OF THE MISSION OF SAINT NICOLAS OF AGUALEGUAS
The Mission of Saint Nicolas of Gualeguas was founded in a
region called “Alive War.” The
Viceroy, Archbishop of
, Fray Payo Enrique. Afan of Rivera and Manrique of Lara, gave the
pass to the Royal Card firmed in Sevilla, Spain, the 13th
of may of 1675 for the foundation of such Mission in the New Kingdom
of Nuevo Leon, city governed by D. Nicolas of Azcarraga, son of Dn.
Martin Perez of Azcarraga and Dna. Maria Montero Gonzalez de la Torre,
named in the year 1667.
In a visit paid to these lands by Sr. Archbishop of
, Dn. Miguel Fernandez of
and Sahagun, he decided to found the Mission of San Nicolas of
Gualeguas with the approval of the Governor Dn. Nicolas of Azcarraga.
San Nicolas for the name of the ruler and of Gualeguas for the name of
one of the main tribes of the region.
It was populated with Indians of the local tribes, in the north
shore of the current
. Protacio P. Cadena mentions in his booked published in 1942, that
was the tribe or nation of Mal Nombre the chosen one, for being docile
to conversion with its Cacique; also,
from Fray Diego Vazquez, the Franciscan missionary who came to
instill the Christian faith for the first time. If this affirmation is
true, then this preacher had a very long life, from the year 1770 or
1771. And if to this we add the years he may had had at the time of
his arrival, than he lived around 115 or 120 years. No proof has been
found of this data, but that for sure he was a generous missionary and
loved by the Indians.
The Mission of San Nicolas of Gualeguas was founded in the
north shore of the river Agualeguas, approximately at two and a half
kilometers from the place where Martin de Zavala founded the Mission
of Santa Teresa del Almillo in 1646 (Protacio P. Cadena). If this
affirmation is true, the place would be “Los Vazquez, inside the
current Dam of Agualeguas. Until the present the exact place hasn’t
been able to be determined; is believed that might have been founded
in the fields of what is now the
With regard to the moving of the Indians from the Mission of
Santa Teresa of Alamillo to the Mission of San Nicolas of Gualeguas,
several versions exist. Protacio C. Cadena, says in his writings of
Agualeguas, that in agreement with the very distinguished Sr. Dn.
Santiago Leon and Garabito, the Indians were moved from the Mission of
Santa Teresa to the Mission of Gualeguas. And the agreement was due to
the proximity of the Missions from one another.
Dn. Israel Cavazos Garza, in the aforementioned Biographical
Dictionary, writes that Dn. Gregorio Salinas Verona, Governor and High
Captain of the
, paid the general visit to all towns in 1706, and he concentrated the
Indians from the Mission of Alamillo and Agualeguas.
The cleric and very renowned historian Dn. Aureliano Tapia
Mendez says: in the file
relative to the Re-foundation in 1773 (like the common tradition that
the Saint Virgen, who is worshiped in the present church of Gualeguas;
was moved from the Mission of Alamillo). She is the ninth of Our Lady
of Agualeguas, printed in 1981.
In a document found in the archives of the Presidential
Municipality of Agualeguas, that was presented in litigation over
lands with Dn. Juan Antonio de Benavides, as proof of the
existence of the Town of Agualeguas for almost 100 years. I will
transcribe what concerns to the Repopulation. Says in its final part:
A.T.T. Our Superior Council of Indians, with whom we have an
agreement, in Seville, 13 days of the month of January of the year one
thousand six hundred and seventy five. By decree of your majesty, I,
E. P. King. Enrique Rangel and Araujo. Rubric and continue other
documents about this litigation that ended the 3rd of
October of 1809.
Dn. Juan Bautista Chapa was born in Albisola,
in 1630. Son of Bartolome Chapa and Batestina Badi. Alonso de Leon
brought him to Nuevo
in Dec. of 1650 (he lived in
). The Governor Cuervo de Valdes was generous to him in lands of what
are today Agualeguas, General Trevino, and Paras, lands that his
FACTS AND IMPORTANT CHARACTERS FROM 1675 TO 1775.
Nicolas Recio, Religious Franciscan Preacher, Doctrinaire of
the towns of Agualeguas and Alamillo.
Saint John of Leon and Garabito, being the bishop of
, in his pastoral visit to the New Kingdom of Leon and the
, founded in it a Cofradia, with the hospitality, title, and advocacy
of Our Lady of the Conception of Agualeguas and Bucareli, forming
Constitutions for it.
Francisco Vela entered to populate the New Kingdom of Leon in
1645. Was neighbor to Cerralvo and in the year 1685 lands were granted
to him next to the river Agualeguas.
Diego of Evia, religious Franciscan, was designated
Presidential Doctrinaire of Saint Nicolas of Gualeguas.
Gregorio Salinas Verona, Governor and General Captain of Nuevo
, replaced Francisco Baez
Trevino. He paid a general visit of the towns in the year 1706
and he ordered to concentrate the Indians from the Mission of Saint
Teresa of Alamillo into the one of Agualeguas. Dn. Juan Bautista Ruiz
asked him for a protection over land rights that he had been granted.
The Governor, attending to his request, sends to measure the
lands to Dn. Manuel Campuzano Coss and Cevallos, and to such
measurements Dn. Francisco Baez Trevino
was opposed, because he had another land neighboring the one of Dn.
Juan Bautista. After this litigation, landowners showed up asking for
their lands to be measured as well; among them Dn. Nicolas of Chapa,
to who were measured the lands of his father Dn. Juan Bautista Chapa,
to whom had been awarded lands in what is today Agualeguas, Paras, and
Dn. Nicolas de Chapa and his brothers sell a big portion of the
lands that were awarded to Dn. Juan Guerra Canamar, Highest Mayor of
Cerralvo and Protector of Indians, being the justice or Mayor of the
Mission of Agualeguas, Dn. Blas Canales.
Dn. Francisco of Barbadillo and Victoria was a ruler who
decreased the dissatisfaction in the New Kingdom of Leon, applying
measures with wisdom, equity, and justice, preventing the abuse of the
Indians from those in charge. He repopulated the Missions of
Hualahuises and Gualeguas in 1714, and in 1715 the Mission of
Guadalupe to which he gave the title of a town January 4th
Miguel Pacheco, Franciscan Religious, priest and minister,
doctrinaire of the Cerralvo Convent. He also administrated the town of
until May 16th of 1730; date when he resigned.
Jose de Vergara, Franciscan, preacher and doctrinaire, being
missionary in Gualeguas and doctrinaire in Cerralvo, in such year,
complained to the Governor of Penalva about the landowners taking the
Indians to work without paying them.
Dn. Pedro Barrio when visiting in 1754 de Mission of Saint
Nicolas of Agualeguas finds only 5 Indians.
The count of Revillagigedo relinquishes the command of the
kingdom to the Marques of the Amarillas; and in fulfilling the wishes
of his predecessor, sent the General Commissioner of the province,
Fray Jose Antonio Oliva, in this in time, sent the Franciscan
religious, Fray Alonso de Valdez in 1757, so he would supply corn,
cells, axes, hoes, steers, cows, and other thing essential to work the
fields, promoting with this the agriculture and livestock in the
mission. Livestock ranches already existed like the one of Alamo de
los Canales, property of Dn. Blas Canales, located south of the Alamo
river; the one of San Buena Ventura beside de margin of Sosa river;
the one of Our Lady of Guadalupe, in the north shore of the river
Gualeguas, of Don Nicolas de Chapa; the one of Don Juan Bautista Ruiz
and some others. All with major cattle, minor, and horses.
Fray Diego Vazquez left registered the last certificates of
baptisms and marriages in this
. His death occurred in the year 1770 or 1771 contributed much in the
walking away forever of the tribe Mal Nombre. This missionary was very
loved and respected by the Indians.
The Viceroy of the New Spain Dn. Antonio Maria Bucareli,
commands in the letter dated Sept 15 of 1772, to the Governor Dn.
Francisco de Echegaray, to form a population in the location of the
old Mission of San Nicolas of Agualeguas. Echeraray, in Nov 24th
of the same year, orders Dn. Juan Jose Gomez de Castro, High Mayor and
Captain of war of the Villa of Saint Gregorio of Cerralvo, that in
conformance with the dismantle of such Mission, another population
should be formed. Gomez de Castro, in Dec 16th of the same
year communicates to the neighbors of the jurisdiction who are
Spaniards and of good standing, to present them if they wanted to be
founders of the aforementioned population.
As a result of the
edict published April 28th, 12 neighbors had presented
accepting the conditions they would be subjected to for such
establishment. Posterior to this, the days 29 and 30 of April
and first of May, information is received from witnesses who knew the
area, the land is measured, and the terrain known to belong to the
is marked. The surveyor is elected and plans are made for the main
plaza, church, streets, and solares for the 12 neighbors. From the 3rd
to the 5th of May the awarding is made for each neighbor,
and in May 6 of the same year the paperwork is submitted to the
Jeronimo de la Portilla, Franciscan religious, is Missionary of
the town of
In this year, D. Melchor Vidal de la Lorca y Villena, Governor
of the New Kingdom of Leon from the previous year, continues the
Melchor Vidal de la Lorca, when visiting the town in this year,
finds its inhabitants devoted the work of the fields. This form of
government continued until 1821.
This is the
actual edit requesting repopulation of the Mission of Gualeguas.
Dn. Juan Jose Gomez de Castro, High Mayor and Captain of war
from this Villa of San Gregorio de Cerralvo and its jurisdiction given
by its majesty, God saves, lets all the neighbors of such Villa know
that per order of Sr. Governor and General Captain, Dn. Francisco de
Echegaray, at the 24 days of the month of Nov of the present year one
thousand seven hundred seventy two, in the city of Monterrey, the
receipt of a letter with date 15 of September of this year, in which
the excellent Sr. Viceroy commands that, in attention to the lack of
population in the Mission of Gualeguas, in such location should be
formed a population, facilitating the individuals residing there the
outmost comfort to secure their survival; but without causing expenses
to the Royal Hacienda, nor to take establish resources. And for the
verification of such town, the mentioned
Sr. Governor orders me to make it known to all the neighbors of
the jurisdiction who present to me as Spaniards in good standing
wanting to be founders of this population. To whom the lands will be
assigned from entire expansion of the property mentioned; and only
will give a short stipend in benefit of the Real Hacienda; and such
management will be done by me, according to the order. And to make all
the concerning parties aware of such, I command to publish this order
in the usual places were news are posted for all in the quality
expressed on it and of good manners, be presented to me, from the date
of publication and date of this edict, to know the number of families
wanting to go and be founders of such town, having 30 days to be
eligible. And once the period is completed and families acknowledged,
report to the Sr. Governor should be given, so the can determinate
what is convenient, and the date in the Villa is sixteen days of Dec
of one thousand seven hundred seventy two. Acting with witnesses for
the lack of public notary or Royalty for the period of the order, I
give faith: Juan Jose Gomez de Castro, High Mayor and Captain of war
of Villa of San Gregorio de Cerralvo, of the New Kingdom of Leon
RESULTS OF THE EDICT PUBLISHED FOR THE
As a result of the Edict published for the repopulation of the
Mission of Gualeguas, the next ones presented themselves to me: Dn.
Juan Antonio Canales, Dn. Carlos de
Benavides, Dn. Juan Angel Lozano, Dn. Jose Antonio Barrera,
Dn. Teodoro Salinas, Dn. Francisco Salinas, Dn. Gaspar Garcia, Dn.
Juan de Dios de la Garza, Dn. Jose Rafael Gonzalez Hidalgo Navarro,
Dn. Vicente Canales, Dn. Jose Antonio Canales, and Dn. Ignacio
Guajardo, everyone a family man, committing themselves to populate
Gualeguas. Who should admit and admitted them for such a population in
conformity with the Law Ten, Book fourth, Title fifteen of the
Compilation of Indias, under the next stipulations:
That within three months make themselves and their families
populate the place that was assigned for their house, solar, and farm,
and at the same time cultivate the lands assigned for the planting of
wheat, corn, sugar cane, and other seeds appropriately, and to occupy
with major and minor cattle the lands marked for grazing and known to
belong to the Mission. And they will possess and benefit from
everything for the four years that stipulates the law, and they will
form the population with its plaza and respective streets seeking its
highest splendor, and they will call it Our Lady of the Conception of
Gualeguas and Bucareli, and will preserve as much of the church that
still remains in such Mission, in which the miraculous image of Our
Lady the Virgin Mary is worshiped, and is the favorite advocate, and
that in not attending to these stipulations they will be punished as
the Law Twenty one, fourth book, seventh title, from the compilation
of Indians reads, and to make it official it was notarized in my
presence the present certificate and stipulations, which was signed by
the ones aware, and the witnesses of my attendance, by secretary for
not having a public notary or royalty during the legal term, and is
done in this Villa of Saint Gregorio of Cerralvo, twenty eight days of
the month of April of one thousand seven hundred and seventy three. Of
all I give faith. Juan Jose Gomez de Castro. In attendance, Jose
Miguel Gomez de Castro. In attendance, Pedro Salinas, Juan Antonio
Canales, Ignacio Guajardo, Vicente Canales, Carlos
de Benavides, Jose Antonio Barrera, Jose Rafael Gonzalez
Hidalgo Navarro, Teodoro Salinas. In the place of Our Lady of the
Conception of Gualeguas and Bucareli, at twenty nine days of the month
of April of one thousand seven hundred and seventy three.
RECOGNITION OF BOUNDARIES
Dn. Juan Jose Gomez de
Castro, to proceed to the delivery of the lands to the new inhabitants
according to the law, orders to receive information of the boundaries
under such term the lands were assigned to such deserted Mission, and
provided by the witnesses in attendance. Immediately to proceed with
the confirmation of the information, I subpoenaed Dn. Jose Vazquez ,
neighbor of this jurisdiction and I give faith of knowing him, he
swore by God our Lord and the sign of the Holly Cross, and promised to
tell the truth about what he knew and would be asked about, according
to him he said that knows the boundaries that have been recognized as
belonging to the Mission of Gualeguas. One is the old Piedra Tendida
and salto of the water in the Arroyo as is commonly called, and that
neighbors with the lands that belonged to Captain Ruiz. And from there
towards north to a Place called Encinas de Pajuelas, where is told
there is a landmark of stone; running to the east, he knows the
boundaries of the Canada of the Cross, that is found below of los Ojos
of San Juan, and to the south the passage named Aldavalde, in such
stream of Gualeguas; from there, up the river to such Salto of Water
and Piedra Tendida, under which boundaries he has recognized as
belonging to such Mission; and this is the truth of what he knows
under the oath he made, and this declaration was read to him verbatim,
and was confirmed and ratified. He said to be of forty six years of
age, and was signed with me such judge, Jose Vazquez. A. Jose Miguel
Gomez de Castro. Pedro Salinas.
Consequently, for the information ordered to be received, I
subpoenaed Dn. Bernardo Canales, neighbor of this jurisdiction and
I give faith of knowing him, he swore by God our Lord and the sign of the Holly Cross, and promised to
tell the truth about what he knew and would be asked about, and being
examined, he said knowing that the boundaries that comprise the lands
of the Mission of Gualeguas were: the Old Piedra Tendida and the Salto
of Water, where neighbors the lands that used to belong to Captain
Ruiz, in the stream of Gualeguas, and from such point North in the
Paraje commonly called Las Encinas de Pajuelas, in front of them knows
a landmark of grinding stone, that he always has known as the divider
from such Captain Ruiz and the lands of this Mission, and from there
East, crossing through the Ojuelos of San Juan, down the canes,
bordering the old road traveled by the Alamo of the Canales,
immediately to such canes recognized another landmark by an old tree
named commonly, with a Holly Cross in a hill and towards southeast
arriving to the stream of Gualeguas, in the path named Aldavalde, and
from this up stream the divider of lands belonging to other several
landowners to the Old Piedra Tendida and salto de Water to the West,
and the land comprised under such boundaries I have recognized it as
part of the Mission of Gualeguas
for more than 50 years; and this is the truth under penalty of the
oath and read to him was his declaration, and he confirmed and
ratified it, and said being of seventy eight years of age; and
although he knew how to sign, he didn’t because he had impaired eye
sight, therefore I signed with such judge and the ones in attendance,
as said it is, I give faith. Incontinenti for the information that is
ordered to be received, was present here Dn. Francisco Antonio
Villarreal, from this referred jurisdiction, and his person I give
faith knowing and received the oath that he made according to law, and
under which he promised to tell the truth about what he knew and would
be asked about. He said that because having been a soldier and having
heard his ancestors say in the time while he remained a soldier, in
such Mission of Gualeguas, he has known the boundaries of lands of el
Salto of Water, of the Old Stone, the place named Encinas of Pajuelas,
where he has heard there is a landmark of a grinding stone; and
towards the east under the los Ojos de Saint Juan to end up at the
Canada of the Cross, and towards south, the stream named as of
Gualeguas, in the path of Aldavalde; and from there, upstream,
arriving to such Salto of Water. And this is the truth of what he
knows, and having been read his declaration verbatim, in it was
confirmed and ratified, under penalty of the oath that he made, he
said of being 50 years old, not knowing how to sign, therefore I
signed with such judge. As said it is, and from which I give faith.
ORDERS TO MEASURE THE LANDS.
In such place of Our Lady of Gualeguas and Bucareli at thirty
days of such month and year, I such judge, having proceeded to see
with the eyes the lands that comprised the deserted Mission of
Gualeguas, according with the constant boundaries from the information
received of their identities, of founding them according to
declarations, I should and I do command to continue with the measuring
of the land considered workable under said boundaries, and when done,
should be taken from it the corresponding land for Plaza, streets,
churches, royal houses, and places for neighbors; and the remaining
quantity to be distributed among said neighbors with the corresponding
water; so they can work and plant corn, wheat, sugar cane, and other
seeds convenient to them. For such task, I would name an ideal
surveyor, and under the right religion and oath, this promises to
perform such task with fidelity; that’s how I provided, ordered, and
signed those in attendance, as said it is, I give faith.
Incontinenti, in attention to the previous providence,
sufficiently instructed in the surveyor trade Dn. Diego de Sauto, I
name him as surveyor, to measure the lands recognized as bread
winning, and being present, he accepted such a commission, and swore
by God our Lord and the Holly Cross to fulfill his job without fraud
or collusion. And to certify he signed in my presence of supra and I
MEASUREMENT TOWARDS NORTH.
Immediately by virtue of the ordered, being in the field, in
the stream of Gualeguas, where joins the canes of Palo Blanco, under
the chapel, that was the deserted Mission of Gualeguas, that is
considered under irrigation, and being present the registered
neighbors and the witnesses of my attendance, I ordered the surveyor
Dn. Diego Sauto to adjust a string of twenty five Castilian yards, and
having this been done, I ordered to laid the string north northwest,
up the canes named Palo Blanco, where 36 strings were counted, and
they comprise nine hundred yards; in which place a ordered to put a
landmark of firm rock.
MEASUREMENT TO THE WEST, SOUTH, AND EAST.
From there to the west were measured one hundred and twenty one
strings that made three thousand twenty five yards, where another
landmark was put. And from here to the south, 36 strings were counted,
and with them, were arrived at the stream of Gualeguas, that comprise
nine hundred yards, where I ordered to erect another landmark. And
from this place, running east, down the river, omitting some short
irregularities that such river does, 128 strings and four yards that
comprise 3,204 yards.
LAND FOR LABOR, PLAN OF
, CHURCH, AND STREETS.
Done this, I ordered the surveyor to adjust the land for labor
that is comprised under such lines; having practiced it with the
reflection and demands of such matter, he said included four
caballerias and a half, with more than twelve geometric strings and
three thousand five hundred eighty two yards of the same class,
needing to be understood that the twelve string are of 69 yards, as it
is commanded by the royal orders of land measurements; and to confirm
it, I ordered to make it a document, in my presence and witnesses in
attendance. In the first of May of said year, I, such judge, having
seen the recognizing of the lands for bread winning, as it is
perceived in the previous document and in the most convenient place
for location, were divided for it by the wind from south to north,
nine hundred yards, and from this to the east one thousand two hundred
yards, to the south another nine hundred, and towards the west another
one thousand two hundred. Resulting its shape in a parallelogram; and
in the four corners were put signs and I ordered to erect landmarks of
solid rock. Done this, the major plaza was outlined, towards the north
of the chapel giving it with the compass on hand one hundred and ten
yards to every wind, resulting in four equal blocks; and the one that
faces the west was marked for the corresponding church and priest
house. The one that faces south for royal houses; and in the ones
toward north and south were outlined six solares of 30 x 50 yards.
Leaving every street corner ten yards and equal blocks, so that
successively buildings can be added accordingly to the attached map
for these works.
And the surveyor said that after taking up space for the
circuit in the place, the land left to divide among the neighbors, for
their labor, starting at the junction of the canes of Palo Blanco to
the North and southeast, 900 yards; and from there to the West ending
up with the land outlined for the place, 1825 yards, from there,
ending up to the stream south, 900, and down river to end up on said
canes, 2,004 yards, which divided among the twelve registered
neighbors, and adjusted the count carefully by said surveyor, he said
that for everyone, by the side of the stream, would fit 167 yards wide
and 900 yards long; and for the other one that runs from West to East,
152 yards and half a sesma. And to record it I made a document, which
the surveyor with me and the ones in my attendance, with whom I do as
it is said, and I give faith.
ASSIGNMENT TO TWELVE NEIGHBORS
At three days of such month and year, I, Dn. Juan Jose Gomez de
Castro, Highest Mayor and Captain of war of the Villa of Cerralvo and
its jurisdiction, passed to suggest such assignment in conformance to
the previous document, by way of the surveyor, and there were measured
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. JOSE ANTONIO CANALES.
Immediately to the plaza, 30 yards in front and 50 deep, for a
house, backyard, and, garden, and in the lands outlined for sowing,
were measured 167 yards at the head starting near the boundaries
outlined for the place, down stream, to the East; and to the other
head were measured 152 yards and a half sesma, resulting in 900 yards
long, what was outlined with stakes, to continue from them the
distribution among the others, staying as common rangeland the lands
comprised in the information of identity of boundaries, and in credit
of having accepted it this way, did not sign because he cannot,
therefore I did it, such judge, with the one in my attendance, I give
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. JUAN FRANCISCO
Incontinenti, I, such judge, by virtue of the ongoing
distribution of lands, were measured to Dn. Juan Francisco Salinas 30
yards in front and 50 deep, immediately to the plaza, for the house,
backyard, and garden; and in lands for labor, at the limits of Dn.
Jose Antonio Canales, he got measured 167 yards by the band of the
stream, and 152 yards and a half sesma for another head, and he can
enjoy the agostadero as common rangeland; and in credit of having this
way accepted, he signs with me, such judge, acting ut supra, and I
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. JOSE ANTONIO BARRERA
Incontinenti, I, such judge, by virtue of the ongoing
distribution of lands, to D. Jose Antonio Barrera for house, backyard,
and garden, thirty yards in front and 52 deep, in land of labor at the
limits of Dn. Juan Francisco Salinas, were measured one hundred sixty
seven yards for one head, and for another one hundred fifty two and a
half sesma, and he can enjoy the agostadero as common rangeland; and
in credit of having accepted it, he signed with me, such judge, as
said it is, I give faith.
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. IGNACIO GUAJARDO.
I, such judge, in continuing there was distributed to Dn. Ignacio
Guajardo, for backyard 30 yards in front and 50 deep, in the outlined
plaza, and in the lands for labor one hundred sixty seven yards for
the head by the stream and 152 yards and a half sesma in the other
head; and to enjoy of the agostadero as common rangeland; and in
credit of having accepted it, he signs with me such judge, as said it
is, I give faith.
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. JUAN ANGEL LOZANO.
I, such judge, by virtue of the on going distribution of lands, it was
measured to Dn. Juan Angel Lozano, of 30 yards in front and 50 yards
deep in the outlined plaza; and for labor were measured around the
limits of Dn. Ignacio Guajardo, 167 yards for one head, and for
another 152 yards and a half sesma, having the agostadero as common
rangeland to enjoy; and in credit of having accepted it he didn’t
sign because the did not know how; I signed for him, such judge,
acting ut supra, I give faith.
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. TEODORO
in continuation of with the ongoing distribution of lands, it was
measured to Dn. Teodoro Salinas for a house, backyard, and garden, 30
yards in front and 50 deep in the outlined plaza; and in lands for
labor, for one head around the limits of Dn. Juan Angel Lozano, 167
yards and for the other 152 yards and a half sesma, having as common
rangeland the agostadero to enjoy; and in credit of having accepted it
he signed with me, such judge, and the ones in attendance, as said it
is, I give faith.
TO DN. CARLOS DE BENAVIDES.
such place of Our Lady of Gualeguas and Bucareli, at four days of said
month and year, I, such judge in continuation with the ongoing
distribution of lands, it was measured to Dn. Carlos de Benavides for
a house, backyard, and garden, adjacent to the plaza, 30 yards in
front and 50 deep; and in lands for labor at the limits of Dn. Teodoro
Salinas 187 yards for one head, and for the other 152 yards and a half
sesma; having the agostadero to enjoy as common rangeland; and in
credit of having accepted it he signed with me, such judge, as said it
is, I give faith.
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. VICENTE CANALES.
by virtue of the ongoing distribution of lands, it was measured a
backyard to Dn. Vicente Canales, of 30 yards in front and 50 yards
deep, and for lands of labor at the limits of Dn. Carlos de Benavides,
167 yards for one head, and for another 152 yards and a half sesma,
having the agostadero to enjoy it as common rangeland; and in credit
for having accepted it he signed with me, such judge, acting ut supra,
I give faith.
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. JUAN DE DIOS DE LA GARZA.
I such judge, in continuation with the ongoing distribution of lands,
to Dn. Juan de Dios de la Garza it was measured a backyard of 30 yards
in front and 50 deep; and in lands for labor 167 yard for one head,
and for the other 152 yards and a half sesma, at the limits of Dn.
Vicente Canales, and the agostadero he can enjoy in common; and in
credit of having accepted it he signed with me, such judge, as said it
is, I give faith.
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. RAFAEL GONZALEZ
I, such judge, by virtue of the ongoing distribution of lands, to Dn.
Jose Rafael Gonzalez Hidalgo Navarro it was assigned a backyard of 30
yards of land in front and 50 deep; and in lands for labor were
measured 167 for one head and for another 152 yards and a half sesma,
having the agostadero as common rangeland; and in credit of having
accepted it he signed with me, such judge, acting ut supra, I give
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. JUAN ANTONIO CANALES.
I, such judge, in continuation of such distribution, to Dn. Juan
Antonio Canales was assigned a place at the plaza, with 30 yards in
front and 50 deep; and in lands for labor, at the limits of Dn. Rafael
Gonzalez, it was measured for one head 167 yards, and for another 152
yards and a half sesma; having the agostadero as common rangeland to
enjoy; and in credit of having accepted it he signed it with me, such
judge, as said it is, I give faith.
ASSIGNMENT TO DN. GASPAR GARCIA.
I, such judge, by virtue of such distribution, to Dn. Gaspar Garcia
assigned a backyard with 30 yards in front and 50 deep, and in the
lands for labor around the limits of Dn. Juan Antonio Canales until
arriving where the canes of Palo Blanco joins the stream of Gualeguas,
it was measured 167 yards for one head and for another making it to
such canes, 152 yards and a half sesma, having as common rangeland the
agostadero for him to enjoy. With what the surveyor said, the lands
were measured and divided in twelve equal portions for the twelve
registered neighbors; having the ones for labor 167 yards by the shore
of the stream, and 152 yards and a half sesma at the other head, and
at 900 yards long; having to enjoy according to the lines the ancones
of the stream belonging to each part; and having accepted it he did
not signed saying he did not know how, I signed it, such judge, acting
with the witnesses in attendance, for the lack of scribe, public or
royal, during the term of this law; I give faith of everything.
ASSIGNMENT OF WATER.
In such place, at five days of the month of May of 1773, I,
such judge, having seen the conclusion of the distribution of the
outlined lands to the constant registered in this matters, I should
and will assign the water that the Mission of Gualeguas used to enjoy,
divided in twelve equal parts, assigning to each neighbor two and a
half days of water for 30 days. Provided in my presence with the
witnesses in attendance, as said it is, I give faith.
SUBMISSION TO THE GOVERNOR
In the place of my Lady of the Conception of Gualeguas and
Bucareli, at six days of said month and year, seen the conclusion in
such place and the distribution of backyards, lands of labor, and
water to the neighbors, I command to pass these matters for the
judgment of Mister Dn. Francisco de Echegaray, Governor and General
Commander of this New Kingdom of Leon, so that during his visit he
provides what it is of his superior liking. That how I provided it,
ordered it, and signed it with the ones in attendance, like said it
is, I give faith.
The day 8 of April of 1805. Being subdelegate, the Lieutenant
of Justice Dn. Jose Antonio Nepomuceno Canales, a trial is opened for
intestate property of Dn. Jose de Chapa, founder of El Nogal and
Cieneguitas or “El Chapeno” de Agualeguas, N.L.
In the same year 1851, neighbors from Huizachal
de los Canales, with date 19th of September of 1851,
solicited from the constitutional governor of that time, Dn. Pedro
Jose Garcia, to appoint a city Hall to form a Villa independent from
Agualeguas, and in the day 17th of February of the same
year, the Decree No. 104 is
issued, which establishes the approval for the formation of the Villa
of Paras. The
presided by Sr. Dn. Facundo Casso; after doing the measurement of
lands and marking the limits and neighboring land of the new
population, with date of first of November of 1851, is moved to said
place, and at the shade of a fresno in the right margin of the Alamo
river, the first city hall is named; being integrated by Dn. Eusebio
Cantu, as first mayor; Dn. Blas Maria de la Garza, as first alderman;
Dn. Ignacio Cadena, as second alderman; and Dn. Jose Angel Hinojosa as
first syndicate. The day 19th of November of the same year,
they have their first meeting in the Ranch of “El Tanque”, and in
the day 24, they settle in where now is the Municipal Capital.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE REPOPULATION.
In the time prior to the order of repopulating the Mission of
Saint Nicolas of Gualeguas, there were problems relative to the limits
or possession of lands. The
Repopulation of the Mission, when considered deserted, had
consequences. The number of conflicts and claims increased
substantially; because there were more than 30 neighbors who had lands
since very many years ago; ranches with major and minor cattle, and
horses; or dedicated to agriculture and they had documentation
protecting their property rights and documentation that supported the
acquisition as inheritance from ancestors or buy outs. This litigation
processes were prolonged and some lasted many years, and nevertheless,
the Repopulation marked a new historic phase in what it was the old
mission, because this one took effect with a well defined planning,
detailing, and outlining the places for Major Plaza, Church, houses,
backyards, and gardens, with the respective street; in addition to
land for labor and assignment of water for irrigation to each of the
I transcribe documents that prove the described,
and help as one more testimony about the date of foundation of the
since the year 1675 (copy of document said to be a faithful copy of
CLAIMED BY DN. JUAN ANTONIO DE BENAVIDES.
People of (illegible) of the New Kingdom of Leon be aware: On
behalf of (illegible) certain town called of Our Lady of Gualeguas,
and that at least there a fifty leagues from the City of
, it has been made a relation that it has been populated since the P.
Year one thousand six hundred seventy five, in a written document that
is pointed out by our distinguished ancestor Dn. Nicolas de Azcarraga,
from his lands were given by order of Dn. Miguel Fernandez de Santa
Cruz; but that now has Dn.
Juan Antonio de Benavides for certain land he says belongs to
him and which have always belonged to the town of Gualeguas, and
because many disagreements about lands can originate from not marking
the limits of their lands and property, I put you in charge and
command you that, when my document arrives, at once use our judge of
lands and waters, and to mark and measure to the four winds according
(illegible and hard to read) my kings and lords of New Spain, and
later you will give me a report to prove what is more convenient for
the ministers. ATT. Our Superior Council of Indias, with whom we have
agreed. In Seville at 13 days of January of one thousand, six hundred
seventy five, by command of his Majesty. I E.P. of the King, Enrique
Rangel y Araujo (sign).
OF THE MAYOR FROM THE VILLA OF SAINT GREGORIO DE CERRALVO, ABOUT
LITIGATION OF LANDS BY DN. JUAN ANTONIO DE BENAVIDES.
In the name of God amen: know whosoever sees this letter, I,
Dn. Antonio Martinez Calderon, Lieutenant Mayor of the Villa of Saint
Gregorio de Cerralvo, to Your Excellency present and expose, swearing
to God Our Lord and his Saints, that
I am certain the lands disputed by Dn. Juan Antonio Benavides and his
brothers-in-law has always belonged to this town of Agualeguas not
very distant from the Mission of Our Lady of Alamillo; another Mission
was founded called Saint Nicolas of Gualeguas and still remains with
the P. Name of Our Lady of Agualeguas and today for the fertile of the
water is deserted but its communal lands have always been the same.
was erected en the P. year of one thousand six hundred seventy five
with the endorsement and superior approval of the Senor Dn. Nicolas de
Azcarraga, Governor of this Kingdom of Leon during those days. And
this is all I know, if I knew more
a would declare it in favor of this locals; and in the name of
God swear to say the truth and I sign under my name in this town of
San Gregorio de Cerralvo at twenty nine day of February of the year of
grace of One Thousand Seven Hundred Sixty Five. Dn. Antonio Martinez
Calderon, in my presence, Gerardo Ruiz de Palacio. Royal Public Scribe
Sebastian Gonzalez Baez-Benavides shared with me the history of his
grandfather Francisco Baez-Benavides Lira. I wanted to share the
history of Agualeguas where it was noted the influence of the Baez-Benavides
clan. There are many more stories of the contributions of the Baez-Benavides
family to Agualegaus. That history will be submitted at a later date.
Historic Archive of the
General Archive of the State of
. Correspondence of Mayors.
Cavazos Garza. Bibliographic
Dictionary of Nuevo
, Volumes I and II UANL.
Cavazos Garza. History of Nuevo
Leon, with news from Coahuila, Tamaulipas,
. Written in the XVII Century by the Captain Alonso de Leon, Juan
Bautista Chapa, and Fernando Sanchez de Zamora,
, N. L. 1985.
Protacio P. Cadena. Historic
Review, Social, Economic, and Geographic of the
. January of 1942.
Testimonies of its History. November of 1990. Editorial Group Eon,
S. A. of C. V.
Aureliano Tapa Mendez. Novena
of Our Lady of Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon year 1942.
, Historic Notes. First Edition.
, N. L. 1985.
. State Monograph. Secretary of Public Education,
Maria Santos Escobedo. History
Mauro Martinez Perez Agualeguas 326 –September 2001