected, Mario Lopez Sr. stormed into the dugout to ask what happened.

"You can't win them all," Shorty told him.  Lopez was incredulous. "Why not?"

Looking at old Chorizero photographs, Perez points out a dozen men who played minor league ball at one point or another. Mario Lopez Sr. always watched for fresh talent, guys who had been stars in high school. 

After Pena came back from the minors, the owner persuaded him to play centerfield by giving him a job at the factory. Armando Perez would get a $20 bill — good money in those days — slipped in his hand after a big win.

In this way, a talented 16-year-old might break into the lineup and a steady outfielder might hang around till his 30s, but skill wasn't always the deciding factor. Of the nine Pena brothers, perhaps six truly merited a spot, which left less room for others.

No matter, the team fulfilled a role that extended beyond numbers in a box score.
During the late 1940s and early '50s, the Mexican American community in East Los Angeles was struggling to forge a cultural identity, according to Samuel Regalado, a history professor at Cal State Stanislaus who has written extensively about Latinos and sports. 

Some community leaders urged assimilation into American society while others held tight to their heritage. Youth gangs were gaining momentum in the aftermath of the Zoot Suit Riots. Amid such turmoil, Regalado says, baseball "was a magnet for everyone. It crossed over generations, political persuasions, bridging a lot of gaps. It was a language that everyone understood."

So the Sunday afternoon crowds at Evergreen included immigrants who had learned beisbol in Mexico and longed for a familiar sight in a strange new land. There were hard-core fans too. For them, neighborhood teams offered a chance to root for Mexican athletes at a time when baseball's color barrier had only recently been broken and the sport was far from integrated.

"If you're living in East L.A. and it's 1953 or '54, your heroes aren't coming out of the Brooklyn Dodgers," Regalado says. "Your heroes are guys playing at Belvedere Park. Those were the players who meant something to you."

One weekend, Mario Lopez Sr. stopped showing up for games and, Toledo says, "We knew something was wrong."  The owner died in October 1966, only 57 years old. Armando Perez figures the Chorizeros lost their leader and their soul: "He loved the game so much that his intensity carried over to us." 

Not too much later, Shorty died and was buried in his uniform with a baseball signed by his players.
By the early 1970s, the glory days had ended for the Chorizeros and the rest of barrio baseball. All that was left was the team logo — a pig with a bat — on a sign at the new Carmelita factory beside the 710 Freeway.

There simply wasn't a hunger for the games, partly because Los Angeles could root for two big league teams, the Dodgers and Angels, and partly because soccer had become such a big draw.
"And there's television," Regalado says. "Sunday afternoons were spent watching the NFL or major league baseball or anything else."

The players drifted apart, some falling out of touch over the years, until they were summoned to a reunion last week at the library at Cal State Los Angeles.

The university, working with a local historical group called the Baseball Reliquary, had gathered mementos and oral histories of Mexican American baseball in Los Angeles, spanning from amateur teams to Fernando Valenzuela in the big leagues. One hundred or so people attended the exhibit's opening, which runs until June 9.

The half a dozen or so Chorizeros, in their 70s and 80s, hair graying and shoulders a little stooped, were easy to spot because Frank Lopez brought pale blue hats for them to wear. There were hugs and shouts of "Hey, vatos!" and stories to tell.

Their reminiscing underscored how times have changed. Evergreen can still draw a crowd, but for different reasons: Last week, young demonstrators filled the park to rally against proposed federal legislation that would make felons of illegal immigrants.

Even the diamond looks different now, switched around, no more swimming pool beyond the left-field fence. With the arrival of another spring, there were no teams playing baseball that Sunday afternoon, only memories. 

Family Programs at the Getty Villa
The Getty Center 
1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 403
Los Angeles, CA 90049-1691

Veronica Alvarez knows who calls the shots when a family visits the Getty Villa: kids. "We know families are directed by their kids," says Alvarez, education specialist for family programs at the Villa. "So we've designed lots of fun spaces and hands-on, drop-in activities for kids at the Villa."

The Villa's littlest visitors will love the Family Forum, where the focus is on the world of ancient Greek vases. Here,
 families can act out their own drama in a shadow-play theater complete with period props. They can decorate a vase or use a 3-D puzzle to assemble a vessel. Afterwards, the free activity sheet "Be a Getty Villa Voyager" suggests ways to explore real ancient vases and other works of art in the galleries. 

On weekends, families can sign up for Art Odyssey for Families, a guided gallery visit filled with fun games and activities designed to engage families with ancient art and culture. "Art Odyssey encour-ages shared family experiences, where parents and kids are doing things together," says Alvarez. "It allows families to interact with one another and provides them with different styles of learning."

Audio tours for families are available on the GettyGuide™ Audio Player, which will intro-duce kids to heroes, mythic creatures, and athletes of ancient times, as well as a day-to-day life that wasn't so different from their own. Kids can explore depictions of exotic pets or a statue of a boy who lived in North Africa over 2,000 years ago. Like all family programs at the Villa, GettyGuide family tours are offered in English and Spanish.

There's a lot to do outside as well. Families can spy for paint-ed lizards, birds, and other creatures in the wall murals in the Outer Peristyle, or follow their nose amidst the rosemary, mint, and oregano in the Herb Garden. In the summer, they can join a drop-in, art-making workshop linking the themes in the galleries to art kids can make themselves.
Alvarez hopes that all these activities will help families understand how ancient ideals and interests are relevant to their lives. "That's the goal of all our programs," she says, "for kids and adults alike."

Los Tapatiós de California: Returning to Their Jalisco Roots

By John P. Schmal

The Mexican state of Jalisco seems to inspire a sense of cultural identity and pride that is not nearly as evident with other Mexican states. Even among some second- and third-generation Americans, loyalty to and interest in Jalisco is commonplace among Mexican Americans. To many people, Jalisco represents the essence of Mexican culture, tradition and music. The Tapatiós are well-known for their energetic and colorful dances, which are usually accompanied by the mariachi music that made Guadalajara famous.  The state itself has been contributing large numbers of immigrants to the U.S. since the early Twentieth Century and continues to send many Jaliscans to California, Texas, Illinois and other American states.

One of the founding fathers of Los Angeles, Luis Quintero, was born in Guadalajara and his descendants, numbering in the thousands, live throughout Los Angeles and neighboring counties. In my own personal and professional dealings, I have known at least a couple hundred people who either came from Jalisco or whose ancestors came from the place.  In fact, my nieces and nephews have ancestors from Tequila and Hostotipaquillo in the valleys of northern Jalisco, not far from the Nayarit border.

Thousands of Jaliscans have been arriving in Los Angeles and throughout California each year for the last half-century, and, today, the sons and daughters of Jalisco work in California's banks, health care companies, publishing companies, schools, libraries and factories.  Many of them attend elementary school or are making their way through college, while others stand on street corners, looking for day laboring opportunities. Today, without a doubt, the lifeblood of Jalisco flows through the heart of California.

I spend a few hours of each month as a volunteer Family History Consultant for people who are seeking to find their roots in Mexico and have met with many individuals who were interested in exploring their Jalisco roots. Many of them also have ancestors from Michoacán, Zacatecas, and Guanajuato, but for some reason, they have a compelling urge to explore their Jalisco origins first and foremost. (Michoacán runs a close second, in large part because some people have a sense of pride for their Purépecha/Tarascan roots in Jalisco’s neighbor to the south).

Some of the most successful, rewarding and enjoyable research that I’ve done is Jalisco research. Jalisco’s parish priests and the civil registrars followed a rigorous system of record-keeping that was not nearly as meticulous in some of the other Mexican states. As an added benefit, a significant number of Jalisco's parish records after 1850 are indexed, offering great opportunities for the family history researcher.

The most endearing characteristic of Jalisco records after 1800 is what I call The Abuelos Factor. Unlike some Mexican states and most countries of the world, a baptism record in the Jalisco parish books gives the family historian six new names to research: the padres (parents), abuelos paternos (paternal grandparents), and abuelos maternos (maternal grandparents) of the person being baptized.

As an example, the following baptism – translated into English from Spanish – was recorded on September 29, 1885 for Juana Luevano in the northern Jalisco town of Villa Hidalgo (a hop, skip and jump from the border with Aguascalientes):

     In  the  Parish  of Paso de Sotos on the 29th of September of 1885, I,
     Father  Estevan  Agredano... baptized solemnly and poured Holy Oil and
     Sacred  Chrism  on Juana, who was born on the 27th day at seven in the
     morning  in  this  place,  legitimate daughter of Tiburcio Luevano and
     Manuela  Martinez.  Paternal grandparents: Pablo Luevano and Manuela
.    Maternal   grandparents: Timoteo   Martinez  and  Fermina
. Godparents: Paulin  Diaz  and  Epifania  Aguallo, whom I
     advised  of  their  spiritual  and  parental  obligation.  In witness
     thereof, I signed it.

For the most part, people researching in Michoacán, Guanajuato and several other Mexican states do not usually have the benefit of the Abuelos Factor. But many post-1800 records in Zacatecas, Aguascalientes and Chihuahua are influenced by the Abuelos Factor which makes jumping from one generation to another an easier process.

The  most  important  repository  of  Jalisco records for most Americans to research  are  available  through  the  Family History Library in Salt Lake city. This library probably has the largest genealogical resources for the state of Jalisco in the world and its catalog can be accessed at the following link:

For the state of Jalisco alone, the Family History Library owns at least 20,000 rolls of microfilm, covering roughly 200 cities, municipios, and villas. Of the 165 towns and villages whose Catholic churches are represented in this collection, 46 have registers going back to the 1600s while another 37 have records stretching back to the 1700s. Each roll of microfilm in the FHL collection can be ordered from any local Family History Center for $6.05. That roll of film will stay "in-house" for one month and can be renewed at the end of that period.

Most of Jalisco's 124 municipios are also represented in the FHL catalog. Although Mexico enacted civil registration in 1859, most of the municipios of Jalisco did not start keeping birth, marriage, and death records until 1867 or later. This collection is constantly being updated for some cities. In addition, the 1930 Mexican census is available for almost one hundred of the municipios. Another invaluable resource for the Hispanic researcher is the International Genealogical Index (IGI). In this database, many of the church records held by the FHL have been indexed. Of Mexico's 30 million baptism and marriage entries in the IGI, Jalisco accounts for about 3.5 million. In my own research, I have found this powerful and dynamic database to be of enormous value for pre-1880 baptisms and marriages.

Guadalajara, the second largest city in Mexico, is the capital of Jalisco. Founded in 1542, Guadalajara became the administrative capital of the province of Nueva Galicia. As the second largest tourist destination in Mexico, the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area enjoys the highest quality of life in Mexico. With a present-day population of around 4 million people, it is not surprising that many Mexican Americans search for their roots in the parish registers of Guadalajara and its immediate vicinity.

The FHL owns an impressive 3,400 rolls of microfilm dealing with Guadalajara. Fifteen Catholic churches, some with baptism and marriage registers stretching back as far as 1635, are represented on 1,500 rolls of film. Padrones (local census lists) from 1639 to 1875 comprise 48 rolls of film and can be a very useful resource. Property and water rights records can be found on 269 rolls of microfilm and date back to 1584. Notarial and probate records, dating back to at least 1583, make up almost 1,300 rolls.

It is interesting to note that, as one goes back in time, the records of some cities actually become more detailed. For example, a researcher exploring the marriage records in Lagos de Moreno between 1650 and 1670 will find that they are amazingly detailed, even for Indian couples who have no surnames.

In pre-Columbian times, many indigenous groups inhabited Jalisco, and, in fact, the present-day territory of Jalisco was crisscrossed by a large number of small autonomous states speaking a multitude of languages, some of which are long forgotten. The area around Guadalajara was inhabited by Cocas and Tecuexes, while the northern Altos region was dominated by the Caxcanes and Guachichiles. The Otomies lived around Zapotitlán, Juchitlán, Autlán in the south, but it is possible that they were transplanted Indians who came to fill a demographic void left by the original inhabitants after epidemics had reduced their numbers.

The Purépecha Indians (Tarascans), identified with the State of Michoacán, inhabited some of the southern border regions. The Tepehuán Indians, presently inhabiting Chihuahua, Durango and Nayarit, once lived in some of the northern mountains of Jalisco’s Three-Fingers Border Region with Zacatecas. The Huicholes, who now live in Nayarit, also inhabited some regions of northern Jalisco until shortly after the Spanish contact.

An integral part of genealogical research is historical perspective and understanding Jalisco’s indigenous past is a step towards understanding your own family history. Only three authors have dealt with the topic of Jalisco’s indigenous people at great length. The following two books may be of assistance to the determined researcher:

Peter Gerhard, The North Frontier of New Spain. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Eric Van Young, "The Indigenous Peoples of Western Mexico from the Spanish Invasion to the Present: The Center-West as Cultural Region and Natural Environment," in Richard E. W. Adams and Murdo J. MacLeod, The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Volume II: Mesoamerica, Part 2. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 136-186.

In addition, Dr. Phil Weigand of the Centro de Estudios Arqueologicos, El Colegio de Michoacan, in Zamora, Michoacán, has spent years studying the archaeology and history of the indigenous peoples of Jalisco and Zacatecas. Dr. Weigand has written many books and articles on the topic of indigenous Jalisco, both pre-Hispanic and later, and most of these works can be found in the California University library system. Although most of his works are in Spanish, a few are in English.

Many people have come to me talking about the etymology of their surname and how it came from a certain place in Spain at a certain time. Sometimes they give very intricate details about a surname’s history, without really knowing exactly how they connect to the surname, and sometimes their sources of this information are just quotes off the Internet, not from published academic sources.

This is all good information to know and may turn out to be useful (and hopefully accurate), but it is important for people to realize that there is only one way to actual trace your own family tree and that is to look for your ancestors one generation at a time, baptism by baptism, marriage by marriage, going back gradually through time. Like any genealogical research project, tracing your roots in Jalisco demands a certain amount of patience, perseverance, and determination, as well as an open mind. Once you get the hang of it, it is really quite simple and the rewards can be spectacular.

Jalisco is still a vibrant and proud state. People who come from there have difficulty shedding their cultural ties to their tapatió heritage and generally maintain a sense of identity about their Jaliscan origins. The State of Jalisco, with its rich cultural inheritance, has become, in many ways, part of California society as well. But no matter how American you are, it doesn’t hurt to know about your ancestors from Jalisco and the evolution that transformed them from Indian warriors and Spanish settlers into American citizens.

Copyright © 2006 by John P. Schmal. All Rights Reserved.

Source:  John P. Schmal and Donna S. Morales, Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico (Heritage Books, 2002).



SHHAR meeting report:  Special Books & Heritage Discover Center Guide to the La Purisima Mission State Historic Park Collection
Example and use of the 1930 Census
Click: Tamale Festival
“Bringing Families Together!”
NARA'S Alien files under threat of moving to Missouri
Yosemite Valley, the new French Pyrenees by Alex Loya 


Report on the SHHAR quarterly meeting, May 27th, Orange, California

Douglas Paul Westfall,
publisher, was one of the guest speakers at the SHHAR meeting, May 27th. Well known historian, dedicated to giving visibility to the diverse cultural heritage in California, he spoke of the Nieto Ranch, which included most of Orange County and the land divisions of California, from the original 40 Spanish grants to some 800 Mexican land grants.  His passionate delivery both entertained and enlightened.  Doug's publishing company specializes in special interest topics of historical significance. Here are the front covers of just a few of the books that can be found on his website.  Doug is a long time friend of SHHAR, having designed our logo as a gift, many years ago..  It is a pleasure to see Doug's  love becomes his profession.
Photo by Pat Lozano

Doug's most recent publication is the Story of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, 
Two Weeks in San Francisco.  The earthquake hit at precisely 5:12 A.M at April 18, 1906. The city of San Francisco held major activities recognizing the historical event.  The earthquake ranks as one of the most significant earthquakes of all time. Today, its importance comes more from the wealth of scientific knowledge derived from it than from its sheer size.

Heritage Discover Center

We had the privilege of hearing from Barry Starr, Director of the Heritage Discover Center, and Robin Collins, President and Founder. They shared their vision and ongoing projects to promote learning and understanding of the western colonial period of California.  They emphasized their desire to include the native Indians, Spanish and Mexican colonizers, plus California's natural resources and the influence of the Spanish horse, through the establishment and maintenance of a historical educational ‘living history museum’.

Mission:  The Heritage Discover Center provides interpretive programs to educate the public about the diverse western colonial heritage and the significance of the Spanish Horses.

               Barry Starr and Robin Collins
                            Photo by Pat Lozano

California is one of our nation’s most special treasures, from it’s deserts, graceful beaches and magnificent rugged coast to the lush, pastoral, legendary hills and valleys with their incredible animal and plant life. Another of California’s resources is the diverse history, embracing the cultures of the past. Only here are so many historic variations of western cultures still represented and active. All should be recognized.

"We want to give children the experience of feeling what life was like in the days when horses were an important part of every day survival,"  said Robin Collins.

LA Times "Kid City"  Attendance: 60,000 people

"No one can say how the history of the world might have unfolded if there had been no horses. Equestrian nations have shaped the face of our world as we know it. And the mind of man, holding the whole world in it’s grasp across oceans and continents, reaching beyond our earth in these very days, saw the guideposts pointing beyond the horizon from the back of the horse for the first time."

For more information or how you can support this effort, please contact:
Director Barry Starr at 209.694-1608 or email
Check out their website at

Guide to the La Purisima Mission State Historic Park Collection
Sent by Barry Starr

La Purisima Mission State Historic Park Lompoc, California
Contact Information:  La Purisima Mission State Historic Park
2295 Purisima Road
Lompoc, CA 93436
Phone: (805) 733-3713  Fax: (805) 733-2497

Table of Contents

Summary...........................................................................................................  i
Administrative Information.................................................................................. ii
Organizational History........................................................................................ iii
Collection Scope and Content Summary............................................................ vii
Indexing Terms................................................................................................... ix

Collection Contents.............................................................................................1
Series 1. Mission Restoration Records, 1924-1998 and undated..........................1
Series 2. Garden Restoration Records, 1931-2002 and undated...........................3
Series 3. Citizen's Advisory Committee, 1934-2002 and undated .........................4
Subseries 3.1. Citizen's Advisory Committee Records, 1934-2002 . ....................4
Subseries 3.2. Subject Files, 1935-2001 and undated...........................................4
Series 4. Personal Papers, 1834-1998 and undated. .............................................6
Series 4.1. Pearl Chase Papers, 1935-1998 and undated. .....................................6
Series 4.2. M. R. Harrington Papers, 1834-1972 and undated ..............................7
Series 4.3. Glen Main Papers, 1937-1939 and undated. .......................................8
Series 4.4. Edith Webb Papers, 1931-1962 and undated  .....................................8
Series 5. Reports and Studies, 1936-2000 and undated........................................10
Series 6. Subject Files, 1877-2002 and undated ..................................................11
Series 7. Mission Records, 1787-1938 and undated.............................................16



The La Purisima Mission State Historic Park Collection contains correspondence, administrative materials, architectural records, committee documents, news clippings, reports, and financial materials documenting the restoration of the mission beginning in 1934. In addition, the collection includes records of the Citizen's Advisory Committee, a civic group that played a major role in the restoration process along with the personal papers of its key leaders Pearl Chase, M. R. Harrington, Edith Webb, and Glen Main. The collection also contains original mission records, in English and Spanish, including annual and biannual reports, correspondence, inventory lists, and books of confirmations,m burials, marriages, and baptisms, ranging from 1787 to 1851. Materials in this collection range from 1787-2002 with the majority dedicated to the mission’s existence as a public institution from its initial restoration by the Civilian Conservation Corps from 1933 to 1941, and continued restoration through 1971.

Physical location: collection is located at La Purisima Mission State Historic Park, Lompoc, Calif. 


Example of a 1930 Census
For those unfamiliar with the U.S. Census  Johanna De Soto sent this along.

A request was received by a researcher with an interest in the surname Vallejo.  The research thought there might be the possibility of a California connection with the early California Vallejo family.  

I forwarded the request to California historians and genealogists, Joan De Soto and Cindy LoBuglio.  Both Joan and Cindy are related to  most of the early California families, and are generous in their assistance.

Neither were able to find the connection that the researcher hoped was there. Joan checked the 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930 Federal Census and found he was not in any of the earlier records. The 1930 Census does list a Vallejo family, but her ancestor was not among them. 
Note, the fourth, head of the household.

Both searched for birth and death information. 
Cindy found the Vallejo name in Texas at the correct time period, and a birth of a male in Los Angeles which put the connection in 1946, not earlier.

Two organizations assist researchers with early California lines: 
Los Californianos

“Bringing Families Together!”

Hosted  by CACIQUE & Super Mercado Mexico
This is a Non-alcoholic event

Saturday  June 3,   2006,  San Jose, CA
Source of information:

2nd Annual Story Road Tamale Festival being held in San Jose at Emma Prusch Farm Park,  (located on Story Road and King Road), East San Jose. Story Road exit off Hwy 101 South or north in San Jose and go East when exiting.

There will family fun, foods, beverages, arts & crafts, giveaways, and more. The event will feature a competitive contest for the BEST Tamale in the Bay Area, by a business or individual. Come and savor in the many tamales competing that day. See if your taste preference matches the selection of the "Tamale Judges".  Who will be crowned the Tamale King & Queen!

There will be live entertainment featuring Mexican, Chicano and Latin sounds, Mariachi and folklorico dancers for your enjoyment. This year, the headliner will be legendary recording artists, "EL CHICANO" direct from L.A., performing their hits that sold millions! Hear "Cha-Chita", "Viva Tirado", and "Tell Here She's Lovely" plus others. This is "El Chicano's" debut in San Jose of 2006. Opening for "El Chicano" will be "Mystique". All Chicano Latin Soul Rock at it's best! It's an all day FREE Event. 10 am till 6 pm  

All sponsored in part by PACIFIC GAS and ELECTRIC COMPANY, Allstate, AAA, Hartzman Dodge, Wells Fargo Home Mortgage, San Jose Mercury News, El Observador, Southwest, NBC TV 11, Telemundo, Univision, La Oferta, and Allianza.  Call for further info: 1-800-406-9205 


Printed in the Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation May 2006 Newsletter: 

AIISF is among a coalition of Asian American organizations across the nation that has been working to save the historic 100-year old Alien Files comprised of early immigration case files for permanent 
preservation at the National Archives (NARA) in Bruno. These files comprise of Chinese Exclusion Act era individual immigrant case files, Japanese Picture Bride documents, Filipino Freedom Fighter 
files from WWII, and Alien Enemy Parolee Files for German, Italian and Japanese Alien residents and their families among others, all originally generated in the West Coast and Hawaiian Island region of the United States.

This collection of over 35,000 cubic feet of non-current A-Files stored in NARA, San Bruno remains under threat of being moved and consolidated with other A-Files currently under storage in limestone caverns of Lee's Summit, Missouri. Community members Jeannie Low and Jennie Lew's efforts have been working to have NARA accession the non-current A-Files into NARA's permanent collection; providing appropriate Federal funding to promote public use and access to 
these A-Files; making those older A-Files presently stored in the NARA, Pacific Region in San Bruno its permanent home. Cooperation of the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is required in making sure that the files stay in the San Francisco Bay Area for convenient access to scholars and family researchers.

For more information, contact: Jennie Lew / Jeanie W. C. Low
Save Our National Archives (SONA) Communications

The Continuous Presence of Italians and Spaniards in Texas as Early as 1520 by Alex Loya, Chapter 25 brings us to California.

Yosemite Valley, California, the new French Pyrenees 

As if what we have examined in the previous chapter was not mysterious and mind boggling enough, there is yet more solid, and I do mean solid, evidence that the Loya kinsmen were among the very first, albeit not recorded, pioneers and explorers of the United States.

In the year 1851 an Indian War raged in California. The U.S. Army deployed the Mariposa Battalion to confront the Yosemite Indians, whose very name, which means "those that kill" represented the threat they were. When the Indians saw the U.S. Army heading their way, they fled to a mountainous area west of San Francisco. The American soldiers followed them into the mountains, and, after pursuing them through the forest, they came to a wide opening where they were literally left speechless by what they saw! There, before them, was one of the most beautiful landscapes the eyes of man had ever seen! There was a wide valley surrounded by pine-covered mountains, rock formations that looked like works of art, beautiful water falls and a river that fed into a beautiful lake that looked like crystal reflecting the scenery around!

Faced with the task of rounding up the Indians that lived there and taking them away because of the atrocities they had committed against the white man, in a beautiful act of kindness which shows that the American soldiers were not the ruthless killers of Indians that some today make them out to be, Lafayette Houghton Bunnel, the Army surgeon attached to the 36th Regiment of the Wisconsin Volunteers who were serving with the Mariposa Battalion, called that beautiful valley Yosemite Valley. Dr. Bunnel named the valley so with the express intent of perpetuating the name of the Yosemite Indian tribe the U.S. Army was now forced to dispossess.

In the middle of the Yosemite Valley stood one of the most striking and impressive sights in that beautiful place. In his book "Yosemite: It’s Wonders and It’s Beauties", John S. Hittel described this formation:

"Just opposite to the great fall is Sentinel Rock, a narrow promontory jutting out a quarter of a mile into the valley, and at the point of the mountain is an obelisk, about 2000 feet high, and three hundred feet thick, the summit reaching an elevation of 3000 feet. The sides show beautiful vertical cleavages in the granite."

After describing this magnificent rock formation, Hittel goes on to say that the name of this rock is "Loya"!

I was absolutely amazed at the fact that this 3000 foot high beautiful and natural granite wonder is called Loya! I was just amazed! I sat there taking in the awesome realization that this natural 3000 foot high natural wonder was called, is called by my surname, Loya! This sense of wonder was multiplied when I found out that immediately across the valley was a set of three mountaintops called the "Three Brothers"! With the "Three Brothers" on one side, and "Loya" on the other, the beautiful Yosemite Valley lay in the middle as a silent witness that perhaps the three Loya brothers who had come to what would be the United States in the 1535 had not, after all, been content to be established in Texas and had proceeded north west, and as the map shows, in a straight line, looking for what to them must have been the end of the world, being stopped in their quest only by the Pacific Ocean. I was a little disappointed to learn that these three mountaintops located across the valley from Loya were called the Three Brothers by Bunnel himself in 1851. Never the less, as a theologian, I saw the hand of Providence in that these Three Brothers should be forever established across the valley, directly facing Loya as a perpetual reminder of the three Loya brothers who were among the very first Europeans to cross the Atlantic to this New World and be established in what would be the United States of America. 

After I got over the awesomeness of discovering that Yosemite Valley’s Sentinel Rock was originally called by my own surname, Loya, I turned to think about it. As I thought about it, I knew there had to be there in the Indians’ folklore some clue, some indication that even though the 1851 military expedition into Yosemite Valley is reputed as being the first time white men ever saw that heavenly place, white men had to have been there before. Because this was in California, I figured that in the Indians’ tradition there would be hidden a memory of the presence of Spaniards at Yosemite Valley. I figured this because although Loya is originally an Italic French name, it had been introduced to what would be the United States by Italic Frenchmen who had become and had come as and with the Spaniards. There had to be in the Indians’ traditional memory some indication of the presence of Spaniards in the area.

As I did more research, sure enough, I found that such was the case. In chapter four of his "Discovery of the Yosemite" L.H. Bunnel himself, the man who actually discovered and named Yosemite Valley, states that "Loya" is a name the Indians got from the Spaniards in the undetermined past, before Bunnel and the Mariposa Battalion discovered YosemiteValley in 1851. I also found out a fascinating fact that is almost too much to take in! When Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, the Spanish conquistador and explorer from Andalucia arrived in California in 1542 having sailed up the Pacific Coast with the task of exploring the northwest coast of New Spain, he got reports from the Indians that there were "men like us" in the interior of California! (David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America, p.42)

Although historians generally believe that the Indians report of white men at this time referred to members of the Francisco Vazquez de Coronado’ expedition 1540 which reached as far northwest as 150 miles east of San Diego, the report that Cabrillo heard from the Indians of the presence of "men like us" in the interior of California in 1542, considering the mysterious presence of a 3000 foot high rock called Loya in the interior of California, perfectly coincides with the record of the three Loya brothers and their families who are registered as coming to the New World seven years earlier in 1535.

And it is not as if the surname Loya applied to the Sentinel Rock is an isolated mystery pointing to the presence of white men in the area of Yosemite in times past. In his "Ballico (A Fanciful History)" Haney describes a mystery of history not unlike the mystery of the lost colony of Roanoke:

"Cities both north and south of Ballico boast names of Spanish language origin, yet history yields neither physical evidence nor written record which suggests that there was a Spanish-speaking community at the site that either established or preserved the name ‘Ballico’ as persons of Anglo origin increasingly populated the area"

According to Haney, one theory says that Ballico may have been so called by Spanish friars when they first began to penetrate California, which would have been between 1769 and 1790, but, in reality, Ballico, like Loya, is a place whose name and history is engulfed in mystery. Ballico, population 150, is two hours west of Yosemite Valley, but in a direct line of access following or canoeing down the Merced River. There is, as Haney points out, no physical evidence or written record of the presence of Spaniards, or Italic Frenchmen who came as Spaniards, in the area, yet the names of places are a silent testimony to their presence in the undetermined past.

These Hispanized Frenchmen, like the British colonists of Roanoke, disappeared without a trace, but they left trace of their presence in the names of the places they discovered and established. I specifically mention that not only Loya but also Ballico are trace of the presence of Hispanized Italic Frenchmen in the area because, interestingly, Ballico is reminiscent of the surname of the Balli family from South Texas where the Loya were first established and which, like the Loya family, is an Italic French family having originated in the same places of both France and Italy that the Loya family came from. Although I have not found any marriages between the two families, there is a long association between the Loya and the Balli families which dates from the Medieval days of castles, knights and kings. This is a fascinating story that I will examine in another chapter. Certainly, the association between the Loya and Balli families is ancient and consistent enough that I would not doubt one little bit that representatives of both the Loya and Balli families ventured to the far west very early in the age of exploration and gave their names to both Loya and Ballico.

Cabeza de Vaca walked across Texas and Mexico with only four companions, why should it be hard to believe that a Loya kinsman ventured out searching for the Pacific Ocean, surely with others, perhaps a Balli, and arrived at Yosemite, giving his own surname to the magnificent rock formation that stood like a sentinel guarding the Yosemite Valley? The migration habits of the Loya family group very strongly support this, I would say, fact.

What are these migration habits of the Loya family that so strongly indicate that Loya in Yosemite Valley is called after a Loya kinsman who surely discovered that earthly paradise? Well, the Loya family group started off in Tuscany from where they were scattered very early in Medieval times. As I mentioned before, a large group of Loya kinsmen settled in the area of Labourd and Navarre in France at that early stage while Navarre was still all French. After the Spaniards invaded Navarre, the Loya clan was divided and some came to America to the area of New York and Vermont with Samuel De Champlain, while others came to the area of Texas with the Spaniards.

Notice the following migration pattern: The Spaniards invade and annex French Navarre, adjacent to Labourd, in 1512, the Loya arrive in Spain by boat in 1526, Penitas, Texas was founded in 1520, the three Loya brothers are recorded as having migrated to the New World in 1535, news arrive at Hispaniola in the summer of 1561 of three vessels full of silver and gold that sunk off the coast of Texas near Penitas, the Loya are in trouble by December of that same year for trying to smuggle unregistered silver into Spain, and then again in 1563 when they disappear from the record after being released from prison. Parral was founded in 1630, a Loya kinsman is recorded there in 1632. The city of Chihuahua was established as a city in 1705, the Loya increase in that area in 1707. San Elizario, Texas proper was founded in 1789, the Loya are fully established there by the year 1799. When Benito Juarez was in exile in El Paso, Texas, he issued a decree that any who would be willing to work the land in the Chihuahuan desert around present day Juarez could have several acres of land, immediately a Loya family from San Elizario, Texas picks up its bags from Texas and moves across the Rio Grande into Chihuahua. The train arrived to Mesilla, New Mexico in 1878, the Loya got there in 1880.

This pattern should not be ignored, it establishes an entrenched attitude in a family group of moving on as soon as news arrive that a new place is available for settlement or of financial gain. It really is a wonder they did not move on to California as soon as news got to Texas that a settlement had been started there or in pursuit of fabled cities of gold! Think about it.

But, is that the case? That migration pattern was so entrenched in the Loya family group that not moving on to California and staying in Texas as soon as news got to Texas about any Spanish settlement in California or of any opportunity to find gold was truly out of character! The presence of Loya, the Sentinel Rock, then, is consistent with the well established migration pattern of the Loya family group. As we briefly saw and we will see, the evidence strongly suggests an even earlier date than the founding of the Spanish missions in California as the date in which surely Loya kinsmen discovered Yosemite Valley.

Consider as well that not only did the Loya kinsmen move as soon as news arrived of an available settlement, which is why they are present in all the oldest of the oldest towns of Texas, but they moved to the furthest of the furthest frontier. At some point in time while it was yet an unexplored wilderness they had moved to Texas, to the furthest, most isolated settlements of Spain in the New World along the north bank of the Rio Grande, it would be totally consistent with the Loya family group’s habit to move or attempt to move further into Northern California. The presence of that magnificent granite oblique called Loya is definite evidence that, true to their entrenched habit, they did so, and on their way to the Pacific Ocean they stumbled upon this paradise called Yosemite Valley and called the Sentinel Rock Loya.

And let me make it perfectly clear that although I am awed and amazed at the thought that this natural wonder is called after my surname, Loya, and although it makes me feel very happy to realize just how much of an American this makes my family and I, it is not something I am proud of or approve of. In fact, I refuse to approve of this or to let myself be proud of this, and I exhort you, my children, when you grow up, and I exhort every Loya kinsman to refuse to approve or feel pride in the fact that one of the most magnificent natural wonders on American soil is named after our own surname. The reason for this is because I am perfectly aware of what the Bible teaches concerning those who call places after their own names and of their descendants who approve of it:

"…They call their lands after their own names… This is the way of those who are foolish, And of their posterity who approve their sayings. Selah" (Psalm 49:11-13 NKJV)

The word "Selah" in the Hebrew text means "think about it". So let’s do just that and think of why God would say those who call places after their own names are foolish, and so are their descendants who approve of it. In context, the reason God says so is because, in context, people call places after their own names in a vain attempt to perpetuate themselves, in an attempt to, in a way, "live forever" apart from God. Biblically, an individual is able to live forever not by calling a piece of land, or a natural obelisk at Yosemite Valley, after his own surname, but by, and only by, putting his faith in Jesus Christ. The posterity of those who call places after their names are foolish when they become conceited because a certain place is called by their family’s name because of what an ancestor did because, for example, as permanent and as eternal as the giant rock Loya seems, this life and this present earth, Biblically, is only temporary. Life is not about the here and now, an eternal inheritance is not in the passing down of a surname or naming a place after our family, but life is about, and a true inheritance is about passing down to our children our faith in Jesus Christ, who alone is the source of life and immortality.

Nevertheless, the fact that the Indians called this Sentinel Rock Loya before its recorded history, the fact that it was a name the Indians, according to Bunnel, learned from the Spaniards, the fact that Cabrillo heard reports from the Indians of "men like us" in the interior of California in 1542, and the fact that the mystery of the Sentinel Rock’s name being Loya matches and coincides with the extremely early dates of the migration of the Loya family group to America from France through and with Spain and the towns they were settled in, starting at the coast of Texas and up the north bank of the RioGrande (1535, 1520, 1563, 1580, 1598, 1630, 1705, 1789), are way too much to be coincidental! Indeed, the fact that the Sentinel Rock is called Loya is itself solid evidence of the early migration of the Loya family group to what would be the United States.

When Bunnel discovered this 3047 foot high rock formation, he was at a loss to explain how the Yosemites got the name Loya from the Spaniards. Bunnel tries to theorize how this happened, but the very first thing he should have done was to apply the method I mentioned in chapter 19 of this book in which scholars compare the similarity of place names in different geographical areas to determine relationships between ancient peoples and migration patterns. If Bunnel would have done so, he would not only have been credited for being the first person to describe Yosemite Valley to the outside world, but also for being the man responsible for solving the mystery of how the Sentinel Rock came to be called Loya.

If you remember, I mentioned how scholars determined that the Etruscans from the Italian Peninsula migrated to the Iberian Peninsula at some point in the past because of the similarity of place names such as Tarragona in Spain and Tarracina in Italy. In the same manner, scholars determined a migration of people from Asia Minor, the area of the Aegean Sea, Turkey and Greece, to the Italian island of Sardinia because of the similarity of the name of the island, Sardinia, or Sardegna, to places in the Aegean area such as Sardis, Sardessos etc. Well, to be scholarly, Bunnel should have applied this method when he discovered Loya, and we, and scholars, really should apply this method to our present discussion. Is the name of the Sentinel Rock, Loya, similar to to the name of another place or people group? Where is this place? Where did this people group, whose name is similar to the name of the Sentinel Rock, come from? Are there any historical circumstances that would indicate a possibility of the transference of the name? Scholars really should ask these questions to determine in a scholarly fashion how the Sentinel Rock came to be called Loya, and to solve the mystery.

As I shared in chapter 20, there is another place called "Loya" located in the outskirts of the city of Hendaye on the Southern Coast of France. What is absolutely fascinating, however, is that here we have not just a similarity in two place names, like Tarragona to Tarracina or like Sardis to Sardinia, which would lead scholars to conclude there had to be an expedition of people from the French area to the are of the Yosemite in California, but we have the actual, same, exact name! That is mind boggling! And what is more, these two places look in areas, so like each other that it is uncanny! In fact, the physical similarity between the volcanic, cliff rock formations in the Bay of Loya in France is so uncanny similar to the volcanic rock formation in the Yosemite Valley called Loya, that not only is it quite obvious the Valley of the Yosemite was discovered by Hispanized Italic Frenchmen before Bunnel and his men did, but, if I was not aware of the existence of the Tuscan word Loia and its Etruscan etymology, I would think Loya is a French Gascon word to describe just that kind of rock formation!

Loya at the foot of the French Pyrenees Atlantiques on the French Atlantic Coast is a place that, just like the Valley of the Yosemite, fascinates geologists and tourists alike because of its magnificent rock formations. Like the Valley the Yosemite and its Loya Rock, so the Bay of Loya and its place called Loya in France elicit exclamations of those who visit and write about it such as "marvelous folds of the pile of plates… splendid sedimentary instabilities in the Bay of Loya!" (Patrick Lafargue, Geolval ala Decouverte de la Geologie des Pyrenees, a geologists’ discussion, 2001.) and "The park is opened to the public and one can discover there splendid, wild and difficult to access splits (of rocks) like that of Loya!" (Juria Jean Pierre, 44 Data bases Leclerc, 64700 Hendaye, in an appeal to tourists to visit the area). Compare these descriptions of Loya, France, to the description of Loya in the Yosemite Valley in California by Hittel which I quoted earlier, "The sides show beautiful vertical cleavages in the granite". Placing these descriptions of these two places side by side really makes the point, "The sides show beautiful vertical cleavages in the granite" (Loya, in Yosemite Valley, California) "marvelous folds of the pile of plates… splendid sedimentary instabilities… splendid, wild and difficult to access splits (of rocks) like that of Loya!" (Loya, in Labourd, France), although the descriptions of the Loya place in France sound awkward because they are a literal, electronic translation of French into English.

And then we have a family group which originated in the place of Loya in France whose surname is Loya in between the two rock formations and the historical reality of their migration to the New World in the year 1535, the geographical reality of the concentration of the Loya family group in very specific areas of Texas along the north bank of the Rio Grande from the coast of Texas to El Paso, and the historical reality that this concentration of Loya kinfolk is in the oldest towns of Texas which I mentioned.

Let’s put it this way to drive it home: What do we have?

1. We have the existence of a beautiful, huge 3047 foot

high rock formation in Yosemite Valley, California which is mysteriously called Loya.

2. We have the existence of a place in the province of Labourd in France by the city of Hendaye in which there are beautiful, huge rock formations which is called Loya as well.

3. We have the fact that the area around the two places called Loya, in both Yosemite Valley and the foot of the French Pyrennes in France are remarkably similar beyond the rock formations.

4. We have the fact the L.H. Bunnel, the discoverer of Yosemite Valley, wrote that the Yosemite Indians got the name Loya for that rock formation from the Spaniards.

5. We have the fact that Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo was told by the Indians of California in 1542 that their were "men like us" in the interior of California.

6. We have that the Loya family group which was established in North America originates in the place of the Loya, where the rock formations are, in the outskirts of the city of Hendaye in Labourd, France.

7. We have the fact that this family group arrived in Spain by boat from France in 1526. (Archivo General de Indias, General Archives of the Indies, reference code ES.41091.AGI/16414.48.1//JUSTICIA.822: Autos Fiscales. Contratacion, (Judicial Records).

8. We have the fact that this Loya family group is recorded as travelling under Spanish jurisdiction to the New World in 1535. (Archivo General de Indias, General Archives of the Indies, reference code: ES.41091.AGI/16419//Pasajeros.L.2.E.990).

9. We have the fact that this Loya family group is and has been established in the oldest towns of Texas along the Rio Grande from the Coast of Texas in Penitas, which dates to 1520, through San Juan Bautista, which dates to 1580 and on to San Elizario in El Paso County, which dates as a city to 1789 but which had a foundational settlement which dated to 1598.

10. In conclusion, we have the Loya family group arriving to Spain in 1526 from the place of the Loya where the rock formations are in France, traveling to the New World as Spanish subjects in 1535, a report of white men in the interior of California in 1542 and a huge rock formation called Loya which got its name from the Spaniards surrounded by an area remarkably similar to the area of the Loya in the French Pyrenees, of which Loya is the foot in the French side.

Scholarly speaking, this is the evidence necessary to solve the mystery of where the Sentinel Rock got its name Loya. Scholarly speaking, there is only one conclusion. It is quite evident by comparing the name, the appearance and the surrounding area of Loya in the Yosemite Valley to Loya on the southern coast of France, and considering the early migration and existence of the Loya family group in the oldest towns of Texas, and their migration and settlement patterns, that Loya in the Yosemite was, if not called after the surname of the one who discovered it before Bunnel, it certainly is called after the place of the Loya where his family came from in France. More than likely, it is called Loya after both. When the Loya kinsman saw the Sentinel Rock in the YosemiteValley, it obviously reminded him of the place his family had come from just across the Spanish border in France, obviously!

Around the Sentinel Rock called Loya in the Yosemite Valley there are beautiful waterfalls and lakes, as well as majestic mountains and rock formations, it is uncanny how exactly the same thing can be said about the beautiful waterfalls, lakes, rock formations and majestic mountains of the French Pyrenees Atlantiques around the Baie de Loya at the foot of the Pyrenees! Many of those formations look almost exactly the same! It is unbelievable! It is quite evident that the Sentinel Rock was called Loya as a point to mark the beautiful Yosemite Valley just as the huge, beautiful and majestic rock formations in the Baie de Loya mark the foot of the French Pyrenees Atlantiques in Southern France.

What does the fact that whoever called the Sentinel Rock Loya was obviously reminded of the place of the Loya in France tell me? You and I can compare pictures of both areas and see the obvious similarity, but whoever named the Sentinel Rock Loya didn’t have our advantage, he had to draw from his memory, and it is evident that that memory was imbued with the beauty of the French Pyrenees Atlantiques near the Baie de Loya and the rock formations at Loya so that when he came into Yosemite Valley he immediately noticed the similarity. Only somebody who had spent his childhood in the French Pyrenees around the Baie de Loya would be so reminded. The intimate familiarity of whoever called the Sentinel Rock Loya in the Yosemite Valley with the area of the French Pyrenees that rises from the place called Loya at the first buttresses of the Pyrenees tells me that the discoverer of the Yosemite Valley who called the Sentinel Rock Loya had to be one of the three Loya "brothers" who are registered as coming to America in 1535 who had previously arrived by boat to Spain from France in 1526. Who among the early Spanish explorers would have been reminded of the rock formations and the French Pyrenees around the place of Loya in Southern France? Who among the early Spanish explorers was so imbued with the beauty of the French Pyrenees of which Loya is the foot on the southern coast of France? Of all the people who are registered among the earliest explorers or colonists of the New World in the 16th century, only Juan, Bernardo and Bernardo Loya would have been so reminded.

But how do we reconcile what the records I examined suggest, that the Loya brothers and their families stopped at the Island of Hispaniola in 1535, traveling back and forth to Spain and not moving on to the coast of Texas but until 1563? You will recall that this is suggested by the record of two of the three "brothers" and their families , one of the Bernardos became silent after 1535. The existence of the Sentinel Rock Loya in the Valley of the Yosemite, coupled with Cabrillo’s report of "men like us" in the interior of California in 1542, the presence of the Loya family in the town of Penitas near the coast of Texas which dates to 1520, the port of entry of Brazos Santiago which dates to 1523 and the record of Bernardo Loya which stops at Hispaniola in 1535, which was under the same Spanish jurisdiction of Jamaica that Texas was under as opposed to Cortez’s jurisdiction of Mexico, while his brother Juan and his nephew Bernardo keep doing business after 1535, strongly suggests that the three Loya brothers indeed moved on to Penitas, Texas in 1535. While Juan and the younger Bernardo (Jean and Bernard Loya in their original non-hispanicized cognominal form) continued to do business with Spain through the window of opportunity of attempts of colonization of Texas which closed in 1563, when the record suggests Juan and his son Bernardo and their families finally stopped doing business settling in Penitas, the older Bernardo evidently moved on from Texas, perhaps in search of the fabled Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean, following the Rio Grande to its end in Northern New Mexico, and then moving on to California where he, and surely others with him discovered the Valley of the Yosemite. This phantom expedition would have occurred between the date of the Loya brothers and their families’ registration as coming to the New World in 1535, and Cabrillo’s report of "men like us" in the interior of California in 1542, which would indicate to us that the Loya "brothers" ( Juan and his son Bernardo and Bernardo the uncle) and their families indeed arrived at Penitas, Texas soon after their registration in 1535.

Whatever the case may be, the very fact that that magnificent wonder of nature, that solid giant of granite in that beautiful paradise called the Yosemite Valley is called Loya, like the very similar "splendid, wild, marvellous sedimentary instabilities in Loya" at the foot of the French Pyrenees Atlantiques in France, is itself the most solid evidence that these two places are indeed historically linked, and this connection is underscored by the uncanny similarity of the areas around both Loya locations. To apply the scientific method of determining migration patterns and relationships between people groups, is the name of the Sentinel Rock, Loya, similar to to the name of another place or people group? The answer is yes! Yes it is! There is a family group which came to America in 1535 whose surname is the name of the 3000 foot high rock in Yosemite Valley, Loya, which comes from a place in France called Loya which has the same type rock formations and the remarkably similar area as that of Loya in Yosemite. The similarity between these two places is such, and the one is so obviously called after the other, that I would not be at all surprised if in some old archive somewhere it was found that the Yosemite Valley was at some point in the past called the New French Pyrenees Atlantiques. The Sentinel Rock called Loya in Northern California, and the awesome rock formations in Loya in the southern coast of France are themselves the silent and eternal witnesses that, indeed, the Loya family group, that hispanicized Italic French family group, true to their character continued their move to the furthest frontier and discovered the Yosemite Valley 300 years before the Mariposa Battalion did in 1851, and they are solid trace evidence of the extremely early date of migration of Europeans to the United States, ultimately supporting the historical tradition passed down within the Loya family and preserved on the historical marker, that Penitas, Texas, was founded and has been continuously inhabited by the descendants of the first Europeans since the year 1520.



   Why the LDS Church (Mormons) put emphasis on genealogical research

Many people wonder why the LDS Church (Mormons) and it's members put so much emphasis on genealogical research.  Janete Vargas, a volunteer at the Los Angeles Family History Center sent this answer.]]

                              Teachings of The Prophet Joseph Smith

                    " It matters not what else we have been called to do, or what position we may occupy, or how faithful in other ways we have labored in the Church; NONE are exempt from this great obligation. It is required of the Apostle as well as the humblest Elder. Place, distinction or long service in the cause of Zion, or elsewhere in the mission field, the Stakes of Zion, or elsewhere will not entitle one to disregard the SALVATION of one's dead."
                     " Some may feel that if they pay their tithing, attend their regular meetings and other duties, give of their substance to the poor, or perchance spend one, two or more years preaching to the world, they are absolved from further duty. But the greatest and grandest duty of all is to labor for the dead. We may and should do all these other things, for which regard will be given, but if we neglect the weightier privilage and commandment notwithstanding all other good works, we shall find ourselves under condemnation. And why condemnation ? Because the greatest responsibility in this World that GOD has laid upon us, is to seek after our dead."
                                                                                      Joseph Smith




S: El Monumento de Juan de Oñate
The largest equestrian bronze monument in the world
Manifests of Statistical Alien Arrivals at El Paso, Texas
Documents of the Coronado Expedition, 1539–1542
Muster Roll of the Coronado Expedition of February 22, 1540
Two Discoveries, Two Conquests: Vázquez de Coronado 
Ex-Gov. Castro recalls beating odds
Old battle haunts new U.S.-Mexico tensions 
Tribute to George I. Sánchez 

Juan de Oñate
Publicado en Odiel Información el 10 de mayo de 2006

Cuando publiqué en una revista americana un articulo sobre Estevanico el Moro, me llegaron varias cartas interesándose por mi teoría sobre la llegada de este esclavo a Gibraleón y su partida al servicio del Capitán Andrés Dorantes en la Expedición de Pánfilo de Narváez.

Me llegó una comunicación de Nicolás Houser, de El Paso (Texas) que para mi fue muy interesante porque el Sr. Houser estaba escribiendo una obra sobre ese personaje, que aún cuando aquí es poco conocido, en los Estados Unidos está incluido en los libros de Historia, ya que fue el primer esclavo negro que llegó a la costa americana.

En el cruce de correspondencia con mi nuevo amigo de El Paso, me enteré que su hermano John Sherril Houser, que es escultor muy conocido, está ultimando una estatua ecuestre del fundador y colonizador de Nuevo México, Juan de Oñate, que introdujo el caballo en el suroeste de los actuales Estados Unidos.

La estatua tiene unas medidas muy significativas, ya que tiene una altura de 36 pies, cerca de once metros, y será colocada en la entrada del Aeropuerto Internacional de El Paso, estando prevista la inauguración para septiembre/octubre del presente año. Está considerada como una de las estatuas ecuestres mas grandes del mundo. 

Este asunto me hizo recordar un articulo de hace poco tiempo en esta misma columna en el que me lamentaba que, teniendo nosotros tantos hombres y mujeres que emprendieron la aventura americana, a que pocos hemos recordado con monumentos en nuestra capital o provincia.

Custodio Rebollo

The largest equestrian bronze monument in the world

Hola Mimi, 

I want to inform you that El Paso is about to install the largest equestrian bronze monument in the world in celebration of its Hispanic history. I hope you can send out this photo to your subscribers. It shows the actual monument and the sculptor, John Houser and his Son Ethan Houser, assistant sculptor. It will tower over 44 feet with the base.. It has been 9 years in the making. It arrived here on April 28 from the foundry, 408 years to the day after the first Thanksgiving Mass was celebrated in what is today the USA. The monument is a sort of “Hispanic Mount Rushmore” depicting Don Juan de Oñate’s arrival in 1598 to colonize New Mexico, pre-dating the Lewis and Clark expedition by 200 years. 

Gave El Paso its Name – El Paso del Rio Norte
2. Held the "First Thanksgiving" on the banks of the Rio Grande outside of El Paso 22 years before the Plymouth landing.
3. Established the "Camino Real"....the longest, oldest, and most heavily used trail on the continent.
4. Led the first European Colonizing expedition of over 500 colonizers, horses, cattle, and livestock to settle just north of Santa Fe.
5. Introduced the horse to the North American continent. Prior to Oñate's arrival there were no horses, because they had not been bred in North America.
6. Introduced religion, government, Spanish language, music, agricultural techniques, mining and town layouts to name a few of the contributions of the colonizers. 

Installation will be at the El Paso International Airport this summer and unveiled in September. The King of Spain, Juan Carlos and First Lady, Laura Bush, want to come to the unveiling. A PBS documentary will be released next year on the making and controversy of the statue. It is the second of 12 historic figures done like chapters of a book to represent a period in our history. In times when Hispanic / Latino America must come together in solidarity, it is important to get the word out on this project. It recognizes the deep roots Hispanic’s have in our beloved country and should be a source of pride for all Hispanics. For more information visit 

Thank you for the work you do and the cartoon.
Saludos. . Antonio Piña

Manifests of Statistical Alien Arrivals at El Paso, Texas,
El Paso -- A3412 now available (RG 85)  

The National Archives and Records Administration announces the completion of A3412, Manifests of Statistical Alien Arrivals at El Paso, Texas, May 1909-October 1924 (96 rolls). RG 85. 35mm. This includes over 200,000 manifests of alien arrivals. 

A3412 has been placed in the National Archives Building Robert M. Warner Research Center in cabinet 31 / A5, and it is being provided to NARA Regional Archives at Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Fort Worth, Kansas City, Laguna Niguel, San Francisco, and Seattle. 
Descriptive material is on all rolls of the microfilm publication.  
A3412 is indexed by A3406, which is not yet available. 
microfilm projects archivist Archives I Research Support Branch (NWCC1) 202-357-5353

Documents of the Coronado Expedition, 1539–1542

"They Were Not Familiar with His Majesty, nor Did They Wish to Be His Subjects"

Edited, Translated, and Annotated by
Richard Flint and Shirley Cushing Flint

This volume is the first annotated, dual-language edition of thirty-four original documents from the Coronado expedition. The documents provide a window into the actions and attitudes of members of the expedition and its unwilling hosts in the American Southwest and northwest Mexico. Using the latest historical, archaeological, geographical, and linguistic research, this volume makes available accurate transcriptions and modern English translations of the documents, including seven never before published and seven others never before available in English. It includes a general introduction and explanatory notes at the beginning of each document

"Impressive. Materials that cannot be found in any other source; superb translations."—Donald E. Chipman, Professor of History, University of North Texas

Complete Muster Roll of the Coronado Expedition of February 22, 1540
Sent by John Inclan

Two Discoveries, Two Conquests: Vázquez de Coronado 
By Félix A. Barboza-Retana, B.A.; M.A. 
Historian and Museologist, Museum of Texas Tech University

Ex-Gov. Castro recalls beating odds  (Shortened version)
Yvonne Wingett, The Arizona Republic, May. 6, 2006
Reach the reporter at or (602) 444-4712.
Sent by John P. Schmal

Castro stood on his wooden wraparound porch in Nogales, overlooking the twin city to the south just across the border in Mexico.  Much has changed for Latinos since he served as Arizona governor three decades ago, he said. Castro is the only Hispanic ever elected to the state's highest office. The crow's feet that web from his hazel eyes moved as he reflected on how far Hispanics have come.

"In my days, discrimination was rather heavy, rather obvious. It doesn't exist now. It's a paradise," he said in a low voice, still strong at 89.

Castro was at home last month during the biggest pro-immigrant march in Arizona history. Many years ago, he would have marched himself. The U.S. and Mexico could resolve the issue of illegal immigration, he believes, with a little more diplomacy and better border security.

Castro was a poor Mexican immigrant who grew up on the border. Determined to make something of himself, he worked through college and became a lawyer. Conviction helped him become governor. Charisma helped make him a U.S. ambassador to three Latin American countries.

His life has served as an example to many Latinos. He overcame poverty and open discrimination to become a powerful politician and statesman. For them, Castro reshaped the way they viewed themselves and proved they could succeed. In his golden years now, Castro has slowed down and returned to the border, where he tries to stay involved.

Deportation of millions of undocumented immigrants living in the U.S. is unrealistic, he said. He believes they should be allowed to apply for legal entry and pay a fine.

He pointed to a pink house next door. A coyote used to stash immigrants there and prepare them to head north. "When I was living in Douglas I would say to myself, 'So close, so far apart,' " he said, dressed in a suit ensemble and spit-shined shoes. "Eighty years later, I'm standing here. I look across to Mexico and I say, 'So close, yet so far away.' "

Becoming a leader: As a young boy, Castro's parents, Rosario, a midwife, and Francisco, a miner, legally immigrated with their 13 children to southern Arizona. They lived in Pirtleville, an impoverished town outside Douglas. His father died when he was 12. 

He studied hard through high school, then college. He plucked chickens and waited tables to pay for tuition at Northern Arizona University and earned a teaching degree in 1939 at age 23. That same year, he became a naturalized citizen. But no one would hire him. 

"I was Mexican. In my days, I couldn't even be a mail carrier," he said. "I had to clean trains, haul garbage." 

He left Arizona and, over the next two years, rode freight trains across the country, picked sugar beets in the Pacific Northwest and staged boxing matches at carnivals for money.

On his return home, he became a foreign-service clerk in Agua Prieta, Sonora. Unfulfilled, he went to law school and then opened a law office in Tucson. There, in 1951, he became deputy Pima County attorney. 

"A lot of Hispanic people were complaining (of discrimination in the justice system and in schools and jobs)," he remembered. What better way to fight it, he reasoned, than becoming part of the system. He ran for Pima County attorney even though few believed a Hispanic could win. His own brothers didn't even vote for him, but he won in 1954 by 65 votes. 

A foreign affair: A few years later, Castro met President Lyndon Johnson while both were campaigning in Tucson. They hit it off, and with a bit of politicking through Arizona Democratic Sen. Carl Hayden, Johnson appointed Castro in 1964 as U.S. ambassador to El Salvador.  He accepted the post. There was just one problem. 

"My name was the same as Fidel Castro's brother in Cuba," Castro explained. "Lyndon Johnson said, 'I'd like you to change your name' "  Castro refused. Soon after, he and his family packed their bags and moved to El Salvador. 

Castro became a popular diplomat, promoting trade, shaking hands and attending community events. He hosted Johnson and his family, along with other world leaders, at his home. He found himself hobnobbing with the rich and powerful in El Salvador, Washington and New York. He had the time of his life, and he was good at it. 

"It made me feel proud," Castro said in his sitting room, surrounded by marble statues, mirrors and armoires collected from all over the world. "But I was out of place. I wasn't in their class." 

Johnson was happy with him and in 1968 sent him to Bolivia. Castro traveled the country on horseback, making friends with the Bolivians. He came home the following year when Johnson left office. 

Arizona governor:  Castro returned to practicing international law in Tucson but missed the political limelight. He decided to make a run for governor after friends and community leaders urged him. He was the Democratic nominee in 1970 but narrowly lost to the incumbent, Republican Gov. Jack Williams. Still, he didn't give up.

With the slogan "A choice for change," Castro ran again, this time against Republican candidate Russell Williams in 1974. He campaigned across the state in English and Spanish on developing stronger business and cultural relationships with Mexico, bilingual elementary education, and growth. 

Headlines in The Phoenix Gazette predicted a razor-thin race. Working against Castro was his surname. But in news stories and speeches, he made it clear that he would represent all Arizona, not just Hispanics. "The hardest thing in political life is to impress on people that you're sincere," he said. "And that you have conviction."

Hispanics were elated that one of their own was running, Castro recalled. Several times at debates and news conferences, they wanted to display the Mexican flag behind him.  "I said, 'Look, I'm running for governor of Arizona, not Chihuahua,' " he said. He declared victory early Nov. 5, 1974. He won by 4,100 votes, ending an eight-year Republican hold on the office. 

Missing something: Castro enjoyed state politics but missed foreign politicking. Then one day in 1976, Castro answered his phone. Jimmy Carter was on the other line. He was in Phoenix and wanted to meet with Castro. 

"He said, 'This is Jimmy Carter.' I was like 'Jimmy Carter, who the hell is that?' " Castro said. "I was getting ready to dedicate the plumber's union, and I wanted to get going." Carter asked him if he could stop by. 

"Ten minutes later, Jimmy Carter was at my door. He said, 'I need your help because I'm running for president.' I thought, 'What kind of nut is this?' By God, he got elected and said he wanted me to be an ambassador.' "

In 1977, Carter asked Castro, who had just served two years as governor, to be a U.S. ambassador in Argentina. Castro wrestled with his decision and stepped down to leave for Argentina. Castro angered some Hispanics, who felt betrayed. 

"But I represented a whole country," he said. "I represented the president, the White House. My role as governor was for the whole state, not just the Mexican community."  After three years in South America, Castro returned to Tucson to practice law. 

Issues at home: It has been 12 years since Castro moved to Nogales, back on the border where he is most comfortable. "I get a feeling of living in Central America," he said, as people greeted him in a local restaurant. "English is the second language here."

At night, he sits on his back porch with his wife, Patricia, drinks martinis and looks toward Mexico. 
He pointed to his dirt backyard where many undocumented immigrants trek. Some ask for water, and he gives it to them. They're breaking the law, he said, but they're good people wanting jobs and opportunity. 

But the U.S. and Mexico need to work harder together to stop the flow. "We have a right to defend our borders," he said. "America needs to get with Mexico and say, 'We have a problem, and it exists mostly because your people are coming across our borders.' " 

The U.S., he said, should put money into Mexico to help build its economy and slow illegal immigration. He closed his law firm two years ago, but he has worked on some cases from a home office. People come by and ring his doorbell asking for help with immigration-related cases. He does what he can to help them and does it for free.

Standing from his chair, Castro said he has had a good life but has two regrets. "I always had the feeling that I wanted to get more education," he said, walking inside the house. "My biggest disappointment is that I haven't seen Mexico and America be buddies." 

It is a success story in the best Horatio Alger tradition: Penniless Mexican boy comes to the United States, works diligently, and moves up the ladder to judge, ambassador, and governor...It is Raul Castro's story. 

He was born at Cananea, Mexico, June 12, 1916, and lived in his native country until 1926, when he moved to Arizona and later became an American citizen. Through gruelling physical labor and self-denial, he saved enough to enter Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff, where he was graduated in 1939. He worked for the US State Department as a foreign service clerk at Agua Prieta, Mexico for five years, but he never forgot his dream of becoming a lawyer. Accepted by the University of Arizona Law College, Castro earned his Juris Doctor degree and was admitted to the Arizona Bar in 1949. After practicing law in Tucson for two years, he became deputy Pima County attorney. In 1954 he was elected county attorney and served in that capacity until 1958, when he became a Pima County Superior Court Judge. He earned a reputation as a man of keen mind and deep compassion for people during his six years on the Superior Court bench. His national stature grew over the years, and President Lyndon Johnson appointed Castro as US ambassador to El Salvador in 1964. That four year service was followed by an ambassadorial assignment to Colombia. 

Returning to Tucson in 1969 to specialize in international law, Castro continued to rises to the top in Arizona Democratic politics. Seeking state office for the first time in 1974, he surprised the experts by winning his spirited campaign for the governorship. The poor boy from Cananea had reached the top at last. In 1977, when he had completed two years as governor, President Jimmy Carter selected him to be ambassador to Argentina. 

Goff, John F. Arizona Biographical Dictionary. Black Mountain Press. Cave Creek, Arizona 1983. 

Websites: Arizona Republic CulturesAZ, Hispanic--Raul Castro   
School Discovery A-Z- Raul Castro 

Old battle haunts new U.S.-Mexico tensions 
John Rice, Associated Press  May. 1, 2006 
Sent by John Inclan

MEXICO CITY - More than 1 million migrants flood into the United States each year across a border cutting straight through what once was Mexican territory, a touch of history that haunts the immigration debate 158 years after the land changed hands.

The territory north of today's 1,952-mile border changed hands in 1848 after a U.S. invasion that ended with the capture of Mexico City.  Ulysses S. Grant, who took part, called the invasion "the most unjust war ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation." 



Tribute to George I. Sánchez 
Honors Trailblazing Scholar, Legal Strategist, Civil Rights Activist, and Mentor - May 16, 2006
-Kay Randall, Office of the Vice President for Public Affairs, 512-232-3910

Dr. Richard Valencia, a professor in The University of Texas at Austin's College of Education and faculty associate of the Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS), presented a tribute to Mexican American scholar and civil rights activist Dr. George I. Sánchez on April 26. The tribute was one event in an ongoing CMAS 35th anniversary celebration.

"The building in which the College of Education is housed is named after Dr. Sánchez," says Valencia, who is an instructor in the Department of Educational Psychology, "yet few people know anything about this man who had such a lasting effect on the Mexican American civil rights movement, testing reform, and the legal struggle for desegregated schools."

Born to a poor family in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Sánchez's introduction to leadership in education occurred at the tender age of 16, when he graduated  from high school and accepted a position as teacher and principal of a one-room school in Yrisarri, New Mexico.

"As an educator and administrator, Sánchez saw firsthand that there were inequities in education," says Valencia. "Children in New Mexican rural schools were shortchanged because of poor school funding, and those eight years that Dr. Sánchez was in Yrisarri were a valuable education for him as well as for his students."

While teaching in Yrisarri, Sánchez went to the University of New Mexico during the summers to obtain his bachelor's degree in education and graduated, with honors, in 1930.  Having been awarded prestigious fellowships from the General Education Board (funded by the Rockefeller Foundation), Sánchez enrolled at UT and obtained a master's degree in educational psychology. With his master's thesis on the misuse of English language tests to assess Spanish-speaking children, Sánchez initiated his challenge of various white scholars' racist conclusions regarding Mexican American children's intellectual abilities.

In 1934, Sánchez earned his doctorate in educational administration at the University of California-Berkeley, having served as Director of the Division of Information Statistics at the New Mexico Department of Education while he completed his degree. During his years with the Department of Education, Sánchez learned important lessons in how to use politics and the law to accelerate positive changes for Mexican Americans.

In 1940 Sánchez was hired as a full professor in UT's Department of History and Philosophy of Education and as UT's first Professor of Latin American Studies.

"Although Dr. Sánchez had numerous scholarly interests - from school financing to education in Venezuela and the arithmetic of the ancient Mayans - the subject he most passionately pursued was the quality of education provided to Mexican American children, particularly in the areas of bilingual/bicultural education, school segregation, and educational testing. On the topic of educational testing, Dr. Sánchez was one of only a very few pioneer scholars who stood up and refuted scientific racists who were asserting that Mexican American children had a 'dullness that seems to be racial, or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they came.'

"Some scholars were stating that Mexican American children should, for example, be segregated in special classes and given instruction only in what is 'concrete and practical.' These researchers believed that Mexican American children were not capable of grasping abstractions and declared that no amount of school instruction could help the children - that they were not educable for high levels of learning and could not be considered 'normal.' Of course, Dr. Sánchez, who was something of a nemesis to them, was living testimony to the absurdity and terrible falseness of those statements."

In addition to being a scholar, Sánchez also was an adept legal strategist and influential civil rights advocate. In 1941, he was appointed national president of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the first Mexican American civil rights organization, and in 1950 was appointed vice president of the Texas Council on Human Relations. In 1951, Sánchez founded the American Council of Spanish-Speaking People, a national organization devoted to the civil rights and civil liberties of the Mexican American community.

Although not an attorney, Sánchez's important "class apart" theory was instrumental in winning a U.S. Supreme Court case, the landmark
Hernandez v. Texas jury exclusion lawsuit. Sánchez's class apart theory was used to establish the argument that individuals of Mexican descent are a separate class and that they must have equal protection and due process rights under the 14th Amendment.

"Thanks to Sánchez's class apart theory and the arguments articulated in the Supreme Court case by the attorney Sánchez had educated regarding the theory," says Valencia, "the civil rights movement was advanced and racial segregation was dealt another significant blow."

Because of his contributions to the legal field, Sánchez was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws by the University of New Mexico, his alma mater, and the UC-Berkeley School of Law recognized Sánchez as a leading scholar in laws affecting Mexican Americans.

Sánchez served as consultant or on the state, national or international boards of many organizations, including the Migrant Children's Fund, John F. Kennedy's Citizens' Committee of 50 on the New Frontier Policy in the Americas, National Council On Agricultural Life and Labor, Peace Corps National Advisory Council, Southwestern Council of Spanish-Speaking People, UNESCO and the Navajo Tribal Council.

In 1984 - 12 years after Sánchez's death - the endowed George I. Sánchez Centennial Professorship in Liberal Arts at UT was established and was the first such honor bestowed upon a Mexican American professor in the U.S. In May of 1995, UT's College of Education Building was renamed the George I. Sánchez Building.

"Dr. Sánchez labored for Mexican American rights and equality for all at a time when there was great resistance to his ideas," says Valencia, "and he prevailed. He was called, among other things, a 'man of rare courage, 'fearless activist,' 'maverick,' and 'intellectual leader of the Mexican American movement' for good reason - he was a tireless, courageous man with an incredible mind and strongly-held convictions, a man who could not ignore injustice or defer to unfair theories and practices."

Like Sánchez, Valencia's primary area of research interest includes Mexican American education, particularly testing issues and the intersection of the law and education.  Throughout his career, Valencia has championed equal educational opportunities for minority students via his scholarly work, teaching, and expert testimony in legal cases brought forth by minority plaintiffs.
Elvira Prieto, Academic Advisor
Center for Mexican American Studies
University of Texas at Austin
1 University Station F9200, Austin, TX  78712
WMB 5.102
Phone: (512) 471-2134
Fax: (512) 471-9639


National History Project: Fugitive Slaves in Mexico
Mexico as a haven for fugitive slaves
Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes, Black Indians

National History Project: Fugitive Slaves in Mexico
Researched by Kathy Pozniak, 
Von Humboldt Middle School
Sent by Alva Moore Stevenson

U.S. history is filled with stories of the Underground Railroad. Mention fugitive slaves and inevitably attention is drawn north - first to the northern states, and later, after the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, further north yet to Canada. Yet thousands of slaves gained their freedom through a different route - into Mexico. In this paper, I hope to show that while slave escapes into Mexico may be only a small chapter in history, it adds another integral layer towards understanding the
political, social and economic developments of the antebellum era.

In 1821, the Spanish government granted land to Moses Austin, an American, in Mexico. Unable to entice internal migration to this vast and unoccupied territory, the Spanish decided to take the unusual step of encouraging foreign immigration to establish a base of small rural landholders. (1) A
few months after this grant, Mexico won its independence from Spain. And, although Moses Austin died before leading settlers into Mexico, this unique scheme for settlement was not abandoned. Shortly after its establishment, Mexico allowed Stephen Austin and other U.S. citizens to occupy land within the Mexican state of Texas. These settlers brought their slaves with them.        

By 1825, one out of five residents in Texas was a slave. (2) Then, on September 15, 1829, Mexican President Vicente Guererro abolished slavery.(3) Ten years later, U.S. Senator John Niles characterized this action as a "hazardous experiment." In his book, the History of South America and Mexico, Niles argued that Spanish methods of colonization, in particular the practice of intermarriage with indigenous peoples, had caused a deterioration in their innate intelligence level and, consequently, their ability to practice democracy. Niles contended that any further heterogeneity would only guarantee the fall of the Mexican republic.(4)

Just two and a half months after Mexico abolished slavery and for reasons unrelated to Niles's opinion, Texas Governor J.M. Viesca secured an exemption for his state. The land fees generated an important source of income for the local government.(5) Nonetheless, Mexican officials were
uneasy about the numbers of new Americans settling within Mexico and they attempted to curb the number of newcomers, including slaves, in another way. In 1830, Mexico decreed that foreigners could not cross the border without obtaining a passport issued by Mexican agents.(6) The Mexican
government, however, was generally ineffectual in enforcing this law and it was largely ignored.

While slaveholders looked to Mexico for land, so too did abolitionists. In 1832, Benjamin Lundy attempted to acquire land in Texas for the purpose of establishing a colony for ex-slaves. Lundy favored colonization because he believed it was a way to end slavery; slaves would be freed only if their owners could be guaranteed that they would then leave the United States.(7) Furthermore Lundy realized freed slaves in the U.S. would still be subjected to racism and discrimination. In Lundy's opinion, they would have a better chance someplace where they would enjoy greater social and legal equality.(8) Though he knew of the 1830 law that prohibited further U.S. settlements in Texas, Lundy hoped that Mexican officials would make an exception for him. They did not. 

Two years later, Colonel Juan Almonte suggested to Lundy that he again petition for land but in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, which was not included in the 1830 law.(9) Tamaulipas was located just south of Texas and straddled the Rio Grande. Although Lundy did not indicate in his recollections what motivated Almonte to make this offer, another Mexican official, Senator Francisco de Tagle, had suggested as early as 1831 that fugitive slaves be given homes on the frontier as a barrier against possible invasion.(10) In March of 1835, the Mexican government granted Lundy 138,000 acres of land in Tamaulipas.(11) Lundy wanted to establish at least 250 families within two years.(12)Unfortunately, war interceded. 

In December of 1835, Americans in Texas began a fight for independence from Mexico. According to Lundy, they rebelled when they "ascertained that slavery could not be perpetuated... under the government of the Mexican Republic."(13) In the midst of the fighting, many slaves escaped into
Mexico but those that moved to Tamaulipas found themselves entrapped once more. The Texan nation's new boundaries expanded southward to the Rio Grande River. Consequently, Lundy's land grant was no longer in Tamaulipas but in Texas; the planned colony never came to fruition.(14) Lundy never attempted to establish another colony in Mexico and he died in 1839.(15)

The Republic of Texas declared slavery to be legal and in its ten-year existence, the slave population grew 450% from 5,000 to nearly 27,500.(16)

In the midst of mounting tensions between Mexico, Texas, and the United States during the 1840s, slavery became an issue over which Mexico could assert its sovereignty. Mexican authorities always rejected Texans' demands to reclaim their runaways. Texas President Sam Houston lamented to U.S. General William Harding in July, 1841, that ". . . two valuable negro boys for which I had paid in cash $2100 previous to my visit to Nashville, ran away last spring to Mexico. Thus you can see I am in bad luck."(17) After the U.S.-Mexican War (1846-1848) Mexico continued to assert itself by
refusing to enter into any extradition treaties with the United States and, although it finally ratified an agreement in 1862, it specifically excluded runaway slaves.(18)

Consequently, Mexico remained a place of amnesty. However, the absence of an organized network for escapes meant that most slaves made their way into Mexico either individually or in small groups. Despite this impediment, thousands of fugitive slaves lived in Mexico by 1850. But the flow of runaways into Mexico did not compare with the numbers still enslaved in Texas. According to the 1850 U.S. census, 58,161 slaves lived in Texas, whose entire population was 212,592. Thus, slaves comprised over 28% of the population.(19) On the eve of the Civil War, this percentage had increased to the point where nearly 1/3 of the total population of Texas were slaves.(20)

Finding the Mexican government uncooperative, Texas slave owners took measures to stop escapes as well as to reclaim runaways. In 1850, they pressured the federal government to set up border patrols but with few troops assigned to patrol this vast frontier, this was not very successful.(21) Slaveowners also offered rewards of $200-$600 for the recapturing of fugitives. Noah Smithwick recalled being part of a group of men in pursuit of runaway slaves in Texas in 1855. Unprepared for the resistance they received, Smithwick's group retreated home. Much to his own surprise, Smithwick hoped that the fugitives had made it to Mexico.(22)   See Document One) 

Sometimes, however, Texans did not respect the border in their pursuits of runaway slaves. In 1855, Captain James Callahan of the Texas Rangers under the orders of Texan Governor Elisha Pease entered Mexico in an attempt to recapture slaves. Callahan insisted that the purpose of his excursion was to pursue Indians rather than recapture fugitive slaves. The Mexican government with the help of Native Americans, however, forced him to retreat and withdraw without the slaves; although not without leaving a small village in ruins.(23)

Sam Houston offered yet another solution to the problem of fugitive slaves in Mexico. In 1858, he proposed making Mexico a protectorate of the United States because he believed that Mexicans were incapable of maintaining a democracy and thus creating a "good neighborhood."(24) Although Houston did not originally mention slavery as a rationale, in promoting his plan a year later he suggested that slavery would aid Mexico's agricultural development. He also said that it would "provide for the reclamation of our slaves who escape into her territory."(25)

Seemingly unaffected by these debates, many runaway slaves assimilated into Mexican culture - learning the language and the customs. A number of persons left recollections of their encounters. As early as 1833, Lundy wrote about a man he met while in San Antonio de Bexar, Mexico. (See
Document Two) Frederick Law Olmsted wrote of meeting an ex-slave during his travels through Mexico in 1854. (See Document Three) Mrs. William Cazneau, who lived in the border town of Eagle Pass from 1850-1852, documented the experience of an acquaintance of hers who encountered an ex-slave in Monterey. (See Document Four) Much to the surprise of these Americans, these former slaves had obtained wealth and status in their new communities.

Textbooks and survey courses do not focus on the topic of runaway slaves into Mexico probably due to the small known numbers. Estimates generally range between 3,000 to 5,000. Yet to focus in on just the relatively small numbers of fugitive slaves in Mexico is to miss the larger picture. By
teaching this topic within the larger context of other events in the 19th Century, such as Manifest Destiny, expansion of slavery and Mexican independence, it serves to add another integral detail and greater understanding to this period in history.

(1) Rosalee Schwartz, "Across the Rio to Freedom," Southwest Studies No. 44
(1975): 8. (2) Ibid., 11.
(3) Ibid., 16.
(4) John M. Niles, History of South America and Mexico (Hartford: H.Huntington, 1839), 199. [F 96 .6202] (5) Schwartz, "Across The Rio to Freedom," 16.
(6) Ibid., 17.
(7) Merton Dillon, Benjamin Lundy and The Struggle for Negro Freedom
(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1966), 27. (8) Ibid., 91.
(9) Dillon, Benjamin Lundy, 180.
(10) Ronnie C. Tyler, "Fugitive Slaves in Mexico," Journal of Negro History, Volume 57, Issue 1 (January, 1972), 2. (11) Benjamin Lundy, The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy. Ed. William Parrish. (Philadelphia: William D. Parrish Publisher, 1847), 168.; Dillon, Benjamin Lundy, 203-204. (12) Dillon, Benjamin Lundy, 203-204.
(13) Benjamin Lundy, "The Origin and True Causes of the Texas Insurrection," (originally published in Philadelphia's National Gazette, 1839), 31. (14) Dillon, Benjamin Lundy, 219.
(15) A. M. Shotwell. Benjamin Lundy. (Lansing: Robert Smith Printing Company, 1897), 9. (16) Frederick Law Olmsted, Till Freedom Cried Out. Ed. T. Lindsay Baker and Julie Baker. (College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1997), xxi. (17) Sam Houston, The Writings of Sam Houston Volume III. Ed. Amelia Williams and Eugene Barker (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1942), 10.
(18) Tyler, "Fugitive Slaves in Mexico," 11.
(19) Frederick Law Olmsted, A Journey through Texas. (New York: Dix, Edwards and Company, 1857), 472. (20) Olmsted, Till Freedom Cried Out, xxi.
(21) Tyler, "Fugitive Slaves in Mexico," 4.
(22) Noah Smithwick, The Evolution of a State. (Austin: Gammel Book Company, 1900), 326. (23) Tyler, "Fugitive Slaves in Mexico," 8-9. Olmsted, A Journey through Texas, 333. (24) Sam Houston, The Writings of Sam Houston Volume VII. Ed. Amelia Williams and Eugene Barker. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1942), 104. (25) Sam Houston, The Writings of Sam Houston
Volume VII. Ed. Amelia Williams and Eugene Barker. (Austin: University of
Texas Press, 1942), 362.

Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes, Black Indians

Unclaimed Persons -
This web site is to provides information to the public regarding a deceased loved one for whom next of kin has never been located.

The following are available on All LDS Family History Centers have free access to Go to  for the closest center.

Freedman's Bank Records, 1865-1874 The Freedman's Bank records show depositors' names and sometimes other personal information such as age, place of birth, and occupation.

U.S. Federal Census, 1870 The 1870 census is the first U.S. Federal Census to list formerly enslaved African Americans by name (in previous censuses they were included only as tally marks on a page).

1850 and 1860 Slave Schedules Slaves were counted separately during the 1850 and 1860 U.S. censuses. Unfortunately, in most schedules, only the names of land owners were recorded; individual slaves were not named but were simply numbered and can be distinguished only by age, sex, and color.

Civil War Service Records These records include more than 5.3 million men who served in the war. Each record provides the soldier's name, company, unit, the individual's rank when inducted and rank when discharged.

Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, 1718- 1820 This database includes detailed information on more than 100,000 slaves who arrived in Louisiana between 1718 and 1820. The records include personal details such as name, gender, race, birthplace, family names and relationships, skill or trade, personality traits and information about how the person was freed.

Slave Narratives A collection of one-on-one interviews with more than 3,500 former slaves collected over a ten-year period from 1929 to 1939. The interviews, written exactly as they were dictated to preserve the spoken dialect of the former slave, are very rich in family history data and often identify ages, places of residence and birth, and names of spouses, children, siblings, and parents.

Selected Family and Local Histories 
This collection is a compilation of journals, memoirs, and other first-hand personal narratives that provide poignant picture of daily life, from everyday challenges to extreme hardships.




Native Hawaiians Seek Right to Land, Self-Government  
Districts redrawn to raise number of Indian lawmakers in Mexico

Keeping Dakotah language alive through Scrabble
Catch Her If You Can - San Ildefonso Woman is on the Move


Native Hawaiians Seek Right to Land, Self-Government  AP
Sent by Win Holtzman

HONOLULU (May 29) - Hawaii politicians are scrambling to gather enough votes in Congress to pass a bill that would grant Native Hawaiians a degree of self-government and possibly a share of the land ruled by their ancestors.

After seven years of debate, the proposal to recognize Native Hawaiians as indigenous inhabitants of the 50th state - a legal status similar to that of American Indians - has finally been promised a vote in the Senate. The vote could come as early as next week.

Democratic Sen. Daniel Akaka says he has solid support from his party, but will need help from Republicans to pass the proposal.

The bill provides a process to set up a Native Hawaiian government and then start negotiations to transfer power and property from state and federal authorities to Hawaiians. The form of government and the amount of public land to be granted wouldn't be decided until then.

Districts redrawn to raise number of Indian lawmakers

Mexico city -Mexico has redrawn its congressional districts to try to increase the number of Indian lawmakers.  Xochiti Galvez, Indian affairs adviser to President Vicente Fox, said there will be 28 new districts with an Indian majority when the presidential and congressional elections are held July 2. While about 13 million of Mexico's 103 million people are Indians, there are currently three Indian federal congressional representatives in the 500-seat lower house and no Indian senators.

Keeping Dakotah language alive through Scrabble
Game also could save tribal culture

By Tom Berg, Knight Ridder/Tribune news, April 27, 2006

Sure, you can buy Icelandic Scrabble, Croatian Scrabble, even Slovenian Scrabble -- if you look hard enough. After all, those languages have entire nations of speakers. But who'd want Scrabble for a dying language of a few hundred speakers? A language where the simple word for "bat" requires 18 letters?

Tammy DeCoteau, for one. And gamemaking giant Hasbro, for another. They teamed up recently to launch the first Scrabble game in the Sioux Indian language known as Dakotah.

For the record, hupahuwakinhdakena -- meaning "the bird that sees its wings when it's flying," or bat -- was not even remotely considered during the tournament. In fact, the first word played was two letters long. The next added two letters to the first.

We're talking baby steps. Yet from these humble beginnings, DeCoteau hopes to save an entire language. Why?  "In language is intertwined the culture," she says.

By that standard, the Dakotah culture is in stark danger of extinction. Just 27 people in all of Minnesota, original home of the Dakotah Sioux, speak Dakotah, DeCoteau says. About 100 speak it on the Lake Traverse Reservation of South Dakotah where DeCoteau held the recent tournament. When those elders die, the language could die too.

That, DeCoteau hopes, is about to change, thanks to the game first called Lexico, then Criss Cross Words -- a game found in one of every three American homes and whose annual tournament is now televised on ESPN: Scrabble.

Well-known names in Sioux history include Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and even Lt. Col. George Custer. Less known is that the Sioux were divided among three tribes: the Dakotah, Nakota and Lakota. The Dakotah were the first to be pushed from their homeland by white settlers in the mid-1800s.

Mass execution: When in 1862 they revolted, 38 were hanged in the largest mass execution in U.S. history. When in 1876 they defeated Custer, his last stand became their own. Soon the Sioux were confined to even smaller reservations.

Today, the U.S. is home to some 170,000 Sioux or part-Sioux, according to the U.S. Census. Most are spread out. DeCoteau estimates that 4,000 live on her reservation. Of those, maybe 600 are elders. And of those, maybe 100 speak the old tongue. It is, as some say, a generation from extinction. So how does news from the reservation hit California? Call it motherly pride.

"I'm just proud of her compassion and thoughtfulness," says DeCoteau's mom, Lois Formes of Fullerton, Calif., who is of Danish descent and now remarried. "It's kind of funny. We're pushing people to learn the Sioux language, yet here we're wishing people would quit speaking Spanish."

Here's an example of how rare the Dakotah language has become: DeCoteau herself, the director of the Native Language Program for the Association on American Indian Affairs, cannot speak it fluently.

"If I spoke, I'd sound like a child who just learned English," she says. "I'd be speaking broken Dakotah."  Which might explain her strategy.  DeCoteau's effort to save her language didn't start with adults putting down Scrabble tiles. It started with kids picking up toys.

Three years ago, DeCoteau organized a day-care center for children of American Indian students at Sisseton-Wahpeton College in Agency Village, S.D. As a language director, she wanted to immerse the 6-month- to 4-year-olds in their native language. But she couldn't. For one thing, the children had no books, music or videos in Dakotah. For another, none of her staff members could speak it.

So she recruited a few tribal elders. One was Orsen Bernard, 70, who lived on the reservation about 20 miles away.  "This one lady was singing, `This is the way we pick up our toys,' to a 2-year-old," he says. "I thought, `I can translate that."'

From there, the former U.S. Army medic translated "Goldilocks." Then other books and songs. Then the Pledge of Allegiance.  He's happy to revive the language his parents were punished for speaking at the turn of the last century.

"It's a long story," he says. "But way back when, in my mother's and dad's age, they were forbidden to talk the language. They were punished not only for that, but for their dancing and spiritual stuff. At the time, it was looked at as savagery -- heathen stuff."

Thus began the slow decline of Dakotah. Each succeeding generation spoke less and less, erasing a language that speakers say has an imagery not found in English.

Deciphering the meaning: Take the word kiyuspepicasni, which means "indivisible" from the Pledge of Allegiance. In English it means, "incapable of undergoing division." In Dakotah, it means something you cannot break apart, you cannot even chip it, you cannot even take apart the pieces.

"The Dakotah words are so meaningful," Bernard says. "Even the praying and everything else is so connected to Mother Earth. I think it grabs you at the heart level."

Eventually about 50 tribal members joined DeCoteau's team, writing children's songs and stories, translating videos, helping to restore the language. Someone even persuaded the local convenience store to label the candy aisle in Dakotah.

"We started thinking, `Where else can we put the language where it isn't already at?"' she says. "Someone said, `Oh, games."'

Quick strategy lesson: The T-with-a-dot and the P-with-a-dot -- you want to grab these out of your Dakotah Scrabble tile bag. They're the equivalent of our 10-point Z's and Q's. Most common? A and K. There are more of these one-pointers than Es.

The Dakotah language has no F, L, Q, R or V, but it has six dotted letters and one N-with-a-tail, resulting in 28 letters, or two more than English. The game uses 100 tiles, same as traditional Scrabble, but players draw 10 tiles instead of seven.

When tribal elders gathered in DeCoteau's office last summer, they hoped to write a 500-word Scrabble Dictionary. They ended up with 2,500 words -- a far cry from the 180,000 in the National Scrabble Association's official word list, but plenty for a generation that barely knows any.

DeCoteau raised enough money to make 30 games. She distributed those to schools, where the first tournament was recently held.  Now she's trying to make 500 home-edition games. Production costs likely will set the price at $75. She just ordered metal stamps to practice punching the letters onto the tiles.  

Copyright © 2006, Knight-Ridder/Tribune (KRT)

Catch Her If You Can - San Ildefonso Woman is on the Move
By Marissa Stone, The New Mexican, October 22, 2003 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

The gray Toyota truck zooms down a winding dirt road in San Ildefonso Pueblo, churning up dust as it passes 100-year-old cottonwood trees. The car halts in front of an office and Hummingbird Flower gets out. When you first meet her, you can tell she doesn’t believe in wasting time. As she walks briskly to her office, even her long black hair — pinned back with a white bow — seems to be busy. 

A human-resources director at the pueblo, she sits down at her immaculate desk, answers a phone call, looks at a list and reads a letter. She races out of her office to check on something, rushes back in and answers another call. Hummingbird Flower, 55, carries a tape recorder and a handful of notepads so she can record and make notes of things to do and good ideas. 

Hummingbird Flower owns 30 watches and 200 pens. The pens are for every occasion, including “moody” moments. She crams her life’s story into an hour’s conversation. Her American name is Lucille Calabaza, but she’d rather be known by her Tewa name, Hummingbird Flower. 

Born into a family of 10 children, she has three of her own: Ryan Calabaza, Alex King and Victor Calabaza-King. 

Lucille Calabaza’s mother, Blue Corn, was a professor whose work was featured in National Geographic. She was an internationally known potter who traveled the world with her talent. She taught her children the art of making traditional pottery, but one day, Blue Corn told her girls they would eventually marry and should learn to cook. The daughters would need to prepare food for their families and traditional meals for pueblo feast days, she told them. The sisters learned to make Indian feast foods: red chile, green chile, beans, posole, fry bread and tortillas. Spanish settlers who traveled through Mexico to New Mexico, Hummingbird Flower said, introduced many of those foods to the pueblos. 

Although her father, Santiago Blue Corn (sometimes called Sandy or Pop Corn) wanted her to marry early, she wanted an education first. Encouraged by a high-school teacher, Hummingbird Flower was determined to get an education out of state. 

After high school, Hummingbird Flower set out for college in Los Angeles. She had never been out of the pueblo and although she lived in L.A. with an aunt, the culture shock was tremendous. “It was very scary,” Hummingbird Flower says. “I thought, ‘how do people live here?’” 

But after about five years in that city, she had adjusted and had earned a degree in business administration in human resources and accounting. She also had a steady job at a bank. But Hummingbird Flower was still ready for adventure. After returning to San Ildefonso from Los Angeles, she decided to move to Washington, D.C., after receiving an internship at the Department of the Interior through the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The internship turned into a job working in social services and law-enforcement departments for the BIA. 

There, Hummingbird Flower met her future husband, Charles King, and the couple moved to Nashville, Tenn. In that city, Hummingbird Flower worked as the executive administrator for the director of the United Southeastern Tribes. The agency assists tribes along the coast, from Mississippi to Maine, that aren’t federally recognized. 

Numerous tribes across the country share common problems related to drugs, alcohol, gangs and disease. One of the greatest concerns is diabetes, she says.   

When she brought King back to San Ildefonso for a visit, he was amazed by the pueblo and wanted to move there, Hummingbird Flower said. “Are you crazy?” she asked him. But it was settled — they would move. After returning, Hummingbird Flower worked in administration for several companies and at the Institute of American Indian Arts Museum, where she was a human-resources coordinator. 

One day, the cooking skills her mother taught her came in handy. Hummingbird Flower was walking through the Wheelwright Museum in Santa Fe when she heard women in an office talking about how they didn’t know who would cater an event for 600 people at the museum. Hummingbird Flower poked her nose in the door and told the women she could cater the event, even though she had never catered before. That opportunity led to others in the United States, Canada and Mexico and an appearance on The Today Show. Hummingbird Flower catered for Bloomingdale’s in New York City when the state of New Mexico was invited to present its native foods. 

She is working toward a master’s degree in social work, also has a graphic-design business. She has a favorite motto she learned from an aunt who received her doctorate at the age of 79: “You are never too old to learn.” 

Marissa Stone covers the Pojoaque Valley, the Española Valley and Rio Arriba County for The New Mexican and can be reached at



Ana Kurland: Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans
A Research Tool Online for Sephardic Genealogy / Jewish Genealogy
The First Jews in the New World by Joseph Heckelman

60's Latino Militant Now Pursues a Personal Quest: Reies Lopez Tijerina


Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans By: Gloria Golden ©2005

Ana Kurland

I was told when I was very little that our ancestors were Jews. It was superficial talk, and I think it was meant to show that we were Spanish and not the regular Puerto Rican mix.

Mom's family has the most. My great-grandparents came from Spain to Puerto Rico in the mid 1800s. They were converses and practiced one-half Catholicism and one-half Judaism.

The first thing I noticed was a big celebration on New Year's Day, when I was eight years old. I asked why we have a New Year's celebration when everyone else (school friends) celebrated Christmas. Christmas celebration was minor. I was told it was my grandfather's saint's day. Being a good Catholic school girl, I went to a saint's day book. Grandfather's name was Manuel. I didn't find St. Manuel anywhere. My mother kept insisting on that reason for this holiday. I asked an aunt. She said that was the day of Jesus' circumcision. To this day, she denies saying this,

My grandparents were Ana and Manuel. Mom is Ana. My sister isAna. My grandmother is Ana. All of my female cousins are Ana. All the boys are Manuel, used as a middle name. I was told on the Internet that this was a custom used for protection against the Inquisition. If the Inquisition came to a house and wanted, for example, Ana Moreno, they couldn't take you because they didn't know which one you were. The Inquisition kept precise records. There is no proof of this custom.

There weren't any crucifixes, saints, altars, or pictures of Jesus in our house. We were told that the priests were drunks and liars within the family. We never went to church, not Christmas or Easter, even though I went to Catholic school. My family came to San Juan from Galicia in Spain. It was a Celtic area. Mom had red hair and hazel eyes.

I think my aunt who told us about circumcision was assigned to carry on the story of our heritage. When I was twelve, I had a crisis of faith and stopped believing in Catholicism. I researched other religions and didn't like most. I read about Judaism and couldn't find anything to eliminate it. I studied twelve years, took classes and read on my own. Then I decided to convert. I am a practicing Jew now. My husband was born an Ashkenazi Jew. The rest of the family has not converted. As long as I believe in God, they'll leave me alone.

It is possible Mom was not told about our heritage. When I converted, Mom told my godfather, and he thought it was great. There were certain lists of families that were okay to marry up to my grandparents' generation. If there was intermarriage with Indians or Africans, they would rather they married Spanish Catholics.

My brothers were not circumcised. Our parents were secretive. They never prayed to Jesus. It was always Father God. They never prayed to the Virgin Mary or saints. They never mentioned the Trinity. I didn't go to Sunday school. I went to Catholic school because that was the best education, We worked Saturday and Sunday.
Grandmother's mother died when Grandmother was thirteen. A lot of things didn't get passed on. After birth, women stayed in the house forty days.

We were told about the Old Testament by Mom. Children's names in the family are Old Testament names and only Old Testament names going back generations- Manuel, Joseph, Angel, Rachel, Anibel, Elizabeth. Mom said the Old Testament was better than the New Testament. New Year's Day was the only time of no work.

We would eat roast calf on a spit in Puerto Rico. It was common to roast a pig on Christmas Day. Christmas, as we grew up, became less and less important. When I was very little, women wore Spanish mantillas in church until about 1965. It was a Catholic thing, but the Catholic Church stopped doing that. My oldest aunt might know something but won't say. She denies telling me about circumcision or the reason for celebrating New Year's. I think that I found my soul. I knew it was right and felt it.

A Research Tool Online for
Sephardic Genealogy / Jewish Genealogy
by Harry Stein
Sent by Bill Carmena 

This site is a research tool for Sephardic and Jewish genealogy. We will attempt to cover many facets of Sephardic culture and attempt to add new information daily. If you have any comments, wish to link or report a broken link, or are considering advertising, please send your comments to:

The Sephardi report Fall 2005 Vol. 2 No. 1
The First Jews in the New World by Joseph Heckelman

By Sarina Roffe

As America celebrates the 350th Anniversary of Jewish life in North America, Joseph Heckle-man's book. The First Jews in the New World, is a welcome addition to the wealth of literature on the topic of Jewish migration across the Atlantic. Heckleman's 195 pages provide an engaging synopsis of early Jewish life in the Americas, on the Caribbean Islands, and in the first Jewish congregations of the New World. The First Jews in the New World has few foot-notes and little about it that is original, but the reading is easy and full of interest-ing and detailed information, laid out in journalistic style.
Jews began trickling to the New World after two simultaneous events that changed the course of history: the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus, and the Spanish Expulsion in 1492, the act whereby Spain's Catholic monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, forced the Jewish population to leave Spain. Of the Jews who left, a significant portion went to Portugal, where the Portuguese king was in need of their skills. Researchers estimate that approximately 120,000 Spanish Jews crossed the border into Portugal on the agreement that the move was temporary.

In 1497, the Jews who had sought refuge in Portugal were forced to convert to Catholicism, an action more brutal than what they had left behind in Spain. Since 1483, and continuing after the 1492 expulsion, the Spanish Inquisition rooted out and punished heretics to the Catholic faith, namely. New Christians - those of Jewish heritage who had, out of force or necessity, converted to Catholicism. Unlike Spain, in the early years of forced conversion in Portugal, New Christians were treated with leniency for judaizing, or "backsliding" into the secret practice of their original faith. By 1541, however, the Inquisition was instituted in Portugal, at which point New Christians began to leave in larger numbers.

Heckelman traces the history and movement of the Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, beginning with their lives under Muslim rule, through the Christian Reconquista of Spain, their flight into Portugal, and their subsequent migration to the Western hemisphere, where Converses began to settle.
From countries and islands as diverse as Curacao, St. Thomas, Jamaica, Brazil, Surinam, and Mexico, these New World Diaspora Jews left remnants of their lives in the cities where they formed communities, prospered, and once again practiced Judaism openly. Eventually, the Inquisition (brought by Spanish and Portuguese conquests) followed them across the ocean, to Mexico City and the shores of Brazil, and the Jews moved north to escape, resulting in a significant population in what is today's American Southwest, and the first Jewish community in New Amsterdam (later. New York City).

In the 1600's, Jews continued to look for places where they could settle and prac-tice their religion without fear of reprisal. Heckelman recounts the development of the earliest Jewish communities in North America, spanning more than 200 years. From the 1654 landing of 24 Jews from Recife, Brazil in New Amsterdam, through the Civil War and its impact on Jewish communities, the reader is presented with stories of adversity and triumph, such as Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant's initial refusal to allow the Recife Jews entry, and the overruling of his edict by the Dutch West India Company - the powerful trading company that had established New Amsterdam, "employed" Stuyvesant, and enjoyed generous investments from other Portuguese Jews in Amsterdam.
The book provides an overview of the formation of Shearith Israel in New York, the Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, Mickve Israel in Savannah, Georgia, Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, and Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim in Charleston, South Carolina. It also shows the support they received along the way, from George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and framers of the American Constitution. However, religious tolerance did not always mean civic equality, as Heckelman so ably illustrates with excellent examples.

The first communities in the Americas were Sephardic, but in the 19th Century, German Jews began to arrive, bringing with them the Reform movement. Heckle-man outlines the controversy in Charleston as congregants battled each other in the midst of America's Civil War.
Regardless of the outcome, the roots of American Jewry are clearly Sephardic and can be found across the nation more than five centuries after the Expulsion. The colorful and historic details of the lives of those first settlers are outlined for us in The First Jews in the New World. •

Sauna Roffe holds a BA in journalism and an MA in Jewish Studies. She has worked as an investigative reporter, managing editor and public relations expert and published extensive genealogical research about Sephardic Jewish communities, especially Syrian Jewish rabbinic dynasties.

60's Latino Militant Now Pursues a Personal Quest: Reies Lopez Tijerina
By Simon Romero New York Times, 05/08/06
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

EL PASO, May 1 - The man once called King Tiger, a description fitting for one of the most militant of radical Latino leaders of the 1960's, now walks with a cane. Almost forgotten by new generations of Latinos clamoring for immigrant rights, the man, Reies López Tijerina, faces his own immigration dilemma.

Hobbled by diabetes and years of self-exile in México, Mr. Tijerina, born 79 years ago to a family of cotton pickers in South Texas, spends his days at a community center here, or in a modest two-room house across the border in Ciudad Juárez, searching for a way for his wife to return legally with him to the United States. Immigration authorities have refused to grant residency to his Mexican-born wife, Esperanza García, whom Mr. Tijerina married more than a decade ago in México.

"It's as if I'm being pursued because of my past acts," Mr. Tijerina said in a rare interview, accompanied by one of his 10 children and two of his 35 grandchildren.

His existence is far removed from the days when he was a leader in the land-rights struggle in New Mexico. He was thrust into the national spotlight in 1967 after leading an armed raid on a courthouse in Rio Arriba County in which two men were shot and others taken hostage. That violence led to a manhunt for Mr. Tijerina and more than two years in prison; his exploits were celebrated in folk songs like "The Ballad of Rio Arriba."

That event injected radicalism into the Chicano rights movement and was the crowning moment for a man with an unconventional personal trajectory. Largely self-educated, Mr. Tijerina traveled throughout the United States as a Pentecostal evangelist before founding a utopian religious community in the Arizona desert with 17 families in 1956.

It was as leader of that group, Valle de Paz, where Mr. Tijerina says he had a vision involving three angels, an event advancing him into advocacy over the land grants the Spanish crown had given settlers centuries ago in what is today's Southwest. He formed the Alianza Federal de Mercedes Reales, which claimed that Anglo speculators took control of much of that land in violation of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican-American War in 1848.

Since the turbulent 60's, however, Mr. Tijerina has largely fallen from public view. His politics evolved from confrontation to coalitions, and he wrote a lengthy memoir in Spanish, "Mi Lucha por la Tierra" ("My Fight for the Land"), published in Mexico in 1978. After his house in New Mexico was destroyed by fire in 1994, Mr. Tijerina moved to Uruapan, in central Mexico, where he married for a third time and lived quietly until decamping last month to Juárez.

"People are continuously surprised to find out he's still alive," said Rudy V. Busto, a professor of religious studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and the author of a new book on Mr. Tijerina's religious thinking.

"He could easily be dismissed as absolutely crazy, but if you sit with him and give him an opening he will convert you," Professor Busto said. "His worldview is internally consistent and based upon an adherence to divine authority found in sacred and historical texts."

Mr. Tijerina still employs a preacher's mastery of communication, citing Scripture and law, repeating his main points and reaching out to his audience, sometimes tapping them on the shoulder. On immigration, he said illegal immigrants were "simply coming back to their land," a nod to Mexico's control of the Southwest until the mid-19th century.

"Bush's own ranch is on stolen land," he said, explaining how Texas, including President Bush's ranch near Crawford, was wrenched away from Mexico by secessionists in 1836.

Rose Díaz, a research historian, said, "Reies has a right not to trust government." Ms. Díaz secured Mr. Tijerina's personal papers for the political archives at the University of New Mexico. The documents, which include declassified parts of the Federal Bureau of Investigation file on Mr. Tijerina, show that the agency monitored him for more than a decade while repeatedly trying to infiltrate the Alianza.

At times, Mr. Tijerina's thinking veers into the bizarre. He insists with prophetic intensity and theological references, for instance, that the United States is flirting with nuclear disaster through its military actions in the Middle East. He is also immersed in Jewish Scripture and history, and frequently refers to Israel's military strength and tension with radical Islam.

Mr. Tijerina rejects charges of anti-Semitism, however, saying he believes that many Spanish- speaking inhabitants of the Americas are descended from Semitic peoples or Sephardic Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition. "I'm an Israelite by blood and faith," Mr. Tijerina said.

Guiding a visitor over the bridge connecting El Paso and Juárez, Mr. Tijerina lamented the difficulty in securing a visa for his wife. His cinderblock home on the corner of Héroes de Carrizal and Bobícora Streets in a rundown barrio has concrete floors, a bed, some plastic chairs and no telephone.

Mr. Tijerina said he relied on his wife to prepare healthy meals and ensure he took diabetes medication. Ms. García said she had been trying to get the visa for three years, stymied most recently by a requirement for an additional financial sponsor in the event of Mr. Tijerina's death.

"We're living a type of punishment," Ms. García, 60, said softly in Spanish.

Neither Mr. Tijerina, unable to draw on Social Security after never holding a formal job, nor Ms. García, a former seamstress, has retirement income. A granddaughter gave them a small television set for their home in Juárez last week.

Mr. Tijerina said he dreamed of returning to northern New Mexico, where he owns land near the town of Coyote. His spine straightened as he touched on the struggle for land ownership in that area, and on the machinations of its shift long ago from the fringe of one empire to another.


June 4th & June llth  Meet the author, A Legacy Greater Than Words
27th Annual Texas Conference on Hispanic Genealogy & History 
                                               Aug 31st - Sept 3rd, click

Gloria Candelaria-March,
Many roles, but always Mom
May 31 & June 1: The Camels Are Coming to Bandera!
The Celtic connection to Spanish Texas
Texas Adjutant General Service Records 1836-1935
The Index to Texas Probate Records
Americo Paredes Distinguished Lectures 
Family on the fringe of the revolution
Spanish trails in Victoria County, Texas
Continuous Presence of Italians and Spaniards in Texas as Early as 1520
Click: Alex Loya's research leads to Sentinel Rock in Yosemite, California 

Many roles, but always Mom
by Jennifer Lloyd, Victoria Advocate, Sunday, May 14, 2006
Sent by Gloria Candelaria-Marsh

Frank Tilley/Advocate Photo Editor
Gloria Candelaria-Marsh learned to play the piano as a child and shares her passion for life and music with Reyna Martinez, 7, in Candelaria's ancestral home.
Gloria Candelaria-Marsh, left, gathers with her daughter Diana Lyra, in the white shirt, son Joel Rodriguez, far right, and others, behind her Victoria home that brims with family history.

Inside Gloria Candelaria-Marsh's small home in Victoria, family photos in mix-matched frames hang in dense clusters on hallway walls."Every picture has a history," said Candelaria as she visually scanned the captured moments of her family's past.

Nearby, Candelaria, 66, laid her hand on a large roll of paper showcasing her extensive family tree. The scroll dates her lineage back to 1794. One of the earliest relatives on that genealogical map is Juan Moya-Delgado, who was born in the Goliad area about 1806.

Candelaria was raised in Victoria and after many travels returned to her hometown in 1998, moved away again in 2000 and was back in 2004. The photographs, hanging in her ancestral home, tell of a generational history that Candelaria has labored to research and document.

She is mother to four and grandmother to 10 and has taken on many roles in the lives of her children beyond the norm - from their boss at the business she started herself to a role model as a political leader.

Candelaria and her children - Diana Lyra, Denise Bradley, Joel Darren Rodriguez and Derise Edwards - remember working in her successful business in Port Lavaca called Rodriguez Tax and Bookkeeping Service.  "I went into business for myself with $50 in my pocket," Candelaria said. 
Within three years, she said, her business had customers waiting outside in lawn chairs.

Political interests captured Candelaria's attentions so she worked with League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), Mexican American Democrats of Calhoun County, La Raza Unida and the American GI Forum.

"That's my motto: 'Lead, follow or get the heck out of the way,'" Candelaria said. Lyra, a single mother of four, has taken to heart some of the messages her mother has given her over the years. 
"Being a woman is good," Lyra said. "Being a single-parent mother is better. But being a Hispanic single woman is the best."

Candelaria is most proud of her role as family historian. Her love of history has led to the discovery of many interesting family tales and in 1998 she founded the Victoria Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Society of Texas.

She can trace her family tree back to the Canary Islands and, as she sat primly in a bright red dress with perfectly coiffed hair, Candelaria told of other relatives. Moya-Delgado, she said, was unjustly killed. Other relatives were involved in the founding of San Antonio and Albuquerque, N.M.

Candelaria said she has written seven books detailing the history of Hispanics in Texas and particularly Victoria County and has submitted entries to "The Handbook of Texas."

Lyra and her brother, Joel Rodriguez, have become more interested in history as a result of their mother's penchant for the subject.  

"To this day, our summers I remember being spent in old abandoned cemeteries and basements of churches. She had become a genealogist," wrote Diana Lyra wrote in a letter to the Victoria Advocate. "Yes, my own children may make fun of my mom, their grandmom - only because just a leisure trip back to Austin can become a history tour of our past."

Candelaria's love of history has also inspired her children's quest for all kinds of knowledge. "That's what she taught me ... the worse question is the one you don't ask," Lyra said.• Jennifer Lloyd is a reporter for the Advocate. Contact her at 361-580-6516 or, or comment on this story at

27th ANNUAL 


Aug 31-Sep 3, 2006Corpus Christi, Texas Conference Headquarters:  
Omni Bayfront Hotel, 900 North Shoreline Blvd,   Corpus Christi, TX    
 $97 plus tax for up to 4 persons. Observe reservation deadline to insure group rate. 

The 2006 Conference is being hosted by the
Spanish American Genealogical Association

For more conference information, go to:

The Spanish American Genealogical Association was founded April 1987 as a non-profit organization.  SAGA's focus is on genealocial data of the earliest Spanish and Mexican settlers of the present South Texas triangle (from Brownsville to Corpus Christi to Laredo) below the Nueces River.  The Association's goal is to conduct research, obtain collections, and develop resources (computerization of data) of genealogical material and to make them available to its membership, as well as to the South Texas community, by housing said materials in the Corpus Christi Public Library.

The Association meets on a regular basis for a combination business meeting and presentation by a guest speaker on the first Thursday of every month at the Corpus Christi Public Library.  Notices will keep you informed of activities, genealogical information, microfilm holdings at the library, and more.

Membership is $20.00 a year.  Checks or money order for membership dues should be made payable to: SAGA, P O Box 784, Corpus Christi, TX 78403-0784

May 31 and June 1 The Camels Are Coming to Bandera!
Documentary to be filmed at Privilege Creek

Sent by  
and John Inclan
Contact: Rudi R. Rodriguez at 210.673.3584

(Bandera, Texas) May 19, 2006 – On June 1, 2006, Texas is coordinating the arrival and activities of the Texas Camel Corps and their visit and stay at Polly, Texas. The Polly Texas Pioneers Association will host the camels on the grounds of historic Polly Chapel; their arrival is slated for 1:00pm. The Association will sponsor a dinner for the members of the Camel Corps.                                                         

“We are pleased to support this great commemoration of Bandera History,” says Association Chairman David Herrera. “We are especially honored to know that our ancestor Jose Policarpio ‘Polly’ Rodriguez had a role in this history.” 

Additionally, the Alamo Legacy &Missions Association (ALMA) will provide reenactors portraying Jose Policarpio “Polly” Rodriguez (as an Army Scout) and an Army Patrol from nearby Camp Verde. They will act out the search for camels that have escaped from the Camp and were later found in the Privilege Creek Valley in 1858. 

“I have portrayed Polly for almost 18 years now, but this is a high point in my career to be able to play out this part of Texas History,” says Charles Lara, President of ALMA.

Although Polly was assigned as Head Scout and Guide for 2nd Cavalry at Camp Verde, his memoirs cite the Bedouin camel handlers as being less than enthusiastic and the soldiers as less than willing to deal with the camels. Also, he indicates that the camels were hard to track for they do not have the typical hoof prints of a cow or horse. However, the mission to find the camels ultimately led him to purchase land in the newly explored valley and build a home there. Texas will provide professional filming and photography of the reenactment of the event. 

“We are very pleased to be a part of the overall success of the Texas Camel Corps on the 150th Anniversary of their efforts,” says Texas President Rudi Rodriguez.

Additionally, Texas is involved with the Camel Corps in San Antonio with a reenactment in front of the Alamo on May 31, 2006. The general public is invited to all of the planned activities in both communities. Filming will take place between noon and three.

June 1:             Helotes to Polly's Chapel; Filming alongside Privilege Creek &Chapel from 1:00-3:00pm; Camp at Polly’s Chapel
June 2:             Proclamation from Commissioner's Court; Programs at Bandera Frontier Times Museum, from Noon-1:00pm
June 3: Bandera to Camp Verde General Store, 9:00am-Noon

The Celtic connection to Spanish Texas
Chapter 1
Sent by Joan De Soto

The contribution the Irish and other Celts made to Texas is little known and under appreciated. The purpose of this work is to correct that, to tell you a story deserving to be told, known and appreciated. For those of you with a Celtic heritage, it will give you a sense of pride; for those of you from a different ancestry, it will give you an aspect of Texas history not generally realized, but worth appreciating.


Though there were probably earlier Celts in Texas, unrecorded in history, we do know the first, on record, was an Irishman in Spanish service. He was a military man sent to Texas on a mission. Within months this Irishman was Governor of Texas.

He was born in Dublin in 1734, and christened Hugh O'Connor. The family was from Roscommon in Connacht and participated in uprisings there. Hugh's grandfather, Daniel O'Connor did so and left to serve in the Spanish army in 1650. Thomas O'Connor, Hugh's uncle, served in the French army as a Brigadier General. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Fontenoy and received a promotion to Brigadier General. Hugh's father, Daniel, found it necessary to leave Roscommon for Dublin where Hugh was born. The red haired youth got into trouble of his own after participating in one of the many unsuccessful rebellions against English tyranny in Ireland. He wanted to join the Spanish army. Already in Spanish service were older first cousins, Alexander O'Reilly and his brother Dominick.

Alexander O'Reilly was an officer who had quickly moved up the ranks and was a Captain. His good fortune appeared to run out as he lay gravely wounded in one of the battles of the War of Austrian Succession. As he lay there he noticed an Austrian soldier looting the dead that were all around him. Those that weren't dead but were seriously wounded, the Austrian soldier killed and then looted their bodies. The wounded O'Reilly summoned all his strength when the Austrian came to him and told the soldier he was the son of a Spanish nobleman and the soldier would get a great reward if he were brought to the Austrian Field Marshal. O'Reilly knew the Austrian Field Marshal in command was Irishman Maximillian von Browne. When brought before Browne, O'Reilly greeted him as a fellow Irishman fighting foreign wars for foreign masters, for what gain to Ireland? Field Marshal Browne was impressed with O'Reilly's resourcefulness and had his wounds tended to by by his surgeons. O'Reilly was released back to the Spanish and continued his rise in ranks to that of Lieutenant Colonel. When his sixteen year old cousin, Hugh O'Connnor, was looking to join the Spanish army, O'Reilly obtained an appointment in 1750 for Hugh O'Connor to be commissioned a cadet in the in the Hibernia Regiment.  More information on the website  . . . . 


Texas Adjutant General Service Records 1836-1935
Sent by Joan De Soto

First-time users may wish to begin by reading the Introduction for information about the Adjutant General Service Records documents, and How to Use the Database to find and view documents. If after reviewing this information you still have problems, or to notify us of a error in the database, please send an e-mail to


The Index to Texas Probate Records
Copyright 1999 - 2003  by Rebecca Osborne, Ph.D.    
Sent by Joan De Soto

A W.P.A. project of the 1940's generated indexes for probate records housed in at least 30 Texas counties.  This project brings 11 of those counties together into a single alphabetical listing.  Over 26,000 probate cases are represented in this data.   Update - As of January 2003, organization is underway to add additional counties to this database.   

Almost 300  students  at McNeil High School have helped with data entry and proofreading for information that appears on my web page.    Please take a moment to send a note to the McNeil High School students who have contributed to this Probate Index project.  Your email messages help students understand the importance and impact of community service work. 
All counties are alphabetized into one list. The counties include:  Brown, Bowie, Camp, Chambers, Delta, Guadalupe, Newton, Robertson, Rusk, San Saba and Williamson.  Should you find a name that is of interest to you, please contact the Court House in that particular county for more information.  Addresses and phone numbers are listed at the bottom of this web page.  Unfortunately,  due to my time constraints, I am unable to answer specific requests for information. 

While the surnames are listed alphabetically, first names do not appear alphabetically when "Mrs." is listed before the first name.  A women's name that includes "Mrs." in this index  appears under the "M" section of each surname and not under the woman's first name.  Also, first names do not always appear in alphabetical order because commas, that follow the surname, were occassionally omitted during data entry.
To ensure the high degree of accuracy I like to associate with the data on my web pages, these records still need to be proofed a second time.  However, given that an overwhelming majority of the data is accurate, I believe it is in the best interest of research to put these records online at this time, prior to a second proofreading.  
Bowie County
Bowie County Clerk 
P.O. Box 248 
New Boston, Texas 75570 
Brown County
Brown County Clerk 
200 South Broadway 
Brownwood, Texas 76801 
Camp County
Camp County Clerk 
126 Church Street 
Pittsburg, Texas 75686 
Chambers County
Chambers County Clerk 
County Courthouse 
Anahuac, Texas 77514 
Delta County
Delta County Clerk 
County Courthouse 
P. O. Box 455
Cooper, Texas 75432 
Guadalupe County
Guadalupe County Clerk
County Courthouse 
101 East Court Street
Seguin, Texas 78155
830/303-4188 ext. 237
Newton County
Newton County Courthouse
P. O. Box 484
Newton, Texas 75966 
Robertson County
Robertson County Clerk 
Robertson County Courthouse
P. O. Box 1029
Franklin, Texas 77856 
Rusk County
Rusk County Clerk
115 North Main Street
P. O. Box 758
Henderson, Texas 75653

San Saba County
San Saba County Clerk
County Courthouse
500 East Wallace
San Saba, Texas 76877 

Williamson County
Williamson County Clerk
County Courthouse
Georgetown, Texas 78626 


Americo Paredes Distinguished Lectures l, May 5, 2006.
University of Texas, Austin. 
By: Roberto Calderon 
Source: Elvira Prieto 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

On May 5, 2006 the Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS), College of Liberal Arts, at the University of Texas at Austin celebrated the 35th anniversary of the opening of its center by changing its traditional format (wherein one prominent public figure, artist or scholar was invited to discusss issues within the broad field of Mexican American studies) by inviting more than one public figure, artist or scholar to present the lecture(s) for 2006. 

In years past the Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) has annually sponsored the Americo Paredes Distinguished Lecture to honor the memory of Professor Americo Paredes, the Dean of Mexican American Studies; a distinguished member of the University of Texas at Austin faculty from 1957 to 1999; and, the founder of CMAS. May 5,is the anniversary date of Dr. Paredes' passing seven years ago but also Cinco de Mayo.

In addition to their high academic standing, the scholars selected for the 35th anniversary celebration also shared other distinctive attributes: They are all graduates of PhD programs at the University of Texas at Austin. Moreover, while at the University, they had an affiliation with the mission of the Center for Mexican American Studies and often with CMAS itself. 

From their University graduate education, they have gone on to establish themselves as superior scholars in Mexican American and/or Latino Studies in their respective fields-testimony to the fine graduate programs at the University and to the influence of CMAS.

We were delighted to recognize these accomplished CMAS-affiliated scholars-some members of our own faculty, and to welcome yet others back to the campus. At the end of the lectures, we also screened a new film by Professor Manuel Medrano of the University of Texas, Brownsville on the life of Americo Paredes who, amongst his many other talents, was a master teacher of graduate students.

The program began with an Introduction by José E. Limón, Director; Welcome Remarks by Victoria Rodriguez, Vice Provost and Dean of Graduate Studies. The sessions for that day were as follows: 

Session 1: Social Science, Education and Public Policy

Moderator: Jennifer Najera, University of Texas at Austin (University of California, Riverside)
Maria Cristina Garcia, Cornell University, Comparative Histories
Nestor Rodriguez, University of Houston, Main Campus
Developing a Career in Immigration Research: From Chicano Studies to Global Sociology
Alba Ortiz, University of Texas at Austin, Disabled or DisaEnglish Language Learners with Learning Disabilities: Truly Disbled by the Education System?
Louis Desipio, University of California at Irvine
From the "Decade of the Hispanic" to Selective Latino Political 
Influence:Studying Latino Politics Through the Prism of Two Decades.
Ellen Riojas - Clark, University of Texas at San Antonio
Teacher Identity: An Intersection of Multiple Identities
Manuel Ramirez, University of Texas at Austin
"Pursuing a Career as an Academician and Mental Health Professional:
The Impact of the Chicano Movement."

Session II: History, Cultural Studies and Performance
Moderator: Laura Padilla, University of Texas at Austin
(The Colorado College).

Richard Flores, UT at Austin, From Folklore to Cultural Studies: What's the "Problem"?
Carlos Morton, University of California at Santa Barbara
Return to the Bellybutton of the Universe: Or, Can You Ever "Go Home" Again?
Emilio Zamora, University of Texas at Austin
The Historian as Archivist: A Mexican American Retrospective
Andres Tijerina, Austin Community College
The Mexican American Struggle for A History
Olga Najera-Ramirez, University of California at Santa Cruz
Greater Mexican Folklore: Transnational Culture & Identity
Charles Ramirez - Berg, University of Texas at Austin
The Center for Mexican American Studies: A Personal History of a
Community of Scholars, 1983-2006
Raymund Paredes
Commissioner of Higher EducationTexas Higher Education Coordinating 
Board Latinos in Graduate Education: UT, Texas and Beyond.

Closing Remarks by José E. Limón
Manuel Medrano, University of Texas at Brownsville
Film: Americo Paredes: En Sus Propias Palabras

A reception for the attendees was held after the film. 
For more information please call the Center for Mexican American Studies at 512-471-4557 or visit our web site at


Family on the fringe of the revolution
By Sherry Thomas, Copyright 2000 Houston Chronicle
Sent by Mira Smithwick,
Smiley N. Pool / Chronicle
José Guerra Jr., president of the Hispanic Genealogy Society, has traced some of his ancestors to the 17th century. His relatives include colonels in the Mexican army and fighters for the Mexican revolution.

a Gulf of Mexico wind in June. A raven-haired woman, eight months pregnant, waiting for her husband to return.

Maria Leonor Benavides probably was not worried. It was 1836, and José Julian de la Garza was out tending cattle on their rancho. Even with help, there was much work to be done. Their Mexican Land Grant property on the Rio Nueces stretched for miles across the plains to Odom and then on to Corpus Christi, a winding vista of cattle and creeks in what is now San Patricio County.

This is where Don José Julian would spend his final hours, perhaps thinking of the summer to come and of the kicking niño in his wife's belly.

Or of that bloody night in February when Mexican Gen. José Urrea and his dragoons ambushed a dozen men guarding horses on his land. It was about 3 a.m., and rainy. His brother-in-law, Placido Benavides, had gone ahead to La Bahía to warn the Texans of Urrea's approach. Meanwhile in San Patricio, 16 people were killed and 24 were taken prisoner as Mexican forces marched up the coast to defeat Col. James W. Fannin and his men at Goliad.

It was calmer now. Perhaps too calm. So quiet, perhaps, that he did not see the Comanches approaching on horseback who, according to historical records, would kill him that day on the rancho.

One month later in Victoria, on July 17, 1836, Maria died in childbirth. Alejo de la Garza entered the world an orphan. "In my own search, I wondered what might happen to a baby when both of his parents are dead and you have Anglo families retaliating," said José Oscar Guerra Jr., president of Houston's Hispanic Genealogy Society and de la Garza's great-great-grandson.

"All the people who had cattle and land grants ... , they started taking away their land and killing them."

Guerra has been researching his family's roots for six years, but he still doesn't know exactly how Alejo lived as a child and young adult. Details of his life are speculation, assumptions based on Guerra's scouring of pages of history. But clues continue to fall into place.

Some of Guerra's ancestors -- including many of the original settlers of Victoria -- fled to Louisiana. Others went home to Camargo, Mexico, where de la Garzas had been living since the early 1700s.

Through Texas land records, Guerra knew that de la Garza made it to adulthood, married and became a substantial landholder in present-day Duvall County. But it wasn't until he talked to a Texas historian one day that he uncovered the rest of the story.

"I said, `Do you know anything about Alejo?' "  He finally got his answer: "One of my ancestors, Julian's brother, went to Victoria and brought him back to Camargo, Mexico," Guerra said. "And so he was raised there."

In 1857, de la Garza married Maria Macedonia Palacios. Ten years later, Amado de la Garza was born in Concepción. Amado married Maria Gutierrez Pena in 1889. One year later, Alicia de la Garza was born in Pena. She married Maximo Perez from Concepción. They were Guerra's maternal grandparents.

Guerra's parents, Alicia Irene Perez Guerra and José Oscar Guerra, built a family lumber business in northwest Houston. The younger Guerra runs the company with his father at the helm.

So far, the Guerra family tree reaches back 10 generations. It shows how the name Garzia evolved into Garcia, and that a Clara Guerra was born on his mother's side in 1667.  He knows now that roots don't always branch out. Sometimes they touch; sometimes they come around again.

Genealogist's stories add texture to American heritage By SHERRY THOMAS Copyright 2000 Houston Chronicle.  "People will not look forward to posterity who never look backward to their ancestors." -- Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)

They are the forgotten ones. Grandparents and aunts and great-great-uncles. Distant cousins from distant lands. Immigrants, soldiers and entrepreneurs. Farmers and laborers, housewives and mothers.

People like the ones profiled on these pages. People who lived, worked and struggled through some of this country's most difficult and triumphant times and then vanished without a trace. Memories lost; stories left untold.

People such as Eleanor Caldwell's great-grandmother, Sarah Hardy, born into slavery on the Alabama rice farm where she would later raise a family with the white son of the plantation owner.

Or Bobby Joe Moon's ancestors, the Joe brothers from China, who built businesses from nothing in the Mississippi Delta. Or Alejo de la Garza, one of 10 generations of ancestors researched by Jose Oscar Guerra Jr. Orphaned during the Texas War of Independence, Alejo was rescued by relatives to Mexico in 1836 -- only to return to Texas in the 1850s and buy 18,000 ranching acres.

Genealogy is more than a sentimental journey. It is an expedition through the dates and events of American history and the stories of ordinary people who lived through extraordinary times. Together, family tree by family tree, genealogists are rewriting history.

Eric Walther, an associate professor of history at the University of Houston and the founder of the Texas Slavery Project, an initiative to document every slave in Texas, said genealogy teaches us not only that every human being is important, but also that every human being has a story worth telling.

Some might call it revisionism. Yet look at what's missing from history books. Women. People of color. The working classes, and the poor.

Will historians fill these gaps? Or will it take thousands of steadfast genealogists, digging into old family records, to write the untold stories of this country's past? "For decades, there's been a field within history called social history, and within the last several decades, it's been called new social history -- basically an approach to history from the bottom up," Walther said. "But genealogists have been looking at the lives of ordinary people long before historians focused their efforts on them."

Guerra, a Houston genealogy buff, has made important connections between his family and the Texas War of Independence. "My mother always told me one of her ancestors was Placido Benavides, a character who is written about in early Texas history from 1836," said Guerra, president of the Houston Hispanic Genealogy Society and vice president of the family lumber business, Olsen-Guerra. But even Guerra was surprised by the tales he discovered. Easily enough, he found Placido -- a brother, he believes, to his great-great-great-grandmother, Maria Leonor Benavides. But Guerra wanted more. He kept reading, kept digging, and learned that his long-lost "uncle" Placido, a wealthy founding father of Victoria, chose his allies wisely.

"He was a Mexican when it was convenient," said Guerra, amused by his ancestor's political savvy, "and he was a Texan when it was convenient." In February 1836, in one battle of the Texas War of Independence, Benavides was a Texan. "He was kind of the Paul Revere of Texas," Guerra said.

Fighting under the command of Dr. James M. Grant, Benavides escaped butchery by Mexican forces near Matamoros and was sent ahead to warn Col. James W. Fannin of the approach of Mexican Gen. Jose Urrea. "You hear of early historical figures, and you hear about them in school, because Texas children have to take Texas history. Then you come to realize that your ancestors were there during all these important skirmishes and were actually heroes, possibly, to both sides," Guerra said.

Uncovering family history, however, can be more bitter than sweet. For African-Americans, it is almost always linked to slavery, a chapter of American history that many would like to forget.

"Seems like all the men in the family had to leave Alabama because of a confrontation with Caucasian people," said Eleanor Caldwell, president and founder of the African-American Genealogy Society of Houston. Caldwell's family history illustrates the triumphs and tragedies of a nation's struggle toward freedom and equality. Her great-grandmother, Hardy, was born a slave in 1865. Her great-grandfather, William Henry Holmes, was the son of the white plantation owner. They defied society by living together and raising their six children.

But life would not be easy for the generations to come. Bill Holmes, Caldwell said, sent his sons away from Alabama, to points farther north, to escape racial tensions in rural Lowndes County. "He had to get them out of there so they wouldn't get killed or hung or in any kind of trouble," said Caldwell, who got out of Alabama as well. In 1955, she received a business degree from Xavier University in New Orleans, and never returned.

Allen Grundy, former academic adviser at Texas Southern University and the founder of a genealogy project there, said it's more important than ever to pass this kind of unwritten African-American history down to the next generation. In the TSU project, Grundy used genealogy as a hands-on approach to history. "If you don't know where you come from, and if it shows its head again, whether it's slavery or racism, you won't be able to recognize it," said Grundy, vice president of a nonprofit organization called Talking Back Living History In the old days, Grundy said, grandparents and great-grandparents passed stories down. But with today's families so scattered, many children aren't exposed to their history.

"We read biographies and bibliographies of really famous people, but basically it's just nice to know your own family history, too," said Manuel Flores, a founding member of Houston's Hispanic Genealogy Society." For as much as roots separate and divide, they also link families with an impenetrable bond. "Genealogy is not about digging up the past. It's about finding present relatives," said Marje Harris, executive director of the Clayton Library for Genealogical Research, a division of the Houston Public Library system. "Those people -- your ancestors -- they all had a part in who you are right now. So it's not just the research. Genealogy is finding out about yourself."

Such was the case with Moon, whose quest was less about names than about places. Moon, manager of auditing for Metro, already had a family tree going back 10 generations -- a rumpled facsimile copy of faded script and Chinese writing. For 17 years he carried it around. He figures now it was his destiny to return to his father's homeland. "I'm a miracle, right?" said Moon, the son of Chinese immigrant J.G. Moon. "The fact that my father got his family out in 1939?" He never thought much about his father's decisions, the chronology of his family's emigration. In recent months, Moon's journey into his family history and a May trip to China has deepened his appreciation for the sacrifices his father made for his children. "My father saw World War II coming," packed up his family in 1939 and brought them from South China to Cleveland, Miss., Moon said. "He knew it was time to go."

The first step in any genealogy search is to tap the living -- before you go digging up the dead. "When you're looking for people, what do you look for?" said Harris. "Flesh and blood." Talk to your grandparents, your parents -- even older aunts and uncles. Ask detailed questions, and write down everything. And then there's statistical averaging. Say your mother was born in 1939, and you know her mother was about 20 when she had her, you can safely deduce that your grandmother was born around 1919. Harris said this kind of educated guesswork can point you in the right direction.

"My father was a wealth of information because he was always interested in his ancestors," Guerra said. "He told me his father's name was Jose, and his father's name was Jose "The only problem in Hispanic genealogy is, Jose and Maria are almost like prefixes. Because people are named Jose Juan Guerra or Maria (so-and-so) Guerra." Understanding names and their order is just one of the challenges of Hispanic genealogy. The good news is, many Texans of Latino heritage don't have to go far to find their heritage. Many were born here, as were their parents, and their parents, and so on.

Keep in mind that names may have been changed over the years. Like European immigrants whose names were altered when they passed through Ellis Island, other ethnic groups took on new identities for a variety of reasons. Moon's father, for example, entered this country as a "paper son," on purchased identity papers. Luckily, Moon knew the story.

Flores, however, had no idea his father had changed his name. "His brother worked for the railroad and got into an argument with a foreman," said Flores, whose father was born in Mexico as Alfredo Pescina. "So my uncle says, `When you go to work for the railroad, don't tell him you're a Pescina.' So he told him he was Flores." And so the stories emerge. Like pieces of a puzzle, they fall together, providing a more complete picture of the American past than we've ever seen before. Walther said he hopes the recent unprecedented interest in genealogy, combined with access to records through the Internet, will spawn a partnership between historians and genealogists.

The mission: to tell the whole story. Guerra believes it might already be happening. "During the War of 1812, when Andrew Jackson was fighting the English, Mexican rancheros were supplying horses and beef to the American side," he said. "Now, the important Daughters of the American Revolution are awarding membership to the ancestors of these families. It wasn't recognized before, but they're realizing now what important parts these people played."

So much to be learned from the past, especially if they are part of our roots makes it especially interesting.  Remember I said   "Ours"



Spanish trails in Victoria County, Texas.

Robert Shook wrote: Just found your web site and thought this might be of interest to you and your readers:  Sent by Granville Hough, Ph.D.
During the last several years I have been engaged in researching the Spanish trails in Victoria County, Texas. That chore turned up an interesting fact or two about one Juan de la Garza. That name was found among the soldiers serving at Presidio La Bahia in 1724 on Garcitas Creek when Governor Almazan conducted an investigation of the Karankawa "uprising" there. Juan, hoping this is in fact the same man, shows up later--in 1749--at Presidio La Bahia on the San Antonio River.

 These facts were determined by comparing troop complements. If Juan de la Garza in each list is one and the same person, it means that he served what would be called today a full enlistment--27 
years. Though that seems a bit long, it is not impossible.  During the restoration of Presidio La Bahia by Mrs. Kate O'Connor of this city it was pointed out that some of the workers employed 
descended from soldiers who had served at the presidio. A check of the payrolls has not been conducted. Those records were transferred to Goliad from Victoria about three years ago. I did inventory work in those records before the transfer, but was not then engaged in the trail study. Should you find some one interested in this topic I would be happy to answer their e-mail, and yours of course. The de la Garza family played a major role in the history of Victoria County. I have informed a few folks here of Juan's service, but your connections might also be useful. Thank you and congratulations on your fine work. Robert W. Shook, Ph.D., Consultant, Victoria County Heritage Dept.Please note that I have changed my email address to In our work on Texas, we were just trying to designate those who were soldiers or militiamen during the 1779-1783 period. This would enable any male descendant to join the Sons of the American Revolution. We think we found just about all the soldiers, but we never got access to the militia rosters, when neighborhoods were called out for duty against the Indians during different raids during that time. Our solution was to list all those we could find between ages 16 to 60. Most probably did serve in one capacity or another during the period. It works down to this for any descendant of Tejanos who were there during the war: if a descendant is willing to spend enough time in the archives, that descendant can find the proof they need for one or more ancestors, and they can join the SAR.. There were so few of them for the land they held that they all had to fight to hold it.

This exchange may be of interest to Mimi Lozano, who is editor of /Somos Primos /and I will forward it to her if you do not mind. Thank you for your interest and comments. Juan de la Garza's early service may account for the fact that there so many Garza names rather than Garcia in early Tejas. Granville W. Hough


Donaldsonville Celebrating 200 Years of Culture and History, 1806-2006
Old Families of Louisiana


The city of Donaldsonville celebrated its 200th birthday on April 28-30, 2006.  the Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana had a table in the Heritage Tent telling people about the Canary Islanders who settled just south of Donaldsonville along Bayou Lafourche.  Mr. John Hickey, Vice-President presented a short program on the story of the Canary Islanders  and how they came to be in South Louisiana.

The cake was a replica of the State Capitol building used when Donaldsonville served as the state capital of Louisiana from 1830-1831.

Sent by Bill Carmena

Old Families of Louisiana by Arthur de Kernion is back in print. Item number #502-9586Available from AncestorStuff, price is $35.55.  Contact them at: or write:, Inc., 488 Landers Loop, Dover, AR 72837 contact 



July 4th Washington, D.C. Parade
June 2006 National Archives Public Programs 
Literature of Latino/a Experience and Relevance in  the English Classroom
Immigration Rally in Chapel Hill and Carrboro

July 4th Washington, D.C. Parade

Would you like to march in the July 4th parade representing the Hispanic presence in the American Revolution, contact the Texas Connection to the American Revolution.

 TCARA has four General Membership Meetings a year and 12 monthly Business Meetings. The General Meetings are event type meeting like a brunch or picnic while the Business Meetings deal with the planning of TCARA activities including participating in events such as parades and public and private events sponsored by other organizations.    

TCARA participates in at least two major parades each year. The Washington's Birthday Parade in Laredo (largest in the country) in February and the Independence Day Parade in Washington, D.C. on July 4th. We have a small float and dress in "period costumes" and meet for dinner the night before and usually for lunch after. Please consider going to our Nation's Capital this July 4th and participating with us in this exciting parade.    

TCARA is only two years old and although it has been spotlighted in several newspapers and has received National attention, there is much TCARA wishes to accomplish. Your ideas and help are more than appreciated and I hope you will take an active roll in formulating TCARA's future.    Again, thank you for joining TCARA and please visit our website at 
If you have any questions, please give me a jingle. 

Jack Cowan, President
210-651-4709    P O Box 690696    San Antonio, TX 78269


June 2006 National Archives Public Programs 
National Archives Experience
700 Constitution Ave. NW
, Washington, DC 20408

All programs are free and open to the public. Seating at most programs is on a first-come, first-served basis. Reservations are only required where noted.

Visitors should use the Special Event entrance on Constitution Ave. NW near the corner of 7th St. Doors open 30 minutes before the start of each program.

The nearest Metro station is Archives-Navy Memorial-Penn Quarter, which is serviced by the Yellow and Green Lines.

If an accommodation is needed (e.g., sign language interpreter) for a public program please email or call 202-357-5000 at least two weeks prior to the event to ensure proper arrangements are secured.

Lecture and Screening: Friday, June 9, at 7 p.m. 
William G. McGowan Theater.
The Newsreel: The Eyes and Ears of the World 

In partnership with the Newseum, The Charles Guggenheim Center for the Documentary Film at the National Archives presents a discussion and newsreel screening exploring the legacy of the American newsreel. Participating in the discussion will be Raymond Fielding, Dean Emeritus at Florida State University and author of The American Newsreel: 1911–1967, and Les Waffen, Chief, Motion Picture, Sound & Video Branch of the National Archives Special Media Archives Services Division. Rich Foster, Newseum Programs Director, will moderate. Newsreel selections from the holdings of the National Archives will be also be shown during the program.

Author Lecture: Wednesday, June 14, at noon
Jefferson Room
Flag: An American Biography
with Marc Leepson

The 13-stripe, 50-star flag is as familiar an American icon as any in the nation’s history. It stirs pride and patriotism in the hearts of Americans; it is truly an American original. Yet the history of the American flag is cloaked in myth and misinformation. Marc Leepson, journalist, historian, and author of Flag: An American Biography, clarifies that history, presenting a lively, comprehensive, illuminating look at the story of the American flag from its beginnings to today.

Lecture: Monday, June 19, 9 a.m.–11 a.m.
William G. McGowan Theater
President Ford’s Washington and the World

The National Archives hosts a tribute to President Gerald R. Ford featuring presentations by distinguished Americans including Henry Kissinger, 56th U.S. Secretary of State (1973–1977), and David Gergen, political commentator, best-selling author of Eyewitness to Power, and adviser to presidents for more than 30 years. Historian, biographer, and nationally recognized authority on the American Presidency Richard Norton Smith will moderate. These and other eyewitnesses to history will discuss the national and global impact of the Ford administration at a critical time in American history. Reservations required.

Film Screenings: Wednesday, June 21, at 7 p.m.
William G. McGowan Theater 
The Statue of Liberty
and The Making of Liberty

In partnership with SILVERDOCS: AFI/Discovery Channel Documentary Film Festival, The Charles Guggenheim Center for the Documentary Film at the National Archives presents Martin Scorsese’s Lady by the Sea: The Statue of Liberty. (2004; 55 minutes)

Scorsese was the honoree at this year’s SILVERDOCS Charles Guggenheim Symposium. In connection with that event, Charles Guggenheim’s The Making of Liberty, made for the 1986 centennial celebration, will be screened tonight at the National Archives. (1986, 58 minutes). A videotaped welcome by Martin Scorsese especially made for this event will be shown at the beginning of tonight’s program.

Lecture and Film Screening: Friday, June 23, at noon
William G. McGowan Theater
Eyewitness to War: The Combat Cameraman

The Charles Guggenheim Center for the Documentary Film at the National Archives welcomes Norman Hatch, a combat cameraman in the 2nd Marine Division during the Second World War, who will introduce and discuss With the Marines at Tarawa (1944; 18 minutes) and To the Shores of Iwo Jima (1945; 20 minutes). These two color films feature footage Hatch shot while standing side-by-side with his combat counterparts.

Family Film: Saturday, June 24, at noon
William G. McGowan Theater
Mark Twain Tonight! ®

The National Archives presents a special screening of the landmark television event Mark Twain Tonight!
® In this classic portrayal of Mark Twain, Hal Holbrook captures the flamboyant humor and irreverence of the celebrated American writer. Most startling is the freshness of Twain’s stinging eyewitness commentary on politics, deception, religion, patriotism, and slavery. Holbrook’s performance allows us to see into the heart and soul of the great humorist at 70. (1967, 90 minutes)

Lecture: Wednesday, June 28, at noon
William G. McGowan Theater 
America and the Return of Nazi Contraband 

Michael J. Kurtz, Assistant Archivist for Records Services at the National Archives, will discuss the topic "America and the Return of Nazi Contraband: The Recovery of Europe’s Cultural Treasures." In the ruins of Hitler’s Third Reich, Allied occupiers found millions of paintings, books, manuscripts, and pieces of sculpture hidden in thousands of secret hideaways. Kurtz’s lecture will explore how the American Military Government in Germany, spearheaded by a few dozen dedicated Fine Arts, Monuments, and Archives officers and enlisted men, coped with restoring Europe’s cultural heritage. Caught up in often bitter diplomatic wrangling during and after the war, the Americans struggled to unearth and return what the Nazis had hidden.

Business Contact: Alli Jessing 202-357-5061
Public Contact: 202-357-5000


The Literature of the Latino/a Experience and its Relevance in  the English Classroom

Colleagues, The following excerpt is an abstract of a hands-on conference/workshop which includes video interviews, copies of my textbook and strategies and ideas on how to use and integrate 
Latino/a Literature in the English Classroom. This workshop is not only open to teachers but to counselors, principals, social workers, politicians, parents and all those interested in the education of our children.

I am coordinating a three-week stay this June and July in the NYC area, and I am interested in visiting your school, community center and even your church. Feel free to share the news and call me if you are interested. Manny Hernandez, 787-556-2956

Abstract: The Literature of the Latino/a Experience and its Relevance in the English Classroom
by Manuel Hernandez

An alternative to the teaching of literature is the integration of the literature of the Latino/a experience in the English curriculum. The study of literature is the only real academic situation in which students have to explore issues that are relevant to their interests. Latino/a literature combines the language, 
history and the cultural _expression of the Latino/a experience that allows students to examine these themes and make language their own by making personal connections with their lives and background information. The characters in the story, settings, conflicts and the poetic language all express the experiences of the recently arrived, and even portray universal situations that all American teens go through. Themes include education, identity, varied approaches to race, self-acceptance, self-esteem, peer-pressure, family, domestic violence, sex, mother-son-daughter; father-son-daughter relationships, just to mention a few. 

Effectively used and integrated, Latino/a literature may improve academic outcomes and provide the preparation needed for students to enhance their scores on city, national and state testing 
requirements.Although Latinos have been migrating to the United States since the middle of the 19th century, it is not until the publication of Down These Mean Streets by Piri Thomas in in 1967 that 
their presence with a literary awakening became evident. Two scholars in the area (Noyce and Christie, 1989) state that the mind assimilates information to explain the missing link between skills 
and reading/writing. 

The new Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) now has three sections: reading, writing and math. The changes will provoke spontaneous and widespread curriculum changes in the United States that will without a doubt affect the education of Latinos and other American teens as well. Therefore it is up to teachers to include additional instruction and educational materials to help students fill in those missing links. 

The literature of the Latino/a experience is not only relevant but also essential in the English classroom. I recommend that the literature be used to supplement classical literature in the English 
curriculum in the United States, especially in cities and school districts with large Latino school populations (The Bronx, Orlando, Miami, Los Angeles, etc.). Over the last twenty years, stories, 
poems, novels and plays written by Latino/a writers have become overwhelmingly popular not just in schools and colleges in the United States, but throughout the world. It is time to integrate Latino/a 
writings to those reading lists in high schools. Secondly, I suggest that the SAT's should also include at least one or two writings (Latino/a authors) from the reading lists in the exams. If students 
read them, why not test them on the subject. Finally, I strongly recommend that educators receive the necessary training to integrate Latino/a literature in the English Classroom. 

Immigration Rally in Chapel Hill and Carrboro
The News&Observer,

CHAPEL HILL -- Juan Rivera sat on a stack of plywood outside University United Methodist Church today as a small group rallied for immigration reform down the street. The 23-year-old construction worker from Puebla, Mexico, was supporting the national worker and student boycott by not paying bills or buying gasoline, he said.  But he had to work.
“Necesito, por dinero,” he said. [I need to, for money.]

Several Chapel Hill and Carrboro businesses closed today. Some, like the Lantern restaurant on West Franklin Street, posted signs explaining they were shutting down to support their immigrant workers. At Carrboro Elementary School, where one in five students in Hispanic, Principal Ibis Núñez said a number of students had excused absences because their parents were taking them to rallies.

“It’s the same as taking a child to watch a court proceeding or some other special activity,” she said. “They’re excused because it is an educational experience.”  

On Franklin Street, minister Maria Palmer said she supported a guest worker program and denounced a House bill that would make illegal immigrants felons.  Palmer, a native of Peru, held a cardboard sign quoting Solomon: “When foreigners pray, may you hear from heaven and do whatever foreigners ask of you,” (II Chronicles 6:32).

“In his wisdom he knew that if foreigners prospered, the whole community is blessed,” said Palmer, a former member of the state Board of Education. “If we don’t realize that in America we’re confused.”

About eight people stood chanting before a crowd of about 30 UNC-Chapel Hill students joined them from across the street. The group marched down Franklin Street, taking up a lane of traffic, then back. A truck driver leaned on his horn and gave the group the thumbs down. Several drivers honked to support the marchers.

Joseph Puentes, a postal worker from Rougemont, said he came to Chapel Hill hoping to find a rally. The 52-year-old’s grandparents immigrated from Jalisco and Chihuahua, Mexico, in 1911, he said.  “People tend not to take a position,” he said holding a small American flag. “I just want to bring the subject up and in a small way make them have to choose.”

At the church, where workers are replacing the slate roof, Rivera said he has been back to Puebla just once in the past three years. He can make $90 a day here, six times what he made in Mexico, he said. He and his brother live in Durham, and he sends about $200 home to his parents each month.

But he said he did not feel he had a choice when he came here. “No por gusto, por necesidad,” he said. [Not for pleasure, out of necessity.] to this article.




Book: Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla by José M. Péna
"El Capitan "  Don Jose Vasquez Borrego by
Anita Rivas Medellin
The Family Tree on the Museum Wall by Ted Vincent
S: Libro: Dos Coahuilense en la Historia de la Patria
S: Libro: Capilla de la Hacienda Santa Ana de los Hornos
S: Datos de Tabasco
S: Confrencia Binacional 
S: En el Valle de Tlaltenango por Arturo Ramos
The Descendents of Don Andres de Morales y de la Fuentes
S: Registros en la Catedral de Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico
S: En los Albores de la Independencia 



By José M. Peña

This article represents a brief summary of my book with the same name. The book started as a simple genealogy study. The author merely wanted to know his roots and names of the principal "abuelos" and "abuelas" (forefathers). However, the focus of the study began to change after the author walked the streets of what remains of Villa del Señor San Ignacio de Loyola de Revilla (now known as "Guerrero Viejo"). Although this was once a beautiful city, only rubble, jumbled walls, weeds, and the sturdiest of buildings are now found. Yet, those skeletal remains provide a ghostly and somber reminder of eras that have long gone by, of huge personal sacrifices that are no longer remembered, and of ways of life that beg not to be forgotten.

It was the ambience of this old city that begged the author to go beyond his original scope of the research. In fact, there has been a great deal of focus on the genealogical aspects of families that originated in Revilla or Guerrero Viejo. However, the historical contribution of those pioneers and the controversy related to the land grants -- awarded by the King of Spain -- has, for the most part, remained in the background.

This, then, is the principal objective of this book. It is a historical perspective covering 250 years with emphasis on one of the first settlements in the northern part of modern day Mexico. Originally called Villa del Señor San Ignacio de Loyola de Revilla, the name was later changed to Ciudad Guerrero. Chapter 1 (of the book) is shortened for this presentation.

"Revilla" and the Village of San Agustin de Laredo were in a festive mood those days of August 1767. The settlers had been awarded parcels of land, called "Porciones," by the King of Spain, and this was the day that they would finally participate in a ceremony that gave them final possession of their property.

This was indeed a joyous time in the history of the conquest of New Spain or Mexico as it is now known. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, 250 years before, the territory had gone through a 30,000-year evolution that had seen it inhabited by many great indigenous civilizations (Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, Toltec, Mixtec, and the Mexica orAztecs). These eventful periods had lasted until the Spanish Conquistador, Don Hernando Cortes, anchored his 11 ships and 500 men at what is now the Port of Veracruz in 1519. Once there, he burned or sank the ships to signify that there would be no return. It would be either victory or death. With the help of Indians from Tabasco and the belief by the Mexica (Aztecs) that a descendent of the long awaited God (Quetzlcoatl) had arrived, the Spanish had marched into Tenochtitlan, modern-day Mexico City. Through an Indian translator ("La Malinche"), Cortes and Moctezuma, the Mexica Emperor, were able to dialogue for a time.  Just about that point also, the Mexica Indians began to fall sick and to experience, for the first time in their lives, the scourge of diseases (Smallpox and others) brought by the conquerors to the new world. Having no immunity to these diseases, huge numbers of Indians began to die.

Moctezuma was slow to realize that the Spaniards were mortal enemies who could not be trusted. His people revolted and battles between Indians and Spaniards erupted. Moctezuma and his son were immediately captured. When Moctezuma tried to stop the battles, he was struck by a stone and mortally wounded. He agonized for three days and died. After Moctezuma's death, Cuauhtemoc took his place. He, too, was captured in 1521 and hanged in 1525. While captive, he made a prophecy that the conquerors would suffer immensely in the new country. The first part of the conquest of Mexico had ended. The expansion and colonization of new parts of Mexico would begin.

Time had gone by and the Spaniards had continued to explore and expand their conquest towards the north of New Spain or "El Seno Mexicano." As the relentless march towards the north continued, numerous contacts with other "aboriginal" Indian nations were encountered. By then, 63 Indian nations would be identified -- some friendly, others hostile. With the encroachment from the northern part of the continent -- by the French, the English, displaced Indians, and pirates –the king of Spain was under pressure to colonize the new land. In mid 1700, Don José de Escandon, a person with many titles, was authorized to settle different villages along three rivers, one now known as the Rio Grande.

To provide incentives for people to move to the new villages, the new settlers were promised land-grants and were to be free from taxation for 10 years. José de Escandon was successful in finding settlers for 23 different villages, among them were: Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana de Camargo (established in 1749), Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Reynosa, Guemes, Santo Domingo de Hoyos y Real de Borbon, Aguayo, Llera, Escandon, San Juan Bautista de Horcasitas, Altamira, San Antonio de Padilla, Santander, Santillana, Soto la Marina, San Fernando, Hacienda de Dolores, Burgos, San Lorenzo del Jaumave, Santa Barbara, Palmillas, Infantes, Roma, Mier, San Ygnacio, Dolores and Villa del Señor San Ignacio de Loyola de Revilla.

In October 15, 1750, a total of 40 "families" consisting of about 200 people had settled in the Villa del Señor San Ignacio de Loyola de Revilla -- simply called "Revilla" from now on -- and 4 families settled in the Village of San Agustin de Laredo -- or "Laredo" -- in 1755.

Some of the author's forefathers graced the pages of history both during the early periods and at the time that Revilla was settled. They included Captain Francisco de Elizondo and his son General Pedro de Elizondo who negotiated or fought with the Indians. They also included some of the original settlers of Revilla, like Vicente Garcia, Maria Josefa Gertrudis de Elizondo (his wife and 10 children); Capt. Cristobal Benavides and Margarita Ochoa (his wife and six children); Bartolome de Lizarraras y Cuellar and Maria Gregoria Martinez (his wife and 9 children); Pedro Vela and Maria Gertrudis de Lizarraras y Cuellar (his wife and 10 children); Joseph Francisco Garcia and Maria Maxima Treviño (wife and 7 children); Francisco Xavier Peña, Maria Antonieta Ñaga (his wife), Joseph de Jesus Peña (their son) and five other children.

By this August 1767 day, the town, the Ejidos, and the Porciones had already been measured using an antiquated measuring system -- Cordeles, Varas, Leguas, Caballerias, Sitios de Ganado Menor y Mayor, etc). And, because of the aridity of the land in the settlements -- and especially in Revilla and Laredo -- all Porciones were huge (5,300 to 7,700 acres) and designed to have an access to the several rivers; they were, to be more precise, strange rectangular tracts of land -- narrow in width and elongated in length.

The following 10 ancestors took possession of the Porciones in 1767 or 1784:


Porcion No.

Poss. No.


No of Acres


Capt. Cristobal Benavides






Capt. Cristobal Benavides






Juan José Benavides



Revilla/ South



Pedro Vela



Revilla/ Zapata



Joachin Liz. Y Cuellar



Revilla/. Zapata



Bartolomé Liz. Y Cuellar






Vicente Garcia






Nicolas Martinez






Francisco Xavier Peña






Jose de Jesus Peña






Francisco Garcia






As each grantee got to his land tract, the "judge" or "commissioner" -- who represented the king -- and the grantee-to-be, would go through what must have been then an intensely emotional ceremony. Typically:

The commissioner would identify the Porcion, its location, and the landowner. He would identify the witnesses (family, neighbors, etc). He would call out and ask if there were any objections to the possession of the land.

Getting the desired responses, the commissioner would then take the respective recipient by the hand and "…in the name of His Majesty (may God guard him)…" and,

Go around with the new owner on a corresponding circle. The new owner would pick up (dust) and stones and throw them to the four winds. He then plucked weeds and herbs, got water, and irrigated the earth, opened and shut the door of the house, and performed other demonstration in proof of delivery until he was well satisfied. The new owner would then obligate himself to erect permanent land marks, and to preserve in the cultivation and settlement of said land as much as he possibly could avoiding all discords and enemies. The judge would cite that this was all done in due form of law, and name the persons who had witnessed the execution of the ceremony.

Afterwards, the judge would write up the ceremony and the land belonged to the new owner.

And so it was that the ceremony for the ten ancestors – and the other settlers -- took place. It is interesting to note that although seven different sizes were provided, the original settlers got the smaller porciones. Nevertheless, there were 68 such grants given in Revilla and a total of 438 land grants were awarded in all villages. The book names the people, the names of the ranches, and other details of the Revilla village..

The symbolism of throwing dust and stones to the four winds cannot be over-emphasized. At that time, the actions were for a happy occasion -- the pioneers were being rewarded for their valor and the hard earned efforts in opening these new lands.

These people -- men, women, and children -- were truly exceptional. They explored, opened areas, and settled lands during a time when Mexico was not yet a nation, the Constitution of the United States had not yet been conceived, the United States had not yet declared its independence, and Texas was not yet a separate state. These were, indeed, dangerous times. These pioneers richly deserve to be recognized and given their rightful place in the history of two great nations.

Thus, these pioneers would now be able to leave property in the new lands to their rightful heirs. At that time, however, there was no way for the settlers to have known or to have predicted then the terrible turmoil that would befall the country, the land grants, and their heirs in the next 250 years:

The book summarizes and, in the 23 chapters, describes the series of events that took place during the next 250 years, including: (a) a revolution in 1821 when Mexico became independent; (b) a change in the name of the village; (c) friendly Indian overtures and uprisings; (d) an 1836 insurrection when Texas seceded from Mexico; (e) the constant political turmoil, and changes in leadership (emperors, presidents, dictators, etc), of Mexico that resulted in instability of the country and its people; (f) a French occupation of Mexico that was overthrown by the courageous Mexican population; (g) the U.S. and Mexican war which resulted in the loss of a great deal of Mexican territory; (h) the signing of several peace treaties, including the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Protocol of Queretaro; (i) confiscations of lands on both side of the border; (j) the appointment of the Bourland Miller Commission in Texas to try to sort out the land grant problems, but mistakes would be made; (k) losses of essential ownership documents when a ship sank (or was sunk); (l) frequent and obvious violations of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; (m) the 1910 Mexican Revolution that was extremely violent; (n) a 1923 and a 1941 Treaty involving financial disputes between the two countries; (o) these exchange of debts included a $193.0 million (plus interest) debt owed by the U.S. to heirs of the Spanish and Mexican land-grants whose lands were confiscated or stolen; (p) the heirs would form an Associacion de Reclamantes, which still exist, and sue Mexico in the U.S. Courts; (q) the U.S. Courts would dismiss the case (on the $193.0 million) and the rulings are most disturbing; and, (r) the Falcon Damn would be built destroying old Revilla or Guerrero Viejo and affecting most land grants.

Perhaps Cuauhtemoc's prophecies continue to come true, maybe not. More likely, the forces of history and human nature were just meant to be that way.

What is certain is that Mexico has had a most violent history and its different phases are marked by political turmoil, internecine fighting, frequent leadership changes, constitutional changes, peasant uprisings, labor unrest, corruption, treachery, looting, murders, assassinations, executions, anarchy, banditry, country-wide insecurity, international intrigues and interventions, population displacement, and a great loss of life. Even today, Mexico has extremely difficult political, economic, social and human rights problems that do not augur well for the future.

Given this unfortunate history, Mexico probably never meant to completely abide by the (1923 and 1941) Treaties. It used the Treaties when it was to its advantage; however, it chose to disregard some of their terms when it came to its debts. In fact, with all its endemic financial and corruption problems, Mexico has refused to honor its $193.0 million debt (plus interest) or to seek ways to compensate the heirs. A more ominous portent for any possible settlement is that when the debts were owed by the U.S., those debts were supported by existing real estate properties. However, when the debts between the countries were exchanged, there was -- according to the ruling of the U.S. Court of Appeal – a transformation. As a result, the U.S. is no longer the debtor and the debts are no longer supported by real estate; over the past 65 years, the $193 million (plus interest) has only been supported by a document – albeit, an international agreement – that Mexico has not honored. In other words, Mexico's financial obligations, to the heirs, are now placed beyond any practical legal recourse that the heirs could pursue against the U.S. Since Mexico refuses to pay, it merely continues to play a very effective game of waiting the heirs out.

On the other hand, the United States -- with its "manifest destiny" and expansionist philosophy that prevailed in the 1840's -- was probably a silent partner to the many land grabbing incursions that took place before the Mexican-American war. It later presaged the stage for violating the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo when it rejected the incorporation of Article X to the agreement and did not disclose the Protocol of Queretaro to the U.S. Senate. Article X gave Mexican land grants equal protection as if they had remained within the territory of Mexico. Afterwards, the U.S. sanctioned losses of land grants through a tapestry of court rulings and several other means.

In any event, many land grants, in both countries, have been lost in different ways. Land was summarily confiscated and misappropriated as a result of constitutional provisions, policies, and laws. Land was abandoned because of civil disorders, civil wars, and/or Indian unrest. Land was fraudulently sold or transferred. Land was seized as a result of erroneous measurement, for non-payment of taxes and/or usurious legal fees. Land was also lost because they had not been recorded in time or based on arbitrary court rulings. And, when the Falcon Dam was built, it inundated ancient Guerrero and many land-grants.

And so, as of this writing, the original land grants have dissipated – just like the dust thrown to the four winds -- and we -- the heirs to the original settlers (now also part of the problem due to our population exponential multiplication) -- seem destined to "inherit the dust and stones thrown to the four winds (of Revilla)."

As the reader might have deduced, the above summary serves as a working outline for the remainder of the book. Although this book is not meant to be a complete chronology of genealogical or historical events, it is rich in period analysis and the reader's expectation can be to find a brief picture of historical events that touched the lives of the author's forefathers and peers during the past 250 years. Here is where the book can be obtained:

  1. Book Title: Inherit the Dust From the Four Winds of Revilla
  2. Author: José M. Peña
  3. The book is to be published in May or June the Xlibris Corporation; it will be available at, (Tell 1-888-795-4274),, Barnes and Noble, Castillo and Co, (Tel 512-658-7057), and Borderlands Bookstore, (Tel. 210-646-7935).


My 7th Great Grandfather

"El Capitan "  Don Jose Vasquez Borrego

Written by Anita Rivas Medellin


The Latifundio of Los Vasquez Borrego began with my 7th great grandfather, El Capitan Jose Vasquez Borrego. Don Jose is described as being an adventurous and enterprising man- who amassed a great portion of Northern Mexico and what we know today as South Texas. His Many Haciendas/Ranchos that spanned four of the Northern Mexican states were: San Juan de Casta, Las Encinas, El Borrego, Las Sardinas, Hacienda San Juan del Alamo, San Ygnacio, Corralitos, Hacienda del Rosario and Nuestra Senora de los Dolores.

It is said that *Don Jose was a man of strong character; some might even use the phrase- of a harsh character. It is known to many of his descendents that he had been a political genius. It is also known that he was a grand manipulator who controlled his family, with the use of his purse strings. However his control over his descendents would be the main cause of the destruction within our family, and its salvation.

Through his lineage there were four Acaldes and three Governors - Don Jose Fernando Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego (1777-1778), Don Jose Maria Margil Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego (1814), Atanacio L. Vidaurri (1895) and Atanacio C. Vidaurri (1899). Acaldes of Laredo, TX. Don Juan Jose Vidaurri y Villasenor (1832-33), Don Francisco Vidaurri y Villasenor (1834) Governors of Coahuila y Texas. However the one that would fulfill Don Jose’s political ambition was his 2nd great- grandson: Don Santiago Vidaurri, "El Caudillo del Norte" Gobernador de Coahuila y Nuevo Leon 1808- 1867.

Don Jose Vasquez Borrego’s first marriage to my 7th great grandmother- Dona Josefa de Imperial produced the following children: Don Juan Jose, Don Fernando, Don Macario, and y *Dona Manuela Vasquez Borrego y Imperial. However a complete search through the paper trail of countless baptismal records has yet to be completed. The birth order for the children is not known; what we do know is that Juan Jose had been the oldest and Fernando had been the youngest of his son’s.

The marriage between my 6th great grandparents- *Don Juan Antonio de Vidaurri and *Dona Manuela Vasquez Borrego was partially a marriage made in heaven and a pact with the devil. Don Jose in many history books is described as being a strange man, with extreme eccentricities. My 7th great grandfather for an unknown reason to many researchers was the belief that he had one weakness, the one person that captured his heart- his daughter Manuela.

My opinion is that through a family of little boys that loved and feared Don Jose that the only girl was the one to introduce the word "No" to her self- disciplined father. This in truth was a reminder of himself. With this admission he chose to make Manuela and her offspring his primary heirs. Having this in mind he allowed Manuela to pick any husband of her choosing, something unheard of in those days.

The marriage between Juan Antonio and Manuela was approved under two conditions. The first was that the couple would reside near him and the second that the young couple handover their first two male children. Don Jose made plans to raise them as his own, and make them his heirs.

Juan Antonio y Manuela had twelve children, that turned up through the paper trail of baptismal records: D. Jose Fernando, D. Ramon Macario, D. Jose Ygnacio, D. Rita, D. Jose de Jesus Maria, D. Jesus Maria Lorenzo de San Jose, D. Rita Anna Veronica, D. Jose Maria Margil, D. Veronica, * D. Francsico, D. Maria Bencencia y D. Josefa Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego. This is not a complete search as Don Juan Antonio de Vidaurri’s last and will and testament has yet to surface for further study.

We do not know how my 6th great grandfather felt about giving up his two first born children; we can only speculate that he loved Manuela and that he saw the bigger picture. His family would grow up with all of the things he himself had lacked. It is rumored that he had been a natural son of a Jose de Vidaurri from Saltillo. Back then a natural son has a lot to overcome, Juan Antonio had been self- made and acquired his Hacienda San Bartolome in Coahuila circa 1741.

It had been love at first sight between Don Jose and the new born baby- the birth of Jose Fernando came with the promise of a new beginning. Don Jose raised Jose Fernando in his own image. Before the birth of his own children, Don Jose had been busy building an empire; he missed his own children’s childhood. Now in his late sixty’s he was able to devote himself to the joys of fatherhood. Don Jose adored the child that sought his company, the child that showed him respect out of love and not fear. Don Jose was a shrewd man, he was well aware of those who gave him respect out of fear and not love.

Don Jose had taken Jose Fernando in the early stages of infancy. The pressures of being the favorite grandson began at the age of twelve- it was during this time that Don Jose taught Jose Fernando how to read and write. Shortly after, Jose Fernando was taught the art of administering his grandfather’s property. Jose Fernando became grandfather’s chief administrator and general consul.

Cuando desperte en mi la luz de la razon me conoci en compania de mi difunto abuelo, Don Jose Vasquez Borrego, creido que era mi padre: cuya inteligencia se acredita con el hecho que aun despues de zagalejo grande, de edad de doce anos que ya dicho mi abuelo me habia ensenado el mismo a leer y escribir. Me firmaba con el apellido de Borrego ~ Jose Fernando de Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego

Jose Fernando had been a of a mischievous sense of humor- every so often he would exercise his own free will just to see the expression on his grandfathers face. However once grandfather gave his sermon and lecture Jose Fernando would go back to being the dutiful son to the man that raised him. The tie that bonded them together was stronger then that of the umbilical cord- they were joined at the hip by unconditional love, and an unwavering sense of trust. Jose Fernando grew up to become an emotionally sound and secure young man.

I am of opinion that Don Jose chose to make his grandson’s his primary heirs because his own son’s were a disappointment to him. Don Jose had been a religious man, a strict man who believed in the union of matrimony. He did not believe that a man should have other women nor have children out of marriage. He like most Spaniards believed in not mixing his bloodline with those of inferior birth. Because Don Jose favored his grandsons through his daughter Manuela, this would cause the rift between the Vidaurri Borrego’s and the Vasquez Borrego’s. However this did not become apparent until after Don Jose’s death in 1770.

Luego que me vio mi tio sin el amparo de mi abuelo, empezo a correrme del rancho y a levanter me quimeras.
                                 ~ Jose Fernando de Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego

Jose Fernando was twenty-two years old when Don Jose arranged the second marriage that would allow his family to prosper into the future. The first marriage was between his nephew Don Bartolome Vasquez Borrego and Alejandra Sanchez de la Barrera. Bartolome died leaving Alejandra a young widow with two small children- Da. Josefa and D. Jose Francisco Borrego Sanchez. Don Jose took the opportunity to make another alliance between his family and Tomas Tadeo Sanchez de la Barrera y Garza (Falcon). He had Jose Fernando marry Alejandra in 1765. This was also when the priest informed Jose Fernando of his true parentage.

Llegue a la edad de veintidos anos (22) teimpo en que me incline a casar me; Y en este teimpo por las publicatas que se le leyeron en la iglesia, supe que mi apellido era Vidaurri, no el de Borrego que ra en que yo usaba; le pregunte al padre que me caso y me dijo que Borrego era mi abuelo, no mi padre; que este abuelo me habia criado y estimado como hijo desde la edad de pecho ~ 
                                   Jose Fernando de Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego

Jose Fernando felt betrayed and disgusted with his grandfather’s action that he moved himself and his bride far away from him. After a year Don Jose finally convinced his heir to come home and assigned him his portion of his inheritance- Corralitos.

Lo que sintio mucho dicho mi abuelo, e insto con esfuerzo a mi vuelta a su compania, lo que consigio con mi obedencia antes del ano, pues volvi a su compania por septiembre del ano 1766; y luego sin demora mando dicho mi abuelo se desocupara este rancho San Jose(Corralitos) en que vivo, de los bienes y vaqueros que habia en el suyos, para que entraran en el mis bienes y genta del servicio, diciendome que me daba este ranchito con sus agostaderos, como en remuneracion de lo que la habia servido agradecido, agradecido de mi obedience y amor.
                              ~ Jose Fernando de Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego

However having been kept in the dark about who his father really had been caused a permanent rift between himself and his other siblings. They did not share the bond that infancy so often provides between adults. The rift between Ramon Macario and Jose Fernando was the viscous rumor of a carnal relationship between Ramon Macario and Alejandra. This would never heal. These two factors caused the beginning of the inside disputes between the Vidaurri Borrego’s.

The marriage between Jose Fernando and Alejandra Sanchez de la Barrera y Uribe produced ten children: Jose Alejandro, Jose Fernando Jr, Jose Indelfonso, Jose Manuel, Maria Encarnacion, Maria de la Luz, Maria Fabiana, Josefa de Jesus, and Leonor y Manuela. I am of opinion that Jose Fernando had loved the woman that he believed to have been his sister and named two of his children in her honor. Jose Fernando had been sentimental, and believed in the ties of family.

Family oral history mentions that Manuela died young. I speculate that she died sometime before or after 1765. It is said that Don Jose was so grieved, he found himself alone for the first time, that he beseeched Juan Antonio to allow him to raise his two youngest son’s- Jose Maria Margil and Francisco. Then Margil was almost six and Francisco was three. The difference this time was that they would know who their father was.

Don Jose felt that he was given another fresh start, with raising the two little boys that at first spent their nights crying out for the loss of their mother. These two- Margil and Francisco would forge a bond that would end up fulfilling Don Jose’s aspirations. It became these two Vidaurri Borrego children who would unite the family for all eternity.

After Don Jose’s death I am of opinion that it was Jose Fernando that became the legal guardian for Margil and Francisco. He like his grandfather raised them in his own image. There was a certain distinction between Jose Fernando, Ramon Macario, Margil and Francisco that their other siblings lacked. It can be best described as an overall sense of self-confidence, an innate sense of entitlement verging on generosity of spirit. The boy’s were not arrogant, but they knew their place in society and conducted themselves accordingly. They like their grandfather protected those who could not protect themselves.

Don Jose never gave up the illusion of trying to control his grandsons. The marriage between Margil and Josefa Borrego Sanchez was pre-arranged before his death. The product of this marriage was Juana Maria Vidaurri Borrego. My opinion is that between Margil and Francisco, it would be Margil who would be more inclined to please his grandfather and Jose Fernando; he would turn out to be the last Vidaurri to toil the soil on Dolores.

Francisco de Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego would do his duty but only on the condition that he be allowed to live his life, until the moment came for him to marry. Francisco would himself shy out of the political arena, but the dreams and the ambitions of his grandfather became the finger prints on the souls of his children and grandchildren. It is through his lineage that the Vidaurri name became imbedded in Mexico’s history.

The time came for Francisco to marry, Don Jose chose for him my 5th great grandmother- *Maria Angela del Carmen Villasenor, they had the following children: D. Juan Jose,*D. Jose Antonio, D. Francisco, D. Pedro Jose and D. Juan Antonio Vidaurri Borrego y Villasenor. Prior to his marriage alliance, Francisco had several natural children by Rosa de la Cruz. One of these children was Pedro Jose Vidaurri Borrego y de la Cruz. We don’t know much about Pedro Jose except that he had been a soldier and that he married Maria Theodora Valdez. He was also the father of El Vidaurrismo- Santiago Vidaurri.

We are not sure how the marriage between Don Santiago Vidaurri Borrego y Valdez and Juana Maria Vidaurri Borrego came about. Perhaps it was the close bond between the two families’s, more then likely they saw a lot of each other and their mutual understanding of their family grew into love. This union produced three children: Indalecio, Pudenciana and Amelia.

By 1743 my 7th great-grandfather had become an established Hacendado. Prior to the settlement of Dolores (August 1750) he and his family had made San Juan del Alamo their primary residence. Don Jose’s oldest son- Juan Jose during that time had been his father’s general consul. It was Juan Jose who helped Don Jose decide on the exact location for the settlement of Dolores. Don Jose had founded Dolores at his own expense, brought with him thirteen families and fifty extra persons, and had the land augmented to include my 6th great-grandfather Don Juan Antonio de Vidaurri- who came with twelve additional families, fifty-one extra persons and livestock.

In 1757 Dolores had over 123 inhabitants- this is when Capitan Tomas Tadeo Sanchez de la Barrera y Garza (Falcon) became one of great-grandfathers chief administrators. This afforded Don Tomas the opportunity to establish himself as a strong community leader- which led to the founding of present day Laredo, TX.

The Rancheros on Dolores did not have the same type of freedom that most settlers had in Camargo, Revilla and Reynosa. Don Jose was an authoritarian and instilled a strong military structure. Dolores instead of becoming a settlement remained a private estate and Don Jose kept the settlers on as his slaves.

The social structure resembled that of a medieval fiefdom.
                                                                           ~ Jerry Thompson

In order to keep Dolores a private estate- Don Jose orchestrated a plan to establish another Villa- to fill the void that Dolores created in remaining private property. Don Jose designed the blue print for La Villa de Laredo, and Capitan Tomas Sanchez was the perfect candidate to head up the project. Don Jose made the necessary arrangements to have Capitan Tomas Sanchez introduced to Don Jose de Escandon. The rest is now part of South Texas History.

Dolores like the rest of Don Jose’s haciendas was self-sufficient and resembled that of a manor. However farming had been difficult on Dolores, this is when Dolores became a prosperous ranching head quarters. When Capitan Jose Tienda de Cuervo made an inspection of Dolores in 1757, he found: 3,400 horses, 1,500 mules, 3,000 cattle, and 1,050 donkeys on the 329,000 acre estate.

My 7th great-grandfather had been a visionary; he used his military background as a tool to implement a unique form of cattle ranching- a method that spread like wildfire with the neighboring hacendados. The Comanche and Lipan Apaches that roamed that part of the Rio Grande were hostile- the raids were violent and often resulted in the losses of livestock and many women and children taken as captives.

To try and prevent the Indian raids, Don Jose established "A Flying Squadron"; this squadron consisted of twelve men mounted on identical grey horses. The men were menacing to behold in their uniforms of black leather, they also carried up to five different types of weapons. Their sole purpose was to patrol the grounds for potential Indian attacks and to protect Don Jose’s family, livestock and serfs. In today’s modern time this Flying Squadron is known as "The Texas Rangers."

Don Jose was a man who openly displayed favoritism amongst his family. He tried to make amends to his son’s upon his death. Don Jose’s last will and testament has been lost, stolen, misplaced or destroyed. Therefore it is uncertain to determine who inherited the majority of his latifundio. What we know for certain through the last will and testament of Don Jose Fernando de Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego is that all of the land in South Texas was left to his mother and her family.

Family history tells us that when Don Jose’s eldest son, Juan Jose was executed with father Hidalgo in 1811 that the Spaniards sought retribution by confiscating and destroying all archived documents that proved ownership of the Vasquez Borrego y Vidaurri land grant.

There was also the misplacing of documents by in-laws to the Vidaurri Borrego’s in the late 1800’s. These in-laws sold out to Antonio Bruni and they were part conspirators in the murder of Alejandro Vidaurri.

Don Jose Fernando de Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego had seen first hand the conflict between the families that his grandfather caused in playing favoritism. It was his wish that his children get along; he wanted them to have the closeness that he himself lacked with his other siblings. Jose Fernando in trying to achieve that closeness left each of his ten children equal portions of the land grant. What Jose Fernando failed to see was that his grandfather had raised him and his three brothers so that they could control and grow the legacy which he had left them. Once Jose Fernando died, his children either sold their portions of the land grant amongst themselves or to outsiders.

Alejandro Vidaurri (Borrego) Sanchez shared the same passion for the land that his forbearers had before him. Alejandro was the Vidaurri that began buying pieces of the land grant from those family members that had no desire of living in the country. His grandson: Alejandro had been shot in the back by one of Antonio Bruni’s Foremen: Gonzalez, who was tried for murder and sentenced to life in prison.

However with the death of Alejandro also came the end of the Vasquez Borrego y Vidaurri land grant. Right or wrong, ethical or not Alejandro would of done what was necessary to preserve our family legacy. After my 7th great-grandfathers death, it seemed that the families resolve to hold on to the vast land weakened, in all fairness the isolated ranch life was harsh and dangerous. (JFPV)

Celso Vidaurri was sixteen years old when his cousin Alejandro was murdered. It made an impression on him, when he was faced with losing his inheritance he declined the use of violence and took his chances with the legal system. Family history tells us that Antonio Bruni’s men came down to the Rancho and put chains and paddocks on the gate so that Celso could not get into his own ranch. Celso had been naive and loaned out the deeds to Corralitos to his nephew: Theodosio.

There are many unknowns as to the loss of the land. Webb county district had confirmed the Jose Vasquez Borrego grant in 1871 and had validated the heirs. Title to the land had been registered in the Webb county records, a copy of this could have been obtained as verification. Was Grandfather ignorant of this, or was he denied access to the record?                           Jose Felipe delaPena Vidaurri


When Celso asked for his deeds back to his property, Theodosio denied ever having borrowed them. There is a letter written to Celso by his sister, Theodosio’s mother confirming that he had indeed borrowed the deeds to the ranch. E. J Dryden and Theodosio both benefited by Celso Vidaurri losing his ranch to Antonio Bruni, they both received portions of the land grant as compensation. To make matters worse, Theodosio had the nerve to call his ranch "El Rancho Nuevo".

What I suspect through the countless reading of vast material was that Don Jose left each of his chosen grandson’s an entailment on El Alamo and Rancho Encinas, the majority land owners were Don Fernando Vasquez Borrego and his descendents. The property was so vast that it was possible for all family members to reside on it without having to run into each other. More often then not they did not see much of one another other.

It is written in historical volumes that in 1815 the owner of Rancho Encinas and El Alamo was Fernando Vasquez Borrego and his son Macario Vasquez Borrego. We know that Sardinas was left to Don Jose’s son Macario Vasquez Borrego. The rest of the latifundio is in question. The paper trail for the property rights has not completely surfaced for further study. Therefore this is not an accurate account of the Vasquez Borrego latifundio.

It is my opinion the Vasquez Borrego latifundio began to deteriorate due to lack of family unity amongst Don Jose heirs. The majority of the latifundio on the Mexican soil was lost due to the on going disputes with boundary issues. Something not uncommon in the hacienda system.

Sometimes to determine where one hacienda begins and another ends, a historical marker is used. In this case the neighboring hacienda to El Alamo was the Garza-Falcon Hacienda Nuestra Senora de los Dolores: Owned by Manuel Francisco Sanchez Navarro. The historical marker was a hill named Cacanapos- with the changing of time both hills to the east and west of the haciendas were referred to as Cacanapos.

The issue had been taken to court in 1762 with the Vasquez Borrego’s being the victors. However the issue resurfaced again in 1788, only this time the dispute was between the Sanchez Navarro’s and the Vasquez Borrego’s. Because of the two families involved, no court judge or civil servant wanted any part of settling the dispute. The case became enmeshed in the legal system for seven years, making the Sanchez Navarro’s the victors in 1795. However the Vasquez Borrego’s filed an appeal that would not be resided upon until 1802, once again leaving the Sanchez Navarro’s the victors. It was not until 1804 that both families reached a compromise in how to deal with the final verdict.

Legal disputes were dealt with the losing party paying all of the incurred court fees by both sides. However the court fees reached an astronomical amount that the Vasquez Borrego’s could not meet. The Sanchez Navarro’s gave the Vasquez Borrego’s an interest free loan in exchange for the usage of their salt licks and grazing pasture. This loan would not be due for fifteen years. The amount of the loan was fifteen thousand Pesos.

The collateral was the property rights to El Alamo and Las Encinas. However, when the agreement was made- the Sanchez Navarro’s knew that the Vasquez Borrego’s would be unable to pay back the loan. Like most hacendados the Vasquez Borrego’s were wealthy in terms of land, cattle i.e. livestock, not in liquid. Cold hard cash was a hard commodity to come by in those days.

In 1819 the Sanchez Navarro’s called in the loan, and took possession of El Alamo and Las Encinas. It was not until 1855 that Don Santiago Vidaurri came to power- he single handedly righted all wrongs and injustices that his family endured after the death of his 2nd great-grandfather: Don Jose Vasquez Borrego. Santiago returned El Alamo and Las Encinas back to his family. However the revolution of 1910 reclaimed the Vasquez Borrego latifundio, financially wiping out all branches of the family that resided on Mexican soil.

Some of us knew our place in society and made the appropriate marriages and then there were those like my grandmother that defied family duty and tradition. My sisters and I grew up ignorant of our family legacy, but we like my distant cousins sensed the urgency and also moved forward.

It took years and tenacity of will for the different branches of my family to overcome two executions, a murder and the Mexican Revolution, not to mention the Civil War. Today a portion of the original Las Encinas is owned by Patricio Milmo Hernandez.

It was bequeathed to him by his father, Patricio Milmo Hickman who had it bequeathed to him by his father: Patricio Milmo Vidaurri. Along with the gift of the property came the gift of our family legacy. I am grateful for that gift, grateful to Patricio for having held on to what is now left of the Vasquez Borrego latifundio.

My wish is that the importance of ownership, of the latifundio that my 7th great-grandfather amassed will one day belong to us again. I am left humbled and grateful for the decisions that were made by all of those that came before me. Right or wrong, ethical or not, we are all here because of them. When I think of my ancestors, I am filled with an overwhelming sense of love. We are Los Vidaurri y Vasquez Borrego de Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas y Texas and we will continue to move forward.

"Settlement of Dolores 1750" Translation by Edna G. Brown 1994 Volume 1
"A Mexican Family Empire" by Charles H. Harris
"A Wild and Vivid Land" by Jerry Thompson
"Tomas Sanchez de la Barrera" by Jose Antonio Esquibel
Dn. Jose Fernando de Vidaurri’s last will and testament provided by Jose Felipe delaPena Vidaurri
All editorials provided by Jose Felipe delaPena Vidaurri
Verbal conversations with Miguel Angel Munoz Borrego
"Los Vidaurri de Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas y Texas" by Jose Felipe delaPena Vidaurri (revised edition)
Verbal conversations with Jose Felipe delaPena Vidaurri



by Ted Vincent, 2006

      February 13, 1831, Cuilapan, Oaxaca.  President Vicente Guerrero faced the firing squad of the government that had usurped his power.  His wife and daughter had pleaded in vain with authorities in Mexico City to spare his life.  As the soldiers readied themselves, Guerrero spoke out saying that whatever he had done was out of dedication and loyalty to his country.  The rifles were fired.  At that moment President Guerrero could hardly have imagined that from the fruit of his loins would come the one  family with such dedication and contribution to the nation that its tree is depicted on a  wall in the National Museum of History in Chapultepec Park.

      The large clan of the President Guerrero began modestly.  He and his wife Maria Guadalupe Hernandez de Guerrero had but one child, their daughter Dolores.  Frail and often in poor health, Dolores showed a keen mind in her correspondence with her father, who in turn confided to her the difficulties and pressures in the nuances of political leadership.  Dolores’s father was barely literate when in 1810 he joined the Mexican war for independence at age 27.  A mule driver by trade, what he had learned was many indigenous languages.  For this ability Guerrero was given officer’s rank in the army and assigned to recruit indigenous.  He preached racial equality, a goal in which he had personal interest being indigenous and African in heritage and a descendant of slaves.   A succession of battle victories led to Guerrero becoming Commander-in-Chief of the Mexican army for the 1818-1821 last years of the long war.  He was a member of a triumvirate that ran the nation for two years in the middle 1820s, and in 1828 he helped organize and then led a “People’s Party” dedicated to universal suffrage and peasant rights.  In 1829 he became president.  Vicente and Maria saw that their only child Dolores had the schooling which helped her attract for husband the dashing intellectual Mariano Riva Palacio, who at age 26 became mayor of Mexico City the same year that Guerrero became president. 

      A future high level judge, Mayor Mariano promoted the policies of the president, such as pushing through the capital city council legislation to block the city from having to pay the former colonial ruler, Spain, for property lost in disturbances after independence.  The conservative government that ousted Guerrero stripped Mariano of his office in 1830, and he and Dolores were living in virtual house arrest in 1832 when she gave birth to their first of six children.  They named the little boy Vicente, after grandfather.

       Baby Vicente was but a few months old when the conservative government was forced out and replaced by self-proclaimed moderates who released numerous Guerreroistas from jail and allowed others who had “retired” to return to public affairs. Dolores, Mariano and grandmother “La Generala” Maria Hernández de Guerrero, made the family home a decades long salon for politicians from the old “People’s Party.”   There was Guerrero’s Minister of War, the pure-indigenous muledriver, Francisco Moctezuma, there was the swarthy leader of Congress, Anastasio Zerecero, known to his enemies as “pure chocolate scum.”  And among others there was Juan Alvarez, who would become Mexico’s second President with Afro-Indio heritage.  Dolores was the compiler of correspondences from the Guerreroistas, the one who knew where one could locate the far flung old guard of President Guerrero    Her son Vicente would later say that he learned his politics while “nestled in the soft lap” of his mother.”

     Vicente Riva Palacio became a prolific writer of novels, short stories, plays, historical tomes and he was the lead writer and the coordinator for the multi-volume four thousand plus page encyclopedia, “Mexico a traves de los Siglos,” which is still in print, as are many of his novels and short stories.  Vicente was also a general, a governor, and in 1855 he became mayor of Mexico City at three years younger than had his father Mariano in 1829.   Vicente was mayor thanks to Juan Alvarez, who led a “liberal” revolution of “the Reform” against the “conservative” Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.   Alvarez became president, and put Benito Juarez in his cabinet, the first national position for the future President from Oaxaca.

     Contributing to the Reform were other Riva Palacios, including Vicente’s brothers Carlos (a governor and general), Antonio (a general), Manuel (congress), and sister Javiera whose behind the scenes work was acknowledged at her death with a bronze statue.  A critical period for the reformers came during the presidency of Benito Juarez - 1858-1872.   In 1862 conservatives aligned themselves with imperialist minded forces in Europe, in the hope that an invading army might overthrow Juarez.  .  Emperor Napoleon of France endorsed an attempt by the ambitious Archduke Maximilian of Austria to bring an army to Mexico and establish a French-Austrian Empire in America.  After five years of war, Maximilian and his troops were encircled at Queretero and brought to surrender.  Significantly, General Vicente Riva Palacio was one of the three Mexican generals who received the surrender.  That is, as Vicente Guerrero saw the end of Spain’s rule in Mexico, his grandson saw the end of the French effort to rule.

     Vicente Riva Palacio and his wife Josefina Bros had but one child, Federico.  He served in congress but not for long, having displeased dictatorial President Porfirio Diaz, who for half a year jailed Federico’s father for political reasons.   .

     Vicente’s brother Carlos had a combined seventeen children by his two wives.  One son of Carlos was a congressman, and a daughter (another Dolores) married the prominent politician Cosme Mier Sanchez.    Mexico’s social revolution of 1910-1940 had input from the family.   A third Dolores, Dolores Riva Palacio Morales, Carlos’s grand-daughter was the wife of 1923 presidential candidate and advocate of rural village democracy, Carlos Zetina.   Rising to prominence around this time was Carlos Riva Palacio Carrillo, a state governor and federal senator  who produced an anthology on land reform and became a political  confidant of President Plutarco Calles, a sloganeering nationalist leftist who drew threats of intervention from the United States in 1927.  In 1934 Carlos actively campaigned  for a candidate who would go beyond slogans and take action, President Lazaro Cardenas, who is much written of in the histories for nationalizing Mexican oil and for redistribution of land to the peasantry. 

      During the revolution period another branch of the family produced Carlos Riva Palacio Velasco, who became secretary general of the government worker’s labor union.

      In more recent-decades family members in public affairs include: Emilio Riva Palacio Galacia, governor of the state of Morelos; Enrique Riva P alacio Chiang Sam, congressman from the state of Mexico, whose mother was from a Chinese immigrant family; and Antonio Riva Palacio Lopez, senator, governor of Morelos, foreign ambassador and writer on issues of diplomacy.  His wife Macaria Than is of Chinese immigrant roots.   The now retired Antonio is proud of having earned an award declaring him Mexico’s first “ecology governor.”   Asked about the long list of contributors to the nation in the Guerrero/Riva Palacio tree, Antonio responded, “A great many people, for sure, and yet  not one ever really got rich. Consider that!”
    Through the generations the large family has also had those outside the political limelight who nonetheless were  contributors to Mexico.   For instance, a search for Riva Palacios of the recent years (the years after the tree on the museum wall), found, a doctor of biology specializing in ecology issues, a doctor of anthropology specializing in ecology, a doctor of anthropology specializing in urban social issues, a doctor of medicine leading a clinic for workers, a pediatrician, an economist much published on problems of economic development and higher education, a veterinarian, a foreign diplomat, a librarian at the national library, a high school teacher,  an accountant, a mechanical engineer, an electrical engineer, the head of a kindergarten, and a customs official..

     Emerging during the 1980s as one of the nation’s prominent journalists was Raymundo Riva  Palacio Neri.  The Sandanista Revolution in Nicaragua was important news in that decade, a time when  U.S. “hippie” leftists called “sandalistas” flooded Nicaragua.  Raymundo traveled throughout Central America, and with a professional demeanor and wardrobe he was able to become one of the very few reporters who interviewed on both sides of the lines in the Nicaraguan conflict.  For instance, he interviewed Honduran military officers who, while philosophically opposed to the left government in Nicaragua, resented the presence and bullying posture of U.S. advisors in Honduras.  From his investigations, Riva Palacio’s concluded that the role of the  U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in the region deserved strong condemnation, which he presented in his book,  “Centroamerica: La Guerra ya Comenzo.”  During the 1990s Raymundo became known for editorials critical of the Mexican political establishment.  He has been instrumental in making three new Mexico City dailies important journals, “El Financiero,” “La Reforma,” and “Milenio.”

          A belief in democracy and a hope for racial equality which mark the family from Mexican independence forward are capsulized in comments by President Guerrero in 1829 and Senator  Antonio Riva Palacio in 1987.

     Said Guerrero to his Congress, “If one can succeed in spreading the guarantees of the individual, if equality before the law destroys the efforts of power and of gold, if the highest title between us is that of citizen, if the rewards we bestow are exclusively for talent and virtue, we have a republic, and she will be conserved by the universal suffrage of a people, solid, free and happy.”

     Antonio Riva Palacio declared in the Mexican Senate, “Revolutionary nationalism... has been the common denominator that repeatedly clarifies for us the essence of our community identity.  By definition our nationalism is revolutionary, because it proposes to achieve social justice, although not yet achieved,... and because only through revolutionary nationalism, visualized clearly and made law, can private property be subject to public interest, foreign investment controlled from counteracting our goals of national development, and the foreign debt kept from undermining our self-determination.”

     The Guerrero family, through the uncles of the president, has a lengthy history of public service in president’s birth place of  Tixtla, including the activist in the Reform, Jose Antonio Guerrero.  As of 2000, retired school teacher Ascension Guerrero Barron lived three doors up hill from where Vicente was born, and a relative of Ascension was the town librarian.
      Sources:  The family tree in the museum is presented in a drawing, complete with branches.  Apparently, restrictions of spaced caused a great many individuals to be omitted.   In 1964 a detailed “Arbol Genealogico de la Familia Riva Palacio” was compiled by Dr. Rafael Riva Palacio y Carrillo.   Antonio Riva Palacio kindly passed a copy of this work to this writer, who obtained valuable additional information on the activities of the family in the 19th Century from the University of Texas, Benson Library collections of the “Vicente Guerrero archives,” “Maria Guadalupe Hernandez de Guerrero archives,” “Mariano Riva Palacio archives,” and “Vicente Riva Palacio archives,” Interviews, in addition to those with Antonio Riva Palacio, were held with Raymundo Riva Palacio Neri, Ignacio Riva Palacio Than,  Roberto Riva Palacio Chiang Sam, Vicente Riva Palacio Sulzer,  and Ascension Guerrero Barron.

Antonio Riva Palacio Lopez

Vicente Guerrero

All possible contacts are sought to assist in Ted's effort to promote his upcoming book on Gaspar Yanga and his town.  Please contact him to share information, or to seek information.
Ted Vincent at,   or, 510-525-5273.
Much related material is on  his web page,

Another descendant of Vicente Guerro is journalist Raymundo Riva Palacio Neri. Raymundo successfully founded three major dailies in a decade (as mentioned in the article.) I have talked with Raymundo twice, and both times the interview was quick, "Yes, I am proud to be a descendant of Vicente Guerrero. Is that enough?..." Raymundo recently left his third paper to take on the task of resurrecting the century and a half old EL UNIVERSAL, serving as editorial section chief. Raymundo had articles regularly in the Los Angeles LA OPINION during the 1990s. An editor there who has helped me get articles in LA OPINION explained when I asked why Raymundo seemed to no longer write for the paper, "He got mad." On the other hand, Antonio Riva Palacio Lopez has been, to me, a warm and laid back fellow. Ted
 photo by Jose Cruz     



Personajes de la historia

Por: José León Robles de la Torre
(Articulo en periódico, El Siglo de Torreon)

LIBROS: DOS COAHUILENSE EN LA HISTORIA DE LA PATRIA, general don Andrés S. Viesca Bagües, en la Batalla de Santa Isabel el primero de marzo de 1866 y Gral. Jesús González Herrera, custodio del presidente Juárez en La Laguna, en 1864. 

El doctor Luis Maeda Villalobos, autor del libro nació en la ciudad de Matamoros, Coah., el 18 de enero de 1925, hijo del doctor Luis Maeda Maeda cuyo nombre original era Yuntaro, nacido en Kiushu, Kumamoto, Japón, y que en 1920, viviendo en Gómez Palacio, Dgo., cambió su nombre por el de Luis. 

El libro de referencia, al referirse al general Viesca, en parte dice: “El origen de los Viesca data del siglo XVIII con la llegada a la Villa de Parras del señor Andrés de la Viesca y Torre, español, originario de los reinos de Castilla, del Obispado de Santander...”. 

“...Don Andrés Viesca y Montes nació en Parras el 29 de junio de 1791: contrajo matrimonio con doña María de Jesús Bagües y Urquidi... Este matrimonio tuvo la desdicha de no poder concebir hijos, sin embargo, lograron adoptar a José Martín, Juan Bautista y Andrés Saturnino Jesús de los Dolores, quien nació el 27 de noviembre de 1827, Andrés Saturnino Viesca Bagües casó con su prima doña Felicia Gutiérrez Viesca...”. 
“...Llegó a ser gobernador de Coahuila de marzo de 1864 al siete de abril de 1864. Del siete de abril de 1865 al 21 de febrero de 1867. Del 17 de marzo de 1867 al 27 de agosto de 1867. Del dos de septiembre de 1867 al 15 de diciembre del mismo año...”. 

“...La batalla de Santa Isabel, comandada por el general Andrés Saturnino Viesca Bagües, el primero de marzo de 1866 (contra las fuerzas francesas), que culminó con el triunfo de las armas nacionales, se considera de igual importancia que la del cinco de mayo de 1862, cuando se cubrió de gloria el general Ignacio Zaragoza”. 

En cuanto al otro coahuilense que se menciona, el general don Jesús González Herrera, descendiente de zacatecanos, “nació el año de 1833, fue bautizado en Santa María de las Parras. 

“El niño crece en la hacienda, siendo su niñez y su adolescencia tranquilas; estuvo rodeado de amor y calor hogareño, a pesar de que la Hacienda de Santa Ana de los Hornos (Coah.) tenía un nuevo dueño, don Leonardo Zuloaga, quien la había comprado a los herederos del señor Herrera. 

“...Inconforme, regresa a La Laguna para convertirse en el paladín de las instituciones y defensor de los campesinos. Así, organizó grupos dentro de los cuales estaban los colonos de la Vega de Marrufo, en donde nacerá después la población de Matamoros, Coahuila y estimuló nuevamente a los pastores laguneros a no pagar más el tributo o renta por el usufructo de las tierras de pastoreo, que el latifundista Zuloaga les rentaba. Esto le acarreó muchos enemigos pero, por otro lado, dio lugar a que se rompieran las hostilidades hacia un nuevo y naciente movimiento social en La Laguna...”. 

Lo anterior es una muestra del interesantísimo contenido del libro del Dr. Maeda, prolífico escritor y periodista, además de pintor con una ya magnífica cosecha. El libro se presentó en Parras de la Fuente, Coah., el primero de marzo de 2006, aniversario de la Batalla de Santa Isabel y conmemorando el bicentenario del nacimiento de don Benito Juárez.

Portada del libro.

Capilla de la 
Hacienda Santa Ana de los Hornos

Personajes de la historia

Por: José León Robles de la Torre
Mandado por Mercy Bautista Olvera 

El libro del Ing. Óscar Sánchez López titulado Tres Documentos Históricos de la Fundación de San Joseph de Gracia y Santiago del Álamo hoy Viesca, Coahuila, resulta muy interesante para la historia regional por su contenido de hechos sucedidos en el primer tercio del siglo XVIII y particularmente en Santa Ana de Hornos y Viesca, Coah. 

El Ing. Sánchez López nació en esta ciudad de Torreón el primero de octubre de 1955, siendo hijo de don Óscar Sánchez Valero y de su esposa doña María de Jesús López Moreno de Sánchez, estudió la instrucción primaria en la Escuela del Centenario de esta ciudad; la secundaria y preparatoria en la Venustiano Carranza local, y sus estudios profesionales en el Instituto Tecnológico Regional de La Laguna, hasta recibir su título de ingeniero industrial en producción. 
Además de sus actividades de fotógrafo y electricista, le gusta la investigación de la historia y su inquietud lo llevó a revisar los archivos del Centro de Documentación y Archivo Histórico de Hidalgo del Parral, Chih., donde ha vivido por muchos años. 

En esas investigaciones encontró tres documentos inéditos de la historia de lo que ahora es Viesca, Coah., y antes fue San Joseph de Gracia y Santiago del Álamo, y por verlos muy interesantes, decidió editarlos en el presente libro. 

El primero de esos documentos data de 1717, en que un grupo de naturales hacen pedimento de tierras y agua para las tierras de La Laguna, y específicamente para pobladores de Hornos que venían haciendo solicitud desde 1715, cuya petición al señor juez don Fernando Pérez de Almazán, que figuraba como gobernador del pueblo y valle de Santa María de las Parras, Coah., y como alcaldes ordinarios, don Pedro Hernández y don Fabián Sebastián. 

Ya se quejaban los solicitantes de los fuertes calores y sequías prolongadas y cuyo problema, no obstante el paso de los siglos, perdura hasta nuestros días. 

El documento dos, fechado en 1731, en el que aparece que el general don Pedro Echeverz, comparece, por escrito, ante el señor maestro de campo don Juan Bauotista (sic) de la Rea, Caballero del Orden de Santiago, general de artillería, gobernador y capitán general de este reino de Nueva Vizcaya, quien le concede Merced a Echeverz de cuatro sitios de ganado mayor y cuatro caballerías de tierra en el puesto del Álamo con sus ojos de agua que llaman de Juan Guerra, de la jurisdicción de Santa María de las Parras. Ese documento da luz en la fundación de San Joseph Gracia y Santiago del Álamo, hoy Viesca, Coah... 

El tercer documento, fechado el 24 de julio de 1731, se habla de las diligencias ejecutadas por don Prudencio de Basterra, alcalde mayor y teniente de capitán general del pueblo de Santa María de las Parras, Villa del Saltillo, Coahuila, para la fundación del pueblo del Álamo el 25 de julio de 1731, teniendo por patrono al Apóstol señor Santiago, quedando fundado por un gran número de naturales que se citan en ese documento... 

En resumen, esta recopilación de documentos, que se encuentran, en los archivos de Hidalgo del Parral, Chih., y localizados y paleografiados por el Ing. Óscar Sánchez López, y que forman la edición del presente libro, son de gran utilidad para los amantes de la investigación de la historia, y particularmente de la Región Lagunera.

Datos de Tabasco

Si habia alguien que tuviera datos de Tabasco. tambien puedes entrar al portal del estado de Tabasco que es: entra a Oficialias que es el Registro Civil que aqui en México esta desde 1860 aprox. Suerte y Bendiciones.
Edna Yolanda Elizondo González

  En el Valle de Tlaltenango, 
Cecilia Ramos y sus catorce hijos  
por Arturo Ramos

 Un  Cuadros de castas por Andrés de Islas

En 1530, el Valle de Tlaltenango se encontraba poblado por indígenas caxcanes que labraban la tierra al bordo del río y seguramente se suplían de la abundancia de flora y fauna de las sierras que rodean al valle. El significado de Tlaltenango en la lengua caxcana--la tierra amurallada--alude a este paisaje montañoso del valle. Entre esos muros de montañas, la Sierra del Mixtón al oriente y la de Tepeque al poniente, pasaron Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán y sus soldados, dejando, según el historiador Peter Gerhard, "un sendero de cadáveres, destruyendo casas y sementeras, llevándose a los barones que sobrevivían como esclavos y dejando a las mujeres y niños a morir de hambre."

Las memorias de este primer contacto con los españoles deben haber trastornado a los moradores de Tlaltenago y sus cercanías. Tanto fue el trastorno que desde sus montañas cerca de El Teul, en 1531 lanzaron un ataque contra los españoles que intentaban construir un pueblo llamado La Villa de Espíritu Santo de Guadalajara cerca de lo que hoy es Nochistlán. La Villa de Guadalajara quedo destruida y a los españoles les toco reconstruirla tres veces antes de que finalmente sobreviviera el pueblo en su ubicación actual--el Valle de Atemajac--donde se construyó en 1542.

En 1541, se levantaron de nuevo los caxcanes, con sus aliados tepecanos, zacatecos y guachichiles contra los españoles. Desde la Sierra del Mixtón, que hoy se conoce como la Sierra de Morones, se lanzaron los aliados indígenas de la región contra los españoles. La Guerra del Mixtón duró menos de dos años, pero la paz no fue perdurable. En 1550, la guerra surgió de nuevo con la gran Guerra Chichimeca, en la cual participaron innumerables indígenas de varias etnias chichimecas (un nombre despectivo por cual las etnias civilizadas del sur llamaban a las etnias nómadas del norte). Esta guerra duro casi cuarenta años. Parece que los moradores del Valle de Tlaltenango no participaron en esta última rebelión, pero igual la región sufrió a causa del caos alrededor. Los pueblos caxcanes de las cercanías de Tlaltenango sufrieron ataques de sus antiguos aliados zacatecas desde el norte por haberse sometido a la corona española.

El fin de la Guerra Chichimeca llegó cuando el nuevo Virrey Luis de Velasco decidió comprar la paz con los chichimecas. Como parte de la paz comprada, el Virrey uso el poder de la Real Hacienda para otorgar ropa, herramientas y comida a los chichimecas a cambio de que se pacificaran y reconocieran la corona española. Además recluto centenares de familias tlaxcaltecas para que se mudaran a vivir entre los chichimecas, los convirtieran a la fe católica y a un estilo de vida sedentario, enseñándoles sus técnicas agrícolas.

Queda sin decir que a fines del siglo XVI, no moraban muchos españoles en los contornos de Tlaltenango. En la década de los 1540, probablemente después de la Guerra del Mixtón, se encomendaron los pueblos del valle a varios españoles. El pueblo de Tlaltenango fue encomienda de Toribio de Bolaños, Tepechitlán de Pedro de Bobadilla, un soldado de Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, y El Teul fue encomienda de Juan Delgado. Es probable que estos individuos no pudieran ejercer sus derechos sobre los indígenas durante el siglo XVI ya que las rebeliones sucesivas lo harían difícil. Pero con el fin de las guerras contra los indígenas al fin del siglo, comenzaron a llegar los españoles a asentarse entre los indígenas recién pacificados de la región.

En 1550, el pueblo de Tlaltenango tenía 132 casas, donde vivían 626 personas. Para 1561, la población tributaria (es decir masculina de edad adulta) llegaba a 379. En 1570 había subido esta población tributaria a 1,000 personas y se encontraban 20 españoles en el pueblo de Tlaltenango. El valle contaba con una población de más de 8,000 habitantes. El aumento tan súbito de población indica que ya había comenzado la inmigración a la región en esa época. Tres años después, seguramente a causa de enfermedad y las guerras, la población del pueblo había decrecido a solamente 380 tributarios. Para 1584, aún no recuperaba la población del valle, ya que en el solamente moraban un poco más de 3,000 habitantes, casi todos indígenas. Estos moradores se alimentaban del maíz, chile y fríjol que se sembraba en las sementeras al largo del Río Tlaltenango, de los duraznos, membrillos, higos y tunas que crecían en el valle y de las gallinas y guajolotes que se ahí se criaban.

Para 1616, ya vivian suficientes españoles en el valle para que los indígenas se quejaran de los daños que sufrían en sus sementeras a causa de los ganados y caballos de los españoles. El mestizaje entre los españoles, los indígenas y los africanos de la región ya existía en esos tiempos. Entre las quejas de los indígenas, quedan documentadas las relaciones extramaritales de Diego González, Diego López, españoles, con indias y las de Juan de Miramontes, también español, con una mestiza, esposa de un tlaxcalteca. También sabemos que los Bobadilla, encomenderos de Tepechitlán eran mestizos, ya que el primer encomendero, Pedro de Bobadilla se casó y procreó con una mujer indígena.

En 1627, llegó el Presbítero Francisco Salcedo Herrera a Tlaltenango y lamentando la falta de archivos eclesiásticos y municipales en el pueblo, comenzó a grabar con un detalle extraordinario las vidas de los habitantes del pueblo para la posteridad. Entre los habitantes que vivieron en esa época y ámbito vivió una mujer llamada Cecilia López. Aunque la mayoría de documentos históricos de la época no nos cuentan mucho de las vidas de las mujeres, podemos construir una imagen bastante detallada de la vida de esta mujer a través de los censos y los registros matrimoniales y de bautismo que se grabaron en esa época.

Parece no existir documentación de la fecha exacta, pero Cecilia López debe haber nacido circa 1610. Quedamos sin saber su lugar de nacimiento. Es posible que haya nacido en Tlaltenango y no exista apunte sobre su natalidad a causa de la falta de archivos lamentada por el Presbítero Salcedo Herrera. Sabemos el nombre de su padre--Pedro Ortiz de San Pedro--pero no el de su madre. También sabemos que tuvo por lo menos tres hermanos: Pedro Ortiz de San Pedro, Juan Ortiz de San Pedro y Lázaro Ortiz de San Pedro. Este último aparece a mediados del siglo XVII en Jerez, Zacatecas. Los otros parecen haber sido moradores de Tlaltenango, igual que su hermana. Además aparecen otras mujeres españolas en los registros matrimoniales de Tlaltenango, que a causa de sus nombres y edades podrían haber sido hermanas de Cecilia López.

El primer matrimonio de Cecilia López, cuyo registro también nos falta, debe haberse efectuado circa 1625. Para 1629 ya tenía dos hijos y en enero de ese año ella y su esposo Hernando de Haro, aparecen como padrinos en la boda de Juan de García Miramontes y Ana de López. Parece que este Juan de García Miramontes fue cuñado de Cecilia y es posible que esta Ana López haya sido hermana de Cecilia, pero los archivos no nos permiten aclarar estos datos. El marido de Cecilia López, Hernando Haro, fue hijo de Juan de Miramontes y Maria de Saucedo. Hernando tuvo por lo menos cuatro hermanos: Thomasina de Haro, Pedro Garcia de Miramontes, Lorenzo Miramontes y Juan de Miramontes, quien es probablemente el mismo Juan García de Miramontes que se caso con Ana de López. Estos últimos dos hermanos del marido de Cecilia parecen ser los ancestros de una población innumerable que lleva el apellido Miramontes en la región del sur de Zacatecas.

Hernando de Haro falleció entre 1642 y 1644, dejando a Cecilia López viuda con varios hijos. En total, Cecilia López procreó ocho hijos con Hernando de Haro, entre ellos Nicolás de Haro, quien se ordenó como sacerdote en 1642 y quien quedo como beneficiado de una capellanía fundada por su tío Pedro. Sirvió como vicario en el Real y Minas de Fresnillo en la década de 1640.

Los hijos de Cecilia López con Hernando de Haro fueron:
- Nicolás de Haro, nacido circa 1625
- Josepha Esquivel o Haro Ortiz, nacida antes de 1630
- Lorenza Ortiz de Haro, bautizada el 17 de octubre 1630 en Tlaltenango
- Hernando Haro, bautizado el 17 de julio 1632 en Tlaltenango
- Pedro Haro, bautizado el 13 de noviembre 1635 en Tlaltenango
- Maria Haro o Saucedo, bautizada el 12 de septiembre 1637 en Tlaltenango
- Juan Haro, bautizado el 4 de febrero 1640 en Tlaltenango
- Joseph Haro, bautizado el 14 de abril 1642 en Tlaltenango

Cecilia López y su primer marido parecen haber tenido por lo menos una estancia llamada San Nicolás, donde se efectuó la boda de una de sus sobrinas, Maria de Esquivel en 1644. Para esa fecha ya había fallecido el primer marido de Cecilia, ya estaba casada su hija Lorenza con Martín Tello de Orozco, y esta pareja ya había procreado un hijo. Aunque puede ser que Lorenza de bautizó a una edad avanzada, parece ser que se casó la muchacha a una edad muy joven, de aproximadamente 14 años. Igual que su madre, Lorenza se casó de adolescente, quedo viuda a una edad bastante joven con varios hijos y volvió a casarse.

El mismo año que se efectuó la boda de su sobrina, Cecilia López celebró su segunda boda. Sus segundas nupcias fueron con un señor llamado Felipe Díaz de Santiago, oriundo de Aguascalientes. Igual que Cecilia, Felipe era viudo (de una Isabel de Turises). Cecilia celebró su segunda boda en la misma estancia de San Nicolás el 7 de octubre de 1644. Fueron sus padrinos su hija Lorenza y su yerno Martín Tello de Orozco y asistieron el Padre Nicolás Rodríguez, Lázaro Ortiz de San Pedro, hermano de Cecilia, y Cristóbal de Benavides, quien fundo la primer capellanía en Tlaltenango en 1642.

De la vida de Cecilia López con su segundo marido sabemos un poco más. Sabemos que para el año 1650, la pareja tenía dos estancias, una de labor al lado del Río Tlaltenango entre los pueblos de Tlaltenango y Teocaltiche y otra llamada La Herradura en la Sierra del Mixtón o Morones, siete leguas o aproximadamente 28 kilómetros hace al norte de Tlaltenango, probablemente cerca de donde hoy queda el pueblo de General Joaquín Amaro. Sabemos que Cecilia López era dueña de por lo menos un esclavo, ya que en el matrimonio de Antón García en 1645, se le nombra como esclavo de ella.

Los hijos de Cecilia López con Felipe Díaz de Santiago fueron:

- Felipe Díaz de Santiago, bautizado el 1 de octubre 1645 en Tlaltenango
- Agustín Díaz, bautizado el 16 de septiembre 1646 en Tlaltenango
- Ana Díaz de Santiago, bautizada el 29 de marzo 1649 en Tlaltenango
- Catalina Díaz, bautizada el 15 de diciembre 1650 en Tlaltenango
- Antonio Díaz, bautizado el 14 de septiembre 1653 en Tlaltenango
- Sebastián Díaz, bautizado el 27 de enero 1655 en Tlaltenango

En total, Cecilia López procreó por lo menos catorce hijos durante un periodo de aproximadamente 30 años. Si la fecha de nacimiento de Cecilia López fue 1610, como estimamos, dio luz desde aproximadamente los 15 años de edad hasta los 45. Tanta fue su descendencia en Tlaltenango y la región cercana, que su nombre resalta varias veces como el tronco común en las dispensas matrimoniales por causa de consanguinidad que se otorgaron en las décadas después de su muerte.

Entre sus hijos, hemos documentado descendencia de la mayoría. Algunos probablemente murieron antes de procrear y otros, como Nicolás, jamás se casaron. Encontramos algunos hijos en Jerez, otros en Guadalajara, pero la mayoría en Tlaltenango. Entre los que tienen descendencia documentada están:

- Josepha Esquivel casada con Luis Luna el 10 de abril 1649 tuvo diez hijos
- Lorenza Ortiz de Haro casada con Martín Tello Orozco circa 1643, tuvo seis hijos. Casada de nuevo con Bartolomé de Luna circa 1655 tuvo ocho hijos más.
- Hernando Haro casado con Francisca Morrillo de Ordoñez el 26 de julio 1649 tuvo por lo menos una hija, Mariana Haro, bautizada en Guadalajara en 1650.
- María de Saucedo casada con Alejos González o Rivera tuvo por lo menos dos hijos.
- Juan Haro, cuyo cónyuge queda sin nombrar, tuvo por lo menos un hijo llamado Fernando de Haro, nacido en 1674.
- Joseph Haro, cuyo cónyuge también queda sin nombrar, tuvo por lo menos un hijo llamado Francisco Xavier Haro nacido en 1696 quien tuvo dos esposas: Gertrudis de la Cueva y Antonia de la Torre.
- Felipe Díaz de Santiago, casado con Magdalena de Solís tuvo por lo menos un hijo llamado Felipe Díaz nacido en 1668.
- Ana Díaz de Santiago, casada con Lorenzo de Miramontes, tuvo por lo menos seis hijos.


Registros parroquiales de Tlaltenango de Sánchez Román, Zacatecas, según filmados por The Genealogical Society of Utah en los filmes nos. 0443799 y 0443967

Registros parroquiales de Parroquia de la Inmaculada en Jerez, Zacatecas, según transcritos por Leonardo de la Torre Berumén

Registros parroquiales del Sagrario Metropolitano de Guadalajara, Jalisco, según filmados por la Sociedad Genealógica de Utah en el film 0038311

Carlos Casas, Bernardo. Tlaltenango : una ciudad amurallada, Guadalajara, Jal.: Impre-Jal (1986)

Gerhard, Peter. The North Frontier of New Spain, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (1982)

Montejano Hilton, María de la Luz. Sagrada mitra de Guadalajara, antiguo obispado de la Nueva Galicia : expedientes de la serie de matrimonios extractos siglos XVII-XVIII, México, D.F.: M. Montejano Hilton (1999)

Salcedo y Herrera, Francisco Manuel. Descripción del partido y jurisdicción de Tlaltenango, hecha en 1650, México, D.F.: José Porrua e Hijos (1958)



Confrencia Binacional 

Estimados amigos:

Me permito informarles que la primera conferencia binacional fue todo un exito. Tuvimos asistencia de Torreon, Monclova, Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe, Castanos, MOnterrey, Pharr, San Antonio, Tx., y Salt Lake City, Utah., USA. Vinieron un total de 90 personas y los conferencistas estuvieron de primera calidad. Aun a nosotros, que seguimos de cerca la elaboracion de sus trabajos de genealogia, nos sorprendieron.

El apoyo del Gobierno del Estado y del Hotel Holiday-Inn Ramos Arizpe asi como de la Universidad Tecnologica de Coahuila fueron inapreciables. Tendremos cuidado en cuidar de escoger una mejor fecha a fin de que asistan con comodidad a nuestro proximo evento.

El Gobernador de Coahuila firmo un diploma a cada uno de los asistentes.
Un abrazo, Miguel Angel Borrego


The Descendents of Don Andres de Morales y de la Fuentes
Compiled by John D. Inclan
Generation No. 1

1. ANDRES3 DE MORALES-DE-LA-FUENTES (DIEGO2 DE MORALES, LUIS1 RAMON-DE-MORALES) was born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married LEONOR LOBO-DE-ACUNA. She was born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

ii. GERONIMA DE MORALES, m. RODRIGO DE CEPEDA-HERRERA, 02 Nov 1725, Saltillo, Coahulia, Mexico.
Source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara, by Raul J. Guerra., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 140.
3. iii. JUAN-MARCOS MORALES-Y-LOBO-DE-ACUNA, b. 1700, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
4. iv. ANTONIO DE MORALES, b. 21 Jan 1710, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
Generation No. 2


3. JUAN-MARCOS4 MORALES-Y-LOBO-DE-ACUNA (ANDRES3 DE MORALES-DE-LA-FUENTES, DIEGO2 DE MORALES, LUIS1 RAMON-DE-MORALES) was born 1700 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married FRANCISCA-ANTONIA GALINDO-MOLANO 22 Aug 1729 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of ANDRES GALINDO-DE-LOS-SANTOS-COY and GERONIMA MOLANO-AGUIRRE. She was born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 258. [57-13].

ii. JUANA-GERONIMA MORALES-GALINDO, b. 02 Nov 1730, Nuesta Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iii. MARIA-JOSEFA-GUADALUPE MORALES-GALINDO, b. 29 Jun 1750, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila. Mexico.
4. ANTONIO4 DE MORALES (ANDRES3 DE MORALES-DE-LA-FUENTES, DIEGO2 DE MORALES, LUIS1 RAMON-DE-MORALES) was born 21 Jan 1710 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married MARIA-ISABEL DE VILLARREAL 22 Apr 1732 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE DE VILLARREAL. 

ii. MARIA-CANDELARIA MORALES-VILLARREAL, b. 1732, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. ALONZO DE-LA-BARRERA-DE-LA-GARZA, 13 Oct 1749, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico1; b. 1728, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Source:Index to Marriages Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr.,
Badine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 134.
7. iii. JUANA DE MORALES-VILLARREAL, b. 02 Feb 1736, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iv. MARIA-LEONOR MORALES-VILLARREAL, b. 10 Nov 1739, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
v. ANDRES MORALES-VILLARREAL, b. 03 Dec 1734, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Generation No. 3

Marriage source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. 1751-1779 Page 98.

i. JOSE-FELIPE6 MORALES-ROBLES, b. 30 Aug 1770, Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
ii. MARIA-JOSEFA MORALES-ROBLES, b. 07 Nov 1772, Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iii. JOSE-BAUTISTA MORALES-ROBLES, b. 18 May 1773, Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iv. MARIA-MANUELA-SATURNINA MORALES-ROBLES, b. 06 Dec 1777, Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
v. JOSE-MARIA-AQUILINO MORALES-ROBLES, b. 03 Jul 1785, San Pablo, Galeana, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

i. JOSEPH-ANTONIO6 MORALES-CARVAJAL, b. 01 Feb 1771, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila. Mexico.
ii. JOSEPH-NARCISO MORALES-CARVAJAL, b. 05 Nov 1782, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
7. JUANA5 DE MORALES-VILLARREAL (ANTONIO4 DE MORALES, ANDRES3 DE MORALES-DE-LA-FUENTES, DIEGO2 DE MORALES, LUIS1 RAMON-DE-MORALES) was born 02 Feb 1735/36 in Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married IGNACIO DE ESPRONCEDA 23 Jun 1764 in Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico2, son of ANTONIO DE ESPRONCEDA and LUISA DE-LOS-SANTOS-COY. He was born 1744 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Marriage Notes for JUANA DE MORALES-VILLARREAL and IGNACIO DE ESPRONCEDA:

Marriage source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. 1751-1779 Page 99.

i. MARIA-LUCIA6 ESPRONCEDE-MORALES, b. 10 Oct 1764, Nuestra Sra, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. JOSE-LUIS DE-LA-GARZA-PEREZ, 04 May 1781, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. Abt. 1756.
1. Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, and Baldomero Vela, Jr., Page 134. [#31-1]..
2. Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, and Baldomero Vela, Jr., Page 99. [#81-18]..

Registros en la Catedral de Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico:
Information shared by

1. Margarita <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 20 JUL 1881 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

2. Maria Amada <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 30 OCT 1881 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

3. Maria Antonia <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 06 SEP 1880 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

4. Maria Cleotilde <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 08 SEP 1878 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

5. Maria Guadalupe <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 12 DEC 1877 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

6. Maria Guillermina <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 16 FEB 1881 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

7. Maria Isabel <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 27 MAY 1880 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

8. Maria Juana <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 28 JAN 1880 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

9. Maria Florencia <Arrellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 07 MAY 1878 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

10. Jose <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 03 SEP 1879 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

11. Jose <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 08 FEB 1875 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

12. Jose Emigdio <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 09 AUG 1874 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

13. Jose Gerardo <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 12 FEB 1877 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

14. Jose Julio <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 26 NOV 1876 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

15. Jose Leonardo <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 01 JAN 1875 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

16. Jose Librado <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 28 SEP 1877 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

17. Jose Mauro <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 17 JAN 1875 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

18. Jose Onecimo <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 04 APR 1874 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

19. Jose Salvador <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 18 MAY 1876 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

20. Jose Simon <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 19 DEC 1875 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

21. Jose Rosendo <Arrellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 12 JUL 1875 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

22. Jose <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 24 MAR 1882 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

23. Jose Angel <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 12 OCT 1880 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

24. Jose Angel <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 01 AUG 1881 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

25. Jose Ignacio <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 07 AUG 1881 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

26. Jose Narciso <Arellano - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 04 MAY 1882 Catedral, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico


1. MAURO ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Marriage: 20 AUG 1873 Santa Iglesia, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

2. APOLONIO ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Marriage: 09 JAN 1875 Santa Iglesia, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

3. TEOFILO ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Marriage: 25 OCT 1858 Santa Iglesia, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

4. LUIS ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Marriage: 20 DEC 1854 Santa Iglesia, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

5. MARIA SILVERIA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Marriage: 23 AUG 1872 Santa Iglesia, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

6. TIMOTEA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Birth: San Ygnacio

7. TEODORA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Marriage: 08 FEB 1902 Santa Iglesia, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

8. MARIA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Marriage: 07 JUN 1902 Santa Iglesia, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

9. MARCELINO VASQUES MARTINA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Birth: Durango

10. DOLORES ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Birth: Copala

11. CARMEN ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Marriage: 05 MAY 1856 Santa Iglesia, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

Registros en la Parroquia San Antonio de la Noria (Mazatlan):

1. SATURNINA ARELLANO BARRAZA - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 12 DEC 1871 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

2. CRISANTO ARELLANO PADILLA - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 25 DEC 1862 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

3. CORNELIA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 23 SEP 1863 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

4. ALEJO ARELLANO TISNADO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 06 SEP 1874 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

5. DOMINGA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 04 AUG 1862 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

6. AGUSTIN ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 28 JUL 1872 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

7. NICASIO ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Christening: 18 NOV 1871 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

8. MARIA ANDREA ARELLANO TISNADO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 05 MAR 1864 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

9. BENIGNA ARELLANO RIOS - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 09 APR 1871 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

10. MARGARITA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 18 SEP 1870 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

11. TIBURSIA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 20 MAR 1865 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

12. ABRAHANA ARELLANO CHAVES - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Christening: 24 APR 1864 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

1. LUCARIO ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Marriage: 08 JUN 1871 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

2. LUCAS ARELLAN - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Marriage: 20 JUL 1881 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

3. MA. DE LOS ANGELES ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Marriage: 11 MAY 1873 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

4. MA. JUANA ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Marriage: 09 JAN 1880 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

5. JOSE FELIPE ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Male Marriage: 28 NOV 1876 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

6. CARMEN ARELLANO - International Genealogical Index
Gender: Female Marriage: 14 JAN 1885 San Antonio De La Noria, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

Los miembros de la Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico se comunican gratuitamente entre si usando equipos de Voz sobre IP de
Information shared by

Hay muchas mas parroquias asi que si puedes ser mas preciso. 
Para mas informacion:

En los Albores de la Independencia 
Sent by
For more information


Cuban Military Records  
The Last Puerto Rican Indian
Historia / Canarias /Navegación 


Cuban Military Records  
This is an amazing resource and collection of information.  Do check it out!!!
Sent by Joan De Soto
Military Records
History of the Wars
Data Base 
Search form Students
Data Base 
Search Form 
Transcription Project Deaths
Prisoners and Deportees 
Cuban National Archives 
Interesting facts
Repatriated Soldiers 
Simancas archives 
Segovia archives
La Guerra de Los Diez Años - The Ten-Years War (1868-1878)

Unlike for the Cuban War of Independence, there is no centralized list of all Cuban participants in the Ten-Years War. Many of them did return to fight again during the War of Independence in 1898. Many of the military records were shipped back to Spain after the end of Spanish Colonial rule and reside in the Spanish Military Archive in Segovia.

Two of our readers, Jose Santa Cruz Pacheco and Eugenio de J. Perez Ferrer, have compiled and generously made available a data base of more than 2350 Officers, Deputies, and other members of the Government of the Republic in Arms during the Ten Years War. This document is available through the following link:

Data Base of Officers of the Ten-Years War During the Ten Years War, the Spanish authorities executed eight university medical students for alegedly scratching the tombstone of a Spanish newspaperman. The names and genealogical information of the eight medical students is available from the following link:

Medical Students Executed on 27 November 1871 Also during the Ten Years War, the Spanish authorities captured the arms runner ship Virginius and executed most of the US and British crew and all the Cuban revolutionary officers on-board. The story of this sorry event and names of the captured and executed is available form the following link:

La Guerra Chiquita - The Small War (1879-1880)
We do not know of the availability outside of Cuba of any records of Cubans that participated in The Small War, other than the leaders mentioned in history books. Many of the military records were shipped back to Spain after the end of Spanish Colonial rule and reside in the Spanish Military Archive in Segovia. Some records may also be held at the Archivo Nacional de Cuba.

La Guerra de Independencia - The War of Independence (1895-1898)
Shortly after the end of the Cuban War of Independence, a list of all the soldiers and officers who participated in the conflict was prepared, primarily to serve as the basis for veteran's pensions. The original records are presumably in the Archivo Nacionál (National Archive) of Cuba. Fortunately the list was also compiled and published in the following book:

Yndice Alfabético y Defunciones del Ejército Libertador de Cuba - Guerra de Independencia, iniciada el 24 de Febrero de 1895 y terminada oficialmente El 24 de Agosto de 1898 (Alphabetic Index and Deaths of the Cuban Liberation Army - Cuban War of Independence, started 24 February 1895 and officially ended 24 Aug 1898), Carlos Roloff. Habana, Impr. de Rambla y Bouza, 1901. [LOC Call number F1786.C95, LDS microfilm number 1844674]

The entries in the above book have been transcribed to a data base by a dedicated group of volunteers from our CUBA-L list. The data base is accessible through the following links:
Data Base of the CubanArmy of Liberation 1895-1898 

Also from the same reference, we have transcribed the lists of soldiers who died during the War. You can access these lists by means of the following link: 
Soldiers who died during the Cuban War of Independence 

Prisoners and Deportees
During the Cuban War of Independence, Spain confined many Cuban prisoners of war and political prisoners in several penitentiaries in Cuba, Spain and Spanish possessions in North Africa. We have compiled a partial data base of these individuals which can be reached by the following link:
Prisoners and Deportees during the Cuban War of Independence 
Generals: If any of your ancestors attained the rank of General in the Cuban Liberation Army in any of the above conflicts, their names should also appear in our list of 

Generals of the Cuban Liberation Army. A short biography of each of the listed names appears in the book by Mario Riera Hernández.


The Last Puerto Rican Indian - BookGaleria Cemi is proud to announce the launch of a publishing subsidiary called Cemi Press. The first publishing venture will be THE LAST PUERTO RICAN INDIAN: A BOOK OF DANGEROUS POETRY by Native American Taino poet, lecturer and storyteller Bobby González. The book will be published in June but you can order your copy now online at
More information is coming soon.

Bookstore inquiries are welcome. Write to us at

Historia / Canarias /Navegación

Sent by Bill Carmena > specifically on the Emigración canaria a Cuba:  Tel.trabajo:922 281300  Fax trabajo:922 282117
El contenido de esta página ha sufrido cambios sustanciales. La inicié como almacén temporal de datos para un trabajo académico de unos amigos. Después de cumplir su función me impidieron suprimirla mencionando otro futuro trabajo y me ví adecentándola porque, a pesar de ser muy mala, recibía visitas desde lugares muy dispares. Las páginas sobre piratas se han multiplicado tras recibir algunas consultas sobre el tema. Algunas partes de aspecto inusual fueron concebidas para facilitar el acceso a invidentes y hacer pruebas con un visor para estudiantes. Autores no mencionados:
Lamento que en muchos textos el autor no esté debidamente identificado por mi falta de rigor a la hora de tomar apuntes. Supresión de Enlaces:
Navegación Cabotaje 
El puerto:Historia 
El puerto:s.XVIII 
El puerto:s.XIX 
El puerto:s.XX 
El puerto:Recuerdos 1914 
Tenerife:Despacho s.XVIII 
Correos y Correíllos 
R.D.Puertos Francos (1852) 
San Borondón 
Indice General 
Indice Documentos 
Indice Varios 
Indice Africa 
Indice Portugal 
Indice Expediciones 
Indice Mar 

Indice Cuba 
Indice Autores 
Indice Poemas 
Indice Piratería 
Indice Granadilla 
Indice Trasatlántica 
Zona M.Espec.Sensible 
Breves Actualidad 
Indicadores | La Luz 
Datos Import./Export. 
ZEC | REF | Comercio 
Plátanos | Cochinilla 
La Palma | Berbería 
Luisiana | Venezuela 
Construcción naval 
Olas | Vientos 
Los faros 



BYU Study Abroad Program
A Modern renaissance in Spain 
Cartaya, Huelva  
Don Cristóbal Colon


BYU Study Abroad Program

My grand daughter, Brittany is studying in Spain as part of a BYU study abroad program.  Here she is in the city of  Madrid.  The city of Avila is enclosed by a big wall which surrounds the city. Britt is an English major and Spanish minor. 
The students travel as a group, are assigned a family host, a student partner, and have a very strict schedule of lectures and activities. About 1,700 students annually participate in Study Abroad programs. For more information, go to David M. Kennedy Center for International Studies:

A Modern renaissance in Spain
by Andrew Ferren, The New York Times, via O.C. Register, 4-30-06

Fascinating and innovative new buildings can be found throughout the nation.  This structure is actually two layers, two skins. The Agbar Tower in Barcelona, was designed by French architect Jean Nouvel. It is constructed in concrete and covered with aluminum and thousands of panels of glass.

In the eight years since Frank Gehry's Guggenheim Museum miraculously thrust a rusted-out Bilbao to the top of the world's travel list, Spain has become the showcase for some of the most exciting architecture in the world.

Astonishingly innovative new buildings - be they public or private, large or small, located in cities or the provinces – have sprung up across the country, unraveling, at least in part, the very fabric of the tradition-bound Spain of collective imagination. Indeed, not since Mies van der Rohe's Barcelona Pavilion of 1929 has Spain been such a center for architectural marvels. A visit to several Spanish cities offers an exciting glimpse of what all the fuss is about.

An architectural exploration can begin while collecting your baggage at T4, as the new terminal - designed by Richard Rogers Partnership and Estudio Lamela - at Barajas International Airport is known. The terminal is more than half a mile long, and together with an almost equally large satellite building, it restores some glamour to the age of air travel.

Natural light has been treated as a structural component, and it pours through glass curtain walls and skylights to filter all the way down to the baggage area four levels below. An undulating ceiling of bamboo slats appears draped across the wing-shaped beams that support it. The vertical beams both inside the terminal and out are painted in a prismatic gradation from cool blue at the north end of the building to a vibrant red in the south so that travelers slipping off to buy newspapers or Burberry ties in the airport mall can find their way back to the right gate.

Once you're in the heart of the Spanish capital, big-time architecture is thick on the ground, especially in the area where three of the country's most prestigious museums – the Prado, Reina Sofia and Thyssen – are all stretching into new quarters.

The most striking of the bunch is Jean Nouvel's multi-building expansion of the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, which opened in September. The Nouvel structures are arranged to cleverly open up the museum to the city around it, as the lustrous red fiberglass panels of its soaring roof reflect the hubbub of urban life into the interior patio.

Rafael Moneo's much ballyhooed expansion to the Prado Museum - just a few hundred yards from the Reina - will offer an accessible way to appreciate his architecture once it opens next year. Moneo's 1992 expansion to the city's Atocha train station, site of the train bombings in 2004, is also nearby. Undamaged in the attacks, Atocha has a considerable architectural pedigree: Among the architects to work on its original 1892 building was Gustave Eiffel.

León is home to one of the most astonishingly bold museums to hit the Spanish cultural landscape in years. Designed by the Madrid-based architectural studio Mansilla & Tunon, Museo de Arte Contemporaneo de Castilla y León (known as Musac) clamors for attention from the street with a facade of large colored glass panels inspired by "The Falconer," the most important stained-glass window in the city's 13th-century cathedral.

Musac will only collect and exhibit art made from 1992 to 2012, in what the director, Rafael Doctor, describes as, "our bet that the art of this particular moment will be of lasting interest for later generations." The building's popularity can be seen in the fact that it has replaced the 15th-century Palacio San Marcos as the preferred backdrop for wedding photos.

The nearby León Auditorium, also by Mansilla & Tunon, has an equally high-impact street presence of crisp white cubes perforated by irregularly set windows.

If your image of Barcelona's skyline includes Greg Louganis on the 3-meter platform, it's time to take a fresh look. Among the most striking additions is the Agbar Tower, also by Nouvel. He describes it as rising from the earth with the power and effervescence of a geyser - not a bad metaphor for the local water company, which commissioned the building.

Located on the Placa de les Glories Catalanes, it is not open to the public, yet it feels like a public monument, given its visibility from almost any point in the city, especially at night when it glows like a 21st-century Oz. Its 31 floors are sheathed in two "skins," the inner of polished aluminum in shades of gray, terra cotta and blue, and an outer skin of nearly 60,000 panels of glass, some clear and some opaque.

The public is more than welcome to visit the Santa Caterina Market on Avinguda Francesc Cambo, designed by EMBT Miralles Tagliabue Arquitectes Associats. The project to restore a humdrum neighborhood market produced one of the most eye-catching structures since the days of Gaudi.

Crowned by a wildly undulating roof adorned with a pixilated mosaic of vividly colored fruit, the market has become an emblem of the neighborhood's rebirth, although the architects say the rooftop extravaganza was really meant to be a bonus for the neighbors who have to look down on it. The market sells everything from fresh vegetables to traditional delicacies.


Cartaya es un bonito pueblo de la provincia de Huelva, a escasos seis kilómetros de Lepe y de donde también partieron hombres y mujeres para la aventura de América, Hemos revisado los nombres de los naturales o vecinos de Cartaya que figuren en los Catálogos de Pasajeros a Indias desde 1500 a 1599 y he encontrado los que detallo a continuación, por si alguno de ellos es su ascendiente:

*FRANCISCO VAZQUEZ, hijo de Juan Vázquez y de Beatriz Martín, que partió el 20 de julio de 1512.

*BARTOLOMÉ QUINTANO, hijo de Andrés Quintano y de Constanza Ramírez, vecinos de Cartaya, que marchó a América en 5 de noviembre de 1512

*JUAN MARTÍN LOBERO, hijo de Francisco Martín Lobero y de Ana Benítez, natural de Cartaya. A San Juan de Puerto Rico y a Cuba el 28 de abril de 1534.

*BARTOLOMÉ DE REAL, hijo de Alonso García de Real y de Sancha Muñoz, vecinos de Cartaya, al Río de la Plata el 12 de julio de 1535

*JUAN BRICEÑO, clérigo, natural de Cartaya, hijo de Sebastián Rodríguez y de Juana Márquez, que marchó a Perú el 4 de noviembre de 1559

*MARINA FRANCA, natural de Cartaya. Hoja de Alonso Tirado y de Isabel Díaz, con su hijo Alonso, a Nueva España, donde está su marido Diego Martín, el 5 de junio de 1578.

                                       Ángel Custodio Rebollo

Publicado en Odiel Informacion, de Huelva, el 23 de mayo de 2006


Hace 500 años que murió en Valladolid el Almirante, concretamente fue el 20 de mayo de 1506. En 500 años, y no por falta de intentos, no se ha conseguido averiguar donde nació, porque cada día aparece un libro, que su autor dice esta “muy documentado”, con el lugar de nacimiento de Cristóbal Colon. Personalmente he leído algunos de ellos, que tengo en mi biblioteca, y yo no se decir si Colón nació en Génova, Ibiza, Francia, Galicia, en el Alentejo portugués, en Cataluña o si era un extraterrestre, porque todos le dan muchas vueltas y ese estar bien documentado, que dicen, se derrumba a las primeras de cambio.

Lo que si se va averiguando es la localización de sus restos, porque casi coincidiendo con la efemérides, he leído un pequeño articulo del Director Científico del proyecto de identificación, José Antonio Lorente, en el que confirma que los restos que se conservan en la Catedral de Sevilla, corresponden al Descubridor de América.

Faltan investigar sobre los restos que se encuentran en Santo Domingo, en la Republica Dominicana, pero sus autoridades, hasta ahora, no han autorizado a que sean investigados.

Que los huesos de Colon estén deteriorados es lógico, pues no solo han pasado 500 años también hicieron mucho recorrido, porque después de morir, concretamente el 11 de abril de 1509, llegaron a Sevilla y fueron depositados en el Monasterio de la Cartuja, según consta en el legajo 9.108 de los Protocolos notariales del Archivo Histórico de Sevilla y allí inició su peregrinar por diversas poblaciones a los dos lados del Atlántico.

Angel Custodio Rebollo



Sigfrido Burmann, La gira americana de Un Teatro de Arte 1926-1929
Japan's El Bigote, Mexican Restaurant 
Las Islas Canarias son una comunidad Autónoma
Linajes de San Miguel de Abona, located on the southern side Tenerife
Guatamalan Genealogist

Attached is my wife, Conchita Burman´s presentation of her book on the tour of her father, Sigfrido Burman´s three year tour of the Americas with the Spanish national theater. He was all over Latin America and in the US at the old Forrest Theater in New York on 49th St.   
Thanks for your help, Eric

Examples of his set designs can be viewed online.
Editor: Doing quick research on Sigfrido Burman was fascinating.  Born in Germany in 11 Nov 1891, he died in Madrid, Spain in 22 Jul 1980.  He was a set decorator for state and films. You can view examples of his work online.  It appears that most of his work was done in Spain.  He is associated with over a hundred films with titles in Spanish. I also found it interesting to view the numbers of ways his first name was written: Sigfrid, Siegfried, Sigfrido, Sigfredo . . and the last name with a single m or double m..

Editor:  I am truly honored to share the above information with Somos Primos readers.  
Dr. Eric Beerman is a prolific historian,  well known for this scholarly research and considerable writings. Dr. Beerman was born in Stockton, California.  He took a position in Spain in 1966 for what he thought was only a temporary arrangement and has lived there since. 

He is a member of numerous international historical organizations:
Real Sociedad Bascongada de los Amigos del País
Academia de la Historia de Ecuador
Asamblea Amistosa Literaria
Academia Colombiana de Historia
Sociedad Argentina de Historiadores
Granaderos de Gálvez
Centro Alessandro Malaspina per Storia e Tradizioni Marinare
Instituto Español Manuel Belgrano
Cofradía Internacional de Investigadores (Toledo)
Hidalgo de San Antonio de Béjar
Ente Latinoamericano de Heráldica y Vexilogía
Delta Phi Epsilon Foreign Trade Fraternity
Fundación España en U.S.A.
Sons of the American Revolution
Elegible para las sociedades Mayflower and Magna Carta

Japan's El Bigote, Mexican Restaurant 

Dear Mimi,
The photo of the taco stand in Japan in the last newsletter (which as usual is GREAT!!!) prompted me to send a photo of a Mexican restaurant my family and I went to in Japan in September 2005.  The owner, who is a Japanese national, had spent some time in Mexico and loved the food and the culture.  He wore a huuuuge bigote and spoke beautiful Spanish.  His food is fresh and tasty--the corn tortillas were made the minute we ordered our food--nothing is prepared before hand.  That's me, wrapped in the flag, my husband took the photo just as the wind came up.   Our daughter and granddaughter are standing in the doorway.

Marge Vallazza.

The information and links below can be found at:

Las Islas Canarias son una comunidad Autónoma (7 islas) y esta dividida en dos provincias Las Palmas y Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

La provincia de Las Palmas se compone de 3 islas:
Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote ( con pequeña isla La Graciosa)

La provincia de Santa Cruz de Tenerife se compone de 4 islas: 
Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, El Hierro.

Municipios de Gran Canaria:
Agaete | Agüimes | Artenara | Arucas | Firgas | Gáldar | Ingenio | Mogán | Moya | Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | San Bartolomé de Tirajana | San Nicolás de Tolentino | Santa Brígida | Santa Lucía | Santa María de Guía | Tejeda | Telde | Teror | Valsequillo | Valleseco | Vega de San Mateo

Municipios de Fuerteventura:
Antigua | Betancuria | La Oliva | Pájara | Puerto del Rosario | Tuineje

Municipios de Lanzarote:
Arrecife | Haría | San Bartolomé | Teguise | Tías | Tinajo | Yaiza

Municipios de Tenerife:
Adeje | Arafo | Arico | Arona | Buenavista del Norte | Candelaria | Fasnia | Garachico | Granadilla de Abona | La Guancha | Guía de Isora | Güimar | Icod de los Vinos | La Laguna | La Matanza de Acentejo | La Orotava | Puerto de La Cruz | Los Realejos | El Rosario | San Juan de la Rambla | San Miguel de Abona | Santa Cruz de Tenerife| Santa Úrsula | Santiago del Teide | El Sauzal | Los Silos | Tacoronte | El Tanque | Tegueste | La Victoria de Acentejo | Vilaflor

Municipios de La Plama:
Barlovento | Breña Alta | Breña Baja | Fuencaliente | Garafía | Los Llanos de Aridane | El Paso | Puntagorda | Puntallana | San Andrés y Sauces | Santa Cruz de la Palma | Tazacorte | Tijarafe | Villa de Mazo

Municipios de La Gomera:
Agulo | Alajeró | Hermigüa | San Sebastián de La Gomera | Valle Gran Rey | Vallehermoso

Municipios de El Hierro: Frontera | Valverde

Linajes de San Miguel de Abona, located on the southern side Tenerife
Sent by Paul Newfield 
Source: quiqueplasencia 

El joven investigador, historiador y honorable juez, Nelson Díaz Frías, publicó recientemente (2005) la 2da edición de su estudio "Linajes de San Miguel de Abona" donde recoge la historia genealógica de más de 70 apellidos chasneros que dieron forma a este municipio sureño. Su primera edición se agotó rápidamente. Aunque el libro tiene un simple costo de 15 euros, su peso de más de un kilo aumenta su precio si se ordena por vía aérea. En Puerto Rico hemos 
identificado un gran número de familias entroncando con los datos que hay en ese libro, como: Abreu, Acevedo, Alayón, Alfonso, Beltrán, Bernal, Casanova, Delgado, Díaz, Estévez, Garaboto, García, Gonazález, Hermández, Marrero, Mena, Monroy, Oramas, Perdigón, Pulido, Querido, Reyes, Rodríguez, Sierra, Tacoronte, Toledo, etc. 

Muchas de las familias que quedaron en Tenerife son discutidas, así como algunas de Puerto Rico, pero aún quedan truncas, sin identificar, ramas que sabemos deben haber emigrado a las Américas. Esperamos que las nvestigaciones genealógicas en nuestras tierras permitan algún día incorporarse en nuevas ediciones o adendum a esa obra. 

El libro se puede conseguir (creo que solo) en la Concejalía de Cultura del Ayuntamiento de San Miguel de Abona.    Enrique

Guatamalan Genealogist
Janete Vargas
From: Fredy Jimenez

Dear Janette: The motive of this is that I made contact with Guillermo Castaneda Lee, a professional genealogist from Guatemala. He had done a lot of research even have written five books, and working in another one. ( I am planning in buying his books for my personal library). His work is mostly from people that populated the East part of Guatemala (Zacapa). I believe his research and findings are of great value for Guatemalans looking for ancestors from that part of the country. perhaps you can give this information to Lorraine, so she can use the yahoo net to pass the word, or whomever you may think Mr Castaneda's work can be of help.


History of Our Forefathers and Nation!
Sent by Janete Vargas

Immediately after creating the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress voted to purchase and import 20,000 copies of Scripture for the people of this nation. Patrick Henry, who is called the firebrand of the American Revolution, is still remembered for his words, "Give me liberty or give me death"; but in current textbooks, the context of these words is omitted. 

Here is what he actually said:"An appeal to arms and the God of hosts is all that is left us. But we shall not fight our battle alone. There is a just God that presides over the destinies of nations. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone. Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it Almighty God. I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death." 

These sentences have been erased from our textbooks. Was Patrick Henry a Christian? The following year, 1776, he wrote this: "It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great Nation was founded not by religionists, but by Christians; not on religions, but on the Gospel of Jesus Christ. For that reason alone, people of other faiths have been afforded freedom of worship here." 

Consider these words that Thomas Jefferson wrote in the front of his well-worn Bible:"I am a real Christian, that is to say, a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus.I have little doubt that our whole country will soon be rallied to the unity of our creator." He was also the chairman of the American Bible Society, which he considered his highest and most important role. 
On July 4, 1821, President Adams said,"The highest glory of the American Revolution was this: "It connected in one indissoluble bond the principles of civil government with the principles of Christianity." 

Calvin Coolidge, our 30th President of the United States reaffirmed this truth when he wrote,"The foundations of our society and our government rest so much on the teachings of the Bible that it would be difficult to support them if faith in these teachings would cease to be practically universal in our country." 
In 1782, the United States Congress voted this resolution: _The Congress of the United States recommends and approves the Holy Bible for use in all schools ." 
William Holmes McGuffey is the author of the McGuffey Reader, which was used for over 100 years in our public schools, with over 125 million copies sold, until it was stopped in 1963. 

President Lincoln called him the "Schoolmaster of the Nation." Listen to these words of Mr. McGuffey:"The Christian religion is the religion of our country. From it are derived our nation, on the character of God, on the great moral Governor of the universe. On its doctrines are founded the peculiarities of our free Institutions. From no source has the author drawn more conspicuously than from the sacred Scriptures. For all these extracts from the Bible, I make no apology" 

Of the first 108 universities founded in America, 106 were distinctly Christian, including the first, Harvard University, chartered in 1636. In the original Harvard Student Handbook, rule number 1 was that students seeking entrance must know Latin and Greek so that they could study the Scriptures: "Let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to consider well, the main end of his life and studies, is, to know God and Jesus Christ, which is eternal life, John 17:3; and therefore to lay Jesus Christ as the only foundation for our children to follow the moral principles of the Ten Commandments." 

James Madison, the primary author of the Constitution of the United States, said this:"We have staked the whole future of all our political constitutions upon the capacity of each of ourselves to govern ourselves according to the moral principles of the Ten Commandments." 

Most of what you have read here has been erased from our textbooks. Revisionists have and are rewriting history to remove the truth about our country's Christian roots. You are encouraged to share this with others, so that the truth of our nation's history will be told. 


Turn family photos into an artful exhibit
New PAF Genealogical Tutorial available Online... 
Another Method of Using
Volunteers sought for Beta 2 Test of Research Advice Forums
"The Help Center Research Advice Forums"
Finding Real genealogical Recored amidst the confusion
Using Rootsweb: Exploring the SS-5

Turn family photos into an artful exhibit
By Mary Beth Breckenridge, January 21, 2006
The Orange County Register

Displaying a collection of family photographs on your walls honors your heritage while adding warmth to your home.
However, what's intended as an infusion of personality can end up a mess if it's not arranged artfully, said Karen Thompson, a design expert with Home Depot.

The first step to an effective arrangement is choosing a spot where the photos won't be subjected to damage. Avoid direct sunlight, heat sources and areas with high humidity, such as bathrooms, Thompson said.

Next, choose frames and mats that will enhance the photos and make the collection cohesive. Thompson recommended sticking with a limited selection of
similar frames, especially if you're displaying both  color and black-and-white photos. If you can't 
afford new frames, paint old ones to make them coordinate. She also recommended using wide mats in a neutral cream color. Now comes the creative part: arranging. Thompson suggested making a trial grouping on the wall using photocopies of the pictures in their frames and attaching them with low-tack painter's tape. It's helpful to mark off a perimeter as a guide and to treat the entire arrangement as one large piece of art, she said.

"Aim for overall symmetry, she advised, but remember that a little asymmetry adds interest. Try to keep the distance between frames relatively consistent and the pictures no more than a few inches apart.

Make sure the arrangement is at the eye level from which it will be viewed most of the time. Artwork should be hung lower in an area such as a dining room where people usually are seated, and higher in an area such as a hallway where they're usually standing.
When you're satisfied with the arrangement, mark the wall at the middle of the top edge of the photocopies while they're still on the wall. Measure the distance between the top of the frame and the hanging mechanism.

Hang the pictures securely using appropriate hardware. If you're driving nails into plaster, cover the spots with masking tape to prevent chipping.

New PAF Genealogical Tutorial available Online... 
Sent by Janete Vargas  and David Lewis

PROVO, Utah — A team of Brigham Young University students and faculty members recently created a new free online tutorial for the Personal Ancestral File program that is available at to anyone interested in family history.

Originally created for students in BYU family history classes, the interactive tutorial is most helpful to those not familiar with the widely used LDS PAF program. 

Tutorial participants can pick and choose which areas of PAF they need to know more about by clicking on either a step-by-step textual guide or an interactive demonstration for each point of reference in the menu.

Because of audio components, the interactive demonstrations require speakers or headphones to listen to instructions.

The tutorial covers the entire PAF program, from importing information from other family history programs to exporting information to the church's TempleReady program.

The project was developed through the cooperation of BYU's Center for Instructional Design, the Center for Family History and Genealogy and Kip Sperry, a BYU professor of family history.

For more information about PAF and family history, go to  

Another Method of Using
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez  and Janete Vargas

Newsletter reader Sandra Quinn sent an e-mail describing her new web site. She has found a user-friendly method of using Batch Numbers. Sandra writes: I discovered a way last year to search just the vital records at by using the state and county specific batch numbers and have created a new website with a clickable map and links that take the researcher directly to these record indexes. I have also included links to any other public free vital record index databases that are online. This is such a great tool for researchers and I wanted to share it with you and your readers. You can locate ancestors quickly and easily from this site. 

Your friend in genealogy,  Sandra Quinn  Her new site is available at

Comment on this site: "This site takes a researcher directly to the courthouse death, birth and marriage vital records that were copied by members of the LDS church. It also does not require any middle step. Once on a county batch site one only has to put in a first or last name to search through the records or leave the boxes blank to see all the county records to find relatives. Finding ancestors this way is so quick, and if a family search index does not exist for a county and other databases are free online they are linked to also. I found about one hundred relatives in different states in a matter of minutes. Now I can happily order the vital records. "Posted by: Robin M

The following article is from Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter and is copyright 2006 by Richard W. Eastman. It is re-published here with the permission of the author. Newsletter is available at

Volunteers sought for Beta 2 Test of new FamilySearch Help Center Research Advice Forums

Hello, I work in the Family and Church History Department of the LDS Church in Salt Lake City. Our Research Support group is looking for individuals who want to be part of our Beta 2 test of the new FamilySearch™ Help Center Research Advice Forums. 
"The Help Center Research Advice Forums"
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez

By now most of the genealogical community has heard about the new FamilySearch™ system the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is developing, but fewer have heard of the Help Center. The Help Center is a web–based program designed to provide a self-service support environment for the new FamilySearch.

Among the exciting additions of the Help Center are the Research Advice Forums. These online communities will provide users a chance to ask their research questions and allow other users with research experience to share their knowledge. The forums will be available in eight languages, and will eventually cover every country of the world.

Research Advice Forums

FamilySearch Support (part of the Family and Church History Department) has been given the task to provide family history research support worldwide. Since volunteers in family history centers and genealogical societies collectively possess so much research knowledge, FamilySearch Support has created an online environment where these people can share their knowledge with those looking for help with their family history. 

The Research Advice Forums are different than any other genealogical forum online. How many times have you asked a question in an online forum and never received an answer? Research Advice Forums will be different. FamilySearch Support will actively manage its forums and notify the forum moderator of any questions that have gone unanswered for a given amount of time. The forum moderator will then ask a research specialist to answer the user’s question.

The forums also have a dynamic search feature. Every time a question is asked and answered it is automatically added to the Help Center’s knowledge base of answers. The knowledge base contains forum posts, websites, authored articles, and Family History Library publications. As questions are asked and answered, websites added, and new articles written, the Help Center’s knowledge base will continue to grow.

Testing the New System

The new FamilySearch beta 2 test is coming soon. For beta 2, FamilySearch Support is looking for individuals with research experience to help test the forums. We will be asking beta testers to do a series of tasks in the forums designed to test the system’s features to make sure they are ready for public use. Testers will be asked to spend about 1-2 hours per week or more if they choose. Anyone participating in the Research Advice Forums testing will also have full access to the new FamilySearch. If you are interested in helping us test our forums and being a part of the new FamilySearch email us at: (please include “Renee Zamora blog” the subject line of your email).

Renee's note: Alright all you lucky people go forth and inundate the Family and Church History Department of the LDS Church with your desire to participate in this next beta test. I had a chance to play with the system during beta 1. (It was hiding there all the time and I only found it near the end.) It has a fantastic concept that I know will work. Your help is needed so here's your chance.

If you are interested in helping us test our forums and being a part of the new FamilySearch, email us at:  (please include "Attention Anne Wuehler" in the subject line of your email .)

Compiled by Janete Vargas



Non profit :


Gazetteers and Geographic:


. [Buscupio history seek] [HyperHistory for medieval times]


Search Engines – General – Genealogical
[Internet family finder]
[Searches eight sites]



Genealogical Collections:
[BYU family history archives]

Mailing Lists


Major Genealogy Sites

 [through libraries]
[Canada Census]


[Arizona Vital Records]
[West Virginia Vital Records]
[Indiana Marriages]

 [Ontario Cemeteries]
   [Current obituaries]


Cemetery Inscriptions:
[tombstone inscriptions]`usgenweb/

Immigration Lists

Land & Property
[Bureau of Land Management]

Library or Archive Catalogs
[Allen County Library] 
[Genealogy Master Library Catalog [Library of Congress]
[National Archives]

Link Lists
[Native or African American]
[I dream of Genealogy]

Military Records
[subscription only]



[Wills project] writes:

USING ROOTSWEB: Exploring the SS-5

Now that you have found Aunt Grace in the RootsWeb SSDI (Social Security Death Index) what's next? Let's assume you wish to send away to the Social Security Administration for information included on Grace's SS-5 (Application for a Social Security Number). This information is available under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) for deceased individuals.

To request Aunt Grace's data, click on the link that says "SS-5 Letter" under the Tools column on the line with her SSDI listing at RootsWeb. You will find a preprinted request letter with her Social Security number and other pertinent information already typed in for you. Print the letter and enclose a check for $27 and mail it to the address provided on the request form. You can also request the SS-5 information without the Social Security number, but it costs $29 in such cases.

What information can you hope to learn from the SS-5? You can expect to receive a printout from the microfilm of the items on the SS-5. It probably will provide the following information:

--Full name
--Full name at birth (including maiden name)
--Present mailing address (at time the application was made)
--Age at last birthday
--Date of birth
--Place of birth (city, county, state)
--Father's full name "regardless of whether living or dead"
--Mother's full name, including maiden name, "regardless of whether
living or dead"

Many of the requests being made for old SS-5 application data will include the information the person provided to obtain his or her Social Security Number originally -- based upon the questions asked on the old form. The items originally found on the SS-5 application when Social Security first began can be viewed on the Social Security website:

Keep in mind that birthdates and other information supplied by the applicant were generally not verified at the time of application on the older applications--but rather, proof was submitted at the time the individual or his family members applied for benefits on his account. The information on the SS-5 may or may not be 100 percent accurate.

Besides requesting SS-5 information, what other data can you obtain from SSA? Requests for Computer Extracts of Social Security Number Applications, called Numidents, may be made at a charge of $16 -- if the SSN is provided and $18 if the SSN is not provided. The Numident has limited information but it does include name changes for married women. This information is not found on the original SS-5 forms.

Many Numident records of older individuals, primarily those born in 1910 or earlier, are abbreviated records that do not contain the names of the individual's parents and may not contain the place of birth. While it happens infrequently, there have been cases where only the Numident form still exists.

The SSA will also search for information about the death of an individual for a fee of $16 if the SSN is provided, and $18 if it isn't. Note that SSA does not usually have the place of death, burial, or cause of death. It will not search for the Social Security number of anyone born before 1865.

SSA attempts to handle request within 20 (working) days from the date it is received. However, it may take longer depending on the difficulty of finding the record and depending upon the current case load. Requests are processed on a "first in" "first out" basis.


Archeologists discover Maya tomb, defy looters 
Amazon Stonehenge' found in Brazil 
Roman Trade With the Canary Islands 

Archeologists discover Maya tomb, defy looters, 
By Mica Rosenberg

Archeologists outsmarted tomb raiders to unearth a major Maya Indian royal burial site in the Guatemalan jungle, discovering jade jewelry and a jaguar pelt from more than 1,500 years ago.

The tomb, found by archeologist Hector Escobedo last week, contains a king of the El Peru Waka city, now in ruins and covered in thick rainforest teeming with spider monkeys.

He may have been the dynastic founder of the city, on major Mayan trade routes that could have stretched from the city of Tikal in Guatemala up through Mexico.

"If this is indeed the founder, then it is a discovery of a lifetime," said David Freidel of Southern Methodist University in Texas, who co-directs the project with Escobedo.

The excavation team were working against the clock, aware that would-be treasures looters were scouting the same area.

Just a day before Escobedo discovered the tomb, looters sneaked into a tunnel the archeologists dug under the pyramid, clearing out rock and rubble in a fruitless effort to find booty.

Looters frequently raid Mayan archeological sites in the northern department of Peten. Known as "guecheros," an expression derived from the local word for armadillos, because they dig through dirt, they sell treasure that often finds its way to U.S. museums or private collections.

"They usually work at night or very fast and do whatever they please," Escobedo said.

El Peru Waka was discovered in the 1960s, but Escobedo and his team began scientific excavation three years ago. They had to stabilize the pyramid where he found the tomb after looters opened two tunnels the size of elevator shafts in it, leaving it close to collapse.

On Tuesday, another team of archeologists found what could be a second royal grave in a pyramid up the hill from the tomb, this one probably dating from some 400 years later.

That tomb has yet to be opened, but judging by an elaborate offering of a dozen miniature figurines of ball players, elegant women, dwarfs and seated lords found inside the pyramid, the burial site is likely to contain more royal remains, archeologists said.

At that spot, an archeologist picked up a small disc made of shell and jade about the size of U.S. nickel coin and flipped it over to reveal the elaborate profile of a head of what appears to be monkey.

The Mayans dominated southeastern Mexico and much of Central America for thousands of years until the Spanish conquest 500 years ago. Their descendants still live in the region.



Amazon Stonehenge' found in Brazil 
Sent by John Inclan  

Archaeologists discovered a pre-colonial astrological observatory possibly 2,000 years old in the Amazon basin near French Guiana, said a report. "Only a society with a complex culture could have built such a monument," archaeologist Mariana Petry Cabral, of the Amapa Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (IEPA), told O Globo newspaper.

The observatory was built of 127 blocks of granite each three meters (10 feet) high and regularly placed in circles in an open field, she said.

Cabral said the site resembles a temple which could have been used as an observatory, because the blocks are positioned to mark the winter solstice. In December, the path of the sun allows rays to pass through a hole in one of the blocks, possibly to calculate agricultural activity and religious rituals.

Its exact age has been difficult to determine, but based on ceramic fragments found nearby, archaeologists estimate it between 500 and 2,000 years old.

The discovery is in Calcoene, 390 kilometers (240 miles) from Macapa, the capital of Amapa state, near Brazil's border with French Guyana.

Archaeologists said the find holds mysteries similar to Stonehenge, in Salisbury, England, another monument of huge stones, whose purpose is also unclear.

Roman Trade With the Canary Islands 
Volume 50 Number 3, May/June 1997 
by Andrew L. Slayman 
Sent by Bill Carmena
Souce: Paul Newfield III

The site of El Bebedero on Lanzarote in the Canary Islands has provided the first secure evidence of Roman trade with the archipelago. (Courtesy Pablo Atoche Peña) [LARGER IMAGE] 

Excavations on the island of Lanzarote in the Canary Islands have turned up the first securely dated evidence of Roman trade with the archipelago. Dug by a team under Pablo Atoche Peña of the Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Juan Ángel Paz Peralta of the Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain, the prehistoric settlement of El Bebedero yielded about 100 Roman potsherds, nine pieces of metal, and one piece of glass. The artifacts were found in strata dated between the first and fourth centuries A.D. 

Greek accounts tell of an island beyond the Pillars of Hercules where the Elysian Fields lay. The Greek historian Plutarch (ca. A.D. 46-120) described the islands more accurately, and the Roman poet Lucan (A.D. 39-65) and the Egyptian astronomer and geographer Ptolemy (ca. A.D. 90-168) gave their precise locations. In 1964 a Roman amphora was discovered in waters off Lanzarote, and since then a number of others have been found underwater. All, however, lacked proper context and could not be dated precisely; that they were truly Roman was also questioned because many were similar to amphorae used by the Spanish in the sixteenth century for trade with the Americas. The finds from El Bebedero show that Romans did trade with the Canaries, though there is no evidence of their ever settling there. 

Most of the potsherds belong to large amphorae used to carry such commodities as wine, salt fish, and olive oil. Analysis of their clay indicates that the vessels originally came from Campania (a region in central Italy), Baetica (southern Spain), and Tunisia. Atoche Peña and Paz Peralta have suggested, however, that all of them probably arrived in the Canaries via Baetica, a natural stopover on the way from Italy and Tunisia. What they brought to the islands is unknown, but such amphorae were likely used to carry fish from the rich fishing banks nearby to Roman salting plants on the Moroccan coast and thence to Spain. 

That all of the amphorae arrived on Lanzarote between the first and fourth centuries A.D. suggests that trade with Rome was largely confined to this period, roughly coinciding with Rome's involvement in northwestern Africa. Nearby Mauretania, now northern Morocco and Algeria, was a client kingdom of Rome beginning ca. 49 B.C., and in A.D. 40 Emperor Claudius divided it into the provinces of Tingitana and Caesariensis. Roman rule of Mauretania extended into the early fifth century, when the Vandal king Gaiseric descended on the area; by 461 Rome had given up claim to the provinces. 

© 1997 by the Archaeological Institute of America

Miscellaneous Comments made in the year 1955

Sent by Orlando Lozano

"I'll tell you one thing, if things keep going the way they are, it's going to be impossible to buy 2 weeks' groceries for $20."

"Have you seen the new cars coming out next year? It won't be long before $2000 will only buy a used one."

"If cigarettes keep going up in price, I'm going to quit. A quarter a pack is ridiculous."

"Did you hear the post office is thinking about charging a dime just to mail a letter?"
"If they raise the minimum wage to 75 cents, nobody will be able to hire outside help at the store."

"When I first started driving, who would have thought gas would someday cost 17 cents a gallon. Guess we'd be better off leaving the car in the garage."

"Kids today are impossible Those duck tail hair cuts make it impossible to stay groomed. Next thing you know, boys will be wearing their hair as long as the girls."

"I'm afraid to send my kids to the movies any more. Ever since they let Clark Gable get by with saying 'damn' in 'Gone With The Wind,' it seems every new movie has either "hell" or "damn" in it.

"I read the other day where some scientist thinks it's possible to put a man on the moon by the end of the century They even have some fellows they call astronauts preparing for it down in Texas."

"Did you see where some baseball player just signed a contract for $75,000 a year just to play ball? It wouldn't surprise me if someday they'll be making more than the president."

"I never thought I'd see the day all our kitchen appliances would be electric. They are even making electric typewriters now."

"It's too bad things are so tough nowadays. I see where a few married women are having to work to make ends meet."

"It won't be long before young couples are going to have to hire someone to watch their kids so they can both work."

"Marriage doesn't mean a thing any more; those Hollywood stars seem to be getting divorced at the drop of a hat."

"I'm just afraid the Volkswagen car is going to open the door to a whole lot of foreign business."

"Thank goodness I won't live to see the day when the Government takes half our income in taxes. I sometimes wonder if we are electing the best people to congress."

"The drive-in restaurant is convenient in nice weather, but I seriously doubt they will ever catch on."

"There is no sense going to Lincoln or Omaha anymore for a weekend. It costs nearly $4 a night to stay in a hotel."

"No one can afford to be sick any more; $35 a day in the hospital is too rich for my blood."

"If they think I'll pay 50 cents for a hair cut, forget it."





                12/30/2009 04:49 PM