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Pascual Family of the Philippines


Politics is the gentle art of getting votes from the poor and campaign funds from the rich, by promising to protect each from the other. 
 ~ Oscar Ameringer


May 2012 
150th Online Issue
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Click for the International Reunions being held by the Pascual Family in the Philippines

Society of Hispanic Historical and
Ancestral Research   

P.O. 490, Midway City, CA 

Board Members:
Bea Armenta Dever,
Virginia Gill, Gloria C. Oliver, Mimi Lozano, Carmen Meraz, Dan Reyes, 
Viola R. Sadler, Tom Saenz
John P. Schmal,
Leticia Rodella  


"There are two ways to conquer and enslave a nation. 
One is by the sword. The other is by debt." 
John Adams 1826 

Somos Primos Staff

Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Roberto Calderon, Ph,D.
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman, Ph.D
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal

Contributors to May Issue
Fredrick Aguirre
Mark Anchor Albert
Pauline Anton
Roy Archuleta
Ralph Arellanes
Don Arellano
Cecilia Ballí, Ph.D.
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Jesse R. Bernal
Luis R.Burset
Jaime Cader
Roberto Camp
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Bill Carmena
Dr. Henry Casso
Juan Castillo
Luis Cavazos Guzman
LeRoy Chatfield
Gus Chavez
Jack Cowan
Edna Elizondo Gonzalez
Ernesto Euribe
Lorri Frain
Dr. Lino Garcia, Jr.
Wanda Garcia
Rafael Jesús González
Eddie Grijalva
Roberto Guadarrama Perez
Debbie Gurtler
Sylvia Gonzalez-Hohenshelt
Walter Herbeck, Jr.
Sergio Hernandez
John Inclan
Nellie Kaniski
Kathie Kennedy
Galal Kernahan
Mimi Ko Cruz
Jose Antonio Lopez
Juan Marinez
Irene Mendez Tello
Rafael Minuesa 
Gladys Mendez
Don Milligan
Leticia Molina
Richard Montanez
Paul Newfield III
Rafael Ojeda
Guillermo Padilla Origel
John Palacio
Ricardo Palmerin Cordero
Antonio Pascual
Jose M. Pena
Richard Perry 
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Alonzo Reyes
Dr. Lily Rivera
Robert Robinson

Ben Romero
Lorri Ruiz Frain
Antonio Saenz
Samuel Saenz
Tom Saenz
Tony Santiago
Richard G. Santos
Susan Sanz
Tom Sharpe
Robert Smith
Dr. Frank Talamantes, Ph.D,
Margarita Tapia Gajicki
Vincent Tavera
Andrés Tijerina, Ph.D.
Sylvia Tillotson
Lenny Trujillo
Albert Vela, PH.D.
Roberto Vasquez
Kirk Whisler
Minnie Wilson


"We love manhood; and the Spanish pioneering of the Americas 
was the largest and longest and most marvelous fact of manhood in all history."  
American Historian, Charles F. Lummis

Pray for Our Great Nation: May 3rd, National Day of Prayer
May 5th, USNS Cesar Chavez to be Christened and Launched
March 31 Proclaimed César Chávez Day
Labor Council for Latin American Advancement Unveils Unprecedented Report
TAMACC 2012 Women of Distinction Award Recipients
Remembering on Mother's Day by Wanda F. Garcia
A Tribute to my Mother on Mother’s day by Irene Mendez Tello
Marco Rubio’s Alternative Immigration Bill — by Griselda Nevárez
José Martí Awards. FINAL entry deadline: June 30, 2012
About the National Association of Hispanic Publications
López: The Myth of the ‘One Size-fits-All’ Hispanic by José Antonio López
Tidbits and Snippets
July 7-10th, NCLR National Conference

USNS Cesar Chavez (T-AKE 14) to be Christened and Launched at General Dynamics NASSCO May 5


WHAT: USNS Cesar Chavez (T-AKE 14) will be christened and launched into San Diego Bay during an evening ceremony at the General Dynamics NASSCO shipyard.

WHEN: Saturday, May 5, 2012. The christening ceremony will begin at 7:30 p.m. and will be free and open to the public. The main gate (28th Street and East Harbor Drive) to the shipyard will open at 6:30 p.m. and will close promptly at 8:15 p.m.

WHO: Speaking at the ceremony will be dignitaries from the United States Navy and Fred Harris, president of General Dynamics NASSCO. The ceremony will culminate in the ship's sponsor naming the ship by breaking the traditional bottle of champagne against its hull.

WHERE: The NASSCO shipyard is located at 2798 East Harbor Drive in San Diego.

BACKGROUND: Named in honor of the labor leader, USNS Cesar Chavez is the 14th ship of the T-AKE class of dry cargo-ammunition ships that NASSCO is building for the Navy. When the Cesar Chavez joins the fleet in 2012, its primary mission will be to deliver more than 10,000 tons of food, ammunition, fuel and other provisions at one time to combat ships on the move at sea.

General Dynamics NASSCO is the only major ship construction yard on the West Coast of the United States. In addition to T-AKE construction, the San Diego shipyard is also building the first of three Mobile Landing Platform ships for the U.S. Navy. More information about NASSCO can be found at

2798 East Harbor Drive
San Diego, CA 92113 
Contact: Jim Gill
Tel: 619-544-8860
Cell: 619-838-3357

Sent by Fredrick Aguirre

César Chávez: A True American Hero
March 31 Proclaimed César Chávez Day

By Dick Meister, Dick Meister's Blog
Saturday, 31 March 2012

Like another American hero, Martin Luther King Jr., Chavez inspired and energized millions of people worldwide to seek and win basic human rights that had long been denied them, and inspired millions of others to join the struggle.

Certainly there are few people in any field more deserving of special attention, certainly no one I've met in more than a half-century of labor reporting.

I first met Cesar Chavez when I was covering labor for the San Francisco Chronicle. It was on a hot summer night in 1965 in the little San Joaquin Valley town of Delano, California. Chavez, shining black hair trailing across his forehead, wearing a green plaid shirt that had become almost a uniform, sat behind a makeshift desk topped with bright red Formica.

"Si se puede," he said repeatedly to me, a highly skeptical reporter, as we talked deep into the early morning hours there in the cluttered shack that served as headquarters for him and the others who were trying to create an effective farm workers union.

"Si se puede! – it can be done!" 

But I would not be swayed. Too many others, over too many years, had tried and failed to win for farm workers the union rights they absolutely had to have if they were to escape the severe economic and social deprivation inflicted on them by their grower employers.

The Industrial Workers of the World who stormed across western fields early in the 20th century, the Communists who followed, the socialists, the AFL and CIO organizers – all their efforts had collapsed under the relentless pressure of growers and their powerful political allies.

I was certain this effort would be no different. I was wrong. I had not accounted for the tactical brilliance, creativity, courage and just plain stubbornness of Cesar Chavez, a sad-eyed, disarmingly soft-spoken man who talked of militancy in calm, measured tones, a gentle and incredibly patient man who hid great strategic talent behind shy smiles and an attitude of utter candor.

Chavez grasped the essential fact that farm workers had to organize themselves. Outside organizers, however well intentioned, could not do it. Chavez, a farm worker himself, carefully put together a grass-roots organization that enabled the workers to form their own union, which then sought out – and won – widespread support from influential outsiders.

The key weapon of the organization, newly proclaimed the United Farm Workers, or UFW, was the boycott. It was so effective between 1968 and 1975 that 12 percent of the country's adult population – that's 17 million people – quit buying table grapes.

The UFW's grape boycott and others against wineries and lettuce growers won the first farm union contracts in history in 1970. That led to enactment five years later of the California law – also a first – that requires growers to bargain collectively with workers who vote for unionization. And that led to substantial improvements in the pay, benefits, working conditions and general status of the state's farm workers. Similar laws, with similar results, have now been enacted elsewhere.

The struggle that finally led to victory was extremely difficult for the impoverished workers, and Chavez risked his health – if not his life – to provide them extreme examples of the sacrifices necessary for victory. Most notably, he engaged in lengthy, highly publicized fasts that helped rally the public to the farm workers' cause and that may very well have contributed to his untimely death in 1993 at age 66.

Fasts, boycotts. It's no coincidence that those were the principal tools of Mohandas Gandhi, for Chavez drew much of his inspiration from the Hindu leader. Like Gandhi and another of his models, Martin Luther King Jr., Chavez fervently believed in the tactics of non-violence. Like them, he showed the world how profoundly effective they can be in seeking justice from even the most powerful opponents.

"We have our bodies and spirits and the justice of our cause as our weapons," Chavez explained.

His iconic position has been questioned recently by outsiders claiming Chavez acted as a dictator in his last years as head of the UFW. But what the UFW accomplished under his leadership, and how the union accomplished it, will never be forgotten – not by the millions of social activists who have been inspired and energized by the farm workers' struggle, nor by the workers themselves.

Chavez deservedly remains, and undoubtedly will always remain, an American icon who led the way to winning important legal rights for farm workers. But more than union contracts, and more than laws, farm workers now have what Cesar Chavez insisted was needed above all else. That, as he told me so many years ago, "is to have the workers truly believe and understand and know that they are free, that they are free men and women, that they are free to stand up and fight for their rights."

Freedom. No leader has ever left a greater legacy. But the struggle continues. Despite the UFW victories, farm workers are in great need of fully exercising the rights won under Chavez' leadership. They need to reverse what has been a decline in the UFW's fortunes in recent years, caused in part by lax enforcement of the laws that granted farm workers union rights.

Many farm workers are still mired in poverty, their pay and working and living conditions a national disgrace. They average less than $10,000 a year and have few – if any – fringe benefits. They suffer seasonal unemployment.

Job security is rare, as many of the workers are desperately poor immigrants from Mexico or Central America who must take whatever is offered or be replaced by other desperately poor workers from the endless stream of immigrants. Child labor is rampant.

Most hiring and firing is done at the whim of employers, many of them wealthy corporate growers or labor contractors who unilaterally set pay and working conditions and otherwise act arbitrarily.

Workers are often exposed to dangerous pesticides and other serious health and safety hazards that make farm work one of the country's most dangerous occupations. They often even lack such on-the-job amenities as fresh drinking water and field toilets, and almost invariably are forced to live in overcrowded, seriously substandard housing.

Cesar Chavez Day should remind us of the continuing need to take forceful legal steps and other action in behalf of farm workers – to help them overcome their wretched conditions and finally provide a decent life for all those who do the hard, dirty and dangerous work that puts fruit and vegetables on our tables.

We need, in short, to carry on what Cesar Chavez began. We could pay no greater homage to his memory.

Copyright © 2012 Dick Meister
This piece was reprinted by Truthout with permission or license.
Dick Meister

Dick Meister is a San Francisco-based freelance columnist who has covered labor and politics for more than a half-century. Contact him through his web site,



WASHINGTON, DC- On March 27, 2012, LCLAA convened leaders from the Latino, labor, women and civil rights community for the TRABAJADORAS Awards Luncheon to unveil an unprecedented report on Latinas.

"TRABAJADORAS:  Challenges and Conditions of Latina Workers in the United States," is a crucial report that analyses the social and economic standing of Latina workers and the role that their gender, ethnicity and immigration status play in shaping the reality that they face in our workplaces and our communities. The report sheds light on the main sectors of our economy that rely on the labor of Latinas, mostly jobs that fail to offer wages that can help Latinas build economic security while noting that labor unions provide workers with the key to better jobs and the middle class as they help Latinas secure higher wages and safe, healthy and respectful workplaces.   


23.8 million: The number of women in the U.S. who identify themselves as Latinas. 

For Latinas, the unemployment rate more than doubled between 2007 and 2010, from 6.1% to 12.3%.

8.1 million:
The number of Latinas in the U.S. labor force.
At 52.7% Latinas have the lowest employment to population ratio.
Latinas have one of the highest poverty rates of women in the labor force: 12.1% compared to 12.7% for black, 5.5% for white and 4.9% for Asian women.

Latinas are over-represented in low-wage job sectors: 
33.2% are concentrated in service, 31.7% in sales, office and administrative support, 24.1% in management, professional and related occupations, 9.3% work in production, transportation and material moving and 1.7% work in natural resources, construction and maintenance.
Most Latinas in the service sector do not have a "good job" where they make at least $29,667 a year in median.

The gender wage gap: 
Latina workers only make 60 cents for every dollar a white man earns. 
When race, ethnicity and gender are combined, research points to an increased rate of wage violations, where more women than men reported experiencing minimum wage violations.
Stories of immigrant women indicate that male supervisors frequently use immigration status as leverage to force female employees to withstand sexual harassment and sexual violence.  

Educational attainment:
more than one-third of Latinas have less than a high school education.
64% of Latinas only have a high school education or less, 21% have some college or an Associate's degree.
11% have a Bachelor's degree while only 4% have an advanced degree.

Access to healthcare
: Trabajadoras are more than twice as likely as non-Latina white women to lack access to health care.
At 29.1%, Latinas are more than twice as likely to be uninsured than white non-Latino women (12.8%). 
In 2010, Latinas reported over 46,000 cases of job-related injuries, requiring a median of 7 days away from work in order to recover.

Union benefits
: Unions provide a pathway to success for Latina workers, granting them access to key benefits and the ability to negotiate for fair wages and safe workplace conditions.  On average, Latinas represented by a union earned $724 a week,  38 percent more than non-union Latinas who made $489 dollars in median weekly earnings.  The release of the report was complemented by a discussion De Mujer a Mujer (Woman to Woman), a panel that brought together distinguished Latinas in the labor movement and government, to discuss the state of affairs of Latinas in the U.S. workforce and what we can do to promote their advancement and improve their quality of life.

Labor Council for Latin American Advancement | 815 16th Street NW 4th floor | Washington | DC | 20006

Sent by Lenny Trujillo

TAMACC Announces Their 2012 Women of Distinction Award Recipients
May 4, 2012 Austin, Texas


Austin, Texas - The Texas Association of Mexican American Chambers of Commerce (TAMACC) is proud to announce the recipients of the first annual Women of Distinction Awards.  TAMACC has selected 13 outstanding Texas women to be honored at a luncheon on May 4, 2012 for their accomplishments, contributions to community and professionalism. The 2012 Women of Distinction Awards luncheon will be held at the Four Seasons Hotel Ballroom in Austin, Texas.




Dora G. Alcala
Vice Chair, Legislative & Governmental Affairs,
Del Rio Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
Del Rio, Texas


Janie Barrera
President and Chief Executive Officer
Accion, Texas Inc.
San Antonio, Texas


Anna "Michele" Bobadilla
Senior Associate Vice President for Outreach Services
and Community Engagement
Assistant Provost for Hispanic Student Success Office of the Provost
The University of Texas at Arlington
Dallas, Texas


Astrid E. Cardona
Assistant Professor of Biology
The University of Texas at San Antonio
San Antonio, Texas


Liz Lara Carreño
President, LLC Strategies
Executive Director, K9s4COPs
Houston, Texas


Ana Yañez-Correa, Ph.D.
Executive Director
Texas Criminal Justice Coalition
Austin, Texas


Veronica Gonzales
State Representative, District 41 / Attorney
Kittleman, Thomas and Gonzales, LLP
McAllen, Texas

Maria Luisa (Lulu) Flores
Attorney-at-Law, Law Firm Partner
HendlerLaw, PC
Austin, Texas


Margarita A. Licon
President and Chief Executive Officer
Licon Engineering Company
El Paso, Texas


Mary Ellen Londrie
Chief Executive Officer and President
P3s Corporation
San Antonio, Texas


Lupe Morin
Executive Director
Hispanic Women's Network of Texas
Austin, Texas


Linda Valdez - Thompson
Executive Vice President, Administration & Diversity
Dallas / Fort Worth International Airport
Dallas, Texas


Lora J. Villarreal, Ph.D.
Executive Vice President and Chief People Officer
Xerox Corporation
Dallas, Texas








Recognizing the growing influence and impact Latinas have on this country and on the business landscape, TAMACC developed a program that will highlight the exceptional capacity and business acumen of Texas Latinas. Women of Distinction nominations were submitted by TAMACC member chambers and affiliate organizations.


The Women of Distinction 2012 Awards Luncheon is 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM at the Four Seasons Hotel Ballroom, located at 98 San Jacinto Boulevard Austin, Texas 78701. Tickets can be purchased through the TAMACC office (512) 444-5727 or through Pay Pal.


Sponsorships for this luncheon are still available. For sponsorship or ticket information contact Pauline Anton at or (512) 444-5727.


Remembering on Mother's Day

Wanda F. Garcia

Every Mother’s Day we honor our mothers for giving us life, raising us and for all the unacknowledged things they did for us. This Mother Day I wish to pay tribute to my mother Wanda (Mama). Wanda Fusillo was born on November 15, 1919 in Caserta Italy to Aida Botacchi and Angelo Fusillo. My grandmother named my mother Vanda after a dear friend of the Botacchi family. She was the first born and later was joined by the addition to the family of three brothers, Pepino, Manrico and Ruggero. Mama’s best friends were Nini and Vanda Dauria. My mother recalled fondly the summers spent at the beach with her family and friends. 

Later World War II was declared and changed all the lives of Europeans forever. My mother found the time during the war to work on her doctorial dissertation. Mama told me that she had to carry her text books to the bomb shelters to continue her studies. In 1945 she received a doctorate in classical literature from the University of Naples. Her father Angelo Fusillo died and all the siblings had to take jobs to support the family. My mother Wanda found a job at the US army as a secretary. As destiny would have it, she met the very handsome Major Hector P. Garcia. The Dauria family played cupid throwing Hector and Wanda together at suppers and picnics. My father was so smitten with my mother, that he was determined to marry her. My mother told me she played hard to get. It was a quick courtship and they married on June 14, 1945. 

Honeymoon photo: Wanda and Hector spent their honey moon in Ischia, Italy.

Mama’s brothers tried to persuade Papa to remain in Italy and practice medicine. But Papa said he had to return to the United States to help his people. He moved to Corpus Christi, Texas where he set up his medical practice. 

I was born a year later in June of 1946. I have vague memories of my life in Italy, being with my mother and her family and a sense of being loved. One year after my birth, Mama and I crossed the Atlantic Ocean in a military boat and arrived in New York. We took the long journey from New York to Texas on a train and joined Dr. Hector P. Garcia in Corpus Christi Texas. Mama dedicated her life to being a help mate and raising her growing family. In 1948 our family welcomed a baby boy, Hector Garcia Jr. to the family. In spite of my father’s political activities, my mother managed to entertain friends by playing canasta. Her “comadres” came from the Guzman and Lozano families. My mother was the only one of her group who could drive, so she chauffeured them everywhere.  I would of course go along for the rides. Mama put her soul and efforts in creating the best birthday parties for us complete with piñata and all the accoutrements. We had a wonderful time.

At one point during the early years, Dr. Cleo, Dr. Dalia and Dr. Xico lived at our house. Tony Canales, Dr. Cleo’s son, would spend weekends with us. Family vacations were spent driving in Mexico to exotic places with the names of Tanninul, Xochimilco or in Mercedes, Texas to visit my grandfather.

Mama was a devoted wife and mother, instilling in her children an appreciation for beauty music, gardening and the classics. She took great pains to assemble a library filled with art books, the classics, and popular novels of the day. Then she taught us how to read and help us with our lessons so we could benefit from the library.

The Garcia family grew with the addition of two other siblings, Cecilia and Susie. IN 1962, our lives were saddened by the tragedy of losing my brother Hector. Life continued and we girls left home and made our own way in the world. Of course we would get together for all the holidays with our parents and the members of the Garcia clan. Through the years, Mama supported my father and accompanied his to receive his honors. The highlight of course was going to Washington D.C. when Papa received the presidential Medal of Freedom from President Ronald Reagan in 1986.

And so life went for the Garcia family until the passing of my father in 1996 and my mother in 2008.

I never fully appreciated my mother and all the sacrifices she made until I became an adult. I never appreciated the bravery she had in leaving her family and her country, traveling across the Atlantic with a small child to a strange land, learning another language and customs - how she protected her children from harm and insulated us from a hostile world and tried to give us a normal life in spite of the hostile public sentiments as a result of my father’s activism for Mexican Americans. How hard it was for her to carry on after the loss of a child. So, thank you Mama for all you did for me. I love you and miss you every day of my life.

Hector Jr. being held by Papa, Dr. Hector P. Garcia, Mama, (Wanda) and me, Wanda.


A Tribute to my Mother on Mother’s day

By: Irene Mendez Tello   J


Today I write this Tribute of love to honor you and tell you what an inspiration you were in my life.  You gave me the greatest gift a mother can give a child.  You gave me life. For this I thank you.... For loving me and caring for me and for being raised in home by parents who were always there for me.  Thank You  

For teaching, encouraging, inspiring, nurturing and helping me to grow.  Thank You..Even as I wandered away and became some what rebellious as most adolescent do, you were alway there for me.  Thank you for never giving up on me.  I can never thank you enough for all you did for me and taught me through your words and actions.  

By your example Mom you taught me the importance of independence and service to others.  You were a leader in every aspect of life.  You taught me so many valuable lessons through the things you said, but your actions spoked the loudest.  Because of you I learned to have faith, to sew, to quilt, to cook, to embroidery, and what it means to be organized, to keep a clean house and to take care of my babies.  Thank you Mom  

Most of all, Thank you for allowing me to see what a truly strong and beautiful woman you were, an inspiration, a motivating force and the best teacher I ever had. I am honor that God chose you to show me the undying love of a mother’s heart.  The time I spent with you after my retirement caring for you I will always valve and cherish.  The moments spent with you  gave me the opportunity to reminisce with a sense of nostalgia.  I think of courage, kindness and a loving heart.  Virtues that manifested themselves in every aspect of your life.  

A devoted mother you were, meticulous with orderliness and cleanliness, you saw to it that everything was organized in our home.  Our home was always opened to relatives and friends.  A stay a home mom you were.  Thank you for the beautiful flowers, plants and yard, the showcase of the neighborhood.  

For the many times you sat at your sewing machine.  Sewing a dress for me because I had to have a new dress every Saturday night for the dance.  You never complained.  Once a week you would meet me at the Fabric Shop after school to select the material and pattern for my dress.  Yards and yards of taffeta, organdy, chiffon, organza and other beautiful materials, along for materials for petticoats. Then you would go home and start on my dress for the weekend.  Your homemade dresses were prettier than any store bought dress.  Thank You Mom.......  

For sending me to school on a full stomach of either pancakes and bacon, potato and eggs, hot cereal and home made tortillas.  Thank you Mom

The thought of coming home in the afternoon and knowing that soon you would  began supper was something to look forward too. Great dishes only you could cook with tender loving care for your family.   

For being there with me as I went into labor with my children.  For being with me until I was wheel off to the surgery room for a C-Section.  For keeping Frank company as you prayed a rosary for me and the new baby.  Thank You Mom.  

Thank You Mom for the many times I would call you at all hours of the night and in all types of weather for help with a crying baby.  You and Dad would show up and take charge.  I was so scare the baby would die that many times you would find me in tears too.  You would bundle the baby snuggly and hold him or her in your arms until the baby would stopping crying and go to sleep. Usually it was colic.  

The day Rene was taken from us, you and Dad came over immediately.  Took me in your arms, no words were needed.  You understood my pain for you too had lost a son.    

So Mom Thank you for allowing me to share in your final journey.  A courageous journey that revealed your perseverance, endurance and character.  There are so many things I wish I could have said to you during the fourteen months I was your guardian and tended to you needs.  I treasure the time we were allowed to be together, because during this time I learned to valve, really valve family and friendships and to appreciate everything life has to offer.  Even the hardest lessons.  I have learned not to sweat the small stuff, and to enjoy the moment.  So Mom I want you to know how honor and privileged I feel to have been able to care for you, so that you could stay in your own home.  The home that you loved so much.  

Someone once said that I should be the one to take care for you, because I was the eldest of the girls and that I owed it to you....How right that person was.  I owed it to you because you gave me life, and because as a daughter my responsibilities to you never ended.  It was something I wanted to do to spent time with you in your final months and not because 
I had to.  I loved every moment we spent together.

You were my adviser, my supporter, my friend, my rock and sounding broad, my example and most of all my mother. Thank you Mom, I love you and miss you very much, until we meet again, May the Blessed Mother hold you and cover you with her beautiful blue Mantel.   

Your Daughter.



Marco Rubio’s Alternative Immigration Bill — Is it a ‘DREAM’ or a Nightmare?
By Griselda Nevárez

Republican Sen. Marco Rubio of Florida has revealed that he is crafting an alternative version of the DREAM Act that would
legalize undocumented youth who graduate from college or serve in the military.

A month ago, Rubio sat down with Hispanic Link News Service and said that while he supports the goals of the current DREAM Act legislation, it was “the wrong way to do the right thing.” He told Hispanic Link that he had been involved in discussions with both Republicans and Democrats to draft a DREAM Act bill that would receive the necessary votes to pass the House and Senate.

Various versions of the DREAM Act have been introduced since 2001 but all failed to gain enough votes to reach the White House
for signature. In 2010, a bill passed the House but was five votes shy in the Senate.  Unlike the Democratic bill introduced May
11, 2011, by Richard Durbin (D-Ill.), Rubio’s would not provide a pathway to citizenship. Instead, it would offer undocumented young immigrants a visa allowing them to stay and work in the United States but require them to get in line to apply for permanent residency.

Rep. David Rivera (R-Fla.) introduced Jan. 27 a military-only version of the DREAM Act, called the ARMS Act. DREAM advocates, backed by the all- Democratic Congressional Hispanic Caucus have criticized Rubio’s and Rivera’s proposals
as “watered-down” versions of the act . A New York Times editorial called Rubio’s version, “A Dream Act Without the Dream.”

Vol. 30 No. 7 April 12, 2012
Hispanic Link News Service
1420 ‘N’ Street NW
Washington, D.C. 20005-2895

Phone (202) 234-0280

Carlos Ericksen-Mendoza

Jim Lamare

Editor:  I surely hope that the bipartisan committee can get this passed.  The amnesty process in 1986 was administered and processed in a way that was totally unfair. Visa holders, both current and over-stayed were processed first, resulting in many non-acculturated newly arrived, stepping in front of  the thousands of Mexican immigrant families who had lived here for decades, who had already adjusted and assimilated, living the American Dream.   

The Rubio/Rivera proposal of  offering undocumented young immigrants a work visa, allowing them to stay and work in the United States, and then requiring them to get in line to apply for permanent residency, sounds much fairer.  The requirement to go back to their homeland and wait, superficially seems reasonable, but in fact is not.  You are asking young people, mostly from Mexico, who in many cases don't even speak Spanish, to return to Mexico and apply for a visa. Why?  As punishment?  It is more reasonable, for law-abiding undocumented individuals and families to stay here with work visas, preparing for US citizenship.

When I first read that undocumented young immigrants could go to college or join military as a pathway to citizenship, I wondered about those young people not prepared for college, or for service in the military.  Where did they fit in?  The Rubio/Rivera Bill answers that.  Those young people with their work visa will enter a trade suitable to their interest and skills, eventually adding to the American economy and will be fulfilling their American Dream.  

Also, let me point out that the Dream Act was first presented for consideration by Senators. Orrin Hatch (R-UT) and Richard Durbin (D-IL) House Bill 1403, enacted in 2001, over ten years ago, a decade of an unresolved status for many young people.  

Meanwhile, thousands of student visas were distributed to foreign students.  AP article: More out-of-state students get into UC (OC Register  4/18/12) reveals data that increasingly public universities are educating international students, taking seats that should be going to our youth, those graduating from American high schools. 

The records show that the registration for UC campuses for fall have almost doubled the percentage of foreign and out-of-state students admitted since 2009.  However, if the figures go back further and calculate the decrease of California students with foreign and out-of-state students, the international students increased by 82.1%.  

As our young undocumented California educated high school graduates waited patiently for the Dream Act to be passed, admission to our public State University are increasingly, being filled by international students, in preference to our own high school graduates.  The excuse given by Kate Jeffery, the UC system's interim director of undergraduate admission, was that international, non-resident students pay higher tuition and bring geographical and cultural diversity to campuses.  Forgotten is the fact that public schools are funded by public funds, and were set up to educate for OUR future. 


José Martí Awards.
FINAL entry deadline: 
June 30, 2012 
In our hands by the 30th, 
NOT mailed on the 30th.
Click Here To Download The 2012 José Martí Publishing Awards Applicatcompletion from ion Package
José Martí Publishing Awards Newsletter

The National Association of Hispanic Publications' José Martí Publishing Awards have grown over the past 25 years to be the most important awards for Hispanic newspapers, magazines, and now websites.

The 76 individual categories are broken down in six major groupings:
  • Overall Excellence Awards
  • Outstanding Editorial Section Awards
  • Editorial Writing Awards
  • Design Awards
  • Photo & Cartoon Awards
  • Marketing Awards
To enter the awards you just need to download the application

The National Association of Hispanic Publications, Inc. 

The 2012 NAHP Convention will be in San Diego California

The Convention is in October 2012.
Want to know more about the NAHP Convention itself, please 
call the NAHP offices at 202-662-7250 x1

For more information please phone Kirk Whisler, 760-434-1223. 
Latino Print Network | 3445 Catalina Dr. | Carlsbad | CA | 92010

About NAHP

Welcome to NAHP. The National Association of Hispanic Publications, Inc. (NAHP, Inc.) is a non-partisan trade advocacy organization representing the leading Spanish language publications serving 41 markets in 39 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, with a combined circulation of over 23 million.

NAHP was founded in 1982 to promote Spanish language publications, the most effective medium to reach the fast growing Hispanic community. Membership is open to Spanish language and Hispanic owned newspapers, magazines and related media as well as businesses that offer products and services to this market throughout the United States.

Geographically, NAHP members span the country, with a concentration in areas of large Hispanic populations. NAHP members produce over 15 billion pages of information annually. Hispanics prefer newspapers for their purchasing decisions---making them five times more effective than any other medium. With Hispanic purchasing power now exceeding $850 billion dollars, Hispanic newspapers, magazines and related media offer the best value for your advertising expenditures.

OUR MISSION: We further the excellence, recognition and usage of Hispanic publications by providing access to professional development opportunities to better serve and empower our Hispanic communities. 

López: The Myth of the ‘One Size-fits-All’ Hispanic

By José Antonio López

SAN ANTONIO, April 15 - With the rising tempo of the political races, news commentators continue to mention the Hispanic or Latino vote. 

Sounding overly confident, they assure their audiences that Hispanics (Latinos) will elect the next president. They refer to the group as if it was a well-defined bloc of docile voters ready to mark their ballots at the beckon call of a candidate. Also, politicians from both major parties usually imply that all they need is a Spanish-surnamed surrogate to send around the country to capture the seemingly united group. Therein is the problem.

The fact is that this voting bloc is not united and doesn’t exist. The reason is simple. Imagine if all British-background people living in the U.S including those from the British Isles, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, (plus German, Polish, & Czech-descent citizens) were referred to as the “English” vote. Yet, that’s how the Hispanic and Latino terms have been used to describe U.S. citizens with backgrounds just as diverse as the ones listed above.

There is no doubt that the scope of Spanish-descent citizens in the U.S. is impressive. They live throughout the country and their numbers are huge. Based on the 2010 census, about 50 million citizens in the U.S. are Spanish-surnamed (16 percent of the population). However, sharing Spanish last names doesn’t mean their needs are identical. There are key internal differences within. For example, maintaining trade sanctions against Cuba may be a hot button voting issue in Florida, but it is not in Texas or the Southwest. Additional differences follow on the four main factions:

The first faction (Spanish Mexican-descent) is by far the largest under the big umbrella. It is with this biggest group that the Hispanic and Latino terms prove to be the most inadequate. In the first place, both words reflect only European lineage. Neither word recognizes equally strong Native American (Mexican, Mestizo) bloodlines. With 30 million in number, this group is the main stem (backbone) of the umbrella. They comprise 60 percent of the U.S. “Hispanic” population. Here again, there’s distinct differences within this faction. Specifically, there are two separate arms. One is non-immigrant, and the other is immigrant. 

The non-immigrant arm includes descendants of Southwest Spanish Mexican pioneers who were already living in Nuevo México, Texas, Colorado, Arizona, and California in 1848, when the U.S. conquered and took the territory from Mexico. Also, their Native American ancestors have lived in the Southwest for at least 10,000 years. Long held as a colonial-style Class Apart, these non-immigrant people of the Southwest are perhaps the most misunderstood by mainstream society. The reason is that most U.S. citizens wrongly believe that all Spanish-speaking U.S. citizens are recent immigrants. 

Because they value their pre-1848 pioneer roots, those in this group use distinctive regional appellatives, such as, Nuevo Mexicanos, Californios, Coloradenses, and Tejanos. It’s important to note also that this large ethnic group uses the word “Mexican” only as a culture identifier, not nationality or allegiance to Mexico. Their concerns include jobs, fair pay, preservation of their bicultural heritage, civil rights, education, bilingual education in the lower grades, Head Start, economic development, affordable health care and safe, secure neighborhoods. 

The other arm of this faction involves immigrants from Mexico who came here after 1848 seeking work to feed their families. (Several times during our nation’s history, these workers have more than once answered the urgent call from the U.S. to meet acute manpower shortages, such as times when our country was at war or desperately needed in good economic boons. Conversely, they are not welcomed during times of economic distress, which is what is happening today.) For example, it is this group that (1) is being incarcerated in prisons built by and enriching far-right extremist contractors and investors; (2) is being threatened by aggressive state officials whose answer to the dilemma is to put their U.S.-born children up for adoption; and (3) is most concerned about the Dream Act and a sensible immigration reform program.

The second major faction is composed of citizens with Puerto Rican roots. Similar to their Spanish Mexican sister group in the Southwest, Puerto Ricans are not immigrants to the U.S., since they are born U.S. citizens. Their number in the U.S. is 4.6 million (9 percent of Hispanics). There are over four million citizens in Puerto Rico itself. (Regrettably, most of the general public is unaware of their U.S. citizenship status, as shown by the recent racial taunting of a Kansas State player of Puerto Rico-descent at an NCAA basketball game in Mississippi.)

The third faction is made up of Cuban-descent citizens (1.7 million (3.5 percent of U.S. Hispanics). Significantly, Cubans arriving in the U.S. enjoy a special privilege that other immigrants do not. They receive instant political refugee status as a result of anti-Communist legislation passed during the U.S.-Soviet Union Cold War. Although the Cold War ended in 1991, arriving Cuban immigrants are not considered illegal today, because immigration agents still treat them as anti-Communists. Therefore, they are not jailed as are illegal immigrants from other countries, such as Mexico. Cuban arrivals are eligible for immediate admittance and are welcomed into this country, free to live anywhere in the U.S. as officially authorized residents.

The fourth and final faction under the Spanish-surnamed umbrella is composed of people who come from countries in Central and South America for exactly the same reasons that European immigrants came here. That is, to answer Emma Lazarus’ call on the Statue of Liberty: “Give me your tired, your poor, your tired masses yearning to breathe free...”

In summary, seeking a Spanish-surnamed person as bait to catch Spanish-surnamed voters is absurd. Your name doesn’t have to be Spanish to help the Spanish-surnamed poor move up the ladder of success. In fact, two of the greatest men of action in advocating and legislating for the Spanish Mexican-descent poor are non-Spanish-surnamed President LBJ and Senator Ralph Yarborough who regularly spoke to Spanish Mexican-descent citizens in person. It is for their daring to help the poor that they are today maligned by far-right extremist conservatives. 

As such, here’s two pieces of advice for politicians and the media. (a) Stop doing your “Hispanic” polling research in Florida’s Little Havana that represents less than four percent of the Spanish-surnamed U.S. population. To put it bluntly, don’t expect Senator Marco Rubio (who only protects the special status of that small group) to assume to speak for Southwest Spanish Mexican-descent citizens whose interests he doesn’t know. (b) Finish the job begun by LBJ and Senator Smilin’ Ralph whose motto challenged his political counterparts: “Let’s put the jam on the lower shelf so the little people can reach it.” 

Finally, it is only when citizens are truly treated justly and the poor are allowed to become equal members of society, that the day will come when there is no need for ethnic or racial labels in the U.S. En otras palabras (in other words), dispelling the “one-size-fits-all” Hispanic urban legend may just be the first step.

José Antonio (Joe) López was born and raised in Laredo, Texas, and is a USAF Veteran. He now lives in Universal City, Texas. He is the author of two books: “The Last Knight (Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara Uribe, A Texas Hero)”, and “Nights of Wailing, Days of Pain (Life in 1920s South Texas).” Lopez is also the founder of the Tejano Learning Center, LLC, and, a Web site dedicated to Spanish Mexican people and events in U.S. history that are mostly overlooked in mainstream history books.

Kaleb Canales, first Mexican American head coach in NBA history. Portland's Kaleb Canales is a Laredo Native, who graduated from Alexander HS. He coached at Laredo Martin (2001-02) Laredo United HS (2002-03), Arlington, and Trail Blazers as intern, video coordinator, and assistant coach.  
Sent by Ernesto Euribe 

The Impact of the Great Recession on Retirement PlansAccording to this groundbreaking report, the prolonged economic crisis and resulting financial challenges led many employees to tap into their retirement savings to alleviate short-term financial stress. In fact, more than two-thirds of workers who took a withdrawal in 2010 reported they needed the money for an unexpected emergency, debt or day-to-day living expenses. That said, African-American employees took hardship withdrawals more than any other ethnic group. Fully 8.8 percent of African-Americans took hardship withdrawals in 2010, compared to 3.2 percent of Hispanics, 1.7 percent of whites and just 1.2 percent of Asian workers.

For full report, go to:

2010 Census Shows Interracial and Interethnic Married Couples Grew by 28 Percent over Decade 

The U.S. Census Bureau today released a 2010 Census brief, Households and Families: 2010, that showed interracial or interethnic opposite-sex married couple households grew by 28 percent over the decade from 7 percent in 2000 to 10 percent in 2010. States with higher percentages of couples of a different race or Hispanic origin in 2010 were primarily located in the western and southwestern parts of the United States, along with Hawaii and Alaska. Map: 

52% Of The Latino Population Lives In 4 Border States: California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.  For the first time since the 1850s, the borderlands have again become a predominantly Latino region of the United States. Over half of border county residents are of Latino ancestry.

As a result of a Judicial Watch filing under the Freedom of Information Act, the USAF released documents detailing the cost of House Speaker Pelosi's use of United States Air Force aircraft between March 2009 and June 2010. The data are published in the Judicial Watch Verdict of December 2010, Vol 16, Issue 12.

Here are the main highlights revealed by the USAF. Keep in mind that all the data below relate to United States Air Force aircraft used by one woman over a sixteen month period.

Several of these flights included Ms Pelosi's guests Over 95% of the trips were between the west coast and Washington , DC or what we might call a commute between home and the office.

Total trips: 85 trips over a 68 week period or 1.25 average trips per week.
Total mileage: 206,264 miles or 2,427 average miles per trip
Total flying time: 428.6 hours or an average of 5 hrs per trip
Cost to the taxpayers:
$2,100,744.59 or $27,715.00 per trip or $1,285,162.00 per year. Cost of in flight food and drinks: $101,429.14 or $1,193.00 per trip or $62,051.00 per  year.

To keep up with the latest in  print media, go to:
Hispanic Marketing 101 
Latino Print Network 
 3445 Catalina Dr. | Carlsbad | CA | 92010

Interview on free speech with  Judge Andrew Paolo Napolitano (born June 6, 1950),former New Jersey Superior Court.

A special Smithsonian webcast was held on April 25th.

(Re)Presenting America: The Role Of Ethnic/Cultural Institutions.

Congressman Xavier Becerra was one of the speakers, representing the American Latino Museum effort. A 1:30 p.m panel was followed by several follow up sessions which continued into the afternoon.

Nearly a year after the U.S. Census Bureau announced a surge in the Hispanic population, making it the largest minority group, a new analysis holds that the growth rate of the Latino population has actually seen a decrease in the later part of the decade.


2012 NCLR Annual Conference

2012 NCLR Annual Conference
July 7-10, 2012
Mandalay Bay Hotel & Convention Center, Las Vegas, NV

Registration Deadline Approaching for the 2012 NCLR Annual Conference  

Less than a month remains to register for the 2012 National Council of La Raza (NCLR) Annual Conference by the Tier II deadline of May 4, 2012!  Prices will rise, so make sure to register today.  Get access to over 50 workshops, three town halls, five meal events including the Latinas Brunch and the Awards Gala, as well as numerous networking receptions!  Don’t miss the largest gathering of influential leaders and newsmakers in the Latino community at the 2012 NCLR Annual Conference at the Mandalay Bay Hotel and Convention Center this July 7–10.  

Right now we have a fantastic registration promo:  the first five people to register themselves and four of their friends win a two-night stay at an MGM hotel with full amenities package.*  Quantities are limited, so register today by clicking here.  

The first round of workshops are now online!  This is just a sneak peek at what’s in store, and the full workshop listing will be available soon.  Click here for our current workshops listing.  

We have a limited-time discount hotel rate at the Mandalay Bay Hotel, the heart of all Conference events!  At only $159/night, it’s a fantastic deal.  Click here for full details and book your room today.  

Are you interested in exhibiting at the National Latino Family Expo®?  Join us and reach thousands of individuals at the most exciting family-focused fair in the country.  Email our Sponsorships team at today for more information.   

Don’t forget to follow NCLR on Facebook and Twitter for news updates, events, and promotions!  

*Offer limited to the first five respondents who establish a group of five paid Regular or Premium Package registrations for the 2012 NCLR Annual Conference.  All participants must be registered within the Tier II deadline, which ends May 4.


Curious about NCLR Conference workshops?

Here’s a sneak peek at a few of the 50+ workshops offered this year:

Staying Afloat: The Alzheimer’s Tidal Wave in the Latino Community
Parents + Math Education = Success
A Leg Up for Disconnected Latino Youth
Cutting the Red Tape to Get Our Children Health Coverage
Digital Organizing 101 for Your Organization
Occupy Education: Building a Latino Education Reform Movement 
For more workshop offerings, go to:   Click here: National Council of La Raza | Workshops & Town Halls  

Somos Primos will have a booth at the NCLR conference, do stop and see us. 

The True Meaning of the Tejano Monument, by Cecilia Ballí|
This is our history: Effort to build Tejano Monument began in South Texas
Idea for a Tejano Monument at the state Capitol started at UTPA
Tejano monument supporters faced questions
Automatically generated multi-source news digest on Tejano Monument
Inauguration of the Tejano Monument by Andrés Tijerina, Ph.D.
Tejano Monument unveiling (we’ve come a long, long way) by José Antonio López
Pioneer's Kin proud of new Tejano monument, Dallas Morning News
2. CINCO DE MAYO, A Battle for Recognition by Dr. Lily Rivera
3. CLASS APART, Eva Longoria banner builds 'Class' act


Tejano Monument

The photos below were selected by some shared by: 
Jesse R. Bernal, Chief of Staff 
Texas State Representative Roberto R. Alonzo
Capitol Office - Room 4N.06 (Capitol Building)
P.O. Box 2910 - Capitol Station
Austin, TX 78768-2910
Sent to Somos Primos by Roberto Calderon, University of North Texas 
To view some pre and post unveiling of the Tejano Monument, plus parade photos, please go to a series of photos by Leticia Molina. 

Editor: Leticia, thank you from all of us.  Your photos will forever share the wonderful event and celebration, especially treasured by those of us who were not able to be at the unveiling.   What a joy . . . 
Photo copies may be ordered from Leticia Molina  

The True Meaning of the Tejano Monument, by Cecilia Ballí|
Apr 2 2012

In June 2010, soon after my nephew Cristóbal had turned seven, I took him on his first visit to the state Capitol. Cris, as we refer to him affectionately, has always been inclined toward grand things, so the pink-granite marvel was a perfect adventure for the soon-to-be-second-grader. He was transfixed by the long hallways and the rows and rows of portraits of the men and women who once served the Texas Legislature. He seemed awed by the thought that, at a good bit under four feet tall, a little boy like he could form part of such a vast human continuum.

Then we arrived at the Senate Chamber, the stately place where, I explained, our laws actually get made. The room was restored to reflect how it looked in 1905, and his eyes grew wide as they swept across it, contemplating the walnut desks and ornate brass chandeliers. But it was two enormous canvases against the back wall that caught his attention. They are the Irish-born painter H. A. McArdle’s “Dawn at the Alamo” and “The Battle of San Jacinto,” depicting the two most famous battles in the Texas Revolution. The latter, which is a bit larger than the first and to which Cris gravitated, depicts the military attack that ended the war on April 21, 1836 and gave birth to Texas.

Although the battle was won in eighteen minutes, the Texas troops pressed forward another hour to avenge the death of their compatriots in Goliad and the Alamo. The final death count was nine Texans against 630 Mexicans. The present-day monument on the former battleground in the Houston Ship Channel recognizes the battle as a decisive one that freed Texas and led to the Mexican War, by which one-third of the present-day American nation, nearly one million square miles of territory, changed hands. McArdle’s mural, subtitled “Retributive Justice,” serves as an allegory of good ultimately conquering evil—while the cowardly General Santa Anna flees on a horse, the Texians continue to stab the Mexicans, leaving them wounded or dead in pools of their own blood.

Cris had walked up to the painting in the chamber and was so transfixed the guard had to ask him to step back from the protective ropes. He seemed disturbed by its gory mess, and wanted to know who was fighting who, and why. I told him it commemorated the day that Texas seceded from Mexico, later becoming part of the United States. He hadn’t learned this part of history, and I could see his little mind shift into overdrive as he digested the fact that his home state was once part of another country. “That’s just wrong,” he blurted. “And that’s just weird that America always wins.”

I realized I’d opened up a can of worms and he wasn’t going to let me off the hook so easily. He grew flustered, demanding to know “how it all got started, I just don’t understand!” I explained in the simplest terms possible that some people here had not been happy with the rules of the Mexican government. “But just some!” he protested. Then he asked what had happened to those who stayed behind after independence. I told him they became Texans, and subsequently also Americans. He figured out that not all would have been Anglo. “And the Mexicans,” he wanted to know, “did they get alone with everyone else?” I told him they were discriminated against for a long time because they were different, but that they, too, became American citizens. And then his face lit up as he put all the pieces together and recognized his own reality: “Oh, Mexican Americans!”

Cris is the son of Mexican Americans from Brownsville and El Paso who are now successful lawyers in Houston, and he embraces both parts of his identity with reverence and passion. First and foremost, he is a die-hard American: he is enamored with NASA, devoured the entire Harry Potter series in the second grade, and, during our Thanksgiving dinner in 2008, chose to give his thanks to God “because Obama won for president.” But he attends a private school with an international curriculum that celebrates cultural difference, and his parents have taken extra care to instill pride in his Mexican roots and brown skin especially once they saw that at three years old, his pre-K classmates were already talking about race. He loves Spanish music, the Mexican children comedy show Chespirito, and adores Nacho Libre because it’s an American film set in Mexico.

His troubled encounter two summers ago with the artwork in the Capitol had, I think, as much to do with its graphic content as it did with the fact that it disturbed his sense of himself and darkened his place in history. The story of Texas that generations of us have read in school textbooks and consumed in the Capitol is far too black-and-white, leaving no room for us to understand who we are or where we come from in a fuller and more enriching way. But the unveiling last week of a $2 million bronze monument honoring Tejanos, Texans of Mexican ancestry who were here even before our state came to be, offers one chance to complicate the narrative a little.

A descendant of two of those founding Tejano families, I have to admit I almost missed the event. For years I’d heard about this monument that Mexican American leaders were determined to bring to Capitol grounds, where eighteen other memorials on 22 acres honor everything from Confederate soldiers and Texas Rangers to peace officers, war veterans, firemen, Texas cowboys, women and children–-even the Statue of Liberty and the Ten Commandments. But it wasn’t until a day or two before it happened that I learned the details of Thursday’s ceremony. I sent last-minute emails canceling my classes at the University of Texas and arrived that morning at the soggy south lawn a good half hour after Governor Rick Perry, who’d signed the project into law in 2001, had proclaimed that “this is an important monument because it reflects a larger truth about the origins of Texas, about the contributions of so many Hispanic citizens to the creation of the state we love, and the lives we share.”

By then, Eva Guzman, the first Mexican American woman on the Texas Supreme Court, had taken the podium and was recalling her own experiences touring the Capitol as an elementary school student, as tens of thousands of children still do every year. I scanned the grounds for a good spot and surveyed the crowd of more than one thousand Texans who had defied the gray skies that threatened to dump on us at any moment. Immediately I began to spot a number of people I recognized: Cousins Oscar and Cindy Casares, novelist and media columnist; Rene Lara, a public schoolteacher lobbyist; Jerry Vaquez, a Houston television producer; Emilio Zamora, a UT colleague and historian who is helping lead a monument-related effort to develop a fourth-grade Tejano curriculum for Texas classrooms. It was an accounting of the fourteen years I’ve spent in my home state since leaving to California for college, and a testament to the social and educational advancement of Texas Mexican Americans and our contributions across the professions. There were men in smart-looking business suits and women in tasteful dresses and pumps.

But mostly what I saw was a sea of working-class Tejanos I’d never witnessed in a mainstream public space. They’d come in carloads from cities and rural counties throughout the state to witness what they considered a deeply symbolic event for their communities and families: Middle-aged mothers with teens in tow; burly men with boys propped onto their shoulders; widowed women friends in groups of three, four, five. A frail older couple in their seventies shuffled in slowly, holding each other by the hand, taking in the whole scene with tiny smiles on their face.

The humid air was impregnated with pride, and it was predecessors and place that held sway here. One elderly gentleman in baggy jeans, ropers and a felt cowboy hat held up a white poster that featured a faded photo of himself as a boy sitting atop a horse with his father: “Juan Favila, El Dorado, Texas, 1912-2001.” A rowdy contingency of women from Laredo–-where Armando Hinojosa, the artist who sculpted the eleven-piece monument, is also from, claiming lineage to founder Tomás Sánchez-–posed behind a blue-and-white “Laredo Proud” banner as they laughed and waved at onlookers’ cameras. The Webb County Heritage Foundation was also in attendance with an even more elaborate getup that included flags of the short-lived Republic of the Rio Grande. What mattered, in any case, was situating oneself by family and genealogy.

When Professor Cynthia Salinas took the microphone to describe the Tejano history education initiative at UT, she began by saying, “Me llamo Cynthia Salinas y soy la hija de Juan y Eva Salinas de Hebbronville, Texas!” (“My name is Cynthia Salinas and I’m the daughter of Juan and Eva Salinas of Hebbronville, Texas!”) The crowd clapped and cheered loudly.

So caught up was I watching everyone else live the moment that I momentarily forgot this was my experience and upbringing, too. Though my sisters and I grew up with very little (like so many other Tejano families, my mother and father spent ten years migrating to California to work in the fields and other menial jobs), we were reminded that we carried not one, but two, special last names, and there lay our treasure. Both the Ballís and Hinojosas, our maternal family, came to present-day Tamaulipas and South Texas with colonizer José de Escandón, who was tasked by the Spanish crown with founding more than twenty towns and villas that made up the colony of Nuevo Santander, and partitioning vast tracts of land to each family. The families established large, sometimes prosperous ranches where they raised horses and cattle and developed the vaquero ranching traditions that Anglo cowboys adopted more than a century later.

The eventual fall of most of those families from wealth and prominence is a fabled one I once chronicled for TEXAS MONTHLY, in the case of the Ballís (“Return to Padre,” January 2001). With the dawning of the Texas Revolution and the end of the Mexican War, new settlers arrived, economies and power shifted, and many Tejanos eventually were robbed, coerced, or tricked into selling their lands. Anglos became the new ranchers (the Ballí line I come from once owned part of what became Mifflin Kenedy’s ranch). Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Mexican Americans suffered persecution and even lynchings by the Texas Rangers, racial segregation and beatings for speaking Spanish, and generalized discrimination and impoverishment. What’s more, Texas erased the Tejanos’ experience. In the new narrative that emerged, history began in 1836, after Mexicans were ousted from the state in San Jacinto. Unfortunately, this is the only story we learned once we faced compulsory Texas history classes in the fourth and seventh grades, and the one we regurgitated on tests and from which we fashioned our identities and sense of belonging. Developing a valued sense of self as Mexican Texans required a different education-–one that fell on our families, outside of public life and official discourse.

And this is what gave the monument’s unveiling its weight: What more symbolic place and space to officialize our own telling of Texas history? As Thursday’s ceremony inched closer toward the culminating moment when state legislators and some of the Tejano founding families would yank the green tarps that now covered each of the bronze statues, historian Andrés Tijerina, who authored two of the seminal books about Tejano life under Spanish and Mexican rule and co-led the monument’s movement from its inception in 2000, offered a different telling of events. “I feel like when you teach and talk about Tejano history before this group, it’s like preaching to the choir,” Tijerina said. “But you know what? We need it. We need to hear Tejano history. We need to hear Tejano history at the state Capitol.” The audience cheered, and a few people yelled, “Woo!”

The twenty-minute speech that followed traced the role of Tejanos in founding the oldest settlements in Texas, fighting for independence, designing its laws, breeding its livestock, building its architecture and developing its economies. He began: “We were taught in our American history books that the English colonists landed on the Atlantic coast in 1607, the pilgrims in 1621…”

“… Tejanos didn’t come as individuals,” he recited. “They came as familia. They came as families, whole families. When Victoria – Victoria, Texas – was founded, it was founded by whole families, like the De León, who, incidentally, are still in Victoria today, and are still here today. De León, where are you?”

A woman in front of me with a caramel-colored flower in her hair that matched her dress jacket waved, and another one called out, “Y-e-e-e-a-h!”

“When the ranches of Las Villas del Norte around Laredo were founded, the explorer Don José de Escandón brought thousands of the world’s largest and most successful ranching families right here, to the Rio Grande Frontier. Escandón intentionally recruited the Hinojosa and Guerra families, because they had horses! The Guerra family brought Texas longhorns. And they still preserve the original DNA longhorn stock on their ranches in South Texas, around Linn, Texas. They’re in the audience. Where are the Guerra?”

Again hands waved, and again, the audience clapped.

“The Guerra had cattle. And they were recruited because they had arms to defend themselves. Con todas armas llegaban. Rosa María Hinojosa de Ballí was not just a woman of the founding family of Ballí here in Texas. Rosa María Hinojosa de Ballí was the first cattle queen of Texas who lorded over hundreds of thousands of acres of ranchland. She commanded hundreds of vaqueros every day, and she helped to establish the unique longhorn breed of Texas cattle. Her son, Father José Nicolás de Ballí owned the Island that now carries his name, Padre Island. These are the families–-these are the Tejano families who founded the North American cattle industry. Who gave us the mustangs, the longhorns, and the concept of el rancho grande. Not a farm. Not a ranch. Rancho grande! The Ballí came in the 1700s with Escandón. They’re still here today. Ballí?”

The mention of both my families was unexpected. I held my camera in one hand and lifted my left arm and waved, a small knot forming in my throat.

Later: “Anglo Americans quickly learned to eat Tejano food, like the tacos and the enchiladas and the guacamole, that’s true! Carne guisada. They dressed like Tejanos with the boots and the chaps. They wore the Tejano vaquero hat. They learned Tejano skills: to make a rope. To throw a rope. Branding. The cattle round-up. The cattle drive and open-range ranching. That’s why we call in Texas a rope, a ‘lasso.’ We don’t call a corral a ‘stockade’! It’s why a Texan today gets in a car that he calls a ‘pinto’ or a ‘bronco,’ and he drives down a street that he calls ‘Guadalupe.’ And he crosses a river that he calls ‘Colorado.’ And he sits on a ‘patio’ next to a ‘corral’ and eats his barbacoa!”

Loud laughter and cheers. “W-o-o-o-o!”

“In so many ways, the Mexican-Tejano culture is so deeply ingrained in our daily Texas life that many Texans take it for granted, or they just don’t even know that. They fail to see the Mexican in their own lives. In their own culture. In their own diet. In their own values of everyday life. In fact, every thing that Texans brag about – the Texas longhorns, the Texas mustangs, the Texas chili – everything they brag about today is Tejano. Come to think of it, if it wasn’t for the Tejano heritage, Texas would probably be Ohio! Have you ever heard of an Ohio Ranger?!

“Texas is unique. And her story cannot be told without the Tejano.”

As proud a tejana as I am, I have to admit there are times I worry Tejano pride has become its own form of nationalism. Throughout the rest of the weekend celebrations organized around the monument’s unveiling, it was a good feeling to have people shake my hand with respect or say “felicidades!” after I introduced myself and they learned my last name. “Oh, one of the original Tejano descendants!” a man who called himself “Rudy Tejano Peña” told me. “It’s an honor to meet you.” Foundational stories of any sort are dangerous; they can easily turn into exclusionary myths that merely further the social divide. For one, the Tejano monument does nothing to recover the story of a number of indigenous groups that already roamed these lands when José de Escandón set foot, or of the long history of African Americans and people of African descent, some of whom accompanied the Spanish into the Southwest since the sixteenth century. And what about the many more residents who have no longstanding ties to Texas, including millions of Mexican immigrants who some Tejanos are quick to distance themselves from? How do we create narratives that make it possible for all Texans–-old Texans and new Texans-–to claim our place in this state and create a valued identity?

The project of writing and rewriting our story is an endless one. But hopefully, at the very minimum, movements like the Tejano monument one help us to appreciate the importance of history and reprioritize its role in public life. That was ultimately the lesson that my nephew Cris, who coincidentally turned nine the day the monument was unveiled, took from his first visit to the Capitol. For after turning his attention to the painting of the Alamo and learning that Mexico had won that battle, his exasperation with Texas’ story seemed to fade. “I just can’t believe it, Mexico finally won!” he said with a satisfied smile as we filed out of the Chamber. “I never thought…” His voice trailed.

“That Mexico could win?” I suggested.

“No! I never thought that history could be so interesting!”



This is our history:'
Effort to build Tejano Monument began in South Texas . . . by
Jared Janes

EDINBURG,Tx, March 27,2012-(L-R) Dr. Lino Garcia, UTPA professor, Jose Antonio Lopez, historian/columnist and Dr. Andres Tijerina vice president, of the Tejano Monument committee & Austin Community College. Photo by Delcia Lopez/  

EDINBURG — Before Andres Tijerina joined state leaders at the Capitol today to unveil a tribute to Texas’ earliest pioneers, there was one last trip he found time to make.

Tijerina, an Austin Community College history professor and author of two books on Tejano history, traveled to Edinburg Tuesday to speak at the University of Texas-Pan American despite an overwhelming to-do list to finish in preparation for today’s events.

By coming here, Tijerina had come full circle.

Tijerina’s trip to the Rio Grande Valley about 10 years ago to speak at a UTPA seminar that first brought together everyone who would bring the Tejano Monument to fruition. On that trip, Tijerina met other monument organizers – including McAllen physician Cayetano Barrera and his nephew Richard Sanchez, a legislative staffer – who all agreed that a huge part of Texas history was missing from the Capitol’s spacious grounds.

“I say that everything that Texans brag about is Tejano,” Tijerina said, listing the Texas longhorns and mustangs; the cowboy’s boots, chaps, spurs and other accoutrements; the Tex-Mex cuisine and even the world-famous Texas pride and bravado.

“All of that then is what Texas brags about today,” Tijerina said at breakfast Tuesday before speaking at UTPA’s Spanish Texas Studies Project seminar, the same one that began his involvement with the monument. “If it were not for the Tejano culture, Texas would be Ohio.”

Tijerina, Barrera and other organizers will join state leaders today in unveiling the Tejano Monument, a testament to the Spanish-Mexican settlers who wrote the first chapter of Texas history.

Located in a prominent spot on the south lawn of the Capitol, the multi-statue monument tells the state’s early history, beginning with the Spanish arrival in the 1500s. The monument, which will be the largest of the 19 that grace the Capitol grounds, was designed by Laredo sculptor Armando Hinojosa, a descendant of the founder of Laredo.

It took a 12-year effort to reach today’s ceremony.

Barrera, the president of the monument’s board of directors, first noticed the state’s glaring lack of Tejano recognition while touring the Capitol grounds in the summer of 2000. Barrera called his nephew, Richard Sanchez, then chief of staff for state Rep. Kino Flores, who confirmed there were no monuments to recognize Tejano efforts in settling the state.

In the following weeks, Barrera joined Tijerina, Sanchez and Premont native Homero Vera in laying the groundwork for the monument’s committee. They were soon joined by IBC Zapata bank president Renato Ramirez, forming the core of the group that would labor over the next decade to bring the monument to reality.

Jose Antonio Lopez, a historian, said the monument fills in a critical period of Texas development lacking on the Capitol grounds.

Tejano history dates to the 1500s, when Spanish explorer Alonso Alvarez de Pineda first mapped the Texas coastline. Spanish missions were established in the 1600s. A group of Tejano settlers, led by Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara, declared the first Republic of Texas in 1813. The descendants of Spanish and Mexican settlers established a thriving cattle and agriculture industry, became the first cowboys and also fought at the Alamo.

But the Texas history recognized at the Capitol – and taught in Texas classrooms – typically begins when whites began moving to Texas.

“It’s not a matter of rewriting what we have learned of Texas history,” Lopez said. “It’s a matter of filling in a missing piece.”

Memorial organizers overcame several struggles to complete that piece.

Flores, the former state representative, passed the initial resolution in favor of the monument in 2001 and later secured a $1.1 million appropriation for the monument. Organizers than raised nearly $2 million more by corporate and private donors to finish the monument.

When the State Preservation Board ruled that the Tejano Monument must be placed on the Capitol’s less-prominent northern grounds, the project was delayed another two years while organizers sought a remedy. Hispanic legislators responded by passing a law in 2009 that ensured the monument took a spot on the south grounds where it will be among the first that Capitol-goers see.

Tijerina said the support the monument has garnered shows there is a lot more to it than bronze and stone.

“It underscores the fact that it’s not Mexicans, it’s not immigrants, it’s not even Tejano natives who are putting up the monument,” he said. “It’s the state of Texas putting that monument forward and saying, ‘This is our history.’”

Jared Janes covers Hidalgo County government, Edinburg and legislative issues for The Monitor. He can be reached at and (956) 683-4424.  The McAllen Monitor, March 28, 2012 10:13 PM

The Associated Press contributed to this report.
Sent Dr. Lino Garcia lgarcia@UTPA.EDU 

Idea for a Tejano Monument at the state Capitol started at UTPA

Dr. Lino Garcia, professor emeritus of Spanish Literature at UTPA. (Photo: RGG/Steve Taylor)

EDINBURG, March 29, 2012 - It is a little known fact but the idea to build a monument honoring the heritage and contributions of Tejanos at the Texas state Capitol in Austin was born at the University of Texas-Pan American.

The historic Tejano Monument will be officially unveiled by Gov. Rick Perry on the south lawn of the state Capitol at 10 a.m. today. It is the first monument to recognize the contributions of Tejanos at the Capitol.

“The idea for the Monument was born here at the University of Texas-Pan American in 1998, when we had our first Spanish Colonial Texas Symposium,” said Dr. Lino Garcia, professor emeritus of Spanish Literature at UTPA.

“Our symposium had just finished and Dr. Cayetano Barrera, Professor Andres Tijerina, Enrique Guerra and I went to eat. Someone, I think it was Cayetano Barrera, said, ‘we do not have a monument. We have got to have a symbol, something people can see. We can hear speakers and we can have this symposium, but we do not have anything that is concrete, where people can say, what is that and the story can then start to unfold’.”

Professor Tijerina, a professor of history at Austin Community College, remembers the occasion also.

“The concept of a monument was born here on this campus,” Tijerina said, referring to UTPA. “Dr. Barrera approached me right after I was giving a speech, at the founding session of this Spanish Colonial Texas Symposium. We did not stop talking until late into the night. We drew up a pact that we were going to put up a monument.”

Tijerina wrote the script for five bronze plaques that adorn the Tejano Monument at the Capitol. It is one of the largest monuments on any state Capitol grounds in the country. It has ten statues and five bronze plaques of text that tell the story of the heritage and contributions of Spanish and Mexican Texans.

Tijerina was at UTPA on Tuesday for Garcia’s latest Spanish Colonial Texas Symposium, along with Tejano historian Joe Lopez of San Antonio. Tijerina has had such a busy week preparing for official unveiling of the monument in Austin that he did not think he could fit in a visit to Edinburg. “That was until I remembered that it was because of Dr. Garcia, it was because of this campus, it was because of this university, that we have a Tejano Monument,” he said.

Tijerina said that as part of the recognition process that Tejanos have played a pivotal role in the development of Texas, tour guides at the state Capitol will use the script he has written for the Monument’s bronze plaques.

“All the people from now on who go through the Capitol, all the children and tourists, will always get the Tejano story,” Tijerina said. “The Monument states that Tejanos did exist in Texas and they did make the contributions of all those features that make us all proud to be Texans - the longhorns, the mustangs, the cowboy, all of that. It was by the founders of Texas. Tejanos are not immigrants. They are the natives and the founders of Texas.”

Asked how significant the Tejano Monument is, Garcia predicted it will be a liberating symbol for all Texans.

“It liberates everybody, including everybody who has had false notions about Tejanos. They have been liberated from things that were negative. Texas is going be majority Hispanic. Other ethnicities are going to be marrying Hispanics, they might as well get to know who they are,” Garcia said.

Garcia said interest in Tejano history is growing rapidly as people begin to realize the true history of Texas. He said his columns are now being published in four or five major newspapers, including the Rio Grande Guardian and the San Antonio Express-News.

“This is a Tejano Movement. We are not turning back. It is going so fast now that I am publishing in four or five different newspapers. Our story is being read by millions of people. Even the Texas Monthly is listening. Their previous editor, Evan Smith, called me because I objected to some of the things they were saying and he promised me they would have an accurate history of Texas in the Texas Monthly. They have begun to do so. They have talked about Juan Seguin, they have talked about the Balli family,” Garcia said.

Garcia, who has been teaching at UTPA and its predecessors since 1967, said he is proud to have played a small part in establishing a Tejano Monument at the state Capitol.

“It has been a long road but here we are now, 2012, and we have the Monument. It is history in the making. I am proud it was born here at UTPA and I am happy to have played a small part in getting people together, which is what it takes, the energy of people merging, coming up with ideas,” he said.

Garcia concluded his interview with the Guardian by saying the Tejano Monument is really for the children.

“It is for the children, the future generations of Texas, whether they be Tejanos, Anglos, African Americans, Orientals. They need to know our history because it liberates them. It helps them survive in a Hispanic-oriented majority, 21st Century Texas.”

“Just as the murals in Mexico that tell their history, our Monument will tell our history. It is a message that we have been here forever and we are not leaving,” Garcia said.  

Write Steve Taylor


Tejano monument supporters faced questions

Tejano monument supporters faced questions

The long-awaited Tejano Monument will be dedicated on the Capitol’s south lawn at 10 a.m. today (Thursday), culminating a 12-year-grassroots campaign to honor Texas’ early Spanish and Mexican explorers, settlers and their descendants.

In their quest, supporters like Dan Arellano, president of the Tejano Genealogical Society of Austin, said they heard from some who questioned if the monument was an attempt to rewrite history. “They’ve said we’re revisionist historians,” Arellano said.

Frank de la Teja, the former official historian of the state of Texas who was appointed to that post by Gov. Rick Perry in 2007, has heard that talk, too. He doesn’t think much of it.

“Nobody’s inventing anything,” De la Teja, a history professor at Texas State University, told Somos Austin.

De la Teja said he hoped that the monument will serve as a reminder that Texas has a long history “made up of a variety of people, not just the small segment that usually gets all the credit for settling Texas and for developing Texas.”

De la Teja was referring to the popular historical narrative of Texas, which usually begins with the arrival of Anglo settlers from other states in the early 1800s. That account leaves out the earlier history made by Tejanos, the descendants of Spanish and Mexican settlers who introduced cattle ranching and farming, tamed the wild frontier and fought for independence. Spaniards first mapped the Texas coast in the 1500s.

tejanoarmando.JPG At right, monument sculptor Armando Hinojosa with an unfinished version of one of the statuary pieces. (2010 photo by American-Statesman photographer Alberto Martinez)

Cayetano Barrera, the McAllen physician whose vision for a monument kick-started the monument campaign in 2000, said supporters simply wanted to claim Tejanos’ rightful place in history.

“We just wanted to have our chapter included,” Barrera said at the groundbreaking for the monument earlier this year.

Barrera said that in a 2000 visit to the Capitol he was dismayed to learn that none of the 18 monuments on the Capitol grounds recognized Hispanic contributions.

“It was a huge omission,” Barrera said. “History is not just about what historians choose to remember but what they choose to forget or omit.”

Thursday’s unveiling and dedication ceremony begins three days of events celebrating Hispanic culture and contributions. They include:


Tejano Monument dedication, 10 a.m. at the Capitol grounds. Free.

‘Meet the Artist’ reception and art show honoring Armando Hinojosa, sculptor of the Tejano Monument. 1 to 6 p.m., Lady Bird Conference Room, La Quinta Capital, 300 E. 11th St. Free.

Tejano at the Plaza. Free music concerts by mariachi, Tejano and conjunto groups. Food vendors. 1:30 to 8 p.m. at Plaza Saltillo, 412 Comal St. Free.


Tejano Historical Conference. Presentations by historians at 21 sessions covering Tejano history, including ‘Early Colonial Texas,’ ‘Tejano Empresarios,’ ‘Tejanas in Texas History’ and ‘Tejanos in the 20th Century.’ Opening ceremonies at 9 a.m. with breakout sessions from 10 a.m. to 3:15 p.m. State Capitol Extension. Free. For information, visit

Grand Celebration Banquet. 6:30 to 10 p.m., UT Alumni Center, 2110 San Jacinto Blvd. Sponsored by Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin. Tickets are $100. Sponsor and reserved tables are also available. For more information, visit


Nosotros Los Tejanos Parade. Congress Avenue, starts at Cesar Chavez Street and continues to 11th Street. 9 to 10 a.m. Free.

Mexican American Cultural Center events. Re-enactment of the Tejano Declaration of Independence, performances by conjunto, ballet folklorico and mariachi groups, mask making for children. Noon to 4 p.m., Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center, 600 River St. Free.

Articles on the Tejano Monument:


Automatically generated multi-source news digest on Tejano Monument

Editor:  This is a new use of technology wherein the main content on a topic has been compiled based on the fair use of snippets from original news stories (initially clustered by the Google News) by applying our multi-document summarization technology.
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Photos: See the Unveiling of the Tejano MonumentCONTENTS:


Inauguration of the Tejano Monument

Andrés Tijerina, Ph.D.

March 29, 2012


We were taught in our American history books that the English colonists landed on the Atlantic coast in 1607.  As they conquered the frontier, they developed their democratic spirit and in 1776 declared their independence from England.  The American frontier drove westward from the Atlantic toward the Pacific, from sea to shining sea.  And it was their grandchildren who arrived here in Texas with Stephen F. Austin in 1821 to settle new empresario land grants from the Republic Mexico.  Fighting at the Alamo and at San Jacinto, the Texans also developed a fierce individualism.  We stand on the shoulders of those great men today.

And today we pause to remember that those Texans also stood shoulder to shoulder with their Tejano patriots.  That when Stephen F. Austin got his land grant, it was a Tejano who gave it to him.  Texas Governor Antonio Martinez and later Governor Agustín Viesca welcomed Anglo-American settlers to come and partake of the beauty of Texas lands.  Viesca dedicated his whole political career at great sacrifice to sponsor American capitalism and American technology into Texas.  His legacy stands today as part of the greatness of modern Texas, just as his direct descendants stand alongside the other proud modern Texans in this very crowd.

When it came time to fight for freedom from an oppressive dictatorial regime, it was Gov. Agustin Viesca who issued the clarion call to all Tejanos.  “Arise in arms,” he proclaimed.  And when Texans made their decision to fight to the death in the Alamo, again they stood shoulder to shoulder facing sure death.  They had the choice to retreat, but they chose to fight.  Tejanos like Gregorio Esparza from San Antonio de Béxar chose instead to leave a legacy of courage for his family, for his children, and for his descendants.  It was a good choice, because his descendants are still here in this very crowd today, carrying on the proud Esparza legacy of freedom.  Fighting alongside with Esparza was the cavalry commander of the Tejano company at the Alamo and at the Battle of San Jacinto, Col. Juan Seguin, whose descendants have erected a statue to his honor just down the road.  And when Texas took the independent status of the Republic of Texas, Tejanos like José Antonio Navarro not only signed the Declaration of Independence, but served as a congressman in the fledgling republic.  The Navarro were one of the first families in the founding of Texas, but they are still here with us carrying pride of their great state of Texas.

It was nothing new for Tejanos to fight for independence in Texas.  They were a pioneering people who established la frontera across the rugged expanses of Texas.  So by the time the Anglo-Americans arrived in Texas 150 later, Tejanos gave them not only Texas lands but a unique Tejano culture.  Here, the Tejanos drew on their Spanish and Mexican traditions of family and community laws to establish a unique body of frontera law.  They wrote the first land-grant laws of Texas, the first homestead laws, the first pre-emption laws, and the first community property laws to give women the same property rights as the men.  Tejanos needed community property laws because Tejanas lived longer than the men.  The women had to keep the ranch and the family functioning in frontier society. 

Tejanos came as families.  When Victoria was established, it was founded by whole families like the De León who are still in Victoria today.    When the ranches of the Villas del Norte and Laredo were founded, the explorer Don José de Escandón brought thousands of the world’s largest and most successful ranching families to the Rio Grande frontier.  Escandón intentionally recruited the Hinojosa and the Guerra families because they had horses. The Guerra family brought the longhorns, and they still preserve the original DNA sock on their ranches today. They also are in the audience today.  They had cattle, and because they had arms to defend themselves.  Con todas armas.  Rosa Maria Hinojosa de Ballí was not just a woman in the founding family of Ballí.  She was the first Cattle Queen of Texas who lorded over hundreds of thousands of acres of ranch land, commanded hundreds of vaqueros, and helped to establish the unique longhorn breed of Texas cattle. Her son, Father José Nicolas de Ballí, owned the island that carries his name, Padre Island.  These are the families who founded the North American cattle industry--who gave us the mustangs, the longhorns, and the concept of el rancho grande.  The Ballí came in the 1700s and they’re still here in this audience today.

These are the Tejanos who perfected the skills of horsemanship that are still seen today as trick roping and bronc busting in the modern rodeo performances.  When Tejanos rode a horse, however, it was not a rodeo performance.  It was a life-and-death struggle.  Indeed, it was on the Texas frontier that Tejanos adapted their horsemanship to law enforcement in the development of the unique Compania Volante or flying squadron.  A unique, light mounted cavalry that rode offensively on long-range patrols across the state, armed with a pistol a knife, a rifle, and para-military warfare.  They had authority to deputize, to prosecute in any jurisdiction, and to execute summarily in the field.  So when the Anglo Americans arrived, they quickly learned to ride the Tejano mesteno horses, to rope the Tejano longhorn, and to patrol the range as “Texas Rangers,” wearing the same accoutrements as the Tejano flying squadron.  Like the Texas cowboy, the rangers simply adopted the Tejano clothing, methods, and vocabulary.  The boots, the spurs, the chaps, and the Tejano hat—lock, stock, and barrel.

Tejanos gave us our Texas vocabulary of Mexican words adapted to English, like lasso, corral, patio, rancho, and barbacoa.  They named our rivers like the Brazos, the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and the Trinidad.  We call it Tex-Mex, but our food is not Mexican, it’s Tejano because Mexicans don’t eat jerky, flour tortillas, and huevos rancheros.  Anglo Americans learned to eat Tejano food like tacos, enchiladas, and carne guisada.  They dressed like Tejanos with boots, chaps, spurs, and a Tejano vaquero hat.  They learned Tejano skills of making ropes, throwing the rope, branding, the round-up, the cattle drive, and open-range ranching.  That’s why we call a rope a lasso.  We don’t call a corral a stockade.  It’s why a Texan today gets in a car he calls a pinto or a bronco, he drives down a street he calls Guadalupe across a river named Colorado, and sits on a patio next to a corral to eat his barbacoa.  The Mexican-Tejano culture is so ingrained into our modern Texas life that many Texans take it for granted.  They fail to see the Mexican in their own laws, culture, and value system.  Everything that Texans brag about—the longhorns, mustangs, and chili—is Tejano.  If it were not for its Tejano heritage, Texas would be Ohio.  Have you ever heard of a Ohio Ranger? 

The contributions of Tejanos to Texas are monumental and seminal.  And it is why  this Tejano Monument stands so tall.  It stands in stone and bronze because it tells the story of all those Tejanos whose story was, in many ways, silenced in the pages of Texas history books.  This story was not written on paper today.  It was written in the blood and sacrifice of those Tejanos who fought here for freedom.  Whether they fought in the Battle of the Cinco de Mayo for Mexican independence or at San Jacinto for Texas independence, Tejanos fought for their families and for freedom in Texas.  Freedom knows no borders.  It is not bound by race or ethnicity.  Tejanos fought in all the wars of this state and of this nation.     They shed their blood at Iwo Jima.  They left their names on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall in Washington, D.C.   And today, you know that the casualty lists coming back from Afghanistan are Tejanos, standing shoulder to shoulder with their fellow Americans.  But in many ways, their service and Tejano contributions have been an unrequited loyalty.

Allow me to share some examples of this from the depths of archival research I have done through the decades in Texas history.  Elena Zamora O’Shea, a school teacher from Alice, was the first Tejana to publish a book about Tejano history in 1922, El Mesquite.  Her father, Porfirio Zamora, was the Tejano cavalry commander who helped to defeat the French army in the historic Battle of the Cinco de Mayo.  He was under the command of Commanding General Ignacio Zaragoza of Goliad, Texas.  If you ever wondered why we celebrate the Cinco de Mayo more than they do in Mexico, it’s because the battle took place in Mexico, but Tejanos were the commanders of  the Mexican Army.  That what makes the Cinco de Mayo the National Holiday of Texas.

In her book on Tejano history, Elena Zamora O’Shea said she wondered why the sacrifices of the Tejanos “have been entirely forgotten."  She ended her book, musing, “In my old age, I hope that [someday] they  . . will teach all children that this is OUR GRAND Lone Star State.”

 Likewise, Fermina Guerra, a Laredo school teacher, wrote in her Master’s Thesis in 1941 at the University of Texas, that she had to write the history of the Tejano ranch families because unless she did it, she feared that their history would be “lost forever.”

In 1944, a labor contractor driving 80 Mexican-American migrant cotton pickers through the back roads of Lubbock County, wrote a letter, appealing for the civil rights of his workers to Governor Coke Stevenson.  In his unpracticed handwriting, Esteban Valasco pleaded, “Now Mr. Coke, I tell you, do we have the rights of any Americans or are we just like nothing?”  Yes, Elena, some day the Tejano Monument Education Curriculum will incorporate Tejano history into the history of the Lone Star State.  No, Fermina, your Tejano history will not be “lost forever.”  And no, Mr. Velasco, you are not “just like nothing.”

This Tejano Monument tells the story for all those thousands of Tejano families who received land grants from the King of Spain and the Republic of Mexico.  It speaks for the  millions of Tejanos who worked the construction sites, building a metropolitan Houston.  It speaks for thousands of Tejanos who labored the grapefruit packing sheds of the Rio Grande Valley, the mines of El Paso, and the migrant cotton field workers of Lubbock. It also tells the history of the thousands of Tejanos who went on to become bank presidents, award-winning medical doctors, senators and legislators, distinguished scholars, and public policy leaders across this great state of Texas today. 

But the discourse today is not about the bronze and the stone of the past. The Tejano Monument is a statement.  It is testament to the legacy of a modern Texas and living Texans.  It’s about the school children here in the audience today.  They come not here today to ask if they can be Texans;  it is because they are Texans that Tejanos are here today to RECLAIM their place in Texas history, and to CLAIM their place in the future of Texas.

 © Andrés Tijerina
Austin, Texas
March 29, 2012

The Texas Monthly piece is at

López: The Tejano Monument unveiling (we’ve come a long, long way)

By José Antonio López  


AUSTIN, April 2 - Many years ago, our Spanish Mexican Tejano ancestors planted a seed that remained dormant for about 170 years.

Then, ten years ago, it germinated and on the Texas State Capitol south lawn it sprouted as the magnificent Tejano Monument.

We owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Cayetano Barrera for his vision and the Herculean efforts of Mr. Renato Ramirez. Thanks also to the other equally committed Tejano Monument, Inc. Board of Directors: Dr. Andrés Tijerina, Homero Vera, and Richard Sánchez. Additionally, to Mr. Benny Martinez and the dedicated members of the advisory board: Loretta Williams, Aida Torres, William and Estella Zermeño, Judge Emilio Vargas, and R.J. Molina. Special thanks to Dr. Lino Garcia, Jr, UTPA/Edinburg who set up the first meeting between Dr. Barrera and Dr. Tijerina. Undaunted by skeptics who insisted it couldn’t be done; they proved that a dream can become a reality.

Working together, Texas Senators Zaffirini, Hinojosa, and Gallegos, and House representatives, Kino Flores, Martinez-Fischer, Guillen, Peña Raymond, Luna, Speaker Craddick’s Office, State Preservation Board, and key support from Governor Rick Perry proved that good legislation benefiting all Texans can be passed the way all bills should – in a cooperative, unanimous, non-partisan way.

The events in Austin, Texas, on Thursday, March 29, 2012, will forever remain close to my heart. Here we were my wife Cordy and I sitting alongside other Tejanos listening to Governor Perry on the podium welcoming everyone to a momentous occasion, the unveiling of the Tejano Monument, designed and sculpted by fellow Laredoan and primo, Armando Hinojosa. As we watched the covers come off the statues, I was momentarily taken back to two 1950s classroom incidents at Laredo’s Central School.

(l) I can still see an image of my mother pointing her finger at the face of my third grade teacher. My mother (Maria de la Luz Sanchez-Uribe de López) had walked me to school that day to teach my teacher a quick lesson on manners and a bit of history. The day before, my teacher, a young spouse of a Laredo AFB airman, had humiliated me in front of my classmates because in response to an assignment, I had taken a photo of my Great, Great Grandfather Blas Maria Uribe to class. My teacher laughed at the photo and told me she had assigned me to bring a picture of a real cowboy, like Roy Rogers or Gene Autry. Mother later referred to this incident as the “I had no idea” episode, simply because she said that this is the phrase my teacher kept repeating as my Mom taught the young Anglo teacher an impromptu lesson regarding my great grandpa Blas Maria and other Tejano “real” cowboys.

(2) As Sixth Grade Safety Patrol Commander, I was escorted to the principal’s office by the playground on-duty teacher because I wouldn’t write up two students she “caught” speaking Spanish. She demanded to the principal that he paddle me for my insolence because I refused to follow her instructions. After the teacher left Principal Novoa’s office, I still remember him saying to me “José, I won’t paddle you, because if I do, your mother Lusita will come and paddle me.” Such was the strength of Mother’s Tejano character. (It was Mother who taught me as a child the first oral history lessons of our ancestors because she knew that her children were not getting the information in the classroom.)

Now, as we watched the ceremonies unfold, I realized we had indeed come a long way. Both Cordy and I are eighth generation Texans. (Cordy is a descendant of Captain José Vásquez Borrego and I am a descendant of Don Javier Uribe, who came with Don José de Escandón to establish his Villas del Norte on the Lower Rio Grande.) However, as many of our peers, we had endured an annoying, unsatisfied craving for early Texas history when we were in school.

Suddenly, on this day, that craving was beginning to be satisfied. Here we were, amidst a largely Spanish-surnamed audience, all descendants of the first citizens of Texas. The Navarros were there, so were the Seguins, Esparzas, De Leóns, and the Ballis. Many members of my own family names of Sánchez, Uribe, Gutiérrez (de Lara), Cuellar, Villarreal, Hinojosa, Peña, and Garza Falcon were there, as were other notable Tejano families too numerous to name here.

On Friday, I was honored to be a speaker at the Tejano Historical Conference inside the State Capitol. Again, the awesome gathering made me think that this may have been the first time that so many Tejanos were inside the Texas Capitol building at one time. Too, this was the day that Tejanos and Tejano bi-lingual, bi-cultural history were symbolically invited and welcomed by Governor Perry and other dignitaries to the Capitol (opened in 1888). In short, Governor Perry’s Texas-size stamp of approval of the Tejano Monument is a signal to all that the State Capitol is also the Tejano people’s house.

For too long, conventional history books have recognized only the few Tejano heroes who supported the 1836 Texas Revolution, without realizing that the list of earlier Tejano heroes is much longer. For example, it was Lt. Colonel José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara Uribe who as the first President of Texas wrote, signed, and read Texas’ first Declaration of Independence to jubilant San Antonio citizens outside the Spanish Governors Palace, April 6, 1813. Yet, because his story doesn’t fit the Sam Houston version of Texas independence, most historians disparage this noble patriot’s role in achieving Texas liberty. For that reason, the Tejano Monument is poised to launch a more mature discussion of Texas history, free of myth and legend.

Importantly, due to the petition of grass-roots Texas citizens, the state board of education finally agreed that Texas history does not begin in 1836 and approved some early Texas history details for inclusion in the classroom. So, today’s Spanish Mexican-descent students and those of other backgrounds will be the first generation to learn the truth about Don Bernardo’s selfless service to Texas and also learn about other Spanish Mexican-descent heroes, such as José de Escandón. Thereby, Spanish Mexican descent students for the first time will have some ownership of Texas history that their parents and grandparents never had. Hopefully, with their heads held high and guided by the shining light of the Tejano Monument, they will be motivated to stay in school, graduate from a four-year university, and become productive members of their community.

Finally, if you were unable to attend the unveiling events, I invite you to plan a visit soon to Austin to see the Tejano Monument. I ask that you look at the monument not only as beacon on a pathway of the south lawn of the Capitol, but also to use it as an inspirational link to our past, the early Texas history era of our Spanish Mexican (Tejano) ancestors. Without a doubt, I am sure that you will walk away with a sense of great pride in the dignified role our early Texas pioneer ancestors had in founding this great place we call Texas. Looking beyond the external beauty of the bronze, stone, and mortar, let us consider the Tejano Monument as a pleasant, long-lasting way of saying “¡Aqui todavia estamos, y no nos vamos!”

Laredo native José Antonio López is an eighth Generation Tejano. A direct descendant of Don Javier Uribe, one of the earliest families that settled in what is now South Texas in 1750, López is the author of two books: “The Last Knight (Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara Uribe, A Texas Hero)”, and “Nights of Wailing, Days of Pain (Life in 1920s South Texas).” Lopez is also the founder of the Tejano Learning Center, LLC, and, a Web site dedicated to Spanish Mexican people and events in U.S. history that are mostly overlooked in mainstream history books.


There was considerable Press/TV coverage and numerous articles in the Austin Statesman and San Antonio newspapers about the historic event of the monument unveiling in Austin Texas.  This article was in the Dallas Morning News. sent by Sylvia Tillotson 



Cinco de Mayo, A Battle for Recognition
By Dr. Lily Rivera

Forget all the articles you've ever read that purport to explain why we celebrate Cinco de Mayo in the United States. They've got it all wrong.

It's not about celebrating a victory in a battle on the Fifth of May in 1862, in the City of Puebla, in the country of Mexico. It's not about honoring poor and untrained peasants who, though far out-numbered, defeated soldiers from what was then the greatest military force in the world, the French army.

No, it is not about that, and it is not about recent immigrants, either. It is about those of us who were born here, whose parents, grandparents, and great grandparents came to this country long, long ago. It is about us as American citizens who have been marginalized socially and economically, a people who have had to wrench their rights and privileges from an unwilling populace through the force of law. It is about those of us who, until only the most recent of times, were not included in this country's history books.

We celebrate the Cinco de Mayo, not in recognition of a battle in another nation, but to battle for recognition in this nation—recognition that we are equal to all others in intellect and goodness, that we represent a positive element in American Society. We seek recognition so that our children's potential will be allowed to flourish, that we will be given equal opportunity in the workforce and leadership of this nation, goals that statistics confirm we have not yet achieved. Finally, we connect to a battle in the history of our forefathers because we need appreciation for the contribution we have made to this country.

For cxample, when we celebrated the 25th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War, our local newspaper observed that day by publishing four full pages of stories about men who served in Vietnam. I read names like Kimball, White, Stenzler, Russell, Kaufman, Lockwood. I didn't find a single Sanchez, Lopez, Gonzales.

We are all familiar with the Vietnam War Statistics, that nearly 60,000 men and women lost their lives in the battlefields of that country, that nearly one in every five of those combatants was a Hispanic soldier. Recognition of the Hispanic contribution to the Vietnam War would have taken nothing from the recognition given to other war heroes. Yet, not one, not one Garcia, Rodriguez, or Nuñez was mentioned in our local newspaper's four pages of coverage.

This matters. What is reported in today's press is significant because today's newspaper article is tomorrow's historical document. If today's periodicals mention only the crimes Hispanics commit and the failures they experience, that is all that the world will know about us. If our deeds are not applauded, if our achievements are not celebrated, if our contribution to this nation is not lauded today, our grandchildren will have nothing to honor about us tomorrow.

We celebrate Cinco de Mayo because we have a need for heroes, not just because heroes do great and glorious things, but because we see them as people like us. In finding commonalties with them, we draw courage, inspiration, and a belief in ourselves as worthy human beings. So, we reach back a century and a half. We reach south 2,000 miles, south to the heroes of another nation, of another time. We connect to the weak and the brave in a place far away in a moment long ago, for we see in their struggle and in their victory something within us, the potential for victory against great odds, the potential to contribute historically, significantly to this nation.

Our battle for recognition is not easy. There are those who suggest that Hispanics are unpatriotic, that we are not loyal Americans because on this day, we wave a flag from another country. Such people must be reminded that there is no disloyalty to this nation in honoring our roots in the same way Irish Americans do on St. Patrick's Day and that German Americans do during Octoberfest. All Americans must recognize that what makes this nation great is that it is, and we are, red, white, blue—and brown, and that no group's loyalty to this country is minimized by celebrating its heritage.

Part of the battle for recognition involves the fact that to many people in this nation, we are not “real” Americans. It is a sad fact that while many of us are generations removed from being immigrants, too many Hispanics are still generations away from being seen as “real” Americans.

My family, like yours, exemplifies this. My husband, Tom Rivera, was born 72 years ago. In the same house in which his father was born. In Colton. In California. In the United States. Yet, to many of our neighbors, we are and always will be their "Mexican"' neighbors. I ask, and we should all ask, how many generations must we produce in order for our people to be considered real, full Americans? As long as we are not viewed as such, we will neither be the neighbor of choice nor the coveted employee.

If Hispanics are to achieve recognition in this nation, I believe that we must achieve three goals.

First, we must learn to like ourselves. People who do not like themselves, who have no respect for their own kind, allow themselves to be trampled. America has a history of giving disenfranchised people equal treatment only as a result of being forced to do so by this nation's courts. Unless we respect ourselves enough to speak up for ourselves, we will not fully enjoy the fruits of American citizenship.

Self-love begins by touching our past. We should learn how our forefathers came to this nation, thc struggles they endured, the sacrifices they made. We would be wise to visit the land of our ancestors, plant our feet where they once walked, bathe in the rivers that watered their crops. We should stand before the pyramids built by the Aztecs and the temples created by the Mayans and marvel at their spectacular engineering feats. It is through the touching of our past that we acquire the knowledge that leads to self-esteem.

Secondly, we must pledge to move ourselves beyond the “firsts.” We take great pride in having a first Hispanic doctor, a first Hispanic mayor, a first Hispanic congressman. These are commendable achievements. I agree. But, we should also be ashamed. Our forefathers founded this entire region and many of the major cities in California more than 200 years ago. Yet, it is only in the very recent past that we have been able to celebrate the first mayor, the first… We should be ashamed that we have not worked harder to improve our lot, have not pushed ourselves to greater achievements.

In our push for progress, we must be prepared to make sacrifices, just as our forefathers did. We, too, must risk. We must get involved in the social, educational and political processes of this nation, no matter how much failure and resentment we encounter. We may not succeed, but our failure, our experience, will become a stepping stone for the path that others can follow.

Thirdly, if we are to gain recognition and assure our full participation in this land, we must speak out against injustice and inequality. When people are arrested, they are reminded that they have the right to remain silent. But the American Civil Liberties Union reminds us of a far greater right—the right not to remain silent. We must exercise that right and not hesitate to address loudly and frequently the issues that prohibit us from developing our full potential and sharing our talents with this great nation.

One hundred fifty years ago, at the end of what we now call the Cinco do Mayo battle, its leader, General Ignacio Zaragoza, wrote to the Minister of Defense in Mexico City to report his soldiers’ victory. He wrote:

“Las armas nacionales se han cubierto de gloria…puedo afirmar con orgullo que ni un momento volvio la espalda al enemigo el ejcrcito mexicano.”

“I delight,” he wrote, “in informing you that the armies of this country have covered themselves in glory. I can confirm with pride that not for one second did any soldier retreat; not for a moment did our military turn its back to the enemy to run away in defeat.” And neither must we ... whether the enemy is ourselves or an unjust system.

True victory in this battle for recognition lies not just in our personal academic and financial success. A minority of successful Hispanics is not proof that we have achieved parity as a people. The battle will only be won when Hispanics no longer remain at he top of the dropout list, the prison population, and the unemployment lines. We must continue to celebrate Cinco de Mayo without apologies until the day when Hispanic Americans stand truly equal to all other Americans

Dr. Lily Rivera was born in San; Jose, California. She retired as an ESL Professor at San Bernardino Valley College.

Eva Longoria banner builds 'Class Apart' 

David Grossman to helm drama rooted in 2009 doc about Mexican-American case

Eva Longoria

"Desperate Housewives" star Eva Longoria is set to exec produce a feature remake of Carlos Sandoval and Peter Miller's award-winning 2009 documentary "A Class Apart" through her UnbeliEVAble Entertainment banner.  Sandoval and Miller will produce the pic, which David Grossman ("Desperate Housewives") is onboard to direct and exec produce.
"A Class Apart" was the first major doc about the post-World War II struggle by Mexican Americans to dismantle Jim Crow-style discrimination against them. The story is built around a landmark 1954 legal case, Hernandez v. Texas, in which an band of Mexican Americans brought a discrimination case all the way to the Supreme Court and won.
Film follows the lead attorneys -- the charismatic but flawed Gus García and the cerebral Carlos Cadena -- as they forged a daring legal strategy that called their own racial identities into question by arguing that Mexican Americans were "a class apart" who did not neatly fit into a legal structure that only recognized blacks and whites.Doc interweaves the story of its central characters -- activists and lawyers, returning veterans and ordinary citizens -- with the broader history of Latinos in America during a time of change.

Sandoval and Miller's production company, Camino Bluff Prods., is dedicated to making independent films that reflect and are inspired by the Latino experience in the U.S. 

Longoria is repped by CAA, Brillstein Entertainment Partners and attorney Brad S. Small, while Grossman is repped by UTA and Evolution Entertainment.  Contact Jeff Sneider at

Sent by Juan Marinez


Ralph Perez, October 16, 1915 - April 10, 2012 
Julio Gonzalez Estrada, January 7th, 1925 - March 20, 2012  
Carlos Truan, June 9, 1935 - April 10, 2012 
María Antonia Martínez Juárez, July 20th, 1935 - April 7th, 2012 
Ramon Arroyos, 1950 to April 22, 2012
Ernesto Bustillos, March 2, 1951 - March 26, 2012 
Gilberto Stephenson Treviño January 11, 1925 - March 28, 2011

Ralph Perez

Ralph Perez, part of landmark 1947 desegregation case, dies at 96 

2012-04-11 22:40:00

October 16, 1915- April 10, 2012


The couple were profiled in the Register last month surrounded by family and friends, they celebrated the 75th anniversary of their 1937 wedding.

Long-time Santa Ana residents Ralph and Ruth Perez celebrated their 75th wedding anniversary on March 24, Mr. Perez died Tuesday April 10th.

Born on October 16, 1915, in Glendale, AZ, his parents moved to El Modena, Orange when he was a baby. He spent all of his life in Orange County, CA, attended Orange High School. He married the love of his life, Ruth and they eventually moved to Santa Ana in 1949.

"He was a great father, and he enjoyed life to the fullest," said daughter Carole Vargas. "He was a civil rights leader before his time."

She said that her father returned home from service in the Army in 1946.  "Upon his return, his youngest daughter Janice had just been expelled from school in El Modena because she had a Spanish surname," Carole said. "The same school that Ralph's father helped build as a carpenter."

The Perezes' dispute with the El Modena School District was incorporated into the landmark 1947 desegregation case, Mendez et al v. Westminster School District et al case, Carole said. In 1952, the couple became members of the Santa Ana Council #147 of the League of United Latin American Citizens and remained lifelong members.

Ralph Perez, who worked as a plumber, also promoted dances. He booked orchestras led by Perez Prado, Harry James and Les Brown into the Harmony Park Ballroom in Anaheim.

"Education was a must," Carole said. In 1994, Ralph Perez received his bachelor's degree in history from Cal State Long Beach – the oldest member of his class. Four years ago, Perez was diagnosed with colon cancer, and two years ago began hospice care.

Perez is survived by his wife Ruth; daughter Carole Vargas; daughter Janice Carroll and her husband Jeff Agergaard; grandson Zachary Castro; sister Maria Oropeza; and brother Salvador Perez.

A viewing will take place on Sunday, April 15 from 3 p.m. to 9 p.m. at Brown Colonial Mortuary, 204 W. 17th St., Santa Ana. A rosary will be said at 7 p.m. that day. A funeral Mass is set for 9:30 a.m. Monday, April 16 at St. Joseph Catholic Church, 727 N. Minter St., Santa Ana.

Contact the writer: For more news out of the county's Latino communities, visit the Register's OC Latino Link blog at



Julio Gonzalez Estrada


Julio Gonzalez Estrada, recognized around the world by the name that graces his most famous tequila, Don Julio, passed away last week at the age of 87. Gonzalez was the real deal, growing up working the fields with his family and starting his own distillery, Tres Magueyes, in 1942 at the age of 17. Not given to drinking tequila himself so much as tasting it, Gonzalez launched what is considered the first luxury tequila, Don Julio, in 1987. He partnered with the Seagram Company Ltd. in 1999 and later sold all of his shares to London’s Diageo PLC in 2005. Gonzalez leaves behind nine children, 25 grandchildren and 14 great-grandchildren. 

Sent by Odell Harwell

Senator Carlos Truan 

South Texas legend Carlos Truan 
has died at the age of 76. 
June 9, 1935 - April 10, 2012

Truan, a Kingsville native, was the state senator for District 20 from 1977 to 2001. He was first elected to the Texas House in 1968. The first Hispanic Dean of the Senate, Truan may be best remembered for his fight to introduce bilingual education into Texas schools.

Photo: Rio Grande Guardian, 11 April 2012

Former Dean of the Texas Senate Carlos Truan

CORPUS CHRISTI, April 10, 2012 - The tributes have been pouring in for South Texas legend Carlos Truan, who has died at the age of 76.

Truan, a Kingsville native, was the state senator for District 20 from 1977 to 2001. He was first elected to the Texas House in 1968. He was the first Hispanic Dean of the Texas Senate. He may be best remembered for his fight to introduce bilingual education into Texas schools. State Sen. Judith Zaffirini who served with Truan in the Senate for ten years, led the tributes.

“Figures don't lie, but liars figure." Senator Carlos Truan, D-Corpus Christi, uttered those words countless times as he fought for increased funding not only for his constituents' needs and priorities, but also for education and health and human services programs, especially for low-income families,” said Zaffirini, D-Laredo. “Many Texans, including those who never knew him, benefitted from his leadership and passion.”

Zaffirini pointed out that Truan made history as the first Hispanic to serve as Dean of the Texas Senate.

“More important, his accomplishments, especially in enhancing access to higher education in South Texas, made a historical difference for South Texas. All of us who were privileged to serve with him in the Texas Legislature are saddened by his loss and will remember him fondly as a friend and colleague,” Zaffirini said.

Hinojosa was also fulsome in his praise of his former mentor.

“Rosa Parks once said, ‘knowing what must be done does away with fear. ‘ In the passing of my friend Senator Carlos Truan, Texas has lost one of its truly fearless leaders,” said Hinojosa, D-McAllen.

“His courage could be seen in his early days as a member of the ‘Dirty Thirty’ and continued in the Senate as a member of the ‘Killer Bees.’ Throughout his career, Carlos Truan refused to bow to pressure or compromise his ethics.”

Hinojosa said Truan’s greatest legacy extends beyond the drama of the Capitol and into public school classrooms throughout South Texas.

“He was an early champion of the constitutional right to an equal education, the health and safety of children, especially the children of lower income and working families. In the 73rd Legislature, he chaired the conference committee that provided an unprecedented $241 million for construction and renovation projects in South Texas universities as a result of the South Texas Initiative,” Hinojosa said.

“Carlos was part of an older generation that knew how to stand their ground, but they always did it with a smile and they did it with class. He will be missed, but not forgotten. My prayers are with his family and loved ones in this time of grief.”

Rose Meza Harrison, chair of the Nueces County Democratic Party, said Truan was an active leader in the community right up until his death.

“He supported Democratic values and candidates and gave advice to all young leaders running for office. He recently organized a ‘Tuesday Morning Group’ for the advancement of ethics in local government,” Meza Harrison said.

“Senator Truan served longer than any other member of the Senate and became the first Hispanic Dean of the Texas Senate. He will be remembered for his efforts in protecting our environment and improving higher education among the many other things he accomplished during his lifetime.”

Meza Harrison said Truan loved his family and community dearly. “I would like to express my heartfelt condolences to the Truan family. Adio Senator, I will miss you. You will be dearly missed by us all.”

Truan is survived by his wife Elvira and their four children.

Write Raul de la Cruz

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 

María Antonia (Toni) Martínez Juárez 

Maria Antonia "Toni" Juarez María Antonia (Toni) Martínez Juárez 
July 20th, 1935 -  April 7th, 2012.

María Antonia (Toni) Martínez Juárez passed away from a heart attack on April 7th, 2012. She was born July 20th, 1935 in Laredo, Texas to Enrique Martínez and Margarita Saenz Martínez. She is survived by her husband, José Roberto (Beto) Juárez, Sr., her six children, José Roberto Juárez, Jr. (Lorene Martínez Juárez), Ana María Juárez (José Paredes), Manuel Enrique Juárez (Mary Sue Galindo), Gloria Alma Juárez (David Barrera), Laura Margarita Juárez de Ku (Jim Ku), David Tomás Juárez (Marvelia Mendoza Juárez), 11 grandchildren, and her 7 sisters. 

If there is any one characteristic about her that stood out it was her constant concern and care for others, especially children and those in need. Toni modeled Catholic beliefs and the virtue of charity. 
Like so many in Laredo at the time, she went to an "escuelita" or neighborhood school where she learned to read and write in Spanish. She studied at Ursuline Academy and then transferred to Martin High School for her freshman and sophomore years. She was involved in student government, was a cheerleader, participated in theatre productions, and belonged to several clubs. Her organizational abilities allowed her to be one of the leaders in the Bobby Soxers' Club which sponsored many activities, including formal dances at what was then the only large available dance floor, the Martin High gym. She moved to St. Augustine High School for her last two years, graduating in May, 1953. There she was very active as a catechism teacher, student government officer, cheerleader, and choir member.

Toni became involved in helping the community very early in life. She began to teach "doctrina" (catechism) in her parish, San José Church, when she was only six years old. Saturday mornings were dedicated to cleaning San José Church, and other evenings were devoted to choir practice or meetings of the Santa Teresitas (a club devoted to St. Theresa). She helped take the parish census. She continued to teach catechism even when she was a student at Our Lady of the Lake College in San Antonio. She volunteered to teach at St. Timothy's Church on the West Side. She earned freshman and sophomore credits at Our Lady of the Lake.

Toni met Beto when both were juniors at St. Augustine High. They married on December 18, 1954. Toni, Beto and their six children spent the 1965-1966 academic year in Guadalajara, where Beto was doing his research for his doctorate in history. There she helped to organize the archbishop's archive, and assisted Mormon medical students who provided free services for the poor. After her husband obtained his doctorate in history from the University of Texas at Austin, she resumed her university studies at UT between 1967 and 1969 while serving as Preschool Head Teacher in the City of Austin Child Development Program. The family spent another academic year, 1969-1970, in Guadalajara. Toni continued to catalogue archival materials and to serve as preschool consultant and trainer at the American School of Guadalajara and completed Montessori training by correspondence.

The Juárez clan moved to Davis, California from 1970 to 1975. Toni went to offer her help as a volunteer at a day care center for migrants in nearby Dixon in 1971, but instead she was offered the job of Preschool Head Teacher. In 1975 she was appointed Regional Education Coordinator at Woodland for the Butte County Schools. Even though she was working full-time, she managed to obtain her Bachelor of Arts degree in Child Development from Sacramento State University in 1974. Upon the family's return to Laredo in 1975 Toni was appointed Child Development Program Director for the City of Laredo. She greatly expanded that program and served in that capacity until 1985. She became a full-time graduate student thereafter and earned her Master of Arts degree in Early Childhood Education and Reading from Laredo State University in 1987. Her work as a kindergarten teacher at UISD in 1987-1988 was one of the most enriching experiences. Offered a position as adjunct instructor at Laredo State University, she jumped at the chance of training future teachers to carry out the work she loves, child development.

After Beto's retirement from Laredo Junior College and their move to Austin, Toni served on the Board of the Austin Children's Museum in the early 1990s. Upon their return to Laredo Toni again taught Early Childhood Education and Reading courses at Texas A&M International University. At the same time she taught (to her last days) religious courses at San Martín de Porres Church and Adult Education and Ministry Formation for the Diocese of Laredo. One of her greatest commitments was to serve on the Laredo Children's Museum Board of Trustees.

Visitation will be held Tuesday, April 10, 2012 from 4 p.m. to 9 p.m. (rosary at 7 p.m.) at Joe Jackson Funeral Home, 1410 Jacaman Road, Laredo, Texas 78041. Funeral mass will be celebrated at St. Peter the Apostle Church, 1510 Matamoros, Laredo, Texas 78040 at 10 a.m. 

Pallbearers will be: Jose Roberto Juárez, III, Patricio Gabriel Ku, Daniel Tomás Ku, David Tomás Juárez, Jr., Pablo Alejandro Juárez, Marco Andrés Juárez, and Manuel Enrique Juárez, Jr. Honorary pallbearers are Jim, José Paredes, David Barrera, Lorene Martinez Juárez, Mary Sue Galindo, Marvelia Juárez, Marisa Celia Juárez, Juanita Andrea Juárez, Marcella Inés Juárez, and Risa Antonia Paredes Juárez. 

In lieu of flowers, contributions in Toni’s memory may be made to any of the following organizations that Toni passionately supported: St. Edward’s CAMP program (assists migrant students); scholarships for Texas A&M International University (TAMIU) or Laredo Community College (LCC) students; Sacred Heart Children’s Home in Laredo, TX (an orphanage), or Bethany House of Laredo (feeds the hungry).

The Juárez family
José Roberto (Beto) Juárez, Ph.D.
María Antonia (Toni) M. Juárez
661 Aspen Lane
Laredo, TX 78041-3802
(956) 724-6593 


Ramon Arroyos

El Paso Chicano Activist Ramon Arroyos Dies at 62

By Daniel Borunda \ El Paso Times April 18, 2012 

Ramon Arroyos loaned artifacts to the "Chicano Power" exhibition on display in 2010 at Museo Mayachen in Mercado Mayapan. Arroyos, who died on Sunday, was a longtime Chicano activist. (Times file photo) 

Ramon Arroyos, a longtime Chicano activist whose work helped improve the presence of Mexican-Americans in the media in West Texas, died Sunday after a long fight with cancer, friends said. He was 62.

Arroyos was prominent during the Chicano Movement in El Paso in the 1970s, and in later years became a spiritual leader of Teokalli Tlauizkalpantekutli Ketzal-koatl, a back-to-roots church seeking to connect with Aztec culture.

“The whole civil-rights movement was an awakening for us. People began to realize they could do something and bring about change," Arroyos told the El Paso Times in 2010. Information on funeral services is pending.

Arroyos grew up in Ysleta. He was part of numerous community organizations and produced several Hispanic-themed television and radio shows in El Paso and Odessa.

"I think everybody in that (Ysleta) community will remember him as someone who gave the good fight. He was a man of his word. He was consistent and he was courageous," said Carlos Aceves, who has known Arroyos for nearly 40 years.

During the 1970s, Arroyos was an editor of the Chicano newspaper "El Mestizo" and a member of Chicanos Unidos, a community group credited by some for helping decrease gang violence and drug abuse.

It was during those turbulent, politically-charged times that Arroyos became part of one of the most high-profile episodes of the Chicano Movement in El Paso.

Arroyos was one of "Los Tres Chicanos Unidos," three local activists accused and convicted of firebombing the Popular department store in Downtown El Paso in 1975. Arroyos was given a sentence of five years’ probation.

The firebombing, according to newspaper archives, occurred during a string of arsons at police community relations storefronts that fire investigators at the time suspected was the work of Chicano militants.

Supporters of "Los Tres" (Arroyos, Alfredo Espinosa and Ruben Ogaz) maintain the prosecution was political.

Prosecutors had said police stopped the three in a car with materials to make a firebomb -- gasoline, oil, rags and paper. It wasn't reported why the store may have been targeted.

During the trial, Arroyos "was frustrated, but it was probably the most energetic that I've seen him, because he was determined to beat the charges," said Aceves, who was active in the Chicano Movement.

"What Ramon always claimed was that he was innocent, that the police had done the firebombing," Aceves said.

In the 1980s, Arroyos, a journalism graduate from the University of Texas at El Paso, worked for radio and television stations in El Paso and Odessa. In Odessa, friends credit Arroyos for helping start an annual Cinco de Mayo celebration and helping introduce audiences to a then-teenage Tejano singer named Selena.

In the 1990s, Arroyos was "tecutli," or director, of the nonprofit group Kalpulli Tlalteca Inc., an El Paso program to help youth develop self-esteem by learning more about their native Meso-American heritage.

Arroyos was honored at the local Ruben Salazar Awards in 2005 for lifetime achievement in journalism by the Mayachen Museum & Cultural Plaza Organizing Committee.

Friends said Arroyos wrote an autobiographical book, "Sangre de Indio: A Chicano Odyssey Towards Mexica Spirituality," that is currently in the editing process.

"At one point, he became more spiritual and less political, and began exploring his indigenous roots and indigenous spirituality," Aceves said. "I have yet to meet anyone with as much courage as Ramon."

Daniel Borunda may be reached at; 546-6102.  Accessed: 20 April 2012 
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


March 2, 1951 - March 26, 2012
By Pablo Aceves

Ernesto Bustillos was raised and came of age in Barrio Logan and among the Raza working class of San Diego. From a very early age, Chairman Neto- as he came to be known beloved by his compañeros en lucha and the masses of la Raza and other oppressed people- questioned the conditions his gente lived in and understood the need for things to change. 

He grew to have a deep love for his gente and for humanity, and deep hatred for injustice and oppression, which would form him into a tireless and courageous fighter for liberation. Neto came of age during the Chicano Power Period of the Sixties and Seventies, and was involved in the Brown Berets of Aztlán, was a leader in el Movimiento Estudiantíl Chicano de Aztlán (MEChA), the Chicano Park Steering Committee, and the Committee on Chicano Rights. During this time, and throughout his life, he was noted for his tenacity in fighting oppression and his humility among the masses. 

After years of struggle and confrontation with the system, at a time when the movimiento had suffered serious defeats and repression at the hands of the colonial system, Ernesto and a core of veterano activists formed Union del Barrio on August 29th, 1981, at the height of the Reagan era and the resurgence of Colonial White Power in the World. The vision of Chairman Neto
and the others who founded Union del Barrio was that of a multi-issue organization; an organization of organizers who could struggle for unity in every barrio, against police and migra terror, for Chicano studies from Preschool to the Universities, and could organize the masses of Chicano Mexicanos-La Raza to struggle for National Liberation and the socialist reunification of México, north and south of the Imperialist imposed border. This was the tireless vision that kept Ernesto Bustillos going to the very last conscious moment of his life.

Chairman Neto was central to virtually all areas of the organization and his vision guided our cadre from a small organization to the vision of a dedicated cadre of revolutionaries ready to take on the system in every arena of struggle. In addition to the countless marchas, pickets, teach-ins, forums, and other events he organized and directed and (equally important) indirect victories he was central to, he was central to the re-founding of La Verdad newspaper and La Verdad Publications, the Chicano Press Association (now know as the Raza Press and Media Association), the re-establishment of Guerrilleros de la Pluma, the Chicano Mexicano Prison Project, Association of Raza Educators, Somos Raza, Concilio of Chicano Studies, and countless other projects that have shaped the face of the struggle not only for Raza in San Diego, north and south of the imposed border, and all over the world. Whether he was in Barrio Logan, La Habana, Atoyac, Caracas, Guatemala City or Amsterdam, Chairman Neto humbly brought
forward in a way that anyone could understand, what the struggle for Raza Liberation meant, in the context of the struggle against capitalism, colonialism, and imperialism.

Ernesto made many theoretical contributions and led Unión del Barrio at a time when Raza Liberation was not even a consideration for any ³national group². At a time when nationalism was supposed to be past, Unión del Barrio under his leadership along with la Raza Unida Party and the Movimiento de Liberación Nacional was central to putting Revolutionary Nationalism- with a class analysis- in Aztlán, connected with the struggles in the rest of México and the Américas, and place Raza Liberation, back on the front burner.

He led a relentless struggle against neo-colonialism (sell out politics) and white left opportunism as a way to bring clarity on the priority of our people¹s struggle for Raza self-determination. He was always on the cutting edge of theoretical development on the politics of Revolutionary Nationalism and the Revolutionary theory for Raza Liberation-striking the balance of  being critical without being sectarian, and building a unity based on principles, while build the space to struggle with other organizations.

It was within that framework that Ernesto central in the founding of the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, the Raza Rights Coalition, more recently the Save Our Barrio¹s Coalition. But most importantly, the building of a Vanguard Revolutionary Party that can one day lead the liberation struggle towards a thousand victories, with a final victory of a Reunified Socialist México, with workers and peasants in power.

Through it all, Ernesto pushed himself and those around him to think critically, be self-critical, to strive to study and work at all times, and to have liberation as the foremost thing on our minds always. He taught us that sacrifice and discipline are essential when struggling and that there are no excuses for not advancing our struggle. He always put the masses before himself and always showed the strongest of moral and indeed physical courage not only by not backing down from a fight, but never backing down
Indeed, right up until he was too weak to continue, he was emailing and analyzing the essential questions of our times, whether it was the state of the movimiento, the organization, or the issue of gentrification and migra terror, the comrade¹s analysis remained as sharp and his commitment to Revolution remained strong, even when his body was not up to the task, his spirit continued to be that of a warrior for liberation.

It would be hard to sum up all the things the compañero left us, but he leaves us with the understanding that courage and humility go hand in hand. He leaves us with the understanding that there are no excuses and that the highest expression of love and humanity is to struggle for our own liberation from gringo settler colonialism, and capitalism, and that by liberating our gente, we are contributing to the liberation of all humanity. He gave and will continue to give true meaning to the phrase coined by the great Guerrillero Lucio Cabanas Barrientos: Ser Pueblo, Hacer Pueblo, y Estar con el Pueblo.

Ernesto Bustillos and his legacy will continue to live within us and within all Raza and oppressed people within and outside the belly of the beast who will not accept slavery and who will accept nothing less that total freedom.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda
Tacoma WA

Gilberto Stephenson "Beto" Treviño

Gilberto Stephenson "Beto" Treviño January 11, 1925 - March 28, 2011

Gilberto "Beto" Stephenson Treviño, 86, of San Antonio, Texas, passed away suddenly and unexpectedly on Monday, March 28, 2011. He suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage and died at Northeast Baptist Hospital in San Antonio. Gil was born in Laredo, Texas on January 11, 1925. His mother, Stella Stephenson and father, Geronimo Treviño preceded him in death. He was the youngest of 6 brothers: Lalo, Eduardo, Raul, Alfredo and Geronimo II. All preceded him in death.

He is survived by his precious, loving wife of 51 years, Christine Van Dam Treviño; their two children and their spouses: daughter and son-in-law Elisa Treviño and Douglas Thompson of League City, Texas and son and daughter-in-law, Gilbert Stephen and Susan Stanley Treviño of Manassas, Virginia; and by his six grandchildren: Katherine Joy, Benjamin Dallas, and Nathaniel Christian Thompson; Matthew Stephenson, Samantha Lynn, and Nicholas Paul Treviño. Gil graduated from Martin High School in Laredo, Texas in 1942 and went on to attend Texas A&M University. His college education was interrupted by WWII. He enlisted in the US Marine Corps and served as a PFC in the Pacific theater. His unit, the Ninth Marines 3rd Marine Division, earned a Presidential Citation for extraordinary heroism for their service during the battle of Iwo Jima. After WWII he joined the Army reserves, returned to his studies at Texas A&M and was admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine. 

After graduating with a DVM in 1952 Gil entered private practice in California and El Paso, Texas. He returned to Texas A&M as an instructor and went on to earn his Master of Science in Veterinary Medicine and Surgery majoring in dermatology. The College of Veterinary Medicine honored Gil as the outstanding teacher in 1957, and as an outstanding alumnus in 2003. 

In 1959, Gil became an Active Duty officer in the Army where he served proudly for 27 years. He served on active duty in the military during three wars: WWII, Korea and Vietnam. He was stationed in Washington D.C., Japan, Kentucky, Michigan, Maryland, and Colorado. He was the first Army Veterinarian selected to be trained as a pathologist. In 1963, he was sent to Michigan State University where he earned a PhD in pathology and later became a Board Certified Veterinary Pathologist.

 During his time in the Army, Gil earned many commendations including the Legion of Merit for his work as the first military Liaison Officer to Emergency Programs representing the Department of Defense. During his final assignment, he established the US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Animal Disease Eradication Plan. In 1976, Gil returned to Texas A&M University, this time as Director of the Institute of Tropical Veterinary Medicine and graduate pathology professor. In 1981, he retired from the University and returned to Laredo where he raised cattle, began a custom mesquite furniture business and worked as a substitute veterinarian. In 2000, Gil and Christine moved to the Towers in San Antonio, Texas while continuing to raise his prized cattle in Laredo. 

In 2001, he became a member of the Sons of the American Revolution. Gil has been described as a true Renaissance Man. He was teacher, student, fisherman, fisher of men, hunter, rancher, farmer, doctor, writer/author, scientist, coach, singer, comedian, civic leader, world traveler, soldier, war hero, builder, artisan, and best friend. He was generous and loving and lived life fully. He was a devoted husband, wonderful father and proud grandfather. He was loved and will be missed by many. A celebration of Gil's life will be held at The Towers on Monday, April 4, 2011 at 1:00 p.m. Military honors will be held in late June. A tribute will be held in Laredo, Texas at a future date. The family wishes to thank the security staff of the Towers, the emergency medical team, and the staff of Northeast Baptist Hospital for their great compassion and mercy. They request that in lieu of flowers donations be made to the Wounded Warrior Project ( or a charity of your choice. You are invited to offer condolences at  



Atheists protest, Air Force reacts
University of California Admits Many More Foreign and Out-of-State Students
Pro-Shariah Group Launches Disinformation Campaign
Muslim Sharia law is not limited to religious rituals and beliefs
"After I Pick Up The Fruit" Documentary Explores Lives of Migrant Workers
Exxon/Mobil Deal With Russia

Atheists protest, Air Force reacts
Chad Groening - OneNewsNow


A former Navy chaplain who fights to defend religious freedom says it's an outrage that Air Force officials appear ready to remove a requirement for Bibles to be placed in on-base lodging rooms.

The Warner Robins Patriot, a Georgia newspaper, recently reported that officials with Air Force Services Operations have apparently agreed in principle to remove the requirement that Bibles be placed in base lodging by the Gideons. That report -- although disputed somewhat by an Air Force spokesman -- comes following protests from a group called the "Military Association of Atheists & Freethinkers."

MAAF claimed that the placement of Bibles in on-base rooms was a "special privilege for Christianity," and an Air Force agency said that a legal review showed "no requirement to have Bibles in the lodging checklist." The atheist group -- which says it had been contacted by a "cockpit atheist" in Kadena Airbase in Japan -- had complained that the accreditation checklist specifying the exact contents of a room included a Bible.

An Air Force official describes that list as "an extensive, 1,200-item checklist" used by innkeepers "to insure standards are being met and maintained." The reference in the checklist is in the form of a question: "Is a Bible provided?

Dr. Gordon Klingenschmitt, a former Navy chaplain who runs The Pray In Jesus Name Project, says this is just another example of the military bowing to the demands of atheist complainers who oppose religious freedom.

"The Air Force is apparently complicit to this. I don't know if they're removing the Bibles, but at least they're removing [them] from the checklists, [the result being that] whoever cleans the rooms is no longer required to check whether the Bible is in place," explains the former chaplain.

Klingenschmitt laments the possible fallout. "So if somebody steals one of those Bibles or if they're confiscated by atheist complainers or put in the trash, then sadly Christian people will not have access to read the Bible at night," he observes.

An official says the Air Force has not directed the removal of Bibles themselves from Air Force Inns, although a revised checklist will take effect beginning on October 1. He says they will continue to review the situation.

EDITOR:   I could not help but recall, the song sung during WWII Coming in on a wing and a prayer . .  Just recalling the words brings peace.   I do not understand the need for atheists to tear down believers in a higher power.  I question the strength of their non-belief.  If to them, something does not exist, then WHAT is hurting them?  

If the believer does not take anything away from, or impose on the non-believer, what is the justification for not allowing the believer his faith.  It is question that is arising daily in many forms around the world and in the United States. Believers in some faiths (such as Atheists and Muslims) are imposing their will on others, by simply saying, they are offended.  

To be offended is an emotional inward reaction, which should be dealt with internally.  To force a physical change of behavior on another because the individual offended can not deal with their own emotional reaction, is ridiculous. Change is definitely needed, but the change is on the one demanding, inflicting a change on another.     


University of California Admits Many More Foreign and Out-of-State Students

April 18, 2012 
The number of foreign and out-of-state students admitted to the University of California's 10 campuses soared by 43 percent this year, while the overall number of would-be freshmen admitted from within the state's borders grew by just 3.6 percent, the university system said Tuesday. The university, like many public institutions, has sought to help offset budget cuts by enrolling more students who pay full tuitions, leading to increases in non-state residents in many places. Out-of-state and foreign students made up nearly one in five students admitted for next fall, 18,846 of a total of 80,289. 
Inside Higher Ed

Dr. Frank Talamantes, Ph.D,
Professor of Endocrinology (Emeritus)
University of California
Santa Cruz, California, 95060

Residence: 83 Sierra Crest Dr.
El Paso, Texas 79902


Pro-Shariah Group Launches Disinformation Campaign

The Islamic Circle of North America has launched a $3 million campaign to convince Americans that Shariah, the legal code of Islam, is no threat. The New York-based group, which was founded in 1968 by leaders of the Pakistani branch of the radical Muslim Brotherhood, is promoting Shariah law in a "25-city education tour" that features billboards, radio and TV ads, town hall forums and campus interfaith events.

"The plan is to clear up common misconceptions about Shariah and the Islamic faith," ICNA says. It's responding to legislative efforts to ban judges from recognizing Shariah law in Kansas, Texas, South Carolina, Georgia, Oklahoma, Florida, Louisiana, Tennessee, Arizona and South Dakota.

However, Shariah involves far more than just worship. It commands a separate political system. Unlike other religions, it seeks to substitute the U.S. Constitution with its own commandments, which discriminate against women and non-Muslims, restrict free speech, and prescribe cruel and unusual punishment, among other things.

Shariah has already crept into U.S. court cases, mostly involving family law. Some heavily Muslim areas of the U.S. have become "no-go zones," where domestic abuse cases, even honor killings, are covered up.

For the full article, please go to

Through groups such as ICNA, as well as the hundreds of mosques it controls, the Muslim Brotherhood teaches Muslim-Americans that Shariah is the law of the land. This is in direct contravention of the so-called supremacy clause, which states: "This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby."

Shariah has already crept into U.S. court cases, mostly involving family law. Some heavily Muslim areas of the U.S. have become "no-go zones," where domestic abuse cases, even honor killings, are covered up.

But then, ICNA knows all this. That's why it's trying to disarm the public through a massive propaganda campaign in the U.S.

The ICNA official behind the campaign, Sabeel Ahmed, has privately told Muslims: "We should use every opportunity presented or created to sensitize non-Muslim peers and school staff with Islam and establish an environment in which everywhere a non-Muslims (sic) turn, they notice Islam portrayed in a positive way and get influenced by it and eventually accept Islam with Allah's guidance, insha Allah."

It's plain that ICNA has an agenda other than protecting religious freedom. But it goes beyond conversion of non-Muslims. Here's what ICNA is really hiding:

• The secret archives of the U.S. Muslim Brotherhood, seized by FBI agents in 2004, list ICNA among "our organizations."

• The document, found in the basement of a terror suspect in Annandale, Va., and translated from Arabic, says "their work in America is a kind of grand jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within, and sabotaging its miserable house, so that it is eliminated and Allah's religion is made victorious over all other religions."

• The same Brotherhood charter calls for the creation one day of a "Central Islamic Court" in America, according to the best-seller "Muslim Mafia."

• ICNA recently merged with a sister group — the Muslim American Society — which the Justice Department says is the U.S. branch of the Muslim Brotherhood.

• ICNA's "Great Leaders of the last 100 Years" features the late Pakistani Brotherhood leader Maulana Abul Ala Maududi, who has said: "Islam wishes to do away with all states and governments anywhere."

• It also lionizes the late Egyptian Brotherhood leader Sayyid Qutb, who stated: "Wherever an Islamic community exists, it has a God-given right to step forward and take control of the political authority so that it may establish the divine system (Shariah) on earth."

• ICNA has featured in its magazine, "The Message," the writings of the Muslim Brotherhood's spiritual leader, Sheik Yusuf al-Qaradawi, who has stated the following: "What we seek is that legislations and codes be within the limits of the flawless texts and the overall objectives of the Shariah and the Islamic message." Qaradawi, banned from U.S. entry since 1999, has also declared: "We will conquer America."

Those running ICNA's ads and plastering highways (including New York's Lincoln Tunnel) with billboards should know what they're dealing with — a subversive group running a disinformation campaign.

Muslim Sharia law is not limited to religious rituals and beliefs

The Muslim Sharia law is not limited to religious rituals and beliefs, they impact not only their own followers, but contradict our laws in many areas of  family life, infringing on the civil rights, in particular of women and girls.   
1. female mutilation of  genitals 
2. men marrying children
3. polygamy 
4. beating of wives into submission
5. honor killings within families

The history of the United States was founded by groups of individuals that came to these shores for religious freedom.  It has taken many centuries for the United States to achieve and maintain the freedom of religion visualized by our founding fathers.  When some members of the Mormon Church were prosecuted for practicing polygamy, they left the United States, settling with permission in Mexico. 

If those Muslims living in the United States are desirous to practice their religion with all the ramifications that are in direct contradiction to our laws,  then they should immigrate to nations whose national religion is Islam.  Our Christian founding fathers felt strongly enough about their religion to do so.

We have had many American born religions who practice was not based on Christianity.  Many of have been strong supporters of American principles.  Some groups have practiced communal life styles, and alternate economies, but did not provoke and insist on the United States legal system changing to accommodate their beliefs.  

The five points above are an integral part of the Muslim beliefs, and are in complete contradiction to our laws.  If we allow Sharia Law to supercede our constitution, than our belief system is shredded, replaced by a religion that came in to our country as the beliefs of alien immigrants.  

As a Christian nation, we have conscientiously shown and promoted religious freedom.  To allow the dictates of any specific religions to supercede our constitution, denies all other religious groups of their rights.  


The United Kingdom has 85 sharia courts. 
France has over 750 “no go zones,” Muslim enclaves where even French police don’t enter.




"After I Pick Up The Fruit" Documentary Explores Lives of Migrant Workers
By Jennifer C. Colvin

Filmmaker Nancy Ghertner presented her fourth showing of her documentary After I Pick the Fruit in the Union Ballroom Wednesday, April 4. The documentary spans the course of nine years in the lives of five female immigrant farm workers: Maria, Soledad, Vierge, Elisa and Lorena.

Ghertner first began filming this documentary in her hometown Sodus, N.Y., in 2000, after living alongside the fruit and vegetable farms of Sodus for 30 years. The migrant workers who toiled across the fields, orchards and vineyards were an integral part of the economy in Sodus, but remained in the shadows, invisible and silent.

Soledad was from Pueblo, Mexico, and first appeared in Sodus in the early 90s. In Mexico, she was forced to leave school at age 12 when her parents could no longer afford it.

Her new life in America began with her selling crackers to support herself while her husband searched for work for them both. The pair ended up working in a fruit farm near Sodus.

Vierge hailed from Haiti. She fled by boat with thousands of other Haitians to escape political persecution in 1991 and began to establish a life for herself in Florida through apple picking.

She sent back part of her wages to Haiti to support her mother and eight siblings, who were unable to leave Haiti or find work.

Her livelihood and the livelihood of her two children are determined by the number of oranges and/or apples she can pick. A bin of oranges often goes for $7 and $15 for a bin of apples. On a good week, Vierge can make up to $140, but she usually makes less.

Maria traveled from Mexico with her husband, who was given amnesty by the 1986 Reagan Immigration Plan. She was provided with a green card and allowed to work legally. Like Vierge, Maria and her husband make a seasonal trip between Florida and New York to find work.

When they first arrived in Sodus, they were unable to find work or even a place to live. A friend set them up with a contractor, who placed them in a trailer with a “bunch of drunken men.”

Maria, scared for the lives of her children, searched for an alternative and was introduced to a farm owner named Ken, who provided her and her husband with work and a safer environment for their children.

Elisa also journeyed from Mexico to the U.S. in 1990 within an established immigrant community in the Finger Lakes. She acted as an advocate for farm workers and spoke up for proper sanitation and drinking water on work sites.

Improvements were not made to provide farm workers with clean drinking water until 1996, and it took another two years for proper changes to the sanitation issue.

Prior to Sept. 11, Elisa was able to travel between her family’s home in Mexico and her work in the United States. After Sept. 11 the tightening of border security prevented Elisa from returning home to see her family.

The economy is so bad in Mexico that Elisa knows she would be unable to find work there or even “survive” there with her children. In late October 2006, Elisa’s husband was taken by Border Patrol while he was waiting outside a supermarket for a friend. He was deported two weeks later and she had to live in fear that she would also face deportation and be separated from her children.

Lorena made her way from Mexico City with her husband to the U.S. and began working in the vegetable fields of western New York. She started a family with her husband, and they became heavily involved with their community as a part of the Hispanic Catholic Community and the Farm Worker Women’s Institute.

While she was working, her husband was chosen by the AgriBusiness Day Care to represent parents in a convention in Philadelphia. In a manner similar to Elisa’s husband, Lorena’s husband was picked up by Border Patrol, and then detained, simply for boarding a bus.

After the viewing of the film, Maria, Elisa and Lorena spoke behind a curtain to symbolize their invisibility.

Speaking in Spanish, and translated by a Spanish-English translator, Maria introduced herself and talked about the poor treatment migrant workers like her face every day. 

She brought up the issue of Border Patrol’s actions and described the police as “acting as if they are immigration officers,” and she admitted that “we are more afraid of them [than] we are afraid of criminals.”

The crackdown of immigrants by Border Patrol is a serious problem; some immigrants are even afraid to attend their church because they know Border Patrol could drive by and pull them right from the pews.

Almost every family in the immigrant community in or near Sodus has had a family member taken from them by Border Patrol, according to the film. Lorena described how she suffered a stroke and when she returned to work several weeks later, she was denied, despite working for them for the past 11 years.

Elisa faced the same treatment after hurting her back and needing surgery. When she returned, her employers turned her away and she was forced to find new work. 


Exxon/Mobil Deal With Russia 
Extracts:  IBD Editorials by Andrew Malcolm

First, some very good news on the energy front: Exxon Mobil is set to drill into a massive, 85-billion-barrel arctic oil reserve that will soon be gushing crude. Now the bad news: They're doing it for Russia, not America.

On the surface, the $3.2 billion deal between Exxon Mobil and Russia's state oil producer, Rosneft, doesn't look so big. But it could turn into the largest oil deal ever.

Indeed, the projects in Russia's Arctic region and on the Black Sea could be huge, with oilfields in Russia's frozen north holding up to 85 billion barrels of crude. If the oil flows as expected, total investment could hit $500 billion, or 18% of Russia's gross domestic product, with pumping to begin in 2020.

As part of the deal, Rosneft gets a bigger piece of the U.S. energy market — a one-third stake in three major Exxon Mobil offshore and shale oil projects here in the U.S., the Gulf of Mexico and Canada.

So why can't Exxon Mobil do a similar gigantic project here? Federal lands have largely been closed to all oil development. Roughly 97% of our Offshore Continental Shelf is shut. Major fields in Alaska and the Arctic have likewise been kept from development.

It's a pity, because there's an enormous amount of oil in those areas — oil that could be creating wealth, income and jobs for millions of Americans. Alaska's National Wildlife Refuge alone has 10.4 billion barrels. Offshore, the U.S. has 86 billion barrels of oil and 420 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, the U.S. Minerals Management Service estimates.

And the amount of oil locked in federally held shale formations in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico and Wyoming is truly staggering — up to 2 trillion barrels. For some perspective, consider that the world has used 1trillion barrels since the first well was drilled in 1859.

This is our energy. Yet an American oil giant like Exxon Mobil has to go to Russia to drill. Don't blame the company. It's doing what it does — find the world more oil, drill for it and deliver it to a hungry market. Russia isn't stupid. In signing the deal, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin pointedly noted his country sees oil as a way to modernize and expand the entire Russian economy. And he's exactly right.


National Association of Latino Independent Producers

No Qualified Latino Directors for PBS Latino Americans Series?

Executives of one of the largest public television documentary series on Latinos to come around in decades say they can’t find a qualified Latino director for their recreations and are instead bringing a former Director for the BBC, David Belton, for the position. "Latino Americans," a series which aims to chronicle “the experience, influence and impact of Latinos,” is a production of WETA. Interim Executive Director Beni Matías of NALIP expressed our concern over this decision, and we include here a letter from the series executives, and our Board's response. We ask you to join in the dialogue by writing to us at 

WETA and Bosch Productions response to NALIP concerns over hiring decision
Thank you for the March 26, 2012 letter regarding the “Latino Americans” series and for your time yesterday to speak with us on the phone.
Like you, we are of course very excited about the series. As you note, “Latino Americans” is the first of its kind in a long time. We are very hopeful that the series will itself become a national event, with communities and families around the nation tuning in to share this rich history. As you know, we will also create a very extensive outreach program to ensure that people know about the series and have the tools, including digital and educational, to engage with the series and the stories we are telling, along with sharing their own stories and those of their community... 

From NALIP Board of Directors:
An Open letter to Latino Americans Series E.P. Jeff Bieber and Series Producer Adriana Bosch
We respectfully disagree that there is no Latino in America qualified or available to direct these recreations.
While NALIP is pleased that Latino Americans is in production, we are dismayed that greater efforts were not made to hire a Latino/a director for the Recreations Director position. It is not our intent to disparage the excellent work of Director David Belton, nor to imply that Latinos should not collaborate on media work with talent of all races. But we feel given the scarcity of Latino voices on a public entity such as PBS, that this series represents a unique opportunity to nurture above-the-line Latino directing talent in the PBS system. A Latino Director's vision would only prove an asset for a series on Latinos, and principal responsibility for crafting the visual and emotional landscape of pre-photographic Latino history rightly lies with the direction of recreations... 
Casa Maldonado Saved by Community Involvement 

You may recall quite a few months ago the battle to save Casa Maldonado, also known as the “pink house,” located here in San Antonio. The building, constructed in the 1920s, is located in the city’s predominantly Mexican-American West Side and was the site of early political activism in the community. Last year, the city had already made plans to demolish the structure, unbeknownst to local preservationists. After some quick action, preservationists were able to stop demolition of the structure and secure $550,000 in funding from the city towards its preservation. You can read an update on Casa Maldonado by following the link below:

Sylvia Gonzalez-Hohenshelt | Manager of Public Programs, Villa Finale
National Trust for Historic Preservation | 122 Madison, San Antonio, TX 78204
Phone: 210.223.9800 | Fax: 210.223.9802 | Email: |

Visit one of our historic sites. You’ll discover great architecture, extraordinary collections, and unforgettable experiences. Begin your explorations at



Richard Montañez worked as a janitor at Frito-Lay plant but Cheetos change that
12th NHBWA Annual Business Women of the Year Awards and Scholarships Dinner
Advertising To Hispanics: The Answer Is In Balancing Language And Cultural Signals

Richard Montanez, had been a janitor at the Frito-Lay Rancho Cucamonga plant in California since 1976. 
by Tania Luviano

Richard Montañez worked as a janitor at the Frito-Lay Rancho Cucamonga plant in California since 1976, but that all changed when he decided Cheetos needed an extra kick.

Call it luck or a craving, but for Montañez it all began while eating a cup of corn.

“I see the corn man adding butter, cheese and chile to the corn and thought what if I add chile to a Cheeto?” He asked himself.

It was an idea that would make him a legend.

Richard ran to his mom’s kitchen, grabbed some spices and made a test, his friends and co-workers loved it, he called up the president of the company and said he had an idea for a new product - that was the easy part.

The difficult part was in the sell. Our American Dream: From Migrant Farm Worker to Top Brain Surgeon

How would janitor with zero-to-no English skills take a simple idea and turn it into a Flamin' Hot product?

“I had two weeks to prepare a presentation for the company executives,” said Montañez.

So, he copied a marketing strategy from a book he found at the library, “I’m a little bit of an artist so I even designed the bags and put the Cheetos in it,” Montañez explained.

The president loved the idea and since then, the Flaming hot line of products was born, including Flamin' Hot Cheetos - which is Frito-Lay’s top selling snack.

Today, Montañez leads Multicultural Sales & Community Promotions across PepsiCo’s North American divisions. He still can’t believe the huge door he opened when he took up a challenge from the company president to think outside the box.

“Many times, greatness will come in ridiculous forms, a ridiculous idea might be a billion dollar idea,” says Montañez, and it certainly was.

Flamin Hot Cheetos influenced future ethnic products and the first Frito-Lay Hispanic marketing team. Montañez also helped influence Hispanic products and marketing promotions for KFC and Taco Bell. Our American Dream: Taba, The Greatest Show on Earth

With his contagious enthusiasm, Montañez keeps fundamental message in mind: “Never let anyone tell you who you are. Be yourself!”

Growing up he didn’t even know he was poor until someone told him, “I had so much fun growing up that I never thought I lack of anything,” Montañez remembered.

Growing up in a small town in Ontario, California, his days consisted of walking through miles and miles of vineyards picking grapes with his family, and sharing the food table with six or seven families at the community kitchen.

As a child, his life expectations weren’t very high.

“No one ever taught me what was on the other side of the tracks,” Montañez said.

His dream, like the rest of his neighborhood friends, was to get a job at the town’s factory.

“No disrespect to anyone, but my dream was to drive the trash truck,” he said.

But even as a child, sparks of Montañez's entrepreneurial spirit were obvious.

“I was on the Latino side of the school during lunch time, but everyone on the non-Latino side was staring at me, it was because I was eating a burrito,” said Montañez, who saw this as an opportunity.

Three days later, he was selling burritos at his school for 25 cents a piece. He was only seven years old, but he had realized the value of being different.

“We’ve all been given an ability to do something great in this life,” he said.

But he couldn’t decipher what was his purpose in life and he dropped out of school.

“I regret it, but I didn’t understood the teachers and I felt they were holding me back,” Montañez said.

Without a high school diploma, he got a job as a janitor at the Frito-Lay Rancho Cucamonga plant in California.

Montañez remembers that fateful day when the president of the company sent a video message to his employees.

“He told us to act like an owner, I looked around and didn’t see a lot of reaction from my co-workers, but for me it was the opportunity to do something different,” said Montañez, whose life was about to change forever. Our American Dream: From Dishwasher to Business Leader - Thanks Abuela

But where did Richard find all this courage? He said, it all stems back from growing up hungry.

“The antidote to fear is hunger. When you have hunger for a job position, knowledge or a new house, you go and get it and fear will never get a hold of you," said Montañez who lives in Rancho Cucamonga with his wife of more than 30 years, Judy Montañez. He is the father of three sons, and has four grandchildren. “Latinos who have made it like myself have a responsibility to open doors to younger generations and teach them that they can do it.”

Despite the success, he has been giving back to his community every day by providing college scholarships to young Latinos as well as food, clothing, school supplies and other services to people in need as part of Kits for Kids and Feed the Children.


"Because I can and it’s my responsibility, I know what it is to be hungry,” he said.

Across the United States, in all fields of endeavor, Latinos are working to uphold their place in American society. Fox News Latino is proud to present "Our American Dream," a series of snapshots and profiles of Latino success stories.

Tania Luviano is the founder of Latina Mom TV, a Vlog for today’s Latina. Follow Tania @Latinamomtv.
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12th NHBWA Annual Business Women of the Year Awards and Scholarships Dinner
Contact: NHBWA
National Hispanic Business Women Association

When: Thursday May 24, 2012 from 6:00 PM PDT Where: Doubletree Hotel - Santa Ana
201 E MacArthur Blvd
Santa Ana, CA 92707
National Hispanic Business Women Association

New Members

Save 46%

Attend our May 24th 12th Annual Business Women of the Year Awards and Scholarship Dinner and we will grant you a 1-year NHBWA single membership.
To register for event and get your 1-year membership click HERE
Offer Expires: May 18, 2012 
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Advertising To Hispanics: The Answer Is In Balancing Language And Cultural Signals

In a blog for The Huffington Post, Lili Gil, business strategist and media contributor, writes about advertising companies progressively gearing their campaigns towards the Latino consumer.

Latinos in the U.S. are "not your stereotypical undocumented immigrant," Gil writes. "The U.S. Hispanic market is a vibrant and young bi-cultural and bilingual market."

The proof is in the numbers: over 22 percent of all children under 18 in the U.S. are of Hispanic origin.

But despite the numbers, "many marketers assume that English language and a one-size fits all works with this emerging 'Americanized' Latino," Gil writes.

While many younger Hispanics are bilingual or English-dominant, they are clearly heavily influenced by their Latino background and culture. A retro-acculturation phenomenon is occurring as many Latinos reach back into their roots for a sense of identity.

And advertisers are taking notice. Portada online cites the example of McDonalds and it's approach to promoting products to a Latino audience in the U.S. with it's Spanish website

There's a tab entirely devoted to different ways of speaking Spanish titled el 'Orgullo Latino' ('Latino Pride'). The section includes a question that says 'Como lo dices?' ('How do you say it?') and each way of saying a specific word in Spanish in different countries in Latin America.

This embodies two realities of the U.S. Latino. On the one hand, united in a shared historic relationship to the Spanish-language, but on the other hand, diverse in its geographic and racial composition.

But is it enough? Are advertisers already behind the ball? Some researches propose that young Latinos are evolving beyond retro-acculturation and towards something entirely new. As Guy Garcia stated in a blog for The Huffington Post:

"Recent studies have shown that Latino identity is malleable, contextual and constantly evolving. Younger Latinos in particularly see no contradiction in calling themselves Dominican, American and black, or Caucasian, Hispanic-American and Colombian, or gaysian, blaxican, or any other racial-cultural-sexual amalgam that fits their nationality, genealogy, sexuality and mood."




Botox, Migraines, and Marijuana 
by Aury Lor Holtzman, M.D.


Although the effects of  Botox (Botulinum Toxin, Type A) on nerve disorders was recognized as early as 1820 by a German doctor, the uses for medical treatment in the United States is a very recent practice.  It's popularity has proved especially useful for cosmetic uses.  A recent survey by the American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery showed roughly 4 million Botox procedures were done for cosmetic reasons in 2011.  Amazing, since it was only 2002 that the FDA approved Botox injections for frown lines between the eyebrows.   

In 2004 Allergen launched clinical trials of Botox for migraine suffers,  while many other nerve disorders and potential uses were being applied and explored.  

In 2008 an advocacy group, Public Citizen formed,  urged the FDA to impose stricter regulations on Botox and similar products, citing 16 patient deaths that occurred after neurotoxin injections. Many law suits are currently pending, related to Botox and similar products.  April 2011, Douglas Ray Jr. received $212 million, for having been left brain-damaged and bed-ridden in treatment for hand trembling and cramps. 

My sister received treatment for her migraines.   The treatment proved affective for reducing her migraines and as a bonus, erased some frown lines.  The tendency to migraines are inherited,  I used to have migraines, my mom used to have migraines, my maternal grandmothers, and great-grandmother, all suffered from migraines. Strategies for dealing with migraines is of personal interest.  Two years ago, October 2010,  FDA finally approved Botox to treat chronic migraines.  However, I have considerable concern in the potential dangers of injecting a toxin into your system when marijuana has been proven to be as effective, and with no potential harm.  There is considerable support among physicians to marijuana's effectiveness.  

David L. Bearman, MD, physician and medical marijuana expert, in a letter printed in the Feb. 3, 2005 edition of Los Angeles City Beat, wrote: "Not only are there thousands of migraine patients who benefit from cannabis, but cannabis has been cited by such historical medical luminaries as Sir William Osler, M.D. (considered the father of modern medicine) and Dr. Morris Fishbein (long-time editor of JAMA) as the best treatment for migraines (back in the days before the Congress ignored the AMA and over the AMA’s objection, passed the Marijuana Tax Act). 

Philip Denney, MD, Co-founder of a medical cannabis evaluation practice, in the June 2, 2005 Whittier Daily News is quoted by Shirley Hsu in the article "Migraine Sufferer Finds Relief from Marijuana": "Cannabis is one of the best medicines for migraines. It's so effective - it works rapidly, and it has limited toxicity, although lung damage from smoking is a concern." 

[ I have treated literally, hundreds of patients suffering from migraine headaches, from mild to severe.  I have had almost 100% success with using marijuana these patients.  The severe cases include patients who used to end up in the hospital emergency room, sometimes up to three times a month, due to this disabling pain, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.  These patients would often require a strong morphine derivative pain-medication, like Dilaudid injection and often an injection for nausea.  m

Since I added medical marijuana to my general medical practice a couple of years ago, I have had literally hundreds of patients who have consulted me regarding treatment of their migraine headaches that have been unresponsive or inadequately responsive to all the medical treatment that they have been given, up that time.  I have had the pleasure of  following up with these patients after one or two years of medicating their migraines with medical marijuana and all have shown significant improvement.  Some have had no further migraines since starting regular medication with marijuana.  The rest had significant decrease in their migraine symptoms, including decrease in the number and severity of acute migraine headache attacks.

I never recommend marijuana for a patient with headaches until they have had a full  medical work-up, including a neurology consult, and an MRI or Cat scan of the head/brain. I sometimes also recommend an opthomology consult to rule out any ocular cause of the headaches.

Treatment recommendation for migraines has to be individualized.  Some broad general recommendations often include that the patient medicate with a cannabis indica of moderate strength via a vaporizer, nightly before bed.  These helps decrease the frequency and severity of migraines by treating some of the underlying possible migraine triggers, including lack of sleep, anxiety, and not eating a morning meal.   Usually these people wake up feeling well rested with no anxiety, and with a good appetite in the morning.

When medicating nightly, as discussed above,  acute migraines may cease to occur, are they may occur with much less frequency and severity than prior to treatment. If acute migraines do occur, I recommend one of two options:  Treatment with a strong indica, via a sublingual route (under the tongue).  This will take 15 minutes to half an hour to take effect, and will cause them to relaxed and sleep for 6 hours, and wake up without a headache.  Sometimes patients will add caffeine to the treatment, while they are waiting to fall asleep, such as Dr.Pepper, or ice tea.  Although I almost always recommend against smoking marijuana as a way to medicate, for people with more severe migraines, which occur when they are home, they have the option of using one to two puffs of strong cannabis indica, which will take effect immediately, and result in relaxation and a 4 hour nap.  When they wake up, they are almost always headache free, and go on with their day.   If they wake up and have some residual headache, I recommend that they use a strong strain of cannabis indica they next time they have an acute migraine headache, and they can also consider adding a caffeine to their treatment.

I am happy to hear that none of the patients that have consulted me for migraines treatment with cannabis have been back to the emergency room. As I point out to them, they are saving those beds for real emergencies. 

As I continue to study the many health problems that marijuana is effective in treating, I am beginning to believe that marijuana might be one of the ways to help keep medical costs down.  

Go to Health Issues, in the January 2012 issue of Somos Primos for a list of health problems that I have compiled, in which marijuana has proven effective.   




Great Teachers: Building a Better State for Public Education.
Hunger Games teaches Anaheim students critical thinking lessons
Why Bilinguals Are Smarter by Yudhijit Hattaacharjee
5 Things You Can Do to Observe Mother Language Day
Bilingual Education Video

“You educate a man; you educate a man. You educate a woman; 
  you educate a generation.”  ~ 
Brigham Young 

 DAY OF THE TEACHER (Dia del Maestro) 

This year,  May 9 marks the 30th anniversary of California’s Day of the Teacher. This year's Day of the Teacher theme is "Great Teachers: Building a Better State for Public Education."

Q--When should you locate a teacher who made a difference in your life. . .and thank that teacher?
A--Anytime is good. How about Wednesday, May 9, 2012?
A--Because it is California's officially designated annual State DAY OF THE TEACHER.
Q--Really? How come?
A--Thirty years ago we transplanted it from Mexico where it is called DIA DEL MAESTRO. Everywhere there there are expressions of respect and appreciation for teachers.
A generation ago, the National Association for the Improvement of Education (NFIE) in Washington, D.C., published a remarkable book. The Introduction begins: MEXICO AS SEEN BY HER CHILDREN is a song to creative liberty--it is the clear honest voice of the child speaking from that vital stage of life when fantasy and imagination mingle freely with truth and reality. . .
In this book, Mexican children wrote, drew, colored and painted their experiences and feelings about everything around them. One explained that Thanks to all my teachers / who gave me all their time / I studied math and history / and even how to rhyme. (How's that? And even in English!) I'm happy that I'm going / and sad I won't return / but I'll go to another school / there's so much more to learn.
Each year, the California Teachers Association issues a DAY OF THE TEACHER Poster. They go up in schools from Crescent City to Calexico. They remind teachers to well wish any among them who may be retiring in June when the school year ends.
This year in Orange County, California, 2012 DAY OF THE TEACHER posters have been made available to all public libraries. It is a new step in making more people aware of California's special day to recognize how important what teachers do is.
Galal Kernahan 
(949) 581-3625

EDITOR:  For more on the history of Day of the Teacher:  Go to the August 2011 issue of Somos Primos.Galal Kernahan recalls the steps for promoting a U.S. observance of Mexico's El Dia del Maestro.   A copy of the State bill is included. 

“Day of the Teacher” arose out of legislation co-sponsored by CTA and the Association of Mexican American Educators. Senator Joseph Montoya wrote the bill and it was adopted in 1982. California has patterned its celebration after the traditional “El Dia del Maestro” festivities observed in Mexico and other Latin American countries.

A copy of the Day of the Teacher poster can be downloaded here: The poster is not for reprint. If they will do a story on the Day of the Teacher, they can use it as artwork but it cannot be reproduced as an ad.

Susan Sanz,
Communications Department
California Teachers Association
1705 Murchison Drive, Burlingame, CA 94010
Telephone: 650-552-5316   FAX 650-552-5002


‘Hunger Games’ teaches Anaheim students critical thinking lessons

After spending five Saturdays reading and analyzing Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games," about 180 Anaheim Union High School District students watched the film on opening weekend.

As the movie credits rolled at the Century Theater in Orange Saturday morning, the students and the three teachers – Dane Fitch, Sara Wood and Mandy Patterson – who led their weekend book club, compared notes. They talked about their favorite scenes, how the film and book differ, how much they liked both, or one better than the other, and the lessons they learned.

"I didn't appreciate books so much, but I do now," Dylan Reeves, a 10th grader at Loara High School. He and other students added that the book got them thinking about serious issues, such as politics, oppression, humanity, equality and empowerment.

The students' book club was part of Cal State Fullerton GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program), which aims to increase access to and prepare underrepresented students for higher-education success through partnerships and special programs, including mentoring, support and financial aid.

"What we're trying to do is develop literacy for the students who may not have these types of experiences at home or at their school site," said Adriana A. Badillo, director of GEAR UP at Cal State Fullerton. "We're also incorporating Common Core, the new state standards for education, by using 'The Hunger Games' as a way to engage the students, tying in universal themes from the book to the world and getting them thinking critically about current events."

The program succeeded in raising excitement about learning, said Mark Ellis, CSUF chair and associate professor of secondary education and a GEAR UP faculty member. "This really was excellent for reading, thinking and writing. Now, we're working on similar ways to get kids excited about math, too."

For the Anaheim Union High School District, "this is what we want," said Michael B. Matsuda, coordinator ofAUHSD's Quality Teacher Programs and a North Orange County Community College District trustee.

"The teachers came up with an original idea, CSUF embraced it and this became a tremendous collaboration. It's been very transformational for the kids. We're really excited because this is cutting edge."

Mimi Ko Cruz is a media relations specialist for Cal State Fullerton.

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Why Bilinguals Are Smarter
Published: March 17, 2012

SPEAKING two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with a wider range of people. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia in old age.
This view of bilingualism is remarkably different from the understanding of bilingualism through much of the 20th century. Researchers, educators and policy makers long considered a second language to be an interference, cognitively speaking, that hindered a child's academic and intellectual development.

They were not wrong about the interference: there is ample evidence that in a bilingual's brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference, researchers are finding out, isn't so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles.

Bilinguals, for instance, seem to be more adept than monolinguals at solving certain kinds of mental puzzles. In a 2004 study by the psychologists Ellen Bialystok and Michelle Martin-Rhee, bilingual and monolingual preschoolers were asked to sort blue circles and red squares presented on a computer screen into two digital bins - one marked with a blue square and the other marked with a red circle.

In the first task, the children had to sort the shapes by color, placing blue circles in the bin marked with the blue square and red squares in the bin marked with the red circle. Both groups did this with comparable ease. Next, the children were asked to sort by shape, which was more challenging because it required placing the images in a bin marked with a conflicting color. The bilinguals were quicker at performing this task.

The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain's so-called executive function - a command system that directs the attention processes that we use for planning, solving problems and performing various other mentally demanding tasks. These processes include ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind - like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.

Why does the tussle between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition? Until recently, researchers thought the bilingual advantage stemmed primarily from an ability for inhibition that was honed by the exercise of suppressing one language system: this suppression, it was thought, would help train the bilingual mind to ignore distractions in other contexts. But that explanation increasingly appears to be inadequate, since studies have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals even at tasks that do not require inhibition, like threading a line through an ascending series of numbers scattered randomly on a page.

The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals may be more basic: a heightened ability to monitor the environment. "Bilinguals have to switch languages quite often - you may talk to your father in one language and to your mother in another language," says Albert Costa, a researcher at the University of Pompea Fabra in Spain. "It requires keeping track of changes around you in the same way that we monitor our surroundings when driving." In a study comparing German-Italian bilinguals with Italian monolinguals on monitoring tasks, Mr. Costa and his colleagues found that the bilingual subjects not only performed better, but they also did so with less activity in parts of the brain involved in monitoring, indicating that they were more efficient at it.

The bilingual experience appears to influence the brain from infancy to old age (and there is reason to believe that it may also apply to those who learn a second language later in life).

In a 2009 study led by Agnes Kovacs of the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste, Italy, 7-month-old babies exposed to two languages from birth were compared with peers raised with one language. In an initial set of trials, the infants were presented with an audio cue and then shown a puppet on one side of a screen. Both infant groups learned to look at that side of the screen in anticipation of the puppet. But in a later set of trials, when the puppet began appearing on the opposite side of the screen, the babies exposed to a bilingual environment quickly learned to switch their anticipatory gaze in the new direction while the other babies did not.

Bilingualism's effects also extend into the twilight years. In a recent study of 44 elderly Spanish-English bilinguals, scientists led by the neuropsychologist Tamar Gollan of the University of California, San Diego, found that individuals with a higher degree of bilingualism - measured through a comparative evaluation of proficiency in each language - were more resistant than others to the onset of dementia and other symptoms of Alzheimer's disease: the higher the degree of bilingualism, the later the age of onset.

Nobody ever doubted the power of language. But who would have imagined that the words we hear and the sentences we speak might be leaving such a deep imprint?

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee is a staff writer at Science.
Sent by 
Rafael Jesús González
P.O. Box 5638
Berkeley, CA 94705

5 Things You Can Do to Observe Mother Language Day 

February 21, 2012, is International Mother Language Day, or Mother Tongue Day, first observed by the international community in 2000.  

1. Send an audio postcard in five Native American languages at to introduce others to America's first languages via email or Facebook. Speakers and learners at the Alutiiq, Crow, Eastern Cherokee, Lakota, Navajo (Diné)and Yuchi (Euchee) language programs offer beautiful images of cultural events and practices dependent on future generations speaking today's endangered tribal languages. Show your support, thank your speaker mentor, or just help spread the word about Native language endangerment in the Americas. 

2. Help language advocates in Wisconsin reach their goal of 20,000 signatures! Sign the petition in support of a 7th grade student from the Menominee Nation in Wisconsin who was punished by teachers and coaches at her parochial school for "attitude problems" after teaching a fellow Menominee students how to say "hello " and "I love you" in the Menominee language, an endangered tongue spoken in North America for thousands of years. Learn more.

3. Watch scenes from WE STILL LIVE HERE (Âs Nutayuneân), celebrate the power of dreams, "leaving children possibilities," and meet the nearly twenty year-old Wopanaak Language Reclamation Project, which is "bringing language home" to the Wampanoag Nation of southeastern Massachusetts after many generations passed without fluent speakers. Order copies of the film for personal, institutional, or activist use at Makepeace Productions, with a portion of the proceeds benefiting WLRP. Read more. 

4. Watch extended scenes from Kanien'kehá:ka:Living the Language at Our Mot her Tongues, to witness how one of the oldest tribal language schools in North America links classroom, home-based, and ceremonial education in a Mohawk community spanning the U.S.-Canada border in upstate New York. Then visit Mushkeg Media to purchase the language revitalization film profiling the Akwesasne Freedom School, and explore several seasons of the international television series Finding Our Talk: A Journey Through Aboriginal Languages, featuring Mi'gmaq, Mohawk, Algonquin, Huron, Attikemekw, Innu, Cree, Inuktitut, Ojibway, Michif, Saulteaux, and Sencofen tribal communities and many more. 

5. Connect the dots. Value all languages and participate in language learning. "I think people are passionate about language because it's about sovereignty and nationhood," says Ojibwe scholar and historian, Jean O'Brien, author of Dispossession by Degrees: Indian Land and Identity in Natick, Massachusetts, 1650-1790. "A language is not just words," says scholar Noam Chomsky, professor of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. "It's a culture, a tradition, a unification of community all rolled into one." 

Visit Cultural Survival's and Makepeace Productions' companion website to WE STILL LIVE HERE,, to hear more from Drs. Chomsky and O'Brien, and to hear community leader Earl Mills, Sr., in Why Learn Your Mother Tongue? video clips. Also look for additional Found in Translation video clips about the precision of the Navajo language in describing positions of the moon, and meet a young family intent on restoring the chain of language transmission, connecting a grandmother and grandson through the educational opportunities available at the Tséhootsooí Diné Bi'ólta' Immersion School in Fort Defiance, Arizona.

Cultural Survival is a global leader in the fight to protect Indigenous lands, languages, and cultures around the world. In partnership with Indigenous Peoples, we advocate for Native communities whose rights, cultures, and dignity are under threat. For more information go to

Bilingual Education Video

Proud to share this bilingual education video with you. Needless to say I was moved by my son Augustine's (Tino) involvement with it. I am sure it will bring a smile to our friend and founder of CA bilingual education, former California Assemblyman and educator Peter Chacon. 

He is the first male image in the video and then again later in the production. Tino (Augustine) is a fifth & sixth grade math science bilingual education teacher at Langford Elementary School in Austin Texas. On May 19, 2012 he will be receiving his Masters in Science Education from the University of Texas at Austin. Please share with bilingual ed teachers and others in the community. 

Gus Chavez 


Reliving Christ's Passion
Our Lady of Guadalupe
The Musical Legacy of Graciela Gutierrez at O.L.L.U.
NALIP Presents Jerry Velasco, Lifetime Achievement Award for Advocacy!
Media Outlets Adapt To Growing Hispanic Audience
Artist, Miguel Angel Vidal

Reliving Christ's Passion

More than 2,000 Good Friday celebrants took to the hills of Orange County to recreate the 14 stations of the cross, which symbolize Christ's journey to crucifixion.

It was a personal and moving experience for many of those in attendance.

Marisela Gonzalez, 18, of Orange, was on hand for the hike through Silverado Canyon that was hosted by the Santiago Retreat Center.  She comforted Oscar Gutierrez, 35, also of Orange, as he wept for Christ at the re-enactment of Christ being beaten by Roman soldiers. 

Jesus, played by Anselmo Bravo, is whipped by Roman soldiers after he is condemned to death by crucifixion during Santiago Retreat Center's reenactment of the film "The Passion Of The Christ" in Sliverado Canyon. "We are still doing things to hurt Christ," said Gutierrez through tears. "He wants us not to hurt people." 


Dan Lynch said this image of Our Lady of Guadalupe is one of 100 authorized/digitalized images of our Lady based on the original one in Mexico City. You'll notice the cross above her fingers. Dan brought that to our attention. The various other symbols represented in this miraculous image including her blocking out the sun, her power over the moon at her fee, the constellation on her beautiful tilma (unknown color of the time), her mestiza (morena/brown) skin color, etc. impressed the Aztecs (and other tribes) to the point 10,000,000 converted to the Catholic faith. Take a minute to look at our Lady's face that seems to be alive. . .

An outstanding booklet by José Luis Guerrero is Our Lady of Guadalupe: A New Interpretation of the Story, Apparitions, and Image (2008) printed by Liguori. It has an Imprimatur ("Let it be printed"). Many are available on for under $10.00. A plus about this booklet is that Guerrero (meaning warrior) takes you to an original source about OLG, the Nican Mopohua, "the written account of the events of December 12, 1531. This was written 10 yrs after the conquest of Mexico by Cortés.  If you get a copy I'm sure you'll learn a lot from Guerrero's insightful interpretations.

Sent by Albert Vela, Ph.D. 

Nuestro Cuatro - Un Concierto Historico

I know that you enjoy learning about the unknown and little told history of our people as much as I do. I recommend that you purchase "Nuestro Cuatro - Un Concierto Historico". By learning about our musical history which is inter- twined with our general history, not only do we generate a greater sense of pride in ourselves, but we honor the memory of our parents and those who came before us by listening and understanding what they listened to.
The DVD tells the story of how our music evolved and eventually reached the United States with the Great Puerto Rican migration of the 1950s. How it was introduced in the "Teatro Puerto Rico" of the Bronx and where it is going today.
See: I highly recommend it.
Tony Santiago




Graciela Gutierrez, originally from Benavides near Laredo, was my mother's first cousin. Besides being a music teacher, she actually was quite an anthropologist, based on the Gutierrez World Instrument Collection on the campus of Our Lady of the Lake University in San Antonio, where she went to school. The collection was bequeathed to the University by Graciela upon her death in 2001. The Collection is comprised of over 150 musical instruments from the 96 countries that Graciela visited during her travels. An enthusiastic traveler all her life, she was inspired to collect music instruments wherever she went, from Morocco to Japan. You can see her collection by going to Google, putting her name in search, and clicking on it. What a delight ! The site honors her life and work and is intended to make the collection available online for all to enjoy. Her Master of Arts degree, by the way, was from UT-Austin.

Graciela lived abroad for 33 years, starting her travel in Venezuela in the 1950's, as a music teacher for children of workers of Creole Petroleum. She taught music in the mornings, then tutored students who knew only French, Italian, English, or Spanish. The company insisted the employees' children had to know English or Spanish in order to attend school there. That's when she found out that the words we use in Texas from Mexico are not the ones used in Venezuela. While there, Graciela found out about teaching opportunities overseas, so she got a job with the US Armed Forces as an overseas teacher to children of military personnel. She taught six years in Germany, where she taught music and regular fifth grade curriculum. She took advantage of her location and traveled all over Europe, attending concerts, operas, and ballets. 

Graciela then moved on to teach in Spain. She remained there, teaching in Madrid, for 25 years. She enjoyed Spain, seeing places where her ancestors came from and attending plays from famous Spanish playwrights. She eventually returned to Benavides, from where she visited several times around South America, the Caribbean Islands, Egypt, and Europe. She went to all the Arab countries, where she particularly enjoyed learning about their religion and music. She liked studying Arab music because "it's not harmonious like ours, but it has its own beauty." And she loved the exotic musical instruments, of which she collected 270 and are now located at the Our Lady of the Lake Museum in San Antonio. 

Of her travels, one of the most interesting to her was cruising on a ship through the Panama Canal. The trip through the canal started at 6 a.m., and it lasts 10 hours, till you get to the Caribbean side. Other cruises took her to the Greek Islands, up the Alaskan canals, up into the Atlantic Canadian provinces, and to the Caribbean Islands. She never experienced any problems until she got to Senegal, where the native people dislike picture-taking, fearing their soul will be removed from their body if they are photographed. So when Graciela took a picture of a marketplace, someone threw a shoe at her . On another occasion, when she got to the coast, she was taking a picture of a boat, but a woman thought she was being photographed, so she threw fish water at Graciela. While in Dakar, Senegal's capital, she and a friend carried a musical instrument she was bringing back to the hotel, when she noticed a man following them. Graciela wrote: We got to the hotel and asked the concierge to tell the man to leave us alone. But the concierge said he couldn't do it because the man was black and he was white. My friend and I remained in the lobby of the hotel, and we decided to stay there in open sight, rather than heading back to our room. We finally asked one of the bellboys to ask the man what he wanted. The bellboy came back and told me I didn't want to know what the man said. Finally, after I insisted, the bellboy told me. The man said that Allah had said I was his and he wasn't leving until I went with him. After almost two hours, the man ended up leaving. 

At any rate, Graciela went to heaven at 73 in 2001, and after all those world travels, is resting back in her hometown of Benavides.

To close today: an eerie coincidence. The Beverly Hills Hilton was the site of Whitney Houston's demise, in Room 425. It was on that same hotel floor that years ago The Golden Spurs of Laredo stayed when director Estela Kramer brought the Laredo dancers on an L.A. performance tour. The night of Whitney's death, music mogul Clive Davis went on with his huge pre-Grammy party at the same hotel. I remembered that many years ago, one of my original Laredo dancers, Diana Zuniga, now a real estate executive in Austin, was Clive's secretary in Hollywood, when Di came to study dance in L.A. Di is now married to another ex-student of mine when I taught in Laredo at Christen, Victor Woods. At the televised Whitney funeral service, I remembered that Stevie Wonder's son, as well as Dionne Warwick's son, were my students at Beverly Hills HS where I taught many years. Oh, and Whitney's room rent was $375 per day; the Laredo Golden Spurs paid $10 per day rent each, at the same hotel, through special arrangements I made with hotel owner Merv Griffin.

The world just seems to get smaller and smaller. And on that note, it's time for--as Norma Adamo says: TAN TAN !


Gutierrez World Instrument Collection Online 


Welcome to the Gutierrez World Instrument Collection! This is a virtual museum of the world instrument collection now housed and displayed in the Our Lady of the Lake Univ. Music Program in San Antonio, Texas. The collection was bequeathed to the University by alumnae Graciela Gutierrez upon her death in 2001. It is comprised of over 150 instruments from the 96 countries that Graciela visited during her travels. She was an enthusiastic traveler all of her life and was inspired to collect instruments wherever she went, from Morocco to Japan. This site is intended to honor her life and work as well as make the collection available to those who can learn from it. 


NALIP 2012 Presents Jerry Velasco 
With the 2012 Lifetime Achievement Award for Advocacy!


NALIP 2012 Presents Jerry Velasco With the 2012 Lifetime Achievement Award for Advocacy!
National Association of Latinos In The Industry

Actor, producer, businessman, social activist, and arts advocate Jerry Velasco has been chosen by NALIP to receive the Lifetime Achievement Award for Advocacy. Velasco will be honored on Saturday, April 14, 2012 at NALIP's Gala Awards Dinner. He was selected to receive the award because of his humanitarian work and his lifelong commitment to social justice, labor and workers' rights, which insured an improved quality of life and many benefits for workers and their families, not only in the entertainment industry, but in the U.S. labor movement in general.  
To view conference program, speakers and to register visit


Media Outlets Adapt To Growing Hispanic Audience

By Greg Allen, April 3, 2012

Telemundo Studios

Litzy Dominguez stars in the popular telenovela Una Maid en Manhattan on Telemundo.

Rapid growth in the U.S. Hispanic community has created another boom — in Hispanic media. In recent months, several major media players have announced plans to join the competition for the Hispanic television audience. There's a new Hispanic broadcast TV network coming, plus a host of new cable channels aimed at Latinos.

The numbers tell the story: According to the census, the U.S. Hispanic population jumped by more than 40 percent in the past decade. The nation's 50 million-plus Hispanics now make up 16 percent of the TV-viewing public.

And those numbers are expected to grow. Univision is already the nation's fourth-largest network. In some markets and time slots, it hits No. 1.

Four years ago, the network's growing clout was recognized when it hosted both the Democratic and Republican candidates in primary debates. This year, Newt Gingrich and Mitt Romney sat down for extended interviews in a candidate forum, hosted in English by Univision anchor Jorge Ramos and broadcast with a simultaneous Spanish translation.

"Historically, Univision was Spanish first and Spanish only. They were adamant about that," says Roberto Orci, CEO of Acento Advertising in Los Angeles. Orci says that's beginning to change: Univision recently began broadcasting its prime-time telenovelas with English subtitles — something competitor Telemundo has done for years.


I Love Jenni, aired on mun2, follows Mexican American singer Jenni Rivera and her family.

That's a nod to changes in the Hispanic population shown in the census: Over the past decade, most of the growth in the Latino population came not from immigration, but from births — kids born and now being raised in the U.S.

Market research shows that only about a fifth of U.S. Hispanics now prefer Spanish-language programming on TV. The rest — some 80 percent of the Latino population — are bilingual or prefer English.

Helen DeJesus is a good example. She's bilingual, a second-generation Cuban American who lives in a Miami suburb.

"I don't watch Spanish channel," she says. "In a way, that's a bad thing, because I should, especially for my son."

DeJesus says watching Hispanic TV growing up helped her sharpen her Spanish-language skills. But she's part of a growing Latino population that is moving to English language TV. Acento's Roberto Orci says that trend is sending a clear message to Hispanic broadcasters.

"We have to appeal to them in culture, but in the language of their preference," Orci says. "And a lot of the bilingual Hispanics watch English-language television and Spanish-language television. So you want to be able to reach them where they are."

Orci greets as good news a recent report that Univision is in talks with Disney to develop an English-language all-news channel aimed at Hispanics. It's one of several new cable channels for Latinos planned by Univision and other media companies.

Cable operator Comcast recently announced plans for two new channels — including one that will be run by movie director Robert Rodriguez. It also will be in English. It joins competitors like NuvoTV, an English-language channel aimed at a young, bicultural Latino audience.

The No. 2 Spanish network, Telemundo, is part of NBC Universal. It has long made English part of its programming — both in its use of Spanglish and in the subtitles it shows on telenovelas like Una Maid en Manhattan.

Telemundo Chief Operating Officer Jacqueline Hernandez says reaching Hispanics is about more than language. It's also about their culture, and she says her network's telenovelas reflect that.

"They're created in the U.S. for the U.S. Hispanic audience," Hernandez says. "And they reflect the world that we live in."

Gareth Cattermole/Getty Images

Director Robert Rodriguez, whose films including El Mariachi and Spy Kids often feature Hispanic actors, has partnered with Comcast to head the El Rey cable network. Its programming will be aimed at a bicultural, English-speaking audience. 

Anticipating the move toward a younger, bilingual audience several years ago, Telemundo launched a cable channel, Mun2 — pronounced "mundos," a play on "two worlds." It features several bilingual programs, including a reality show with Mexican pop singer Jenni Rivera.

"We do a show about her life, and it takes place in Long Beach," Hernandez explains. "And it's in English, because she and her family, that's how they roll. And they speak English at home. So the show will have English and a little Spanglish. But it's really authentic."

In one show last season, Rivera operates a taco truck.

"I am a hard-working Mexican American woman who can make excellent records and excellent tacos," she told viewers.

Now, the two Hispanic broadcast networks, Telemundo and Univision are getting a new competitor. Fox — which already operates three Hispanic cable channels — this fall plans to launch MundoFox, a Spanish-language broadcast network.

The network, which is working now to sign up station affiliates, will draw programming from some of Fox's Spanish-language cable channels. But Hernan Lopez, CEO of Fox International Channels, says he expects the new network's strongest draw will be action dramas — shows that he thinks will have broader appeal than traditional telenovelas.

"We were presenting it as a Latino network with an American attitude," Lopez says. "It is in Spanish, but with a level of quality that viewers are used to in American television."

Lopez says the network may be including English closed-captioning on some programs.

Advertising executive Roberto Orci says it wasn't that long ago that many in the industry thought the future of Hispanic television was limited. As immigrants settled in, it was supposed, they'd assimilate. And over a generation or two, Latinos would leave Hispanic programming for the mainstream media.

But rather than assimilating, Orci says, U.S. Hispanics have acculturated.

"Which means we take the best of American culture that we came to adopt and love," Orci says, "and we keep the best of our culture that we value. And so, you have this hybrid American that is very proud and happy to be an American, but is very proud and happy to have his culture which makes him unique, or her unique."

And the competition for that rapidly growing Hispanic bicultural market is happening not just in television, but also in radio and social media, and on the Web and mobile platforms. For media companies looking to grow, Hispanics now look less like a niche market, and more like the future.

Miguel Angel Vidal


Miguel Angel Vidal utilizó la línea recta como punto de partida y
 llega a trabajos en donde el despojamiento es la poética de una 
maravillosa pureza conceptual.

Estructura en desarrollo

Acrílico sobre tela
60 x 60 cm.

For more works by Miguel Angel Vidal, go to:     

Sent by



Scholar Illuminates Spain’s Royal Court Playwright by Mimi Ko Cruz
Project Gutenberg
Juan Felipe Herrera, Fowler native is state's first Hispanic poet laureate
Brownsville Native Wins National Humanities Medal by Gary Long
Syndic Literary Journal, Emphasis on Spoken Word

Of Tragedies and Comedies

Scholar Illuminates Spain’s Royal Court Playwright


Luis Velez de Guevara handwriting
With a fierce look in her eyes, the voluptuous Jusepa Vaca rides horseback into the Spanish Royal Theater, lance in one hand and wolf pelt in the other, a huntress fresh from killing a wild boar. Betrayed by a captain with the promise of marriage, she seeks vengeance in the 17th-century drama, ultimately killing 2,000 men before she herself is captured and executed.

For audiences in 1613, “that was pretty racy stuff,” C. George Peale, emeritus professor of modern languages and literatures, said about Luis Vélez de Guevara’s play “La Serrana de La Vera.”

Luis Vélez de Guevara wrote scores of plays in his own ornate script. Photo: Karen Tapia Download

More than three decades ago, when Peale was an assistant professor at the University of Kansas, he was invited to research the Spanish playwright by the late scholar William R. Manson, an assistant professor of Spanish at the University of Arizona who had been researching Vélez de Guevara for years. Together, they pored over scores of photocopies of Vélez de Guevara's plays, most of them unpublished.

Though Manson died in 1984, Peale continued the research, involving his students since 1989, the year he joined Cal State Fullerton’s faculty.

Since then, Peale and his students have researched, transcribed from 17th-century Spanish to modern Spanish and edited dozens of Vélez de Guevara’s plays. Beginning with the publication of the first few plays in 2002, a total of 33 have been published to date. Ten more books are in the works, with five set for publication later this year.

As a tribute to Manson, the late scholar’s name appears above Peale’s on all the books. Their research efforts have been funded by grants totaling more than $300,000 from the National Endowment for the Humanities and other public and private foundations.

Peale plans to send his books to Spain’s King Juan Carlos and to select theater groups and directors throughout Latin America.

He recently answered a few questions about his work.

Q: Who was Luis Vélez de Guevara?

In the 17th century, he was considered one of the three most important playwrights in Spain. Unlike the other two — Lope de Vega, the father of Spain’s national theater, and Calderon de la Barca, the Spanish Shakespeare — Vélez de Guevara never published his own plays because he was employed full time by the Royal Court. But, he was highly influential on other playwrights. One of his plays, “El Alba Y El Sol,” a drama about the beginning of the Reconquest of Spain by King Pelayo at the Battle of Covadonga, was wildly popular. It used a new poetic language, and since it was composed for a court performance, it was grandly theatrical. I’ve documented 250 performances from 1613 through 1855.
(A biography of Vélez de Guevara, written by Peale, is available for download.)

Q: How do your students help with your research and what do they learn?

I have involved dozens of students. They help me with textual research and documentation. It’s not easy work. We study old manuscripts and editions that are hard to read, but the students learn the conventions and peculiarities of 17th-century handwriting and typography, and they learn a lot about the history of the Spanish language through unmediated primary sources.

Q: How did Vélez de Guevara’s plays comment on Spanish society?

One of Vélez de Guevara's distinctive notes is his view of the Spanish Empire: his worldview is expansive and inclusive, rather than simply European. He devotes considerable space to nuanced views of Spain's enemies, be they Turks, Dutch, Germanic or Asian barbarians, Moors or Incas. He even moves Attila onto an ethical point at which the Hun gives a “to be, or not to be”-type speech. In Vélez de Guevara, the “other” gets to have his say. As a court servant, however, Vélez wrote most of his plays for pay as piecework, or, in many instances, because his works were commissioned for a specific occasion. His ideas, though original, frequently were circumscribed by his sponsor's interests. All the same, his worldview and perspective were manifestly broader than those of his contemporaries.

Q: Which play is your favorite?

“La Serrana de La Vera” is my favorite because it’s extremely theatrical and extremely dramatic. It has pathos and humor, and it’s bawdy, highly charged with eroticism and beautiful lyricism. It was written for the foremost actress of the day, Jusepa Vaca, at a time when it was scandalous for women to wear pants and ride horses, let alone hunt like men.

Q: Which play are you working on now?

“El Negro del Serafín,” which tells a fanciful version of a true story, of how the black slave named Rosambuco found redemption and freedom by becoming a “slave” of God as a Franciscan monk named Benedict of Palermo. In the play, he is killed fighting against the Turkish fleet; in real life, he died of old age.

Q: Are Vélez de Guevara’s plays relevant today?

Audiences today would be uninterested and bored by Vélez de Guevara’s historical dramas, but there are some plays that would surprise and delight modern audiences with their daring theatricality and comic originality. His social critiques were always colored by comedy. His plays are notably distinct from other playwrights of the time, so they afford us a more textured and nuanced vision of Spain's greatest period of cultural glory. What his plays give us today is another view of how Spaniards in the 17th century viewed their nation's history and traditions. 
California State University Fullerton, Inside CSUF, March 23, 2012
Sent by Mimi Ko Cruz      

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     Juan Felipe Herrera, Fowler native is state's first Hispanic poet laureate
Bee staff and news services
Wednesday, Mar. 21, 2012

Writer, poet and activist Juan Felipe Herrera, a Fowler native and former Fresno State professor, has been named poet laureate of California. Gov. Jerry Brown's office announced the appointment Wednesday. The 63-year-old is the author of 28 books and currently serves as chairman of the creative writing department at the University of California at Riverside. Previously, he taught at California State University, Fresno, from 1990 to 2004. He was chairman of the Chicano and Latin American Studies Department.
Herrera is the son of migrant workers from Mexico. He has received numerous national and international awards for his work documenting his experience as a Hispanic in the U.S. He also has won the National Book Critics Circle Award in Poetry.

The governor's spokesman, Gil Duran, says Herrera is the first Hispanic to serve as California's poet laureate. The position requires Senate confirmation, and the California Arts Council provides an annual stipend of $5,000. The appointment is for two years.
Herrera is the first poet laureate of California to come from the Valley since the position was formally established in 2001. He's not the first, however, to hold the title.

Charles B. "Gus" Garrigus, a former state Assembly member and Reedley College professor, held the unofficial title of poet laureate of California from 1966 until his death in 2000. He was appointed by his colleagues in the state Legislature.

Check for breaking news.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda, Tacoma WA  
Source: Roberto Vazquez 

Brownsville Native Wins National Humanities Medal
By Gary Long
February 18, 2012

Ramón Saldívar said he always knew that his life’s work would focus on cultural diversity, having grown up in Brownsville where the U.S. and Mexican ways of life interact so seamlessly.

As it turned out, Saldívar became a university professor. He has been at Stanford University since 1991, where he is the Hoagland Family Professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences and also a professor of English and comparative literature. In September he became the director of Stanford’s Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity.

In a White House ceremony last Monday, President Obama awarded the National Humanities Medal to Saldívar and eight others, saying their work had deepened the nation’s understanding of the humanities. Saldívar, whose teaching and work has centered on globalization, transnationalism and Chicano studies, was recognized for “his bold explorations of identity along the border separating the United States and Mexico.”

The week before, Saldívar had been in the middle of preparing to teach his Literature of the Americas class when he received an unexpected call from James Leach, the chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities. When Leach said he was calling to bestow the National Humanities Medal on behalf of the president, Saldívar said his first thought was that Leach had the wrong Ramón Saldívar.

When assured that there was no mistake, Saldívar said he was “just stunned. It was so completely unexpected that it didn’t really make sense to me.”

He said it wasn’t until he was late to class, told his students what had happened and they began clapping and cheering wildly that the magnitude and importance of the award began to sink in.

Saldívar has written three books and has a fourth in progress. His second book is about Américo Paredes, a pioneer in Mexican-American border studies and a Brownsville native. The new book, tentatively titled “Race and Narrative Theory in Contemporary American Fiction,” will explain how 21st century ethnic writers have initiated a new stage in the history of the novel.

Saldívar said he wants to investigate the approach of up-and-coming authors, those who were born after the civil rights era and who take for granted many of the victories won during that time.

He earned his undergraduate degree from the University of Texas at Austin and his master’s and Ph.D. in comparative literature from Yale University.

A 1968 graduate of Brownsville High School, Saldívar said that when he left Brownsville for UT he wasn’t sure whether he would go into law, education, or return to the Rio Grande Valley. But he did know that the interaction of cultures interested him.

“Just growing up in Brownsville helped me to appreciate the importance of being able to live in and be comfortable with the differences in cultural identity that are so common along the border,” he said.

Saldívar said that when he thinks of Brownsville he thinks of “family, old, long, deep friendships and a rich cultural history of stories about how the United States became the great country that it is.”

Saldívar grew up among seven siblings just off McDavitt Boulevard in old Brownsville’s Villa Verde neighborhood. A brother and a sister also became university professors.

Sonia Saldívar Hull is a professor of English and American literature and director of the Women’s Studies Department at the University of Texas-San Antonio.

José Saldívar is a professor of comparative literature at Stanford.

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


Syndic Literary Journal

Editor:  Do check this out . . . very multi-cultural in topic and ethnically diverse authors.  An opportunity for aspiring poets to share their work.  Featuring online multimedia presentations of talented authors/artists at home and abroad

Please note: submissions using "the spoken word" are highly recommended. For more information  LeRoy Chatfield / Publisher / Syndic Literary Journal

Go to the lists of the authors in each edition, and be pleasantly informed.



The Jefferson Lies: Exposing the Myths You've Always Believed About Thomas
Jefferson by David Barton
The Forgetting River by Doreen Carvajal
Art and Social Movements: Cultural Politics in Mexico and Aztlán
by Edward McCaughan
Mañana Forever? by Jorge Castañeda
Messi by Leonardo Faccio

The Jefferson Lies: Exposing the Myths You've Always Believed About Thomas Jefferson 
by David Barton
Thomas Jefferson stands falsely accused of several crimes, among them infidelity and disbelief. Noted historian David Barton now sets the record straight. Having borne the brunt of a smear campaign that started more than two centuries ago, the reputation and character of American president Thomas Jefferson shows considerable tarnish, as lies and misunderstandings have gathered on his legacy.  Noted early-America historian David Barton scours out the truth.

-Jefferson and Sally: Did he really have children by his slave, Sally Hemings?
-Jefferson and Jesus: Did he really abandon the faith of his family?
-Jefferson and the Bible: Did he really want to rewrite the Scripture?
-Jefferson and the church: Did he really advocate separation?
-Jefferson and slaves: What is the truth about his slaveholding and his statements that all are created equal?
-Jefferson and education: Did Jefferson really found the first secular, irreligious university?

All of these questions deserve the cleansing light of truth. Barton has gone through the historical records, combed the original documents and letters, and examined the recent evidence, and his findings will upset the establishment. Barton shows the true man, the Real Thomas Jefferson. Most readers will have the joy and surprise of meeting him for the very first time.

304. pages. hardback. Contact Us: WallBuilders, LLC, a Texas Limited Liability Corporation | PO Box 397 | Aledo, Texas | 76008



Author Carvajal writes: "The background in the cover photo is the ridge where I lived in Arcos de la Frontera. The painting in the slash of gold is a historical reference to book burning in the Talmud trial."

Click to Doreen Carvajal for Part 1 of 4 of Doreen's story of writing, The Forgetting River.

"Art and Social Movements: Cultural Politics in Mexico and Aztlán" 
by Edward McCaughan 

A photo of Edward McCaughan, chair of the sociology department.






Edward McCaughan is Chair, San Francisco State University Sociology Dept. 

New book explores role of art in Latino activism

Apr. 4, 2012 -- Edward McCaughan, chair of the sociology department, writes in a new book about visual art that helped propel Mexican and Latino American political movements of the 1960s, '70s and '80s – activist efforts that have strong parallels to immigrants’ rights movements today.

But the process of finding art for the book, titled "Art and Social Movements: Cultural Politics in Mexico and Aztlán" (Duke University Press), was no small task. Over the ten years he spent researching, McCaughan scoured galleries, museums and even personal art collections to find images from activists of the times. 

"One of the unexpected treasure troves I found was going to interview the widow of a militant who had disappeared when the Mexican military was repressing the town of Juchitán in the '70s," McCaughan explained. "She had a shed on her front patio where there were dozens and dozens of posters. She saved them all because she knew they were important, but they hadn’t been preserved."

A photo of the cover of “Art and Social Movements: Cultural Politics in Mexico and Aztlán.”
"Art and Social Movements: Cultural Politics in Mexico and Aztlán" was published in March by Duke University Press.

Finds like this helped him delve deeper into the mindset of the dedicated activists and artists from three grassroots mobilizations that sought to increase social and political representation for marginalized Latino groups in Mexico and the U.S.

"Several of the pieces I chose are really iconic, well-known images," he said. "But I chose many images that went beyond the traditional narrative of the movements and that I felt revealed more about them."

The first campaign McCaughan examined grew out of a 1968 massacre of protesters in Mexico City by government forces trying to maintain order as Mexico prepared to host the Summer Olympics. The second was an effort by the Zapotec indigenous people of southern Mexico in the 1970s and '80s to assert their autonomy though a political party called Coalición Obrera, Campesina, Estudiantil del Istmo (Coalition of Workers, Peasants and Students of the Isthmus, or COECI). The third was the mid-1960s Chicano movement that sought civil rights for Mexican American students, workers and families who were being subjected to racism and police brutality in their communities.

McCaughan analyzed particular pieces that helped galvanize and propel these activists, from simple posters announcing protests to interpretive paintings symbolizing the role of women in Mexican society.  "Part of what makes art particularly effective in a political context is that it engages all of our senses in whatever the struggle is," he said.

Vietnam Aztlán, a 1972 poster by the artist Malaquias Montoya
"Vietnam Aztlán",
1972 poster by the artist Malaquias Montoya.

For example, one poster from the Chicano movement by the artist Malaquías Montoya, titled Vietnam Aztlán, depicts Vietnamese and Chicano men standing back to back above the word "Fuera" ("Out"). The 1972 piece, made during the turbulent end of the Vietnam War, is meant to invoke the colonial oppression of Vietnamese people as being experienced by Chicanos in America.

McCaughan’s interest in the movements came in part from his own time spent as an activist and organizer in the Bay Area and Mexico. He worked with the North American Congress on Latin America and other groups before coming to SF State.

He sees similarities between the art of these campaigns and more contemporary events like recent Occupy and immigrants’ rights protests.

"I was struck by how many of the images people (in current protests) were carrying on banners and picket signs that came out of the Chicano and Mexican movements that I was studying," he said. "A lot of them were the exact same images."

McCaughan’s book is available now at online retailers and at the SF State Bookstore.  -- Philip Riley
Source: Dorinda Moreno 


Mañana Forever? by Jorge Castañeda

Natasha Wimmer | August 30, 2011

This article appeared in the September 19, 2011 edition of The Nation.

There are a few things that Mañana Forever?, Jorge Castañeda’s new book on Mexico, pointedly isn’t about. It’s not about violence, and it’s not about the immigration debate (though it does consider the effects of emigration). Above all, it’s not about the drug wars. Castañeda, it soon becomes clear, considers these subjects, especially the last, to be distractions when it comes to a discussion of the Mexican national character—or of Mexico in general. He is in agreement with David Rieff, who recently lamented in The New Republic the tendency of American commentators to endorse the idea that Mexico is at risk of becoming a failed state, and to focus exclusively on the grisly fallout from President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against the country’s narco-gangs.

Lately, better news from Mexico has been attracting attention. A July front-page article in the New York Times made it clear that US perceptions of its neighbor have lagged behind reality. According to recent statistics, the flow of illegal immigrants has already stopped, with net traffic falling to zero for the first time in sixty years. “The Mexican census recently discovered four million more people in Mexico than had been projected, which officials attributed to a sharp decline in emigration,” explained Damien Cave of the Times. Perhaps even more surprising, stepped-up enforcement on the US side of the border is only a small part of the picture. More significant are trends in Mexico, including increased work and educational opportunities and a sharp fall in birthrates. “The decision to leave home involves a comparison, a wrenching cost-benefit analysis,” wrote Cave, “and just as a Mexican baby boom and economic crises kicked off the emigration waves in the 1980s and ’90s, research now shows that the easing of demographic and economic pressures is helping keep departures in check.” In short, Mexicans are finding more reasons to stay in Mexico, despite the cloud of drug violence.

This is the Mexico that Castañeda wants Americans to understand better: a country where democracy is on the rise and a new middle class is rapidly emerging. In his shrewd, contrarian study, broadly informed and bold if occasionally highhanded, he analyzes a series of character traits that have long been attributed to the Mexican people and explains how an outmoded self-image is occluding analysis of economic and social gains. Castañeda is a political scientist, so his methods are more sociological than philosophical; but his book is ultimately an ontological inquiry, an attempt to probe the Mexican psyche—or, more accurately, to diagnose and perhaps exorcise its real and imagined ills. Unlike Octavio Paz—his most renowned predecessor—he’s no poet, nor does he claim to be, though he does implicitly situate himself in the lineage of Paz and other students of Mexican character, from essayists Jorge Cuesta and Samuel Ramos to psychoanalysts Santiago Ramírez and Jorge Portilla and anthropologists Roger Bartra and Claudio Lomnitz. (This book, like Castañeda’s previous ones, does double duty as an excellent guide to further reading.)

Born in 1953 in Mexico City, Castañeda spent his childhood partly in Cairo and Paris, where his father served as Mexico’s ambassador. He received a bachelor’s degree from Princeton and a doctorate from the University of Paris, and has taught at universities in Mexico and the United States, where he is currently a professor at New York University. He also writes regularly for Reforma, El País and Newsweek. In his youth, he was a communist and an admirer of Fidel Castro; but his admiration for the Cuban regime dimmed to the point that in 1993 he published Utopia Unarmed, a foundational study of the postwar Latin American left. The book is an obituary that is in part critical of, and in part an elegy for, the leftist ideal of armed struggle forged in Cuba and exported around the region. Castañeda did not cut corners, interviewing leftist guerrillas in the region as well as Castro’s spymasters. The result is an intellectually rigorous account of one of the most dizzyingly complex periods in Latin American history. As none other than Gabriel García Márquez, known for his cozy relationship with Castro, said of Utopia Unarmed, “This is the finely written and well-spun tale of the ascent and subsequent misfortune of the Latin American Left, a victim of its own willfulness and others’ dogma…. And it is also a blueprint—polemical but less illusory—for surviving the shipwreck even with the loss of much of the furniture.” The book remains an essential resource.

Castañeda has played two notable roles in Mexico’s transition to democracy after seventy years of PRI one-party rule: first, as a late supporter of the insurgent leader of the center-left opposition, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, who in 1988 lost a presidential election that many suspect was stolen from him when vote-counting computers mysteriously crashed; second, as the foreign minister in the center-right government of Vicente Fox, who was elected Mexico’s first post-PRI president in 2000. Castañeda still identifies with the left, but the left sees him as a controversial figure—a role, incidentally, that he seems to enjoy. Meanwhile, his international upbringing and cosmopolitan life—as controversial in their way as his political views—allow him to take a double vantage point as an insider and outsider of the sort that does not exist in American politics.

* * *

The question of national character is tricky, at once irresistible on a conversational level and treacherous on a theoretical one. Castañeda acknowledges this, and grounds his discussion in a careful definition, distinguishing national character from national identity. The latter is a more straightforward blend of history, religion, language and ethnic origins: a nation’s official self-definition. The former is something harder to pin down: the way a nation views itself, and how it is viewed by others. Less charitably, it might be called national stereotype. According to Castañeda, it’s difficult to ascribe a national character to countries of immigrants like the United States. Countries of emigrants, like Mexico, face a different problem. Does national character change when a significant percentage of the citizens live outside the nation’s borders? And in this particular case, might certain elements of the American character—positive elements, specifically—be grafted onto the Mexican character via Mexico’s emigrants?

Castañeda eventually attempts to answer this question, but first he sets out to examine key aspects of the Mexican national character as it has traditionally been understood: lack of community spirit and collective initiative (Castañeda rather confusingly calls this “individualism”), avoidance of conflict and competition, fear of outsiders and mistrust of laws. Each trait is identified and then deconstructed or debunked, with Castañeda endeavoring to explain why current circumstances render it obsolete. Throughout the book, one underlying tendency keeps popping up: what Castañeda calls the “Mexican predilection for simulation.”

Simulation—or the tendency to present something as it is not, whether on an individual or a national level—is a Mexican peculiarity long dissected by writers and observers. In Labyrinth of Solitude, Paz celebrated it as the art of Form, a Spanish and Indian heritage, while noting the toll it takes on those who avail themselves of it; Castañeda condemns it as “a substitute for facing up to awkward realities,” and sees its noxious effects everywhere. Most fundamentally, he identifies it as the rot besetting the Mexican legal system. In colonial times, laws written in Spain often had little relevance in Mexico, and so a system was worked out whereby laws were officially “obeyed” but not applied. As Castañeda explains, “This was the beginning of the separation between law and fact, between a de jure world and a de facto one, between the outward, rhetorical, and even reverential respect for the law in the abstract, and the emergence of a path in everyday life totally decoupled from that law.”

This dissociation between rhetoric and reality was later reinforced by a series of Mexican constitutions, the first composed after the War of Independence and adopted in 1824, and the last proclaimed after the Mexican Revolution, in 1917. Like nearly all the constitutions of Latin American nations, these documents were based on the US Constitution and the philosophy of the Enlightenment, and were what Castañeda calls “aspirational” texts, based on the assumption that Mexico already had elections, separation of powers, economic freedoms and civil liberties. Yet in the absence of this framework for democracy, work-around solutions were devised from the beginning, and it was taken for granted that the letter of the law would remain precisely that. Even in the international arena, Mexico acquired the habit of ratifying treaties but never passing the legislation necessary to implement them at home.

As a former foreign minister, Castañeda is particularly good at explaining the ways this culture of semblance has affected Mexican foreign policy. Under the PRI, and to some extent to this day, the country’s standard position has been to pursue a “‘nonaligned,’ moderately anti-American course, without resorting to U.S. bashing but nonetheless befriending regimes that do,” such as Castro’s in Cuba and Chávez’s in Venezuela. When it comes to dealmaking, however, Mexico’s most important partner is the United States. Mexico may feel that it betrays its very soul when it opens its arms to its northern neighbor, but Castañeda believes that its equivocal stance—pretending to side with Latin America when it stands with the United States—is hypocritical and weak, obliging it to constantly “punch way below its weight in the international arena.”

Interestingly, it is through the lens of this culture of semblance that Castañeda views the drug wars. In his opinion, the most pernicious effect of the struggle is that it has exacerbated the Mexican tendency to make decisions based on cherished fictions: “Making believe that drug consumption in the U.S. is illegal (when in fact it is increasingly tolerated), that trafficking in Mexico is strictly illegal (when it has been occurring for decades)…and that it is not in Mexico’s interest to receive between $9 [billion] and $39 billion for its drug exports every year (making this our first source of hard currency, above oil, tourism or remittances) are all examples of a profound hypocrisy that broadens the chasm between the law and reality.” Of course, such charges might also be leveled at the United States. Castañeda clearly wants to keep the drug issue off to one side in Mañana Forever?, though he has discussed it at length elsewhere, in venues from the Wall Street Journal to Foreign Policy and in the untranslated book El narco: La guerra fallida (Narco: The Failed War), co-written with Rubén Aguilar V. and published in 2009. Still, his brief, piety-dispensing discussion of the matter is noteworthy.

Other minor highlights of the book are the many revealing bits of data that Castañeda has gathered. For example, of all real estate lots in Mexican urban areas, 53 percent are not registered on public property rolls (closely related: Mexico collects fewer taxes as a percentage of GDP than any country in the OECD); drug consumption is markedly lower in Mexico than in the United States (0.4 percent of the population are considered to be addicts, compared with more than 3 percent in the United States); of all criminal court hearings, 92 percent are conducted on paper (consequence: no open adversarial legal process); at the beginning of the twentieth century, 13 million out of 15 million Mexicans spoke both Spanish and an indigenous language, a welcome reminder that Mexico is a diverse place.

* * *

One figure is especially crucial for Castañeda: by the end of 2012, Mexico will be roughly two-thirds middle-class, according to both absolute and relative definitions of the term. Castañeda gives a detailed account of his statistical methods, favoring a synthetic approach devised by World Bank economist Martin Ravallion, who posits “the existence of two middle classes in each developing country: the one that is so by international standards, and those who are middle-class by the standards of their own countries.” Ravallion’s rather low floor for middle-class earnings is $2 per day; The Economist gives a floor of $10. Castañeda calculates that in 2006 the floor in Mexico was roughly $7.30. Castañeda also charts car, TV and cellphone purchases, as well as the growth of the credit industry, private schooling and tourism, thus explaining and prefiguring the phenomenon recently described by the New York Times. According to Castañeda, the middle class has grown so quickly—since the peso crisis of 1995, essentially—that it has yet to mature culturally. What he means by this assertion is unclear, though it seems to have something to do with a lack of European polish: the Mexican middle class, he claims, “may not be a carbon copy of the ‘Old World’ middle class.” When discussing culture, Castañeda can be a bit condescending, such as when he describes a new class of Mexican tourists: “One can see [that they are first-time travelers] in the wondrous look in their eyes, in the pride with which they gaze upon Mexico’s marvels, and in their garb, habits, phenotype and innocence.” Nevertheless, his anecdotal evidence brings the numbers to life.

His detour into the evolution of the country’s racial mix is one of the most interesting parts of the book. The upshot is that Mexico, despite being repeatedly defined by its leaders as a mestizo nation, identifies most strongly with its Indian side—justifiably, as Castañeda points out—and this identification explains its perpetual sense of victimhood. Castañeda believes that Mexicans continue to avoid conflict out of a fear of crushing defeat, but he questions their historical reasons for doing so. As he explains it, Mexico’s violent history has been overstated. The massive deaths of Indians after the Conquest should in large part be attributed to infection rather than massacre, as should the deaths during the Revolution of 1910–17, which was immediately followed by the Spanish flu epidemic. Even today, he says, Mexico is less violent than most other Latin American countries: according to the Pan American Health Organization, for example, in 2007 it had eleven homicides per 100,000 inhabitants, behind Colombia, with thirty-eight, and Brazil, with thirty-one. Castañeda reasons that until the late 1980s, violence in Mexico was a rural phenomenon, invisible outside Mexico. “Since 2008, beheadings, mutilations, torture, and destruction are urban, often close to the United States, reported on and taking place in broad daylight…. This violence is strident, scandalous, and intolerable…. But it is far less widespread than before, though far noisier.”

The broad slant of Castañeda’s historical argument is sound, if a bit misleading. Even if the country’s disasters weren’t as devastating as advertised, they are still the inescapable topography of its past. Defeat and disappointment have been the historical norm in Mexico rather than the exception. Castañeda’s counterintuitive reading of the contemporary situation is more persuasive, though he may understate the extent to which Mexico’s experience of violence today is exacerbated by the weakness of the judicial system and the country’s climate of impunity.

Some sections of the book are marred by unclear reasoning, particularly the chapter in which Castañeda argues that Mexicans are not team players, neither literally (Mexico’s disappointments in international soccer competitions are taken as evidence) nor more generally (Mexicans avoid living in apartment buildings and participate in few community organizations). Castañeda blames what he calls individualism, explaining it as the product of 500 years of state control—though individualism is usually associated with initiative and independence, not apathy and alienation. A reference to the telecom magnate Carlos Slim as Mexico’s most prominent individualist—he stands alone because he is so much wealthier than anyone else in the country, if not the world, and even as a conversationalist he favors the monologue—further blurs the picture.

* * *

A curious aspect of Mañana Forever? is that it attempts the difficult feat of addressing two audiences at once. It was published simultaneously in English and Spanish, under the title Mañana o pasado: El misterio de los mexicanos, though it was written in English. (Over the course of his career, Castañeda has written alternately in English and Spanish, depending on his audience.) This suggests that the book’s primary readership is in the United States, yet its tone is exhortatory—even scolding at points—and directed at Mexican readers. Its stated aim, after all, is to persuade Mexico to “dispense with much of [its] atavistic baggage” (and, inevitably, with its “magic and mystery”) and to become a run-of-the-mill developed country: “In many ways, the less Mexico is different, and the more it is the same as others, the better for its people.” So why is this advice delivered in English, and addressed in significant part to a US readership? The answer (and the question) say something about the relationship between Mexico and the United States.

This brings us back to Castañeda’s grand experiment, in which he peers through his microscope at the 12 million Mexicans currently living in the petri dish of the United States. His aim is to discover whether they are transformed by life in a country with functioning institutions and different social norms, and if so, whether those changes are transferable. His findings are a bit slim, but his strongest conclusion is that women may be the fulcrum for change. Nearly 50 percent of migrants today are women, and unlike men, they work primarily in services. They are likely to be more independent than they were in Mexico, and they enjoy the benefits of equal opportunity. Based on Castañeda’s personal experience, they are also likely to be better listeners than men, and therefore more adaptable. All these observations are more an invitation to future study than concrete findings, but they represent a creative approach to the problems that Castañeda identifies. Of course, one would also have to study the potential negative effects of life in the United States on Mexican immigrants, such as the erosion of family bonds or a rise in obesity.

Castañeda clearly believes in the salutary nature of intellectual combat, and despite its weaknesses Mañana Forever? deserves to prompt serious debate. The big question that the book raises is whether character can truly be blamed for the majority of Mexico’s ills. Dissenters might argue that the lack of trustworthy institutions (legal, judicial, tax) has given Mexicans no basis upon which to build public spirit. It’s really a chicken-or-egg question: what must come first, character building or institution building? Castañeda would say that attitudes must be changed before government can be successfully reformed. A less obvious question may be whether Mexicans must fight so hard against type, if indeed they recognize themselves in Castañeda’s description. Gradual, piecemeal reform has achieved impressive if incomplete results in recent years, and perhaps circumspection and polite ritual aren’t all that bad in the service of peaceful progress.

Source URL:

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.

Original source: Dorinda Moreno



MESSI by Leonardo Faccio

Simply Messi
Review, an intimate profile of soccer's brightest star
by Marcela Álvarez Print Network
Lionel Messi has read only one book in his life: Yo soy el Diego, the autobiography of his legendary countryman Diego Maradona. Nicknamed La Pulga (the Flea), growing up in his native Rosario, Argentina, Messi was-and still is-a shy and reserved young man.

Messi opens with La Pulga at Ciudad Deportiva, the premises of FC Barcelona, where he meets journalist Leonardo Faccio for a 15-minute one-on-one interview. This encounter takes place in late 2009 while Messi is gearing up for the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. Soccer's largest carnival will be his first as the starter for the Argentina national team.

Messi's life is revealed through a series of interviews and dialogues with people in La Pulga's inner circle: his family, his closest friends, and former coaches and managers. Messi barely appears in his own words. When he does, he talks about his favorite subjects: soccer, FC Barcelona, his native Rosario, and his little nephew. We also learn, among other things, of his love for his maternal grandmother, to whom he dedicates his goals, and about his early days at La Masía, Barcelona's educational and training center for young foreign players. "He used to cry a lot, he was homesick", remembers a former manager. 

A colossus on the field, at just 5-foot 7 inches, Messi has been hailed the best soccer player in the planet, adored by millions. He got his start in the game at the age of 8, when he started playing for his beloved Newell's Old Boys, a team in Rosario. Smaller than most of the boys he played with, he was eventually diagnosed as suffering from a hormone deficiency that restricted his growth. Fast forward to January 2012, Ray Hudson, renown commentator of GolTV, escribed the petite argentine as a "colossus bestriding the earth".

In Messi (published by Vintage Español) the main character is painted in bright hues. There is no "kung-fu repertoire" to portray him, unlike other books on soccer stars with more flamboyant personalities (Rooney, Cantona, Maradona, Ibrahimovic) and off-the pitch scandals.

What amazes me most about Messi is how Faccio has managed to stretch out three acts and turn them into a book. However, there are times when the narrative lacks coherence, as the author wanders from one subject to another. Despite its shortcomings, Messi is an enjoyable book. Faccio engages the reader with his first-rate eye for narrating soccer details about La Pulga.

About the author: Leonardo Faccio was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1971. For the past ten years, he has been living in Barcelona, Spain. He was awarded an honorable mention from Fundación de Nuevo Periodismo Iberoamericano, founded by Nobel laureate Gabriel García Márquez, and was included in the anthology Lo mejor del nuevo periodismo de America Latina II (The best of the new journalism in Latin America). He writes for several news outlets in Europa and America, including El Periódico, La Vanguardia and Etiqueta Negra. He was not a soccer fan until he started following Lionel Messi. 

Sent by Kirk Whisler, Editor 
Latino Print Network's Hispanic Marketing 101 Newsletter 



Watching 100 years in 10 minutes
Great WWII Pacific Theater Pictures
Austin Police Officer Jaime Padron shot and killed
Settlement OK'd over Mojave cross on U.S. land
Escuadron 2001
"Thanks just isn't enough"..Cemetery Watchman
A Bizarre Bit of U.S. Naval History About Which Most Americans Know Zilch
European WW II Cemeteries in which Our Men and Women are buried

Photo: Joe Bernal    
Una Batalla Mas: The Mexican-American Fight for Civil-Rights
Website, a project for Anthropology 2380, the Heritage of Mexico, at Richland College in Dallas.
Watching: 100 years in 10 minutes
Sent by Bill Carmena

There are some 100 WWII pictures in this collection, a good number that I had never seen before..For all who are interested ;in the history of WWII, don't miss this showing.

“The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them or concluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership.”  Colin Powell                                      


Austin Police Officer Jaime Padron shot and killed 

Pete Govea and Dan Arellano from the Tejanos in Action honoring an Austin police officer killed in the line of duty. Senior Officer Jaime Padron was shot and killed while responding to an emergency call and leaves behind two daughters. His funeral was attended by thousands and many lined the streets to honor the fallen former Marine. The funeral procession was 18 miles long and thousands lined the highway to pay their last respect to the fallen hero.

Dan Arellano
PLO Officer
Tejanos in Action

Susan N. Lewis
Assistant Veterans Service Officer & Women's Veteran Coordinator     
Travis County Veterans Service  Office
512.854.9340  512.854.4453 Fax
877-WAR-VETS (627.8387)  Vet Center Combat Call Center

Settlement OK'd over Mojave cross on U.S. land

Associated Press - 4/25/2012 

LOS ANGELES - A federal judge has approved a land-swap to settle a lawsuit over a remote site in the Mojave National Preserve where war memorial crosses have been erected for decades.

The settlement announced Tuesday calls for the site at Sunrise Rock to be turned over to a Veterans of Foreign Wars post in Barstow, California, in exchange for five acres of donated land. (See earlier story)

Kelly ShackelfordKelly Shackelford, president of Liberty Institute. "We've got now a step closer to I think what will be a great victory for our veterans," he tells Associated Press. "We now have a final order from the court, and it's just a matter now of getting the land transferred -- and as soon as that happens, the veterans are going to put that memorial back up as it has been since 1934."

The National Park Service said it hopes to complete the swap by year's end, allowing the VFW to once more erect a cross on the site. The most recent permanent cross was stolen and a replacement was removed to comply with a court injunction.

Shackelford explains that in the past, vandals have destroyed the cross. "So right now what you would have if you went out to look at the memorial is you would see a national veterans memorial sitting in a vandalized and torn-down state," he says.

The land swap was ordered by Congress in 2003 but legal action challenging the cross intervened for years.  The original wooden cross erected in 1934 was later replaced with one made of steel pipes. It was stolen in 2010.


Sent by Odell Harwell  


Escuadron 2001

Description: C:\Users\Alfred Lugo\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\5ZDLSJ4Y\Escuadron invitiación.jpg


"Thanks just isn't enough..... Cemetery Watchman 
My friend Kevin and I are volunteers at a National cemetery in Oklahoma and put in a few days a month in a 'slightly larger' uniform. Today had been a long, long day and I just wanted to get the day over with and go down to Smokey's and have a cold one. Sneaking a look at my watch,

I saw the time, 16:55. Five minutes to go before the cemetery gates are closed for the day.

Full dress was hot in the August sun Oklahoma summertime was as bad as ever--the heat and humidity at the same level--both too high.

I saw the car pull into the drive, '69 or '70 model Cadillac Deville, looked factory-new. It pulled into the parking lot at a snail's pace.. An old woman got out so slow I thought she was paralyzed; she had a cane and a sheaf of flowers--about four or five bunches as best I could tell.

I couldn't help myself. The thought came unwanted, and left a slightly bitter taste: 'She's going to spend an hour, and for this old soldier, my hip hurts like hell and I'm ready to get out of here right now!' But for this day, my duty was to assist anyone coming in.

Kevin would lock the 'In' gate and if I could hurry the old biddy along, we might make it to Smokey's in time..

I broke post attention. My hip made gritty noises when I took the first step and the pain went up a notch. I must have made a real military sight: middle-aged man with a small pot gut and half a limp, in marine full-dress uniform, which had lost its razor crease about thirty minutes after I began the watch at the cemetery.

I stopped in front of her, halfway up the walk. She looked up at me with an old woman's squint. 'Ma'am, may I assist you in any way?'  She took long enough to answer.  'Yes, son. Can you carry these flowers? I seem to be moving a tad slow these days.' 
'My pleasure, ma'am.' (Well, it wasn't too much of a lie.)

She looked again. 'Marine, where were you stationed?'  ' Vietnam , ma'am.. Ground-pounder. '69 to '71.'  She looked at me closer.  'Wounded in action, I see. Well done, Marine.. I'll be as quick as I can.'  I lied a little bigger:  'No hurry, ma'am.'   She smiled and winked at me.

'Son, I'm 85-years-old and I can tell a lie from a long way off.. Let's get this done. Might be the last time I can do this. My name's Joanne Wieserman, and I've a few Marines I'd like to see one more time..'  'Yes, ma 'am. At your service.'

She headed for the World War I section, stopping at a stone. She picked one of the flower bunches out of my arm and laid it on top of the stone.  She murmured something I couldn't quite make out.. The name on the marble was,  
Donald S. Davidson, USMC: France 1918.

She turned away and made a straight line for the World War II section, stopping at one stone I saw a tear slowly tracking its way down her cheek.  She put a bunch on a stone; the name was, Stephen X. Davidson, USMC, 1943.

She went up the row a ways and laid another bunch on a stone, Stanley J. Wieserman, USMC, 1944.

She paused for a second and more tears flowed. 'Two more, son, and we'll be done' I almost didn't say anything, but, 'Yes, ma'am. Take your time.'  She looked confused..  'Where's the Vietnam section, son? I seem to have lost my way.'  I pointed with my chin. 'That way, ma'am.'

'Oh!' she chuckled quietly. 'Son, me and old age ain't too friendly.' She headed down the walk I'd pointed at. She stopped at a couple of stones before she found the ones she wanted. She placed a bunch on, 
Larry Wieserman, USMC, 1968, 
and the last on Darrel Wieserman, USMC, 1970.

She stood there and murmured a few words I still couldn't make out and more tears flowed. 'OK, son, I'm finished. Get me back to my car and you can go home.'  Yes, ma'am. If I may ask, were those your kinfolk?'

She paused.  'Yes, Donald Davidson was my father, Stephen was my uncle, Stanley was my Husband, Larry and Darrel were our sons. All killed in action, all Marines.'

She stopped! Whether she had finished, or couldn't finish, I don't know. She made her way to her car, slowly and painfully.
I waited for a polite distance to come between us and then double-timed it over to Kevin, waiting by the car.

'Get to the 'Out' gate quick.. I have something I've got to do.'  Kevin started to say something, but saw the look I gave him. He broke the rules to get us down the service road fast. We beat her.  She hadn't made it around the rotunda yet. 'Kevin, stand at attention next to the gatepost.  Follow my lead.'   I humped it across the drive to the other post.  When the Cadillac came puttering around from the hedges and began the short straight traverse to the gate, I called in my best gunny's voice: 

'TehenHut!  Present Haaaarms!'

I have to hand it to Kevin; he never blinked an eye--full dress attention and a salute that would make his DI proud. She drove through that gate with two old worn-out soldiers giving her a send-off she deserved, for service rendered to her country, and for knowing duty, honor and sacrifice far beyond the realm of most.

I am not sure, but I think I saw a salute returned from that Cadillac. Instead of 'The End,' just think of 'Taps.' As a final thought on my part, let me share a favorite prayer: 

'Lord, keep our servicemen and women safe, whether they serve at home or overseas.
Hold them in your loving hands and protect them as they protect us.'

Let's all keep those currently serving and those who have gone before in our thoughts. They are the reason for the many freedoms we enjoy.  'In God We Trust.'   Sorry about your monitor; it made mine blurry too!  If we ever forget that we're one nation under God, then we will be a nation gone under!

Sent by Kathie Kennedy

From November 1943, until her demise in June 1945, the American destroyer ' William D. Porter' was often hailed - whenever she entered port or joined other Naval ships - with the greetings: "Don't shoot, we're Republicans!'

For a half a century, the US Navy kept a lid on the details of the incident that prompted this salutation. A Miami news reporter
made the first public disclosure in 1958 after he stumbled upon the truth while covering a reunion of the destroyer's crew. The
Pentagon reluctantly and tersely confirmed his story, but only a smattering of newspapers took notice.

In 1943, the Willie D as the Porter was nicknamed, accidentally fired a live torpedo at the battleship Iowa during a practice exercise. As if this weren't bad enough, the Iowa was carrying President Franklin D. Roosevelt at the time, along with Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, and all of the country's W.W.II military brass. They were headed for the
Big Three Conference in Tehran , where Roosevelt was to meet Stalin and Churchill.

Had the Porter's torpedo struck the Iowa at the aiming point, the last 60 years of world history might have been quite different. The USS William D Porter (DD-579) was one of hundreds of assembly line destroyers built during the war. They mounted several heavy and light guns, but their main armament consisted of 10 fast-running and accurate torpedoes that carried 500-pound warheads . This destroyer was placed in commission on July 1943 under the command of Wilfred Walker, a man on the Navy's fast career track.

In the months before she was detailed to accompany the Iowa across the Atlantic in November 1943, the Porter and her crew
learned their trade, experiencing the normal problems that always beset a new ship and a novice crew.

The mishaps grew more serious when she became an escort for the pride of the fleet, the big new battleship Iowa . The night
before they left Norfolk , bound for North Africa, the Porter accidentally damaged a nearby sister ship when she backed down along the other ship's side and her anchor tore down the other ship's railings , life rafts, ship's boat and various other formerly valuable pieces of equipment. The Willie D merely had a scraped anchor, but her career of mayhem and mishaps had begun.

Just twenty four hours later, the four-ship convoy, consisting of Iowa and her secret passengers, the Willie D, and two other
destroyers, was under strict instructions to maintain complete radio silence. Since they were going through a known U-boat feeding ground, speed and silence were the best defense . Suddenly, a tremendous explosion rocked the convoy. All of the ships
commenced anti-submarine maneuvers . This continued until the Porter sheepishly admitted that one of her depth charges had
fallen off her stern and exploded. The 'safety' had not been set as instructed. Captain Walker was watching his fast track career
become side-tracked.

Shortly thereafter, a freak wave inundated the ship, stripping away everything that wasn't lashed down. A man washed overboard and was never found. Next, the fire room lost power in one of its boilers.

The Captain, at this point, was making reports almost hourly to the Iowa about the Willie D's difficulties. It would have been
merciful if the force commander had detached the hard luck ship and sent her back to Norfolk . But, no, she sailed on.

The morning of 14 November 1943 dawned with a moderate sea and pleasant weather. The Iowa and her escorts were just east of Bermuda, and the president and his guests wanted to see how the big ship could defend herself against an air attack. So, the
Iowa launched a number of weather balloons to use as anti-aircraft targets. It was exciting to see more than 100 guns shooting at the balloons, and the President was proud of his Navy.

Just as proud was Admiral Ernest J King, the Chief of Naval Operations; large in size and by demeanor , a true monarch of
the sea.

Disagreeing with him meant the end of a naval career. Up to this time, no one knew what firing a torpedo at him would mean. Over on the Willie D, Captain Walker watched the fireworks display with admiration and envy.

Thinking about career redemption and breaking the hard luck spell, the Captain sent his impatient crew to battle stations.
They began to shoot down the balloons the Iowa had missed as they drifted into the Porter's vicinity.

Down on the torpedo mounts, the crew watched, waiting to take some practice shots of their own on the big battleship, which, even though 6,000 yards away, seemed to blot out the horizon. Lawton Dawson and Tony Fazio were among those responsible for the torpedoes. Part of their job involved ensuring that the primers were installed during actual combat and removed during practice. Once a primer was installed, on a command to fire, it would explode shooting the torpedo out of its tube.

Dawson , on this particular morning, unfortunately had forgotten to remove the primer from torpedo tube #3. Up on the bridge, a new torpedo officer, unaware of the danger, ordered a simulated firing. "Fire 1, Fire 2," and finally, "Fire 3." There was no Fire 4 as the sequence was interrupted by an unmistakable whooooooshhhhing sound made by a successfully launched and armed torpedo. Lt H. Steward Lewis , who witnessed the entire event, later described the next few minutes as
what hell would look like if it ever broke loose.

Just after he saw the torpedo hit water on its way to the Iowa and some of the most prominent figures in world history, Lewis
innocently asked the Captain, 'Did you give permission to fire a torpedo?' Captain Walker's reply will not ring down through naval history, although words to the effect of Farragut's immortal 'Damn the torpedoes' figured centrally within.

Initially there was some reluctance to admit what had happened, or even to warn the Iowa . As the awful reality sunk in, people
began racing around, shouting conflicting instructions and attempting to warn the flagship of imminent danger.

First, there was a flashing light warning about the torpedo which unfortunately indicated the torpedo was headed in another

Next, the Porter signaled that the torpedo was going reverse at full speed!

Finally, they decided to break the strictly enforced radio silence. The radio operator on the destroyer transmitted "'Lion (code for the Iowa ), Lion, come right." The Iowa operator, more concerned about radio procedure, requested that the offending station identify itself first.

Finally, the message was received and the Iowa began turning to avoid the speeding torpedo.

Meanwhile, on the Iowa 's bridge, word of the torpedo firing had reached FDR, who asked that his wheelchair be moved to the
railing so he could see better what was coming his way. His loyal Secret Service guard immediately drew his pistol as if he
was going to shoot the torpedo. As the Iowa began evasive maneuvers , all of her guns were trained on the William D. Porter. There was now some thought that the Porter was part of an assassination plot.

Within moments of the warning, there was a tremendous explosion just behind the battleship. The torpedo had been detonated by
the wash kicked up by the battleship's increased speed.

The crisis was over and so was Captain Walker's career. His final utterance to the Iowa , in response to a question about the
origin of the torpedo, was a weak, "We did it."

Shortly thereafter, the brand new destroyer, her Captain and the entire crew were placed under arrest and sent to Bermuda for
trial. It was the first time that a complete ship's company had been arrested in the history of the US Navy.

The ship was surrounded by Marines when it docked in Bermuda, and held there several days as the closed session inquiry
attempted to determine what had happened.

Torpedo man Dawson eventually confessed to having inadvertently left the primer in the torpedo tube, which caused the launching. Dawson had thrown the used primer over the side to conceal his mistake. The whole incident was chalked up to an unfortunate set of circumstances and placed under a cloak of secrecy.

Someone had to be punished. Captain Walker and several other Porter officers and sailors eventually found themselves in
obscure shore assignments. Dawson was sentenced to 14 years hard labor.

President Roosevelt intervened; however, asking that no punishment be meted out for what was clearly an accident.

The destroyer William D. Porter was banished to the upper Aleutians . It was probably thought this was as safe a place as
any for the ship and anyone who came near her.

She remained in the frozen north for almost a year, until late 1944, when she was re-assigned to the Western Pacific. However, before leaving the Aleutians , she accidentally left her calling card in the form of a five-inch shell fired into the front yard of
the American Base Commander, thus rearranging his flower garden rather suddenly.

In December, 1944, the Porter joined the Philippine invasion forces and acquitted herself quite well. She distinguished herself by shooting down a number of attacking Japanese aircraft. Regrettably, after the war, it was reported that she also shot down three American planes. This was a common event on ships, as many gunners, fearful of kamikazes , had nervous trigger fingers.

In April, 1945, the destroyer Porter was assigned to support the invasion of Okinawa . By this time, the greeting "Don't Shoot,
We're Republicans" was commonplace and the crew of the Willie D had become used to the ribbing.

But the crew of her sister ship, the USS Luce, was not so polite in its salutations after the Porter accidentally riddled her side and superstructure with gunfire.

On 10 June, 1945, the Porter's hard luck finally ran out. She was sunk by a plane which had (unintentionally) attacked it from
underwater . A Japanese bomber made almost entirely of wood and canvas slipped through the Navy's defense .

Having little in the way of metal surfaces, the plane didn't register on radar. A fully loaded kamikaze , it was headed for a ship
near the Porter, but just at the last moment veered away and crashed alongside the unlucky destroyer. There was a sigh of relief as the plane sunk out of sight, but then it blew up underneath the Porter, opening her hull in the worst possible place.

Three hours later, after the last man was off board, the Captain jumped to the safety of a rescue vessel and the ship that almost
changed world history slipped astern into 2,400 feet of water. Not a single soul was lost in the sinking. After everything else
that happened, it was almost as if the ship decided to let her crew off at the end.

Kit Bonner , Naval Historian
Sent by Bill Carmena
European WW II Cemeteries in alphabetical order
in which Our Men and Women are buried 

1. The American Cemetery at Aisne-Marne, France... A total of 2289

2. The American Cemetery at Ardennes, Belgium... A total of 5329
3. The American Cemetery at Brittany, France... A total of 4410
4. Brookwood, England - American Cemetery... A total of 468
5. Cambridge, England... A total of 3812
6. Epinal, France - American Cemetery... A total of 5525
7. Flanders Field, Belgium... A total of 368
8. Florence, Italy... A total of 4402
9. Henri-Chapelle, Belgium... A total of 7992
10. Lorraine , France... A total of 10,489
11. Luxembourg, Luxembourg... A total of 5076
12. Meuse-Argonne... A total of 14246
13. Netherlands, Netherlands... A total of 8301
14. Normandy, France... A total of 9387
15. Oise-Aisne, France... A total of 6012
16. Rhone, France... A total of 861
17. Sicily, Italy... A total of 7861
18. Somme, France... A total of 1844
19. St. Mihiel, France... A total of 4153
20. Suresnes, France... A total of 1541
Apologize to no one. Remind those of our sacrifice and don't confuse arrogance with leadership.  
The count is 104,366 dead, brave Americans.



"Remember the Mexican Soldier" Ceremony
History of Mission San Antonio de Valero— also known as El Álamo
Annual San Jacinto Battleground Festival & Living History Event!
Rudi R. Rodriguez awarded 2011 National DAR Historic Preservation Medal of Honor
Location of historic 1813 Battle of Medina clash still elusive for searchers
First Republic of Texas Born 199 Years Ago by Richard G. Santos

1513  First America Trailer   

Alamo Plaza - San Antonio, Texas March 4th, 2012 

Left to right - Adam Dominguez, Andy Anderson, Martin Vasquez, Jack Henry, Roland N Salazar & Tony Montez

Roger Valdez, Edward Teniente, Martin R Vasquez, Mr Teniente, John S Mathy & Roland N Salazar

Left to right: Don Williams, unknown, Ron Strybos, Tony Montez, Andy Anderson & Jack Henry Martin R Vasquez - President of Primer Batallon de Mexico Acknowledges the Soldado Mejicano that died for his country. Roland N Salazar - right

Almaráz´s most recent honors include a 1994 President´s Distinguished Achievement Award, an Excellence in Research award in 1988, and a Senior Fulbright Lectureship in the Republic of Argentina. He has published numerous books including Knight Without Armor: Carlos Eduardo Castañeda, 1896-1958 (Texas A&M University Press, 1999), Tragic Cavalier: Governor Manuel Salcedo of Texas, 1808-1813 (University of Texas Press, 1971), and Crossroad of Empire: The Church and State on the Rio Grande Frontier of Coahuila and Texas, 1700-1821 (University of Texas at San Antonio Center for Archaeological Research, 1979). 

RICHARD G. SANTOS An international research historian having authored and co-authored 34 book, well over 3,000 articles (U.S., Mexico,Japan, Vatican, Europe), written and produced a dozen documentaries and appeared as consultant or interviewee in numerous documentaries including PBS National THE WEST and History Channel’s REMEMBERING THE ALAMO

After the battle of the Alamo a monument was proposed by Captain Jose Juan Sanchez Navarro but his request was denied. Here are the words he hoped would be inscribed on this monument.

"The bodies that lie here at rest 
Were those of men whose souls elate 
Are now in Heaven to be blest 
For deeds that time cannot abate. 
"They put their manhood to the test, 
And fearlessly, they met their fate; 
No fearful end, a patriot's fall 
Leads to the highest life of all. 

Primer Batallon, a premier living history group with members from all over the state of Texas sponsoring a special ceremony to honor the fallen Mexican soldiers from the battle of the Alamo.

Primer Batallon de Mexico
This group is designed for the dedicated individuals who are interested in the Méxican soldado during the Texas Revolution, Méxican American War and the French Intervention in México. We will discuss topics including living history, reenacting and sources of reenacting gear related to these time periods. 

Please refer all questions to Martin Vasquez at  
Thank you for your interest in our group.

Yahoo Group: /
Also see & join our Facebook Group Page!  
Please contact us if you wish to become a living history re-enactor with us!

Roland Nuñez Salazar
Admin for PB - Facebook & Yahoo Groups


The Mission San Antonio de Valero, also known as El Alamo was established in San Antonio in 1718, as but one of many Catholic missions organized as part of the official Spanish plan to Christianize native Americans and colonize northern New Spain. Franciscan monks began building on the present site, on east side of the San Antonio River, about 1724 and remained there until 1793, when the Spanish government legally dissolved the mission and distributed ownership of its lands and buildings.

After the departure of the Franciscans, the seventy-five-year-old mission entered a long period of rather haphazard use. In addition to its famous role in the Texas revolution, the site's subsequent functions have included quarters for both Spanish and Mexican frontier troops; housing for local Indians, Tejanos, and itinerant squatters; hospital; army supply depot; Masonic lodge; jail; commercial store and warehouse; public park; tourist attraction; movie set; and historic site. This multiple use has greatly complicated efforts to document or describe the Alamo at any given time. Another difficulty arises from semantic ambiguity in many descriptions of the site, with the title Alamo sometimes used to refer exclusively to the church building and sometimes to the entire mission complex.

Our knowledge of the eighteenth-century mission derives from the written descriptions of Spanish missionaries and government observers, from archaeological evidence, and from examination of the surviving structures. Because much of this information has only recently become available, early Alamo historians and preservationists were forced to rely on oral tradition and outright speculation. Many of the resulting misconceptions have unfortunately become fixed in the popular image of the Alamo.

Regarding the church, for example, many nineteenth- and early twentieth-century observers assumed it had once been completed, then damaged by later military action. Contemporary reports indicate, however, that the mission church that now dominates Alamo imagery was never completed or actually used for religious services.

Construction on it proceeded from the late 1750s, when Father Francisco Xavier Ortiz reported the collapse of an earlier stone church with tower and sacristy, until the decline of the mission during the late 1780s and early 1790s. The design for the new church was an ambitious one, clearly intended to be the architectural masterpiece of the mission. It followed a traditional cruciform plan, with a long nave crossed near its eastern end by a short, broad transept. The walls were sturdy, over three and one-half feet thick, and well built of limestone blocks, but only roughly finished.

Inside, the church was probably paved with flagstones and was intended to have a barrel-vaulted roof, supported by stone arches, and a dome or cupola over the crossing. The walls were evidently completed at least as high as the cornices, and several of the arches with their supporting pilasters were installed. Vestiges of these arches survived into the nineteenth century and are visable in Edward Everett's painting depicting the interior view of the Alamo.

There, the project apparently stalled, however, as the mission's Indian population declined precipitously from a high of 328 in 1756 to a mere 44 in 1777. Surviving evidence suggests that the roof itself, the dome, and a second-story choir loft, designed for the west end, were never put in place.

The church of San Antonio de Valero, better known as the Alamo, would have looked something like this had it been completed according to plan. The original design of the church has frequently been likened to that of nearby Mission Concepción with a full three-level baroque retable facade, flanking bell towers, and a central dome topping the characteristic crusiform floorplan.

Outside, the western facade of the church, which opened onto the mission plaza, was the chief architectural glory. The mission inventory of 1793 described this facade as "a showy and impressive piece of Tuscan architecture," with arched doors surrounded by elaborate floral carvings, twisting columns, and shell-topped niches for statuary. The central facade and front comers of the church were of carefully cut and fitted blocks, unlike the rough limestone used elsewhere. Although the facade was never finished, it is possible to project its intended design, based on similar Early Baroque style facades erected in Spain and its New World provinces.

Since the mission's ecclesiastical center was never finished, mission life must have revolved around the administrative center, the priests' residence or convent. Containing offices, kitchens, dining and guest rooms, the monastery was apparently the first permanent building constructed at the mission, replacing earlier adobe structures. By the close of the mission period, the convent included two two-story wings forming an L along the west and south edges of an inner courtyard, immediately north of the church. The remainder of the mission complex, of less permanent construction than the two main buildings, is even more difficult to locate and describe. Workrooms, storerooms, and Indian residences were continually being repaired or replaced, and all apparently fluctuated considerably according to the size and vigor of the Indian population. During the mission's mid-century peak, the Indian pueblo included thirty finished adobe houses, most with open, stone-arched galleries plus a number of brush huts, or jacales; by 1793, however, only twelve Indian houses were still habitable. Theoretically, the Alamo was to have been the religious branch of the Spanish presidio-mission system established to reduce the savage frontier. A presidio, or strong defensive fort staffed by royal troops, would provide the needed military protection against both hostile natives and rebellious mission Indians. The presidio San Antonio de Bexar, however, was neither completed nor adequately garrisoned, compelling the Franciscans at San Antonio de Valero and other nearby missions to devise their own defenses against hostile Apaches and Comanches. As a result, although religion dominated the Alamo's early years, the site also manifested clear military overtones. Protective walls, probably erected after the San Saba mission massacre of 1758, enclosed San Antonio de Valero's main plaza in an irregular rectangle approximately 480 feet long (north-south) by 160 feet wide (east-west). The Indian houses lay within this enclosure, mainly along its western wall, but the church and convent buildings were outside and to the east of it. In 1793, the remaining walls had already crumbled were about eight feet high and two feet thick, constructed of stone, mud, and adobe. The main gate, located in the south wall, had been fortified as early as 1762 with a turret and three cannons, and in 1793 a small one-pound cannon also stood on a rampart near the convent entrance.

After the complex ceased to be an active religious establishment in 1793, its military characteristics became even stronger. A company of Spanish cavalry, sent to protect the settlements around San Antonio, established its quarters in the old mission [in December of 1802]. By the early nineteenth century, when Anglo-American visitors began to appear in Bexar occasionally, the site's essential orientation had changed to that of a military post. Zebulon M. Pike, who visited San Antonio in 1807, seemed unaware of its mission past, alluding to the Alamo simply as "the station of the troops" on the east side of the river. Even its popular name, "the Alamo," apparently dates from this period, reflecting the Spanish cavalry company's origin at the Mexican town of "El Alamo," near Parras in Nueva Vizcaya.

Source: Schoelwer, Alamo Images--Changing Perceptions of a Texas Experience, SMU Press, 1985.


Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


27th Annual Goliad Living History Event
Goliad, Texas
General Santa Anna sent General Jose Urrea marching into Texas from Matamoros, to make his way north along the coast of Texas. On March 19, General Urrea had quickly advanced and surrounded 300 men in the Texian Army on the open prairie, near La Bahia (Goliad). A two day battle of Coleto ensued with the Texians holding their own on the first day. However, the Mexicans would receive overwhelming reinforcements and heavy artillery. Due to their critical predicament, Colonel James Fannin and his staff had voted to surrender the Texian forces on the 20th. Led to believe that they would be released into the United States, they returned to their former fort in Goliad, now being their prison. 
Mexican Soldiers preparing for battle. The battle begins. Edward Teniente above.
L to R: Martin R Vasquez, JP Scott, 
Don Williams

Special thanks to Roland Nunez Salazar for the information and photos.
Charlie Lara as Generale Santa Anna



Rudi R. Rodriguez awarded the 2011 National DAR Historic Preservation Medal of Honor

(San Antonio, Texas) April 4, 2012 – On March 10, 2012, Mr. Rudi Rodriguez, Chairman and Founder of The Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas, was awarded the “2011 Historic Preservation Medal of Honor” by the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. This is the highest honor awarded by the Society and is awarded to an individual who has made a distinguished contribution to historical preservation on the regional, state or national level for many years. The recipient must be a native born American who has shown extraordinary qualities of leadership, trustworthiness, service, and patriotism. The recipient must have made unusual and lasting contributions to our American heritage by truly giving of himself/herself to his/her community, state, country, and fellow man.

Mr. Rudi R. Rodriguez was nominated by The Alamo Chapter of National Society DAR. His medal was awarded by Texas State Regent Joy Hagg at the State Conference Banquet on March 10th, 2012. “The National Association of the Daughters of the American Revolution is proud to honor Mr. Rodriguez for his many years of preserving the history of Texas.”

In 2002, Mr. Rodriguez began a campaign to educate, elevate and celebrate Tejano heritage and legacy in Texas history. Armed with commitment and passion, he began Texas To date, he has invested thousand of hours, traveled tens of thousands of miles around the state and Mexico. Additionally, as a business owner he has also made commitments and contributions of over a quarter million dollars to help sponsor his preservation efforts. As a result of creating traveling exhibits, producing documentaries, launching web sites, publishing books, lecturing and conducting special events, he has created a “Movement” that has literally impacted Texans from one end of the state to the other. From large urban communities to small rural towns, education, inspiration and pride have been felt with the visibility of this Tejano heritage and legacy effort.

This first ever initiative and combination of programs dedicated to preserving Texas Tejano history certainly has demonstrated innovation and creativity in order to bring about awareness and education in the field of preservation. As mentioned before, these programs and efforts have been viewed by several million Texans from all over the state and have inspired people to know more about their own family history. 

Texas was founded in 2003 to educate, elevate and celebrate the Hispanic experience in Texas history. During its nine years, the company has published historical biographies, produced exhibits, and produced documentaries and plays. The company has also initiated Tejano Heritage Month, a series of events and festivities that take place through out September and October of each year to celebrate the life of Tejanos with the general public. 

For more information on Texas, contact us (Vincent Tavera) at (210) 673-3584 or visit our web site at   

Battle of Medina Society Mission Statement

Be Part of History

Due to the testimony of the Society’s Founder at the State Board of Education, the Battle of Medina is now in the curriculum to be taught in schools throughout Texas in the 7th grade; it is also mentioned on a plaque on the Tejano Monument; therefore it is vital that the correct version be taught and not the myths that have developed around it. The Tejano Battle of Medina and the Tejano Declaration of Independence have been celebrated in Losoya and San Antonio by the founder for the last 6 years. He has also led 10 expeditions in search of the battle site.

Therefore the mission of the society shall be as follows:

  • To encourage elected representatives to officially recognize the Emerald Green Flag as the 7th Flag flown over Texas
  • To encourage elected representatives to officially recognize April 6th as the Tejano Declaration of Independence (perhaps a holiday)
  • To archeologically find the battle site of the Battle of Medina (a dig is tentatively being planned for April 14. volunteers needed)
  • To support and participate in the reenactment of the Battle of Medina.(On the school grounds of SSISD in Losoya)
  • To support and participate in the Tejano Declaration of Independence reenactment in front of the Spanish Governors Palace
  • To have plaques installed to honor the wives, mothers and daughters of the Tejanos that suffered and died from the brutality
  • To have a plaque installed to honor the memory of 327 Tejanos that were beheaded on Military Plaza in San Antonio
  • Once located, to have a monument and museum built on or near the battle site of the Battle of Medina
  • Dues will be $25 per year contributions are welcome and all will go to accomplishing the society’s mission.

Dan Arellano President and Founder
Battle of Medina Society
PO Box 43012
Austin, Texas 78704

Location of historic 1813 Battle of Medina clash still elusive for searchers

METRO -- Like a needle in a haystack, Tejano historian and author Dan Arellano scans for artifacts at a ranch in Atascosa County, Sunday, April 15, 2012. Arellano and volunteers were using metal detectors in hopes of finding artifacts from the 1813 Battle of Medina. The battle was the bloodiest fought on Texas soil according to the Handbook of Texas. Out of the 1400 Texas Republicans, over one thousand were Tejanos and Native Americans and 300 Americans. After an ambush by a Spanish Army force of around 1830, only 100 of the Republicans survived, said Arellano. The site of the battle has never been located. Jerry Lara/San Antonio Express-News


Photo: JERRY LARA, San Antonio Express-News / © 2012 San Antonio Express-News                

Tejano historian and author Dan Arellano, 65, right, and volunteer, Modesto Silva, 66, uncover a find while scanning for artifacts at a ranch in Atascosa County, Sunday, April 15, 2012. The find turned out to be farm equipment parts. Arellano and volunteers used metal detectors in hopes of finding artifacts from the 1813 Battle of Medina. The battle was the bloodiest fought on Texas soil according to the Handbook of Texas. Out of the 1400 Texas Republicans, over one thousand were Tejanos and Native Americans and 300 Americans. After an ambush by a Spanish Army force of around 1830, only 100 of the Republicans survived, said Arellano. The site of the battle has never been located.


Photo: JERRY LARA, San Antonio Express-News / © 2012 San Antonio Express-News




By Richard G. Santos


            An historic event occurred 199 years ago this week at San Antonio de Bexar that is still ignored in history textbooks and the media at large. On April 6, 1813 , Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara issued the first ever Declaration of Independence against Spain in North America . Contrary to popular myth, Rev. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla considered the “Father of Mexican Independence” opposed independence from Spain and thus never issued such a declaration. The Hidalgo uprising initiated September 16, 1810 proclaimed loyalty to King Fernando VII as documented in the original Grito de Dolores.

“Viva Fernando VII, Viva America, Viva La Religion” made it clear that Hidalgo and his followers were loyal to the Spanish Crown, the Roman Catholic Church and to the idea that the American Continent born Spanish citizens could govern themselves and remain an integral part of the Spanish Empire.

            Gutierrez de Lara who had supposedly met with Rev. Hidalgo took it upon himself to seek U. S. aid and traveled to Washington D.C.   He was directed to seek assistance from U. S. Consul official William Shaler at New Orleans , Louisiana . He was not told that Shaler was the head of U. S. Secret Service. True to his assignment, Shaler raised financial support, volunteers, weapons, munitions and provisions for a force titled “The Republican Army of the North”. The rebel army composed of Tejanos and volunteers from Coahuila and Tamaulipas were led by Gutierrez de Lara. The U. S. volunteers were headed by Augustus Magee. The ethnically mixed Republican Army of the North that included Native American volunteers, entered Texas via Nacogdoches on August 12, 1812 . The force proceeded to Goliad where they arrived November 7, 1812 . During the siege that followed, August Magee fell ill and died and Samuel Kemper took over the U. S. volunteers.

            The Spanish forces abandoned Goliad and headed for San Antonio de Bexar.  The rebel army delayed moving towards Bexar until March 1813. A battle ensued at a site called El Rosillo on the southeast corner of present Bexar on March 29, 1813 . The Spanish royalists retreated to Bexar and surrendered the city of Bexar and province of Texas to the rebels on April 1, 1813 .  Two days later Spanish Governor Manuel de Salcedo and 14 of his officers were executed at the Rosillo battle site. Samuel Kemper was said to be so angered by the executions that he and some 100 U. S. volunteers quit the army and returned to Louisiana .  Reuben Ross assumed command of the U. S. volunteers.

            On April 6, 1813 , Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara issued a written Declaration of Independence against “European Spain and all other foreign powers”. Followers of Rev. Hidalgo loyal to Spanish King Fernando VII as well as the U. S. Government, under cover agent William Shaler and the U. S. volunteers at Bexar were upset.  Shaler began to plot the overthrow of Gutierrez de Lara and Jose Alvarez de Toledo was sent by the U. S. Government from Baltimore , Maryland to Louisiana . Notwithstanding the political unrest, the Republican Army defeated an invading Spanish force headed by Col. Ignacio Elizondo along the banks of the Alazan Creek at the present near west side of downtown San Antonio . The victory did not placate the U. S. Government or its agent Shaler who pressed the removal of Gutierrez de Lara. On August 1, 1813 , Alvarez de Toledo assumed command of the rebel army and five days later Gutierrez de Lara left Bexar for New Orleans . San Antonio born rebel Colonel Miguel Menchaca did not trust Alvarez de Toledo and his feelings were shared by the Tejano, Tamaulipeco and Coahuilence rebels.

Alvarez de Toledo reacted by dividing the army under ethnic lines and many of the Native American volunteers feeling ignored and unappreciated returned to their villages.

            It was this ethnically divided Republican Army of the North under the leadership of Jose Alvarez de Toledo that battled the Spanish army of Brigadier General Joaquin de Arredondo on August 18, 1813 . The first encountered occurred at a still unknown site known only as “El Encinal del Rio Medina ” within present Atascosa County .  The fighting continued northward toward the Medina River as the rebel army retreated towards Bexar.  The running battle along both the Camino Real de Laredo and Camino Real del Rio Grande , and various Medina River crossings and trails, became the largest battle with the greatest number of casualties in Texas history.  

            Surviving U. S. volunteers, Tejano, Tamaulipeco and Coahuilence rebels managed to escape to Louisiana where they joined the U. S. Army under Andrew Jackson and participated in the Battle of New Orleans against an invading British force. Jose Alvarez de Toledo returned to Spain where he was un-masked as a double agent and given a pension and reward for his outstanding contributions to the Spanish Crown.  

Gutierrez de Lara returned to Mexico after it gained its independence from Spain in 1821 and served as first Governor of Tamaulipas. 

            Historically, Texas as well as Mexican historians and textbooks have ignored the participation, contribution, and significance of Jose Bernardo Maximiliano Gutierrez de Lara and the First Republic of Texas.  Periodically someone finds a cannon ball, grape shots, a saber or a musket and claims to have discovered “the site of the battle at the Medina River ” without understanding it was a running battle with many sites of engagement north of Pleasanton and Poteet along the Caminos Real and trails leading to various Medina River crossings. Nonetheless, every year for the last 20 odd years a group of history enthusiast meet at one of the engagement sites followed by a symposium at Pleasanton where various speakers discuss the Republican Army of the North, the First Republic of Texas, and the historic running battle that started at Los Encinos del Rio Medina. May we never forget and especially so as we approach the 200th anniversary of the First Republic of Texas.  

End ………………………. End …………………….. end …………………… end  

Zavala County Sentinel …………… 4-5 April 2012  




Genealogia de Los Tejada-Leon Por: Guillermo Padilla Origel
Apellido Elizondo 
Juan de Lexalde y Ochoa
The Carvajal’s of England and New Spain By John D. Inclan


 Por: Guillermo Padilla Origel  


I.-Don Agapito Tejada-León, nace por 1785, establecido en la ciudad de Guanajuato, de ascendencia Castellana en León, España, se casa por 1810, con doña Ana María López, y fue su hijo entre otros:

II.-Don Jesús María Tejada-León  y López, nace en Guanajuato por 1815, se casó en primeras nupcias el 13 de abril de 1837, con su prima Asunción Tejada-León, y en segundas nupcias el 27 de mayo de 1850 en Guanajuato, con Doña Bárbara Quiñones Reynoso, h.l. de Don Patricio y de doña Trinidad; Don Jesús  y Doña Bárbara, luego radican en la ciudad de León, donde obtuvieron varias propiedades entre ellas “La Pompa del Granjeno”, la hacienda del “Palote” y tierras aledañas y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

III.-Don José, bautizado en 1866 en León, Gto.

III.-Doña María del Refugio, bautizada  el 2 de diciembre de 1869, en Guanajuato.

III.-Doña María Francisca, bautizada  el 6 de febrero de 1862 , e Guanajuato.

III.-Lic. Don José Eusebio Ignacio Tejada-León y Quiñones, abogado de prestigio, bautizado el 24 de agosto de 1857, en Guanajuato y casado el 30 de agosto de 1899 en León, Gto., con Doña Ana Torres Basurto.

III.-Don Santiago Tejada-León y Quiñones, bautizado el 4 de marzo de 1859, en Guanajuato, casado el 23 de julio de 1884 en León, Gto., con Doña Rosa Araujo Gutiérrez, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

1.-Don Rafael Manuel, bautizado en 1903 en León, Gto. Y Don José Aurelio , bautizado en 1899 , con sucesión.

III.-Doña María Encarnación , bautizada el 22 de abril de 1864, en León, Gto.

III.-Ing. Don Pedro Tejada-León y Quiñones, quien construyó en la ciudad de León, Gto., el Arco de la Calzada de Los Héroes,  se casó con Doña Mariana Hernández y Hernández, h.l. del Lic. Juan Pablo y de Maria Josefa , y fueron sus hijos del Ing. Pedro y de doña Mariana, entre otros:

1.-Doña María de la Luz Tejada  Hernández, casada con el sr. Don Arnulfo Reynoso, con sucesión .

2.-Doña Luz María Tejada Hernández, casada con don Ramón Zermeño.

3.-Doña María del Socorro Tejada Hernández, nace en 1898,  y se casa con Francisco Muñoz.

4.-Doña María Guadalupe Tejada  Hernández, casada con Juvencio Rodríguez.

5.-Don Carlos Tejada Hernández, casado con doña Josefina Grey.

6.-Doña Dolores, Mercedes, Josefina Tejada Hernández, solteras.

7.-Don Pedro Tejada Hernández, nació el 23 de marzo de 1893, en León.

8.-Don Enrique Tejada Hernández, nació el 14 de junio de 1894 en León.

9.-Don Rafael Tejada Hernández, casado con doña Luz María Gómez, y fue hijo entre otros:

a.-Don Pedro Cecilio Tejada Gómez, famoso fotógrafo, con sucesión.

III.-Ing. Don José Julián Tejada-León y Quiñones, jefe político en León,  en 1908, 1911, 1912 y 1913, se casó con doña Paula Manrique Oliva, hija de Don Antonio y de doña Luisa, y fueron sus hijos de don José Julián y de doña Paula , entre otros:

1.-Doña María Esther, bautizada en León, el 2 de enero de 1891

2.-Don Luís Manuel, nacido el 25 de octubre de 1897 en León.

3.-Don José de Jesús Tejada-León Manrique, nacido en 1909, en León, casado en primeras nupcias con doña María del Refugio González Ocampo, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

a.-Don José de Jesús Tejada González, casado con  doña Julieta Ramos y fueron sus hijos a la vez:

Doña Lourdes, doña Gabriela  y doña Teresa Tejada Ramos.

b.-Doctor Don Fernando Tejada Gonzalez, casado con doña Martha Ruíz, y fueron sus hijos:

don Fernando, don Manuel, don Enrique , Doña Martha y Doña Beatríz Tejada Ruíz.

c.-Don Javier Tejada González, nace en 1912 en León, y se casa el 10 de enero de 1940 en León, Gto., con Doña Amparo Valadéz Maldonado, y fueron sus hijos:

Lic. don Javier, doña Amparo, don Héctor, Lic. Don Eduardo y don Jesús Tejada Valadéz.

d.-Doña María de Lourdes Tejada González, se casó con don José Navarro Hidalgo, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

doña María Eugenia, doña Silvia y doña Edith, don Sergio y don José Navarro Tejada.

e.-Doña María Esther Tejada González, se casó con don Luís Medina R. y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

don Rodolfo, doña Ana María, doña Luz Eugenia, doña Beatríz, don Luís, doña Martha, doña María Esther, doña Purificación, Don Francisco y doña María de los Ángeles Medina Tejada.

3.-Don José de Jesús Tejada-León y Manrique, se casó en segundas nupcias con doña María Soledad Villalobos, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

a.-Don Arturo Tejada Villalobos , casado con Arminda Padilla.

b.-Don Ricardo Tejada Villalobos, casado con doña Elda Vega Ascencio.

c.-Doña Hortensia  Tejada Villalobos, casada con don Antoni Orozco y Orozco.

d.-Doña Graciela Tejada Villalobos, casada con don Guillermo González Castro.  


1.-libro el Arco de la Calzada de los héroes, escrito por el Lic. Carlos Arturo Navarro Valtierra, cuyos datos al respecto los proporcionó el señor Arturo Tejada Villalobos.

2.-archiivos del registro civil y ecleciásticos  de León y Guanjuato, Gto.

3.-comunicación verbal del Lic. Eduardo Tejada Valadéz.

4.-comunicación verbal de la srita María Eugenia Torres Origel

5.-Comunicación verbal de la señora Teresa Reynoso Tejada vda. De Alcaráz.


TELS. 477 7166592 Y 7166438
I.D. 52*11*18825


Apellido Elizondo 
Hola al Grupo.
Saludos espero tengan unas felices vacaciones de Semana Mayor.
Ayer me hablo muy amablemente el Compañero Adrián Zambrano González, para darme las referencias sobre lo que le habia mandado preguntar de que el Apellido Elizondo es un derivado de Elexalde o Elizalde, me menciono dos libros, el Diccionario Etimológico comparado de los Apellidos Españoles de Gutierre Tibon con la referencia ISBN 968-16-6435-3 y el Diccionario Español con la referencia ISBN 84-239-2289-8 , estuve buscando en el Internet y solo encontre los Libros en venta, asi que no puede checarlo, si alguno de ustedes tiene el libro y me pueda escanear o confirmar ese dato se los agradeceria, aunque Adrian no me aseguro al 100 % de esa relacion tan estrecha entre esos dos apellidos, lo que si encontré que tanto el Apellido Elizondo como el Elexalde son de origen Vasco, Elizondo viene de Eliza = Iglesia y Ondo = Junto o al Lado y Elexalde viene de Elexa = Iglesia y Alde Cerca o Aledaño, el significado es muy parecido pero no igual, pero cuando me meti a investigar los apellidos Franceses si me salió referencia del Apellido Elexalde pero no del Elizondo, en una reunion de Los Elizondo me comentaron que habia la posibilidad que los Elizondo vinieran de Bayona Francia, pero eso no esta comprobado con documentos, asi que seguiremos investigando.
Les mando una liga que encontré en el Internet mas no se que tan confiable sera ya que a veces nos encontramos con datos con errores, seguimos en comunicacion, cuidense mucho DIOS LOS BENDIGA.
Edna Yolanda Elizondo González

Juan de Lexalde y Ochoa
Estimados Compañeros:

Juan de Lexalde y Ochoa fue el primer Elexalde que vino a America, era originario de las Salinas de Lenis en la provincia de Guipizcoa (VASCO) nacio alrededor de 1490 y llego a Santo Domingo en 1508, está en Puerto Rico en 1509 en Cuba en 1511 vuelve a Santo Domingo en 1514 y llega a Mexico con Narvaez y termina siendo de la gente de Hernán Cortéz en 1520. vuelve a aparecer en Santiago de Cuba en 1521 y aparece en 1533 acompañando a Hernán Cortez en la expedición a la Baja California. esta en ciudad de México de 1524 a 1527

Fue Encomendero en Puebla de los Angeles, donde todavía aparece en 1554 viviendo con su esposa Catalina Fernandez Endrino.

Era hijo de Nicxolas de Lexalde y María Bilistegui, que en ocasiones en vez de Belistigui usaban el Ochoa, ignorandose de que ancestro procede este último.

Seguramente una decendiente de Nicolas de Ochoa y Elexalde que se casa con uno de Bartolome Gonzalez da origenan a los Gonzalez Ochoa; y por eso la esposa de Juan Guzmán el genarca de los Guzmanes (tercer esposo de Catarina Martinez)que originalmente estuvo en Cerralvo se hacia llamar en forma indistinta Juana Belastigui o Juana Gonzalez de Ochoa. (el Belastigui era el apellido de su bisabuela, la madre del Juan de Lexalde y Ochoa.

Saludos a todos y que la pasen bonito de vacianos.

Luis Cavazos Guzmán

Resultado: 8606 Nombres y Apellidos


The Carvajal’s of England and New Spain
By John D. Inclan
Luis de Carvajal, the younger
(d. December 8, 1596, Mexico City), son of Doña Francisca Nunez de Carbajal and Don Francisco Rodriguez de Matos, and a nephew of Don Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva, governor of Nuevo Leon, New Spain. He was a Spainard by birth, and a resident of Mexico City. In 1596, he weas condemned to death by an “auto-de-fe“. Having been "reconciled" of his sins, on February 24, 1590, he was sentenced to perpetual imprisonment in the lunatic hospital of San Hipolito. On February 9, 1595, he was again arraigned as a "relapso," subsequently testifying against his mother and sisters (if the records are to be believed). On February 25, during one of the hearings, he was shown a manuscript beginning with the words: "In the name of the Lord of Hosts" (a translation of the Hebrew invocation, "be shem Adonay Zebaot"), which he acknowledged as his own book, and that it contained his autobiography. On February 8, 1596, he was put on the “rack” from 9:30 in the morning until 2 in the afternoon, and during this torture, he denounced no less than 121 persons, though he later repudiated his confession.
He and his brother, Baltasar, composed hymns and dirges for the Jewish fasts: one of them, a kind of "widdui" (confession of sin) in sonnet form, is given in El Libro Rojo.
The following story is on Don Luis relationship with Dona Justa Mendez.
Francisco Mendez married Clara Enriquez , (parents of Justa Mendez)
Their known children:
1) Gabriel Mendez-Enriquez
2) Justa Mendez-Enriquez
Justa Mendez met Don Luis Rodriguez de Carvajal, the younger, (El Mozo). Never married, from this relationship, he sired a son named Abraham Israel Fernandez de Carvajal (AKA Antonio Fernandez de Carvajal).
The following is an article written by the Jewish Historical Society of England.
Don Abraham Israel Fernandez de Carvajal (AKA Antonio Fernandez de Carvajal) was married to Maria Rodriguez-Nunez, residents of London, England..
Antonio Fernandez de Carvajal
On the basis, therefore, that the Ferdinand(o) ancestral line probably passes back through Antonio Fernandez de Carvajal, I will summarise here the life of this remarkable individual. Throughout this section I will rely, generally without further reference, on the secondary sources provided by numerous publications of the Jewish Historical Society of England, the wide range of which reflect the importance ascribed to Carvajal by modern Anglo-Jewish scholars. Primary sources are generally listed, and often reproduced, within the respective articles. For convenience I will generally adopt the “z” ending of his first surname, though the sources as often use an “s” ending.
Early Life
Some periods and aspects of Carvajal’s life and character are very well documented, especially those regarding his trading activities. In other respects, however, he remains a shadowy and mysterious figure, and this is nowhere better exemplified than in regard to his birth and early life. By his own account, giving evidence in a court case in later years, Antonio Fernandez Carvajal spent part of his early life in Fundão, a small town of Lower Beira in central Portugal below the northern slope of the Serra da Guardunha, where he was part of the large and flourishing crypto-Jewish (or “marrano”) community who hid their Judaism in order to avoid persecution. This has sometimes been taken to indicate that he was born there, as indeed is possible, though it has also been suggested that he was born in the Canary Islands. It has, however, also been stated that he spent part of his early life at Santa Cruz in the Canary Islands, though this is not, of course, necessarily incompatible with his own account of having spent time in Fundão. For the time being, at least, his precise place of birthremains unresolved, though there seems little doubt that he had early connections both with Fundão and with the Canary Islands. It has been suggested that he may have been born a Christian and converted secretly to Judaism, perhaps as a reaction to the intolerance of the Inquisition, it being stated in ref.(vi) of footnote 40 that this was true of a large proportion of the marranos, including those who settled in the Canary Islands, and in particular including a number of other Carvajals there.
The writer suggests that the fact that the discovery in due course that Carvajal had embraced Judaism caused great surprise also contributes towards the notion that he was not a Jew by birth. This, therefore, may be perhaps the likeliest scenario on the evidence, though it remains a possibility that he was born into a Jewish family which, while publicly practising Roman Catholicism to evade persecution, privately adhered to Judaism (ie “New Christian”, as distinct from “Old Christian” borninto the Christian faith). Whichever of these possibilities represents the truth, these were dangerous
times for such heresies, and many Jews perished in flames at the stake during and after this period, both in mainland Spain and Portugal and in colonies elsewhere, some Carvajals amongst them. The harshness of the Inquisition regime is illustrated by the fact that if a victim recanted his or her Judaism at the last moment and declared themself converted to Christianity, the only dispensation granted to them was to be garroted at the stake, thus avoiding the agony of the flames. It has often been stated that Carvajal was born around 1590, but from his own later evidence in a court case it appears more 
likely that he was born in about 1596-97.
The Inquisition was very active against the Jews in Portugal during the first quarter of the 17th century, particularly in Coimbra, a major centre about 50 miles from Fundão, and this led to a large migration of Jewish merchants from Portugal to the Canary Islands, where there was in consequence a revival of marranism. It is likely that Carvajal was involved in this wave of emigration, whether as a child or a young adult. He acquired substantial property in the Canary Islands, and seems to have begun there the process of establishing himself as a significant merchant. The earliest reference I have come across which might possibly relate to him appears in the records of a court case in Amsterdam in 1627, in which a 35 year old Portuguese in Amsterdam named Antonio Fernanadesgave a witness statement (see ref.(xviii) in footnote 41). Although the age would not be quite right
and the name is inconclusive, in particular omitting “Carvajal”, it would not be inconsistent with what we learn of Carvajal in later years that he may, perhaps temporarily, have been in Amsterdam, which at the period contained a significant population of Sephardic Jews from Spain and Portugal. This must, though, remain nothing more than an intriguing possibility.
In 1631 the Inquisition acted in the Canaries against the influx of immigrants, and investigations revealed a colony of wealthy Jewish merchants there. It is stated in ref.(iv) in footnote 41 that a Jorge Fernandez who was included on a list of people suspected of being hidden Jews was Antonio’s brother, though a few years later the same writer suggests merely that he may have been a close relative of Antonio (see ref.(vi) of footnote 41). Whatever the truth of this suggestion, it seems not unlikely that these investigations and the persecutions they threatened may have persuaded Antonio to emigrate for a second time to escape the Inquisition. Now in his thirties, it is likely that he was by this time becoming a merchant of some substance.
Carvajal next made his home and continued his business activities in Rouen, a city in northern France which held a small community of Sephardic Jewish merchants with trading connections in various other European cities. In a London court case a few years later Carvajal stated that he had lived in Rouen for 3 years, although it appears likely from the evidence that the actual length of his stay there may have been somewhat shorter than this. Like so many other parts of Europe, Rouen proved not to be immune from the threat of persecution for the Jews, and as an illustration of what this meant in practice I will summarise the events that lead to Carvajal moving on yet again. In 1632 an member of the Rouen marrano community named Diego Oliveira wished to obtain a grant of naturalisation, and as part of the process approached a Spanish priest then resident in Rouen for a certificate of good conduct in relation to religion. He seems to have chosen badly, since the priest was an anti-Jewish zealot, and he denounced Oliveira to the ecclesiastic court as a Judaiser. Oliveira in turn accused the priest of espionage for Spain in collaboration with a representative of the Inquisition who had recently come to France. The court reacted by imprisoning all three and referring the case to the Parliament of
Rouen, which body was opposed to the grant of naturalisation to the Portuguese immigrants and, in turn, referred the matter on to the Royal Court. The priest was released and ordered to provide evidence for his accusations, and several members of the Spanish and Portuguese community came to his support. At least one of these was a former Jew who was now fully committed to Catholicism and welcomed an opportunity to denounce his former compatriots as Judaisers. Early in 1633 a list of 36
alleged Judaisers, including “Antonio Fernandes de Carvajal”, was produced, and this inevitably caused consternation within the marrano community. While most of those denounced remained in the city others, including Carvajal, decided that discretion was the better part of valour and fled. So for the third time in his life Carvajal emigrated to avoid the threat of persecution, this time to London. Following the dismissal by the Paris Court of the apostacy charges against Oliveira, most of those who had fled returned to Rouen, where the marrano community continued largely unscathed. However, for whatever reason, Carvajal decided not to return, though he retained trading links with the city.
So, still in his thirties, and already established as a substantial merchant, Carvajal began his new life in London. The Civil War was a few years ahead and Charles I was still firmly on the throne, though most of the factors which would bring the country into bloody turmoil were already in place. For the merchant community, including Carvajal and his Sephardic compatriots, times were very favourable, not least because trade beween England and Spain was booming and economic conditions in Spain
made this business especially profitable for those based in England. Carvajal and his fellow Jews became an increasingly prosperous group. I have already indicated that the dates of Antonio Fernandez Carvajal’s marriage to Maria Rodriguez Nuñez and of the births of his two sons are not known with any precision, but it seems clear from the
facts given earlier that all these events occurred after his arrival in London. It is unlikely that his wife was born before about 1620, so she would still have been in her very early teens when he first came to England. It is, however, interesting to note that Maria’s brother Manuel Rodriguez Nuñez, himself a merchant of substance, had, like Carvajal, lived in Rouen and was included in the list of 36 alleged Judaisers during the Oliveira affair (see ref.(xv) in footnote 41). He also moved to London, either at the same time as Carvajal or subsequently, and one could speculate whether his younger sister was
with him during this time, and when and where she and Carvajal first met. It seems likely that they married in London during the late 1630s, when she was still young, and this merging of two of the significant merchant families within London’s crypto-Jewish community would no doubt have been viewed as a propitious event. Their two sons were probably born during the early 1640s. It appears that Carvajal may have moved to the house in Leadenhall Street in which he spent the last decades of his life in about 1639. This emerges from the evidence of, rather unexpectedly, Carvajal’s barber who, on being called upon by Carvajal in 1656 to testify on his behalf in a dispute, stated that he had known Carvajal for 18 years during which time the latter had kept house first in Creechurch Lane and then in Leadenhall Street, where he had been for 17 years.
It is tempting to speculate that Carvajal’s move into the Leadenhall Street house may have coincided with his marriage, but there is no specific evidence to support this. An engraving purporting to be of Carvajal’s house in Leadenhall Street appeared in the 18 August 1983 issue of the London cabbies’ magazine “Taxi”. A clearer copy of the same engraving, though described merely as an “old house formerly in Leadenhall Street”, appeared on p.186 of vol.2 of “Old & New London” by Walter Thornbury (Cassell, prob. 1880-90’s), of which I have a copy, where a date of 1672 can be seen on what appears to be a shop or inn front with the name “L.Litchfield” and a cockerel over the door.
Alongside the main door is a scallop-shaped porch over a decorated doorway which both publications identify as a synagogue entrance, the “Taxi” article suggesting that this is in fact the first Sephardic synagogue in Creechurch Lane. Any identification of this building as the Carvajal house must unfortunately be at best speculative, especially since Carvajal’s house has been described as being located almost facing the top of Creechurch Lane, in which case the Creechurch Lane synagogue would not have been immediately alongside the house. It is, though, possible that the Creechurch Lane synagogue, just off Leadenhall Street, may have been correctly identified in the engraving. The small area of the City close to Leadenhall Street and Aldgate and contained within the parishes of St. Katherine Cree and St. James, Duke’s Place was where the early Jewish population of London was concentrated.
Despite the fact that the Inquisition held no power in England the pre-Civil War years were still potentially dangerous ones for Jews in London. Although there is evidence that limited numbers of Jews had lived in England over a long period of time, achieving in some cases important status in society, they were as a group still subject to the exclusion which had begun in 1290 when Edward I expelled all Jews from the kingdom. Consequently the small but growing number of Sephardic merchants which emerged in London during the first half of the 17th century, whose foreignness in appearance and speech could no doubt not be disguised, found it safer to present a public image of
themselves as Spanish Catholics, notwithstanding the at-times difficult relations that existed between England and Spain. They even attended Mass at the home of the Spanish Ambassador, whilst observing their Jewish faith within the privacy of their own homes. That this did not entirely protect them from a degree of persecution is borne out by the fact that in 1640 Carvajal was successfully prosecuted for recusancy (see ref.(x) in footnote 41). The habits of secrecy and deception that this lifestyle demanded must by this time have been second nature to Carvajal and his fellow Jews, conditioned as he and they were by their earlier experiences in Portugal, the Canary Islands and worship began to be held regularly in London, since the first rabbi of the secret synagogue established
in Creechurch Lane was Moses Israel Athias, a cousin of Carvajal, whom he had brought over from Hamburg. Numerous snapshots exist of Carvajal’s wide-ranging trading activities over the 2½ decades or so of his life in London, largely as a result of his and others’ preparedness to resort to legal processes in defence of their interests, with cases arising at regular intervals between 1637 and 1658. Among the countless products involved in Carvajal’s dealings were brushes, buckram, calico, Canary wine,
canvas, cloth, cochineal, coney hats, corn, drugs, ginger, gum arabic, gunpowder, hose, linen, looking-glasses, Newfoundland fish, ointment, pewter, Sheffield knives, sugar, sumach, taffeta, tobacco, whetstones, woollens, works of art and, significantly, gold and silver bullion. Seemingly anything which promised a profit came within his scope. At one stage it was estimated that he was importing bullion to a value of £100,000 per year, an almost unimaginable sum in modern terms, especially in view of the risks which piracy, international politics and even war posed for those involved in the shipping of goods of such value. Carvajal’s trading tentacles reached places as diverse as Bilbao, Cadiz, Corunna, Malaga and Sanlucar in Spain, Oporto in Portugal, Venice in Italy,
Dunkirk, Le Havre and Rouen in France, Antwerp and Ostend in Belgium, Amsterdam in the Netherlands, Terceira in the Azores, the Canary Islands, Madeira and as far afield as the East and West Indies, Brazil and Syria, as well as several British ports in addition to London. Both of these lists emerge from Carvajal’s various legal disputes, and there is little doubt that comprehensive lists would be even longer. It appears that a typical venture might involve hiring a ship to take goods from one foreign port to another one where they were sold and the proceeds used to buy further goods which were in turn shipped into London. Profit would generally be taken at each stage though, as the
examples given below indicate, there was always the risk of loss. Towards the end of his life he was even purchasing his own ships, presumably in order to cut out the middle man and maximise his gains. It is of interest to summarise a few examples of his many dealings. In 1637 one of his cargoes was turned away from a port in the Azores for fear of “the sickness in London”, and during the voyage back home the ship was boarded by pirates off the Lizard peninsula and Carvajal’s goods were plundered. On another occasion, in 1639, Carvajal had to insist before the High Court of the Admiralty that goods seized by the port authorities in Plymouth from a Scottish vessel were in fact
his, and not Scottish-owned. In 1641 he gave evidence to the same court regarding the alleged purloining of bullion by the master of a ship sailing from Cadiz to England, and in a similar case in 1650 the captain of a ship sailing to London was alleged to have embezzled wine and sugar from one of his shipments.
In 1653, in testifying in a case concerning shipments of silver from Cadiz which
had been seized in Ostend, he stated that he had lived in Spain, and although there does not appear to be modern evidence to support such a claim, it is not surprising that he made it, bearing in mind that he and his fellow Portuguese Jews were at the time posing as Spanish Catholics. In 1656 a ship named “The Peace” was seized by Commonwealth forces who suspected that it was foreign owned, but a witness attested to the Admiralty Court that he had in fact bought the ship in Holland on Carvajal’s behalf for 3,500 Dutch guilders. Seizure of a cargo by the Inquisition authorities in Oporto in reparation for a crime allegedly committed by Carvajal’s agent was the subject of a dispute in 1657,
and in this case Carvajal had to pay a £200 penalty.
In 1658, not long before he died, in an incident similar to the affair of “The Peace”, Carvajal claimed ownership of a small vessel of 60 tons named “The George and Angel” which he had bought 6 years earlier from the Commissioner of Prize Goods
and which had been seized by Commonwealth forces. A theme which seems to emerge from a number of these proceedings is a willingness to be less than entirely straightforward in relation to certain cargoes, and there are references to “colourable” bills of lading in some disputes. It seems to emerge that Carvajal was himself as open to such dubious practices as those with whom he found himself in dispute, though in mitigation it might perhaps be argued that the uncertain times in which he lived required a certain “flexibility”. It was not uncommon for Carvajal to petition the House of Lords or, in due course, the Lord Protector, for protection or relief in various matters. One such petition in 1643 concerned a consignment of gunpowder from Amsterdam seized by the Earl of Warwick “for Parliamentary service”, and the following year he sought restoration to himself of a picture of “St Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins” which had been on a ship bound from Dunkirk to Spain and had been “saved” when the ship
was driven close to Arundel Castle. 1643 also saw him petitioning the House of Lords against an assessment of tax, and listing payments of nearly £350 he had made, including £100 to each of “the service of Ireland” and “Parliament upon the Public Faith”, £85 “paid in Subsidies” and £40 “paid in Weekly Assessments”. In 1646 Parliament had seized a large cargo of cochineal and bullion for an infraction of navigation laws, and Carvajal made an advance of money to Government on the cochineal. When war broke out with Portugal in 1650 his goods and ships were specially exempted from seizure by a warrant of the Council of State. On more than one occasion, for example in 1655,
he petitioned Cromwell for protection of ships carrying his goods from the Canary Islands.
An intriguing entry appears in Spanish archives referring to a mulatto slave of one Duarte Enríquez who reportedly, when his master tried to persuade him to be circumcised, refused and fled, and was subsequently arrested and held in Carvajal’s house before being sent to Barbados. On the subject of slavery it is perhaps with a sense of relief that one notes that there is no mention of slaves in the list of Carvajal’s traded commodities, though one cannot help wondering whether this was for reasons of conscience or merely for lack of opportunity. Perhaps it is simply that the British involvement in the shipping of slaves had not developed suffiently by Carvajal’s day.
The English Civil War and the subsequent Commonwealth regime inevitably impinged significantly on Carvajal’s trading activities, and although it appears that Carvajal’s sympathies were with the Parliamentary side, this may have been no more than a pragmatic merchant’s desire to align with the winning side. It would perhaps be more generous to conclude that this was in reality more than mere opportunism, since the puritan philosophy tended to take a favourable view of what it saw as the people of the Old Testament, and it would have been natural for this sympathy to have been
reciprocated to a degree. In 1649 Carvajal was one of five merchants in the City of London to whom the Council of State gave the army contract for corn. In common with his fellow Jewish merchants in London, Carvajal had many contacts abroad which also made him a valuable source of intelligence for the Parliamentary side in London. In this he had dealings with JohnThurloe, Cromwell’s Secretary of State, who also headed the Government’s Intelligence Service, and it has been suggested that Carvajal was one of the chief sources of crucial intelligence to the Commonwealth regime during wars with Holland, Portugal and Spain. He produced plans for the revictualling and fortification of
Jamaica, a matter which was of concern to Cromwell. Carvajal had, therefore, by his latter years, established himself in a position of some influence not only within his own relatively small community of crypto-Jews, but also more widely within powerful circles. He has been described as“among the most important men in the City” and “virtually the treasurer of the Kingdom” (see ref.(xvi) in footnote 41).
While it is frustrating that a man of such prominence and wealth does not appear to have been represented in a portrait, it is nevertheless possible to form some impression of his personality from the many available records. He emerges as a strong and colourful character who rode horses and carried side arms, and his resilience and determination are plain from the account I have given of his facility for prospering through difficult times. While he was clearly not reluctant to challenge those who threatened his interests, it appears that he must also have commanded the respect of those with whom he came into contact. This may be deduced from an event which took place in 1645, when for
the second time he and his household were denounced by an informer for recusancy, in particular for not attending church under an old Elizabethan Act. His competitors in trade and many of the leading merchants in the City petitioned Parliament on his behalf, and as a result the House of Lords summoned his accuser and quashed the proceedings.
However, he clearly had an abrasive side to his character, even in old age. In 1658, when he was in his early 60s, he had a dispute with the Commissioners of Customs, whose officials had seized a cargo of 100 tons of “logwood” (the heartwood of a tree used for dyeing) valued at £15,000 which Carvajal had imported from the Canary Islands, allegedly illegally. Carvajal collected a group of friends, not all Jewish, as well as a smith armed with a sledgehammer, “riotously and violently” broke into the warehouses where the goods were impounded, and carried them off, having first imprisoned the Customs official in charge aboard a ship. The ensuing legal proceedings were only interrupted by
Carvajal’s death the following year.
The endenization which Carvajal and his two teenaged sons were granted in 1655 formally recognised the priviledged and respected status within England which he had achieved by this time. They were the first members of the still small London Sephardic community to be honoured in this way, and it this fact that prompted Lucien Wolf to describe Carvajal as “the First English Jew”18. However, the consequences for Carvajal were nearly ruinous. At this time he had extensive property in the Canary Islands, and when war broke out with Spain these goods were liable to seizure by the Spanish authorities since Carvajal had just become a British subject. He sought Cromwell’s
assistance and a plan was devised which involved chartering and renaming a vessel, manning it with a Dutch crew and sailing it to the Canaries. Carvajal’s agent there, under instructions from London, loaded all Carvajal’s goods on board and provided bills of lading addressed to merchants in Amsterdam. Finally British men-of-war were instructed to provide assistance to the ship on its voyage to London. The ruse appears to have succeeded, and the willingness of the highest authorities in England to collaborate in such a scheme confirms Carvajal’s own high status. After his death Maria Carvajal was described as “widow of a man well known to have been a close associate of the
Usurper (viz Cromwell)” (see ref.(xi) in footnote 41).
The Re-settlement
By the mid-1650s the Sephardic Jewish community in London has been estimated to have been about 160 men, women and children in all. Their usefulness to the Parliamentary cause had no doubt contributed to their ability to maintain the pretence that they were Spanish Catholics, but it is difficult to believe that those who were in close contact with them, including some of the authorities, were not aware, or at least suspicious, of their true identity. Among the Puritan faction which had dominated English politics for over a decade there was a sense that the Jews should be re-admitted to the nation, albeit perhaps with a view to their ultimate conversion to Christianity, and this appears to have been
Cromwell’s position by the time he accepted the title of Lord Protector in 1653. There was, however, still anti-semitism in London, and opposition from many, including some London merchants, so it was recognised that a formal re-admission would be bound to provoke discontent. Menasseh ben Israel, a prominent rabbi based in Amsterdam, came to London in 1655 and petitioned Cromwell to accept the Jews as citizens of the Protectorate and to allow them to worship and bury their dead openly. The
matter was discussed in the Council of State and in a special conference convened in Whitehall, where the main arguments concerned economics rather than matters of principle, but no significant conclusion was reached. Meanwhile London’s marrano community, whilst maintaining their public image as Catholic Spanish merchants, continued to worship privately as Jews in their own homes, though seemingly now with the specific verbal consent of the Lord Protector.Matters came to a head the following year. The war with Spain which had given rise to Carvajal’s difficulty following his endenization also led to another member of the London Sephardic community,
Antonio Rodrigues Robles, being denounced as a Spaniard, and as such confronted with a warrant in March 1655/56 for the seizure of his very considerable property. Robles’ reaction was uncharacteristically direct for the secretive group of which he was a part. Encouraged no doubt by the knowledge that Cromwell was personally sympathetic to the Jewish people, he petitioned the Lord Protector, declaring himself to be “a Portuguese born and of the Hebrew nation”. Robles sought the support of his fellow Sephardic merchants, and several of them, including Carvajal, testified that he was indeed what he now claimed to be. During the subsequent enquiry numerous witnesses were
called, including ten members of the marrano community, Carvajal amongst them, and the true Jewish nature of the community emerged. Carvajal was one of those who declared that Robles was born in Fundão in Portugal and that they had known his parents, and it is this testimony which has led to theview that Carvajal was probably himself born in Fundão. Despite an attempt by the original informant to bribe a key witness the case against Robles was eventually dismissed, and his property was restored to him. It is worth noting in this matter that, by virtue of the endenization he had been granted only a few months earlier, Carvajal had less cause than his fellow merchants to throw his
support behind Robles, since he now already enjoyed the sort of protection they all desired. It speaks therefore of his loyalty to his fellow-Jews that he was prepared to join himself to their cause in such a public way. The Robles affair must have caused anxiety amongst the small London Jewish community, and a few days after the case opened Carvajal was amongst six of their leaders who, together with Menasseh ben Israel, presented a petition to Cromwell entitled “The Humble Petition of The Hebrews at Present Residing in this City of London”. Thus, for the first time, Carvajal openly admitted his Judaism, and in fact this document appears to be the first one in which he used the name “Abraham Israel Carvajal”. The petition acknowledged the favours and protection already granted to the London Jews to carry out their devotions in their own homes, but sought now written.
Justa, single, married in Mexico City, Francisco Nunez aka Francisco Rodriguez, a wealthy merchant.
The following is from the Archives of Seville,
Título de la unidad: "Inventario y cuentas de secuestros y confiscaciones del Tribunal de la Inquisición de México"
Archivo: Archivo Histórico Nacional
Signatura: INQUISICIÓN,4812,EXP.2
Year: 1642 / 1657
Inventario y cuentas tomadas por el contador de la visita general de México, Diego Martínez Hidalgo, en 1655 y 1657, a Diego de Cisneros, cerero, Esteban Camorlingo, tundidor, Juan de Mendoza, ropero, Pedro de Mesa, sombrerero, y Luis de Medina, dueño de recua, como fiadores de Duarte de León Jaramillo, depositario secuestrador de los bienes de Isabel Núñez, reconciliada; y resultas que de dichas cuentas se sacan contra el contador y receptor, Bartolomé Rey y Alarcón. El inventario fue realizado en 1642 por el notario de secuestros, Miguel de Almonacid. También se hallan las cuentas tomadas, por el citado contador de la visita general de México sobre los bienes de Luis Pérez Roldán, reconciliado, y Francisca Núñez, relajada, hijos de Francisco Núñez, alias, Francisco Rodríguez, abjurado de vehementi, y de Justa Méndez, relajada, y resultas que de dichas cuentas se sacan contra el contador y receptor, Bartolomé Rey y Alarcón
Francisco and Justa had the following known children,
1) Luis Perez-Roldan married on December 13, 1627, Santa Catarina Martir Catholic Church, Santa Catarina, Mexico City, F.D., New Spain (Mexico) to Isabel Nunez, the daughter of Diego Hernandez and Leonor Nunez.
2) Isabel Nunez-Mendez, baptized on October, 22, 1603, Asuncion, Mexico City.
3) Francisca Nunez-Mendez, baptized October, 14, 1605, Asuncion, Mexico City.
An auto-da-fé (also auto da fé and auto de fe) was the ritual of public penance of condemned heretics that took place when the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisition had decided their punishment, followed by the execution by the civil authorities of the sentences imposed. Both auto de fe in medieval Spanish and auto da fé in Portuguese mean "act of faith".
Of note: From 1553 to 15583, during the reign of Cathoic Queen Mary I of England and from 1588 to 1598, reign of King Albert, the Inquisition was used in England to root out heresy.
Source; The Martyr Luis de Carvajal, a secret Jew in Sixteenth Century Mexico, by Martin A. Cohen
Luis de Carvajal The Origins of Nuevo Reino de Leon, by Samuel Temkin.
Microfilm collection of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
For more Carvajal family research by John Inclan, click.  



Micro-Huevos by Ben Romero
Got My Goat by Ben Romero
Biography of Amando Saenz, Chapter 5 of 9

MICRO-HUEVOS by Ben Romero

My wife and I purchased our first microwave oven in the early 1980’s. They were the latest craze and we just had to have one. It was a gift to the household from my wife, who spent every last penny of her holiday bonus, plus money she’d saved for a rainy day. New products are never inexpensive.

The contraption was a godsend. After much experimentation and my share of burned popcorn and sparking utensils, I learned how to prepare meals in minutes. Baked potatoes were a snap, as were hot dogs and TV dinners. My favorite new recipe, however, was micro-baked chicken, spiced with New Mexico red chili powder. I could cut up a complete spiced bird, throw all the parts in a large bowl, cover it with wax paper, place it in the oven, set the timer for twenty minutes, and run outside to spend time with my kids. Then I’d take a break from playing, turn the chicken parts, and set the timer for twenty minutes more. When we came inside, the chicken smelled cooked. All I had to do was prepare a pan of Minute Rice on the stovetop and we were ready to “pack it in“. For dessert, I opened a can of sliced peaches, heated the contents and poured them on a flour tortilla. A few sprinkles of cinnamon and a scoop of Vanilla ice cream made it the best make believe peach pie you ever tasted.

I think my daughter, Victoria, inherited my love for experimenting with short cuts. When she grew up and got married, one of the first things she bought was a microwave oven. One day she decided to try boiling an egg the easy way. She put it in a cup filled with water and set it in the microwave for five minutes. Before the time was up, the egg exploded and blew the door completely off the oven.

A few days ago while my wife was making dinner, I stood in the kitchen chatting and keeping her company. Recalling that episode, I suggested that we needed to invent a new microwave that would allow boiling eggs. She listened intently as I came up with a name for the machine. “We could call it micro-huevos.”

I explained how as a kid I’d once gotten the bright idea of trying to cook an egg, shell and all, using a magnifying glass. When I presented the idea to my brother, Louie, he said it might be possible, but deceiving. “It will make the egg look bigger than it really is, and you’ll be disappointed when you eat it.” Of course the idea didn’t work. All it did was burn a hole in the shell that stunk to high heaven.

The whole time I was talking and getting excited, my wife worked and listened. From a drawer, she withdrew a gadget that resembled a bra, made of white, hard plastic. She opened it, cracked two eggs, discarding the shells, and placing one in each “cup”, sealed it. As I kept talking, she placed the plastic bra inside the microwave and set it for a few minutes. When she withdrew the contents from the oven and opened the gadget, two shelled, hard-boiled eggs materialized.

“Pass me the salt, please,” she smiled.



I had just settled down, four feet in front of the television set. As music from the Roy Roger’s movie began to play, I became oblivious to my surroundings. I was finished with my chores and was ready to lose myself in a good Western. Mom was visiting one of our neighbors, but left a stack of warm tortillas wrapped in aluminum foil on the kitchen table. I could smell beans in the pressure cooker.

My sister, Marcella, walked into the room and stood between me and the television.

“Get outta the way!” I yelled.

“You better go outside,” she said, not budging. “I think the goat’s dead.”

“No it’s not,” I said. “I tied it near the acequia (irrigation ditch) just a few minutes ago. Now, move!”

“Okay,” she said, walking out of the room, “but don’t say I didn’t tell you.”

As my movie started, I began to wonder if she was telling the truth. For several days after April Fool’s Day, I’d played tricks on her. Her classic response was, “April Fool’s is past, and you’re the fool at last.”

My argument was that April was not yet over, so it still counted.

I expected Marcella to come back and bother me some more, but she didn’t. Why not?

I recalled something that had happened the previous summer. The butane man had filled our tank one day and had received an ant bite while doing so. The ant colonies in New Mexico consist of large red or black ants that leave a huge welt when they bite. My mom asked the man to spray some butane into the large ant hole near the tank, and he was happy to oblige. In the process, the weeds near the tank got sprayed as well.

The following day, I tied our dairy goat to the butane tank so she could graze on the weeds around it. When I went out to check on her, she was laying on the ground… dead. Her unblinking eyes resembled marbles, and her swollen tongue hung out of her mouth, covered with dirt. Little flies danced on her moist nose.

When my dad got home from work that day, he borrowed my uncle Joe’s truck, put on some work gloves, and heaved the goat on the bed of the truck. My brother, Louie, and I rode with him to the Nambé dump, where we cast it over an embankment to rot with the trash. It tumbled over its own stiff legs and landed with a sickening thud. Vultures circled nearby; a telltale sign that there were other dead animals in the area. For once, my brother and I didn’t rummage through the garbage seeking treasures.

I didn’t get in trouble for letting the goat graze near the butane, but felt guilty just the same.

What if Marcella was serious? Maybe I had another dead goat on my hands.

The suspense got the best of me, and on the first commercial, I ran out to check on the goat. Oh my gosh! She was laying on the ground.

But when I got close, I saw she was just resting in the shade, chewing her cud.

Back into the house I raced, ready to continue enjoying my movie.

Too late. Marcella was on my chair watching Felix the Cat.

“Hey! I was watching Roy Rogers!” I yelled.

“Too bad,” she countered. “You shouldn’t have left.”

“You said the goat was dead. Mentirosa! (Liar).

“April Fool.”

“April Fool’s is past and you…” I started to quote her.

With an air of sarcasm, she cut me off. “It’s still April.”



Chapter 5 of  9
The Expanded Family 

Written By: Samuel Saenz 10/28/2011
Co-Edited By: Tomas and Antonio Saenz

Amando’s Favorite Uncle: El Tio Jose (the gambler)

On the paternal side of the Saenz family Amando had the good fortune of meeting and knowing most of his father's siblings. They were all very special and served as role models for Amando. The ones that come to mind the most were those that joined the family in the migrant stream. Among them were Tia Lilia, Tio Reynaldo, Tia Beatriz, Tia Agosta, Tio Andres, Tio Nino and Tio Jose. El Tio Jose played a valuable role in our father's reformation. He was Amando’s most valuable allied because he usually supported the son’s rights and he frequently lectured our father on what was needed. El Tio Jose was highly respected and our father accepted his counseling advice. He used persuasive argumentative techniques and would waved his hands and exclaimed to our father say, “Samuel, Los muchachos tienen el Alma en el cuerpo* y tienes que darles sus derechos” (The boys have their souls in their bodies and you have to give them their rights).

El Tio Jose was very close to our father throughout his life. They grew up in the Ranchos together and before they became married men they traveled throughout South Texas and got involved in many illegal adventures. To mention a few, once they were caught in Laredo, Texas smuggling a load of Tequila across the Mexican border during the prohibition period. They were happy go lucky and in another occasion found/stole a big load of Tequila buried in a large hay stack. Once during a Poker game, El Tio won the jack pot, and while departing one of the losers shot him at point blank piercing his face and leaving green gun powder marks on his face. He never got rid of the green marks but he went out and got gold teeth put in. They operated as a team with El Tio Jose as the leader who laid out the sting operations. Corrupted mentality was a sign of the depression times and they had no problem or remorse feelings for justifying their actions because survival was the name of the game.

During his short marriage Tio Jose experienced an auto accident. He was partially crippled by the accident, but he still could move around and do light to medium work. He was a bachelor most of his adult life and was considered a professional gambler who never counted his money until the game was over. Later in life he matured and was considered to be the smartest (intellectual) among all of my father's siblings. He had wisdom and a high intelligence level. He had the ability to read people’s faces and that was why he was a successful gambler. His value system was down to earth in relation to morality issues with the opposite sex. His affairs were not religious oriented but had more to do with satisfying basic human needs. He was considered to be a ladies’ man in his younger years. He had many girlfriends and relationships but never remarried. During the many nights that we slept in the labor camps in the same house he was the only one that said his prayers at night. These prayers were an indication of his spiritual feelings. Amando and Samuel had many colorful experiences with Uncle Joe. We respected his judgment but we liked to make fun comments about his girlfriend relationships. His most famous saying to his girlfriends was “YO TE QUIERO HITA “(I LOVE YOU BABE). Our cousin Luis Trejo who at times would joined us on our migration trips was famous for cracking and developing real life jokes about Uncle Joe's love affairs. Amando somewhat supported the value system and mentality of el Tio and our father including EL Primo Lupe in relation to carrying out sting/stunts (La Movida operations). As for Samuel Jr., his Gonzalez Uncles had him pegged right: he was a timid and easily frighten individual and wanted no part of their sting operations. On several occasions Samuel Jr spoiled their plots inadvertently and his father would yell at him. “Hay Quedate Pendejo Para que les Digas” (Go Ahead you fool stay there and tell them what we are doing.)

El Tio Jose traveled with Amando‘s family during many migrant trips. Once when we were on our way to West Texas ahead of scheduled, he recommended to Amando and our dad to do a quick stop in Mississippi for cotton picking. He had been there during the depression as a gambler while riding the freight trains. We landed at this big plantation, but the cotton fields were full of water from a hurricane. We stayed there two or three weeks and we ran out of money and food. The area was heavily populated with black cotton pickers and the law was very strict for racial relationships as they still hung our black brothers at that time. Once the fields dried up, we worked for three days and earned some money for food and gasoline. We departed for West Texas in the middle of the night without paying the company store, as a new hurricane was arriving. We drove through the rest of the night under massive torrential rains. We finally made it to the West Texas cotton fields to a small town named Ackerly. We rented an old house and El Tio Jose used one room for poker gambling on weekends. El Tio and our father hooked up with another gambler from El Paso, Texas and together they used to set up sting operations while playing poker and they would never loose. The cards were manipulated. It was all a set up and the losers never knew it. Whenever an operation would go wrong our uncle would blame our father and complain. “ESTE SAMUEL NOMAS LOS OJOS TIENE VIVOS” (Samuel only has smart eyes but no brain). We completed the cotton harvest season and migrated back to South Texas. El Tio had a good year and hardly had to work the cotton fields as he was very successful with his gambling.

Amando’s First Migrant Trip to Florida

Shortly after establishing the Florida Migrant connection with El Primo Lupe, we started to inquire about Migrant work opportunities. El Primo was a farm labor organizer or a farm labor boss who had his own truck and liked to manage workers for profit. During the USA/Mexico Bracero Program he handled several expeditions transporting workers. It did not take El Primo long and he quickly made a deal with a produce farmer. He talked to Amando and our father and a deal was made. He financed and requested we bring a load of 20 workers from South TEXAS to Florida. We were used to transporting our own family members and we did not have expertise in hiring outside people. Never-the- less it was in the winter months and we were broke and needed a job. Amando and our father loaded up the truck with a radical group of workers who included our family, Lupe’s mom and Brother Luis and our father’s family members. In addition, we picked up an Army deserter, one run away kid and an Illegal alien. This was an exciting trip as we had never been to Florida. We landed at a small outpost city named Immokaali which was located just before the Everglades National Park and the Seminole Indian reservation. Upon arrival El Primo Lupe was happy to see us and his family members but he was disappointed and upset with our father and Amando because we did not bring hard core workers (Bracero Types) like our family work members instead we brought marginal workers. The problem was that El Primo was thinking about making money with the workers as this was standard procedure for farm bosses. However, this is not very practical with family members. El Primo was correct on his complaint but this was a family deal and El Primo had to accept what we brought. We quickly surveyed the area and found out that this Florida region was a wild melting pot location with all kinds of different migrant people, Mexicans, Hillbillies, Puerto Ricans, Cubans Jamaicans blacks, and other local people. The law enforcement was nasty as there were a lot of people who violated the law. The Florida law was like that of all other deep southern states. If you got into trouble with the law, the penalty was to lock you up and send you out to work with the chain gang under shot gun guard. Our target was to work the main agriculture region work place for tomatoes and cucumbers which were located about 20 miles south of Immokaali. It was an isolated place called “EL RICON DEL DIABLO “which was a remote site. Through the help of el Primo we started to work immediately and earned our keep, but the easy money was not there as the competition was fierce and work was not steady. We worked all winter long until the later part of April and it was time to Migrate to Michigan.

The Florida experience was exciting on the personal side but it had a turbulent ending. Lupe’s Mom, Tia Lilia, and Luis decided to return back to Texas as working conditions and housing arrangements plus other factors were not good. The runaway kid was arrested and sent back to Texas, and the Army deserter disappeared. Finally, the illegal alien got drunk and was involved in a fight. He was arrested by the immigration and send back to Mexico. Our uncle Nino was the "loner" in the family and often got into conflicts with other family members and he did have a few encounters with the law. He lived an adventurous life and traveled extensively throughout the United States. Despite his shortcomings, we did have our good times with him during his brief periods he spent with us.

Before our Florida departure, friendly relations with El Primo were at an all time low as a result of the labor dispute and other matters. Consequently we became independent and were not coordinating with him on our return trip to Michigan. We were now planning our migration trip north to Michigan. At this time Amando had to make an urgent trip to South Texas as Uncle Sam was looking for him. The Korean War was at its peak and Amando was summoned by the draft. We worked out a plan where the family would drive to Michigan and Amando would hook up with the family in Michigan on the first part of May. Everything worked out find and on our way out of Immokaali at a stop intersection we discovered that a chain gang under guard was working on a side road. We looked up and saw Tio Nino waving and whistling at us. Circumstances were such that our dad was not able to help out and we preceded with our travel plans. Tio Nino disappeared for several years and Amando and I never saw him again until 1956 when I was a soldier at Ft. Bliss Texas. He contacted the military based officer who found me. I went over and visited with him for two or three hours. He asked me to drop him off at the freight train depot as he was going to hitch a ride on a midnight freight train to the cotton fields in Arizona.

To complete the migration history narrative, we made it to Michigan and Amando showed up as planned. Fortunately for us in the family, Amando did not pass the draft testing. A week later El Primo Lupe showed up in the Shelby, Michigan area with a truck load of Puerto Ricans. We were reunited and all offenses were forgiven and we got back on friendly terms again. El Primo was always a high risk taker as he did not have work for his PR people in Michigan. A good luck stroke occurred for El Primo as he landed a big contract with a Power Line Company. The company hired all his Puerto Ricans and in turn he told the company to hire all of us. They made him boss and we got paid good wages. Amando and all of us worked for several months doing lumber jack work using gas chain saws to bring down a stretch of forest, making room to install electrical power lines. There is no question that El Primo had a strong bond with our family through Amando and our dad. He was the son of my father’s oldest sister. He grew up with our dad and they were very close all their lives. He helped our dad in many ways. During WW II he married a French lady from Louisiana and had two children. El Primo and our father moved to East Texas in 1942 and worked the oil refineries. Upon arrival we moved into trailers and accordingly, a gasoline stove caught on fire and everyone ran out and left Zulema our youngest sister (the baby) inside the trailer. El primo ran in and took her out. These trailers were hazardous as they used gasoline cooking stoves. He helped us in many occasions throughout the migration years all over the USA. He knew where all the migrant connections were in Texas, Michigan and Florida. Like the rest of us, he did not have formal education but He had "street smarts" and a lot of God given natural abilities. He had a strong personality with lots of charisma. He could spell bound people with his speech and was very savvy in the streets. He was considered a shrewd operator with the capability of an escaped con artist. He pulled many daring escape stunts during his lifetime. Once while in West Texas he had an all black migrant work crew, a love triangle developed and one man was killed. El Primo went to court and came out smelling like a rose and he dropped his all black migrants like a hot potatoe. He and Amando used to refer to these stunts as “LA MOVIDA. “. One year while in Florida we were in a tight monetary situation without food and El Primo by using La MOVIDA helped Amando sell his hot sporty car for cash money. Furthermore he had helped our dad to qualify on paper to be recruited by the Great Lakes Sugar Company. Finally a few months before the end of his life he requested that Amando, Samuel Jr. and Tomas go over to have lunch and visit his daughter, who together with her husband owned a farm in Grandville, Michigan. El Primo told all of us bluntly at the luncheon that the purpose for the luncheon was to tell us that he wanted the family heritage relationship to continue after his death. He was concerned that after he would pass away and the families would drift apart. At the end El Primo clearly demonstrated at the luncheon how much he valued the strong family bond. In reality he was Amando’s No 1 favorite cousin. After his death we dearly missed him.

The Last Florida trip (1954)

In the winter of 1954 the migration year was beginning to take shape and Amando and the family was in South Texas trying to find another Florida connection for the winter months.

By this point in time the family’s original five workers were much older and matured. Amando was now 23 years old and Tomas the youngest was now 15 years old. Our oldest sister Olivia was 13 years old and was starting to join the men in the fields. The family was still intact united for a common cause but we knew change was coming. We located El Primo Lupe working the citrus fruit just South of Tampa. El Primo let us know that there was some work but it was scarce. This time around we financed our own trip with borrowed money and we made it over to the Tampa area where we interfaced with El Primo and el Tio Jose Saenz (Uncle Joe). We found housing and took on the citrus harvest and for awhile the work was satisfactory but by the month of March the situation got nasty. The citrus work was over and it was too early for the next harvest which was coming up later.

The Michigan migration season was still several months away. By this time we had gotten locked into a tight monetary situation. We lacked food and other needs. The best we could do was earning pennies by picking moss from the trees. Amando thought about selling his car but the car had a lien and he was behind on the payments. El Primo helped Amando sell his car for badly needed cash right away by suggesting a Movida plan of action. Regardless, the plan was excellent and the car sold off with no problems and now Amando and his family had money in their pockets. This income was helpful to carry us over into the last part of March.

By this time migrant work became scarce in the Tampa area and a decision was made to start making plans to migrate to Michigan. At the same time Uncle Sam was ordering Sam Jr. to report for Military duty in Texas and El Primo was interested in departing to Michigan early to investigate a project in Michigan. 

Amando and our Dad together with El Primo worked out a plan where El Primo and Samuel Jr. would bail out of Florida in late March and Amando and the family would stay behind and depart in late April. Sam Jr. reported for induction in Grand Rapids, Michigan and the induction was delayed giving me time for the family to arrive from Florida. We reunited with Amando and the family which settled over in the Hudsonville, Michigan area to work on the onion fields and local green houses where Amando started to work for Romance Gardens. By this time our sisters were growing up and they were now working the onion fields. Things were moving great and my induction was only a few days away and all of a sudden without warning at the age of 21 years of age Amando developed a head tumor behind one of his eyes. This was shocking to the family as the Doctor’s diagnosed the situation as critical and that major head surgery had to be performed quickly by medical specialists. As usual we did not have money to pay for medical care and we had no medical insurance. By the grace of GOD the medical profession at the Blodget hospital in Grand Rapids carried out the critical surgery at little or no cost to Amando and his family. The tumor was removed successfully and they saved Amando’s life but he permanently lost vision in one eye. Amando slowly recovered after one year and through providence (apparently God had other plans for him). Despite his vision limitation, Amando went on to live a long life of 80 years (and still counting) that has propelled him through a long journey full of successful accomplishments. The Harvest was completed in Michigan and in September they migrated to the cotton fields in west Texas and then on back to south Texas and thus ending the 1954 migration cycle year.




1940 Census, Information Collected
According to the 1940 Census there were no Latinos in 1940
1940 U.S. Census Community Project Announces Call for Volunteers
Suggestions for Writing Your Personal History
Correct Spelling of the Word GENEALOGY
Writing a special message to a love one.

Online Research Assistance from FamilySearch ( )


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Facebook Pages  

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Investigación Genealógica en Chile-

Investigación Genealógica en Colombia -

Investigación Genealógica en Ecuador -

Investigación Genealógica en Guatemala -

Investigación Genealógica en Honduras -

Investigación Genealógica en Panamá -

Investigación Genealógica en Perú -

Investigación Genealógica en Puerto Rico -

Pesquisa Genealógica no Brasil (Portuguese) -

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Research Wiki  

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*Special Edition*

1940 Census Records Release


From: U.S. Census Bureau []

On April 2, the National Archives and Records Administration will make individual records from the 1940 Census available to the public for the first time. The 1940 Census was conducted during a momentous time in our nation’s history, as the Great Depression was winding down and not long before our entry into World War II (although the war was already raging in Europe). It marked the only census conducted during the lengthy presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was also notable for many other reasons, as detailed below. In this edition of Profile America Facts for Features, we compare notable 1940 Census facts with corresponding information from the 2010 Census. Included is an early look at plans for the 2020 Census.

1940 Census

2010 Census


132.2 million

Number of U.S. residents counted in the 1940 Census. We estimate that there are about 21.2 million people in the United States and Puerto Rico alive today who were eligible to be counted in the 1940 Census (fewer than one in six 1940 residents). (Alaska and Hawaii, which then were territories, were included in this count of 132.2 million, but Puerto Rico, which had 1.9 million residents, was not, though it was enumerated in the census.)

308.7 million

Number of U.S. residents counted in the 2010 Census. (This count does not include residents of Puerto Rico.)

Housing Units

37.2 million

Number of housing units counted in the 1940 Census.

131.7 million

Number of housing units counted in the 2010 Census.

Questionnaire Design

First Housing Census

The 1940 Census included the first census of housing, with enumerators collecting information for a housing census at the same time they gathered information for the population census. These 31 housing questions pertained to the characteristics of dwellings, such as principal refrigeration equipment, presence of a radio, presence of flush toilets and outhouses, whether principal lighting equipment was electric, gas or kerosene and whether the unit had running water.

Fewer Housing Questions

There was no separate census of housing as part of the 2010 Census. Instead, only two housing questions were asked of all respondents: one on tenure (whether the home is owned or rented) and whether the respondent sometimes lives or stays somewhere else. Tenure and whether the respondent and other household members sometimes lived or stayed somewhere else were determined for all housing units occupied on Census Day. Enumerators followed up on units that were vacant on Census Day and asked the status (for rent, for sale, for seasonal or occasional use) of vacant units. More housing questions were instead asked in the American Community Survey.

First Use of Questions Asked Only on a Sample Basis

The 1940 Census was the first in which enumerators asked a random sample of the population (roughly 1 in 20 people) an extra set of more detailed questions, including place of birth of their mother and father, mother tongue, veteran status (or whether wife, widow or child of vet), whether deductions for Social Security were made from wages, occupation, industry and class of worker, and, for women who had ever been married, whether they had been married more than once, age at first marriage, and number of children ever born. All in all, 34 questions were asked of all households, with another 16 asked of the one in 20 sample.

Short Form Only

In the 2010 Census, every household was asked the same basic demographic questions. The more detailed demographic, economic and housing questions that used to be asked of a sample of households in the census (up through 2000) now are asked annually in the American Community Survey, which is sent to about 3 million households nationwide every year. The specific detailed questions asked on a sample basis over the decades has changed over time.

New in 1940

Questions new to the census included residence five years earlier, income, highest level of school completed and new, detailed questions on unemployment history. Many of these questions were added to measure the effects of the Great Depression.

New in 2010

Two new questions were added to the 2010 Census form, designed to help ensure an accurate count of all household members: one on whether any additional people were staying in the home that were not included in the count of people living or staying there (such as newborn babies, cousins or roommates) and whether each person sometimes lived or stayed somewhere else.

81 Questions

A total of 65 questions were asked on the 1940 Census (34 for the Census of Population and 31 for the Census of Housing). Additionally, 5 percent of the population was asked 16 supplemental population questions.

10 Questions

In 2010, every household was asked the same 10 basic questions.

The more detailed demographic, housing and economic questions that were asked of a sample of households in the Census (through 2000) are now asked annually in the American Community Survey (ACS), which was sent to about 3 million households in 2010.

Occupations and Industries

Frame spinner, salesman, laborer, rivet heater, music teacher

Occupations listed as examples for the 1940 Census occupation question.

Computer programmers, human resources managers, clinical laboratory technologists and technicians, special education teachers

Occupations for which data were tabulated in the 2010 American Community Survey. (Data on occupations were not collected in the 2010 Census.)

Cotton mill, retail grocery, farm, shipyard, public school

Examples listed for 1940 Census industry question.

Broadcasting, Internet publishing, and telecommunications services; radio, TV, and computer stores; air transportation; electronic shopping and mail-order houses Industries for which data were tabulated in the 2010 American Community Survey. (Data on industries were not collected in the 2010 Census.)

Geographic Planning

175,000 The number of original maps made of the 147,000 enumeration districts. The maps were used as guides for enumerators so they could personally visit every house, building, tent, cabin, hut or other place in which a person might be living or staying. Enumerators were instructed to begin their canvass by carefully checking for completeness and accuracy of the map they were provided. Each enumeration district was designed so it could easily be canvassed by a single enumerator in about two weeks in urban areas or a month in rural areas.

145 million

An address canvassing operation was conducted by the Census Bureau in 2009 to verify that its master address list of 145 million housing units and maps were accurate so it could mail or hand-deliver questionnaires to housing units. During this procedure, census workers looked for every place where people lived, stayed or could stay, comparing what they saw on the ground with what was shown on the Census Bureau’s address list.

Data Collection and Processing

Roughly 120,000

Number of enumerators for the 1940 Census.


Number of enumerators hired for the 2010 Census nonresponse follow-up operation. For all field operations, close to 1 million were hired.

Personal Visits

In the 1940 Census, enumerators were told to visit every house, building, tent, cabin, hut or other place in which a person might be living or staying. During each visit, enumerators then interviewed residents and filled out their answers on a portfolio-sized book.


For the 2010 Census, more than 120 million questionnaires were targeted for delivery by mail to U.S. residences with another 12 million delivered instead by census workers. For both these areas, a nonresponse follow-up operation was conducted in which enumerators visited households that did not mail back a form in order to gather answers from them. There were another 1.5 million addresses (generally the most remote and rural areas) in which enumerators made one visit to validate our address list and to fill out the questionnaire at the door.

Punch cards

In processing the 1940 Census, operators transferred information appearing on the schedules filled out by enumerators to punch cards. This permitted processing of census returns by sorting machines.

Optical character recognition

In processing the 2010 Census, optical scanners and computer software were used to “read” the human handwriting on the questionnaires and convert it into electronic form. This was supplemented by keyers for cases that couldn’t be optically read.


The number of district supervisors utilized for the 1940 Census; they were responsible for directing the collection of the data and overseeing enumerators. The district supervisors worked for 104 area managers, who were the direct representatives of the Census Bureau in the field and appointed by the director of the census. Area managers sent weekly mail reports directly to Washington, and at the end of census operations in the area, forwarded office records directly to the chief of the Field Division at Census Bureau headquarters.


Number of local census offices utilized for the 2010 Census, 150 of which were open for the address listing operation. Staff working in and from these temporary offices managed address listing field work, conducted local recruiting and visited living quarters to conduct nonresponse follow-up. These local census offices were supported by 12 regional census centers.


For the 1940 Census, area managers and district supervisors were encouraged to contact local newspapers and radio stations and local organizations and officials to obtain their cooperation in promoting a complete and effective census. The Census Bureau’s Division of Public Relations issued press releases during the canvass period; area managers and district supervisors were instructed to contact civic organizations for assistance in circulating them to the media. The Census Bureau distributed thousands of posters like the one at the top of this Facts for Features.

Through the cooperation of newspapers, trade associations, more than 2,000 local citizens committees, motion pictures and radio stations, the nation was informed about their census.

With the nation much larger and more diverse than in 1940, the 2010 Census utilized partnerships with 257,000 organizations, dispatched 16 Portrait of America Road Tour vehicles, and implemented a $168 million national paid advertising campaign to boost participation rates. The vast majority of census partners were community-based organizations such as churches, neighborhood organizations and service clubs, although many national organizations and media partners also signed on in this effort to help increase awareness of the census. The 2010 Census Portrait of America Road Tour vehicles stopped and exhibited at more than 800 events nationwide, from local parades to major sporting events. The paid advertising campaign was utilized based on projections that for every one percentage point increase in the national mail response participation rate, the federal government would save $85 million in taxpayer money.

Data Dissemination & Uses


The 1940 Census results were published via printed reports. Via the news wires, the Census Bureau distributed press releases and summary statistics. (The bottleneck created by the overloading of press association wires in Washington by war news made the announcement of census results difficult. This situation was met in part by emphasizing information of interest to a particular state or local area and transmitting the news directly through channels to that region.) The preliminary population results were first published as a series of state bulletins between August 1940 and April 1941. A second series of population bulletins were produced between September 1941 and April 1942, composed of separate bulletins for each state and a summary volume for the U.S. These second series bulletins were assembled in a bound volume. Published in 1943, it contained statistics down to the level of incorporated places of 1,000 people or more.


The 2010 Census results were made available exclusively through American FactFinder, the Census Bureau’s online statistics and information search engine. The first results, total population counts for states, were released in December 2010 for the purposes of apportionment of U.S. House seats. Following these were more detailed demographic characteristics down to the block level on a state by state flow basis between February and April 2011 to be used by governors and state legislators to redraw federal, state and local legislative districts. Many other products followed.

Most Populous States and Cities

13.5 million Population of New York, the most populous state per the 1940 Census. Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio and California rounded out the top five. The least populous of the 48 states was Nevada, which had 110,000 residents. (Alaska and Hawaii were still territories.). See the top 10 here.

37.3 million

Population of California, the most populous state per the 2010 Census. Texas, New York, Florida and Illinois followed. Wyoming, with 564,000 residents, was last. See the top 10 here.

7.5 million

Population of New York City in the 1940 Census. New York was the most populous city, with Detroit, Cleveland, St. Louis and Pittsburgh also among the 10 most populous cities. See the top 10 here.

8.2 million

Population of New York City in the 2010 Census. Although New York remained the most populous city, it was joined in the top 10 by Houston, Phoenix, San Antonio, San Diego, Dallas and San Jose, among others. See the top 10 here.



Percent of adults with a bachelor’s degree or higher, according to the 1940 Census.


Percent of adults with a bachelor’s degree or higher, according to the 2010 American Community Survey.


89.8% & 9.8%

The percentages of the U.S. population that were white and black, respectively, in the 1940 Census. Information on the Hispanic population was not collected.

72.4% & 12.6%

The percentages of the U.S. population that were single-race white and black, respectively, in the 2010 Census. (Respondents had the option of choosing more than one race). Additionally, 16.3 percent were Hispanic (who may be of any race), 4.8 percent Asian, 0.9 percent American Indian and Alaska Native and 2.9 percent two or more races.


$956 & $592

Median annual wage or salary for men and women, respectively, counted in the 1940 Census. These figures are in 1939 dollars and pertain to people 14 and older. Wages was the only income identified with an amount in the 1940 Census.

$33,276 & $24,157

Median annual earnings for men and women, respectively, in 2010 who were 16 and older, according to the American Community Survey.


5.1 million

Number of farmers (owners and tenants) and farm managers counted in the 1940 Census.


Number of farmers, ranchers and other agricultural managers, according to the 2010 American Community Survey.



Number of males per 100 females in the U.S., according to the 1940 Census.

96.7 Number of males per 100 females, according to the 2010 Census.


$67.5 million

Cost of the 1940 Census. (This would amount to $1.0 billion in 2010 dollars. So about $7.56 per capita for the 132.2 million people counted in 1940.)

$12.4 billion

Estimated cost of the 2010 Census, covering fiscal years 2001 through 2013. The total includes the cost of the American Community Survey for this period. This total equates to about $40.17 per capita for the 308.7 million people counted in 2010, plus the cost to conduct and release detailed ACS data each year.

341.4 million    Projected U.S. population in 2020.

 Questions or comments should be directed to the Census Bureau’s Public Information Office: telephone: 301-763-3030; fax: 301-763-3762;
 or e-mail: <>.

According to the 1940 Census there were no Latinos
Sandra Lilley, NBC Latino Staff, April 2, 2012
While you might have listed yourself as "Puerto Rican," or "Mexican," or "Hispanic," in the 2010 census, this is not how you are going to find your bisabuela or your abuela if she was in the U.S. and counted in the newly released records of the 1940 census. 

"The terms "Hispanic" or "Latino" were not used then," says Mark Hugo López, of the Pew Hispanic Center. It was not until the 1970 census that Hispanics could identify themselves as such. 

"Even in the last few census counts, the 'boxes' used to identify ethnicity have been changing from census to census," López adds. 

D'Vera Cohn, an expert on demography at Pew Research, explains that up until 1960, it was the enumerator who went house to house who would ultimately write down what "race" you were, and there was no category for Hispanic. In the 1930, census, there was a one-time race category for "Mexican," but it was not present in 1940. 

In the newly released 1940 records, 89.8 percent of the population was listed as "white," and 9.8 percent were listed as "black." There was no "Hispanic" category.

So how would Latinos have been categorized then? "It all depended on what the enumerator put," Cohn explains.

There is one thing you might be able to find about your bisabuelito or your tía abuela, however - the 1940 census was the first to use the new science of "sample surveys" to ask every 20th person more detailed questions. This was right after the Depression, and the government was trying to get more information about families' incomes, housing patterns, etc.

"The sample questions included place of birth of the person's mother and father; "mother tongue" in the household during early childhood; three questions about military service and veteran or veteran-family status; three questions about Social Security receipt; and questions about occupation, industry and class of worker," says Cohn in her blog about the 1940 census. 

Some interesting tidbits from the 1940 release: the most common occupations included rivet heater, frame spinner, salesman and music teacher. Among the more common places of work were cotton mill, farm and shipyard. 

So if you are a genealogy buff and have a little time on your hands, you can go to the 1940 census data available and see if you find a relative there.


Most Informative Record of American Life prior to U.S. WWII Involvement Has Potential to Unlock New Insights into the Past, Discovery of Unknown Family Connections

WASHINGTON, D.C. (April 2, 2012) – The 1940 U.S. Census Community Project—a joint initiative between the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA),,,, and other leading genealogy organizations—announced today a national service project to create a free, high quality, searchable database of the 1940 U.S. census records. Through the indexing efforts of online volunteers across the U.S., records from the 1940 census that were closed by law for 72 years will be easier to find. These census records capture countless untold stories of those who lived through the Great Depression—great men and women who have been called “the greatest generation.”

With the support of NARA, the 1940 U.S. Census Community Project is leading the digital transformation effort to create an index entirely by online volunteers. Fueled by the joy of discovering fascinating surprises from their own family history, volunteer indexers are excited to join many thousands of Americans in an online community effort to make the historic 1940 U.S. census readily searchable for others.

“Many of us living today know someone in the 1940 U.S. census, but we may not know much more than their name or the town in which they lived,” said David S. Ferriero, archivist of the United States. “The 1940 census will unlock some of these mysteries for us. We are delighted to join with the U.S. Census Community Project to produce an index which will make this census much more user-friendly.”

When complete, the index and images will also be available online for free through the sponsoring organizations’ websites. Those interested in lending a hand can learn more and sign up to be an official 1940 U.S. census volunteer indexer at the 1940 census website ( The project aims to make available to the public a fully functional, free, and searchable record database by the end of 2012.

“Many parallels exist between life in 1940 and 2012: international conflict, the political intrigue of an election year, and efforts to rebuild a flagging economy,” said Dan Lynch, spokesperson for 1940 U.S. Census Community Project. “Our goal is that through the work of online volunteers across the nation, a fully digitized and searchable database of the 1940 census records can help strengthen connections between Americans, their families, and an important time in our collective history while bringing renewed understanding of the resolute courage past generations had in restoring America.”

The 1940 U.S. Federal Census is the largest, most comprehensive, and most recent record set available featuring the names of people living in the U.S. at the time. In fact, the census contains more than one million pages and features a depth of detail that paints a more complete portrait than was previously available of the 132 million people living in the U.S. during the Great Depression. From this new vantage point, we can learn about the life and times of our people living 72 years ago. Several new census questions appeared for the first time in 1940, including:

· Where people lived five years prior to the census
· Highest educational level achieved
· Detailed income and occupation

Perhaps more so than at any other time in American history, these individuals taught us lessons in hardship and survival. The Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and the subsequent New Deal programs have left an indelible footprint on American history. In addition, many of these men and women listed in the 1940 census went on to support the fight or actually fought in World War II. Helping index the census, for many, is a way of giving something back to this great generation and rightfully preserving their place in our nation’s history.


About the 1940 U.S. Census Community Project
The 1940 U.S. Census Community Project is a web-based, national service project with the goal ofcreating as soon as possible a free, high quality online index linked to the complete set of census images. The index will allow the public to easily search every person found in the census and view digital images of the original census pages. The collection will be available online for free to the general public at, ,, and, the respective website sponsors of the community project. and will make substantial financial contributions to make the 1940 U.S. census online name index possible and will work with the nonprofit organization FamilySearch to bring additional new historic records collections online—making even more highly valued family history resources available to the entire genealogical community.

Media Contacts
1940 Public Affairs


Offered by Everton Publishers

1. Your Birth: when, where, parents, surrounding circumstances and condtions.

2. Your childhood: health, diseases, accidents, playmates, trips, associations with your brothers and sisters, unusual happenings, visitors in your home, visits to grandparents, relatives you remember, religion in hour home, financial conditions of parents.

3. Your brothers and sisters: names, date of birth, place of birth, accomplishments, names of of spouses, date and place of marriage, their children.

4. Your school days: schools attended, teachers, courses studied, special activities, associates, achievements, socials, report cards, humorous situations, who or what influenced you to take certain courses or do things you might not otherwise have done.

5. Your activities before, after and between school sessions: vacations, jobs, attendance at church, other church functions, scouting, sports, tasks at home, fun and funny situations.

6. Your courtship and marriage: meeting your spouse, special dates, how the question was popped, marriage plans, the wedding, parties and receptions, gifts, honeymoon, meeting your in-laws, what influenced you most in your choice of spouse.

7. Settling down to married life: your new home, starting housekeeping, bride's biscuits, spats and adjustments, a growing love, making ends meet, joys and sorrows, your mother-in- law, other in-laws.

8. Your vocation: training for your job, promotions, companies you worked for, salaries, associates, achievements, your own business.

9. Your children: names, dates and places of births, health of mother before and after, how father fared, characteristics, habits, smart sayings and doings, grown up, accomplishments, schooling, marriage, vocations, sicknesses, accidents, operations.

10. Your civic and political activities: positions held, services rendered, clubs, fraternities and lodges you have joined.

11. Your church activities: as a young person, through adolescence, churches attended, church positions, church associates, church certificates, answers to prayers, necessity and power of love.

12. Your avocations: sports, home hobbies, dramatic and musical activities, reading habits, genealogy, travels, favorite sonts, movies, books, writings, poems, etc.

13. Special celebrations or holidays you remember: Easter, Christmas, national and local holidays, vacations.

14. Your plans and hopes for the future.

15. Your ancestors: your impressions of those you knew personally; a general sketch of those you did not know; father, mother, grandparents, great-grandparents, other relatives.

16. Your encouragement and counsel to your descendants: carrying on in family traditions and activities; their obligations to their country, church and family; your suggestions to your progeny and others on honest, humility, health, diligence, perseverance, thrift, loyalty, kindness, reverence, the Bible and other religious and edifying books; service to fellowmen, your belief regarding God, etc.

Never underestimate the effect you may have on unborn generations in helping them through the trials and tribulations of life by the written word of advice you leave your children, grandchildren, etc. If you would like them to live upright, honest lives; give them the benefit of your experiences. Job, of the Old Testament, lamented the fact that his words were not written when he said, “Oh that my words were now written! Oh that they were printed in a book! That they were graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock forever"

But they were written, and he then gave his beautiful testimony of the Redeemer which has been used countless times as the text of sermons in both Jewish and the Christian worlds. Your communications to your descendants must be written. They will also appreciate your life story as a precious treasure, and bless you all their days for it.

17. Hints on writing your life story: tell your story plainly and with directness; write truthfully of uplifting, refined and honorable occurrences and experiences. Humor helps to make for easier reading. If you can give the whys of your decisions and changes in activities, it may help others. Illustrate with as many pictures as possible. Make several copies, or better still print and give to each of your children and grandchildren. Place copies in local and national libraries and/or historical societies.

Sent by Bill Carmena 


The Correct Spelling of the Word GENEALOGY 

One of the most common mistakes made by beginners in the hobby of family history is to spell genealogy incorrectly. Nothing shouts out "I don't know what I'm doing!" louder than the misspelling this pivotal word in our hobby.  Typically, most failed attempts at spelling genealogy put the letter "O" where the letter "A" belongs. Like this: geneology

Because this mis-spelling is such an endemic problem, I devised a little memory aid to assist in remembering the correct spelling of the word. The first letters of each word in this very true sentence combine to form the correct spelling of genealogy. Remember the sentence and you'll be able to spell the word correctly every time. 
Genealogists Examine Needed Evidence At Lots Of Grave Yards   

Sent by Margarita (Tapia) Gajicki 

Writing a special message to a love one

Who?  Why them? What thought do you want to express to them?
Think of the characteristics, values, and attitudes which you most admire about them.
We make memories through our senses (sight, sound, smell, taste, touch) and it's through those same senses that we recall or "trigger" these memories. Remember a shared experience in which the senses were involved.
Writing a personal history. Does not have to be chronological. Series of little incidents. Could be in the form of poems, or just a thoughts.

BYU Free Course to write your family history



Portuguese History and DNA
The Genographic Project
mtDNA of Juana Robles by Crispin Rendon

General estimate of the global (ethnonational) Brazilian Y DNA & mtDNA:

I made a general estimate of the global Brazilian Y DNA and mtDNA: Brazilian population= 200 million

100 Million Men in Brazil
- 55% Brazilian Portuguese = 40% Colonial Hardcore - 15% Post-Independence Immigration. (55 million men with  Portuguese Surnames - 100% of the “White” population in this category=20 million, 90% of the “Pardo”-“Mulatto”=30
million, 40% of the “Black”=5 million).

Less than 100 thousand men in Northern Portugal around the year 1000AD at the height of the Islamic Wars in NW Iberia.

More than 400 thousand Portuguese crossed the Atlantic in the conquest and colonization of Brazil 1500-1800.

55 million of Brazilian Portuguese Y DNA X 5 million of European Portuguese.
Ratio of 11X1 in favor to Brazil.

- 12% Italian - Post-Independence Immigration
- 8% Spanish – 2% Colonial – 6% Post-Independence Immigration. Galicia represents more than half of the Spanish
- 5% Amerindian – Native. Concentration in Northern Brazil
- 5% African – Colonial-1850. Concentration in the Littoral.
- 5% German - Post-Independence Immigration. Concentration in the South
- 3% Arab, Lebanese, Syrian - Post-Independence Immigration
- 2% Polish - Post-Independence Immigration. Concentration in the South
- 2% Japanese - Post-Independence Immigration. São Paulo, Paraná.
- 3% Swiss, French, English ,Ukrainian and other Eastern European, Armenian, Roma, Chinese, Jew, Others
         Post-Independence Immigration

100 Million Women in Brazil
-33% Amerindian
-33% Eurasian
10% Portuguese – 2% Colonial- 8% post-Independence. 10 million of Brazilian Portuguese women X 5 million of  
        European Portuguese. Ratio of 2X1 to Brazil.
5% Spanish
7% Italian
4% German
2% Japanese
2% Polish
1% Arab
2% Ukrainian, Swiss, French, English, Other Eastern European, Armenian, Roma, Chinese, Jew, Others -33% African

Fernando Henrique Cardoso: In the 19th century, because of the struggle between Spain and Portugal, we were involved in wars in the South, and the Brazilian empire was perceived by our neighbours as a trap. Then the axis moved towards the United States and Brazil became a Republic and much more quiescent—and again hesitated. To what extent would we play a hegemonic role in the region? We never assumed such a role. We preferred to be more loved than feared.

At the end of the last century, the economy became so vigorous, we had established democratic traditions and we rediscovered our cultural particularities. These give us a sense that maybe we can play a role in the area of “soft politics”: not just to be economically strong, but also because of our capacity to accept others, to be tolerant. We love to consider ourselves as open-minded, as a racial democracy. It’s not entirely true, but it’s an aspiration with some ingredients of reality. Because in fact we are more tolerant than several other countries.

Compare the United States and Brazil. Both are countries built on migration, but in Brazil migrants have fused much more, and what has been even more impressive is that the cultures have mixed. We do not have a Black culture in Brazil, and a White culture. It is senseless in Brazil to speak about a Black culture: it is our culture.

And we are very accepting of variety in religion. We are not intolerant—Brazilians are syncretists, not fundamentalists. And because we are a country composed of migration we have contacts with many different parts of the world. Lots of Brazilians are Japanese and maybe more than 10m are Arabs. More than that are Germans; there is no other country in the
world with more Italians, in absolute numbers. And all this fused. We never exactly know our descendancy.

Brazil has always been in favour of multilateralism, instead of bilateral relations, and of trying to negotiate, to bridge. Brazilian diplomacy is based on that. We need to look South, to the basin of the Rio da Plata—and to America; both relations with America and the South. There are elements of flexibility in Brazilian culture; they originate with the Portuguese, not only in Brazil.

If you compare the Portuguese and the Dutch in Africa, it is quite different. The Portuguese always had sexual relations with the native people. There is a phrase I like to repeat when I’m in Spain. In the eighteenth century the Marquess of Pombal [Sebastião José de Carvalhoe Melo; the first minister of the Kingdom from 1750 to 1777] sent a letter to his brother, the viceroy of the North of Brazil, saying, we have to promote the Portuguese who marry indigenous women, because it is better to have half a Portuguese than one Spaniard! They were fighting the Spanish and worried about the demographic question. They felt the children were somehow Portuguese. That was not common in the Spanish world. They kept more separate.

Then in Brazil, the dominant ruling class normally tried to disguise the fact that inequality was so high. One of the ways to disguise differences is to treat people as if they are closer than they really are, to speak as if we were equal. To some extent this is a tricky thing, even if people are not aware of it: it is a way to maintain differences without provoking a strong reaction. The traditional part of the ruling class in Brazil will always be mild, soft, always saying “please”, not ordering. This is not the same now with the new bourgeoisie: they are much more arrogant than the old traditional elite groups in Brazil. They are different; more capitalist.

Regards, Ricardo Costa de Oliveira 

SENT BY Don Milligan



The Genographic Project 

Join a real-time, landmark research project! Learn something about your deep ancestry while contributing to the overall success of the Project.

The Genographic Project is a global research partnership of National Geographic and IBM. With support for field research from the Waitt Family Foundation, Dr. Spencer Wells and a group of the world's leading scientists will attempt to collect and analyze more than 100,000 DNA samples from indigenous people all over the world. The goal of the Genographic Project is to learn about the migratory paths our ancestors took and how humankind populated the planet. Find more detailed information on the Genographic Project, at

The general public can actually take an active part in this remarkable effort by purchasing a Genographic Project Public Participation Kit and by submitting an anonymous sample of their DNA using an easy and painless cheek swab. By participating, you will not only contribute to this great endeavor, but you may discover something fascinating about your own genetic past as well. Furthermore, the proceeds from the sales of the Kits will be channeled back into the Project to support additional research and to fund education, cultural conservation, and language revitalization efforts for indigenous and traditional communities around the world.


Our mtDNA Groups
2012 Report by Crispin Rendon

Most of the hundreds of people in my genealogy email address book share some of my ancestors. I know that because I have created genealogy ancestors books for them from my database of over 250,000 records. A couple of years ago it occurred to me that these records could be used for another purpose. My idea was to use DNA testing along with my database to learn more about my ancestors. This is not a novel idea, at the most basic level. MtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) is passed from generation to generation from mothers to their children. Your test results reveal more then just your mtDNA makeup but also that of your mother and her mother and her mother ad nauseam (well almost). Without genealogy records the same test still applies to the same mothers. With genealogy records the mothers are identified instead of nameless. Why would that add value? Let me use my mtDNA test results as an example. I trace my mtDNA line back to my 4th Great Grandmother Maria Gertrudis Suarez. I have not been able to find parents for her. My records have 301 of her descendants of which 61 are/were females that carry/carried her mtDNA. The numbers make it clear that most of her descendants do not carry her mtDNA. Does that mean they don’t care about her mtDNA? I think many of them do care. If I could extend my mtDNA line back to a 9th Great Grandmother, who had 80,000 descendants, then many more people would be interested. The more generations an mtDNA line is extended the more people might be interested. I took that line of thinking and found, within my records, the 20 largest mtDNA groups (clones). My goal now is to discover mtDNA test results for all 20. These are our mtDNA groups (see the table at the end of this report).

Twelve, of the top twenty on the list, are my ancestors. The list is ranked based on what I am calling clone size which is the number of females descendants that carry the same mtDNA. Remember that most descendants, both male and female, do not carry the same mtDNA. I included a Descendants column so that you can better see that. The table also has a "Gens" (generations) column, which is the number of generations that extend from that mtDNA ancestor. The records show that most extend to the present date and an am hoping that with more research the few that don’t will soon. The Hg (haplogroup) column already has seven test results. My goal is to fill the column with results and upgrade some results. Last month test samples went to FamilyTreeDNA for two of those blanks and another sample was sent to upgrade a test result.

Here are my test results followed by an explanation from the FamilyTreeDNA Haplogroup K project administrater.

Haplogroup - K2a

HVR1 differences from CRS
16182C, 16183C, 16189C, 16224C, 16311C, 16519C

HVR2 differences from CRS
73G, 146C, 152C, 207A, 263G, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C

CR differences from CRS
709A, 750G, 1438G, 1811G, 2706G, 3480G, 4561C, 4769G, 7028T, 8860G, 9055A, 9698C, 9716C, 10550G, 11299C, 11467G, 11719A, 12308G, 12372A, 14167T, 14766T, 14798C, 15326G.

Bill Hurst Administrator, mtDNA Haplogroup K Project

Hi again Crispin,

Thanks for joining the K Project. You are our 2,324th member including those who tested with other companies, our 1,069th member to take the full-sequence test, and our ninth member of your particular branch of the K2a subclade.

Let me explain all your mutations from the top. K2 is defined by 146C and 9716C. K2a is defined by 152C, 709A and 4561C. The 309 insertions are found in most haplogroups and subclades and are not very significant. 16189C is relatively common in K, but combined with 16182C, 16183C and 207A, it defines a branch that will probably be a new deeper subclade in a future revision of the K tree. All members of this branch have a Hispanic origin. Many have a Sephardic Jewish heritage. (Does that perhaps apply to you?) Your other 6 HVR and 20 coding-region mutations are those which get all of us from the Cambridge Reference Sequence to K. You have no extra coding-region mutations beyond those for K2a; that's uncommon in K, but very common in your new branch. That suggests the branch is relatively young.

I also belong to the FamilyTreeDNA Mexico DNA Project administered by Gary Felix. I urge anyone who has tested with this company and has Mexican roots to join this project. The project can now accept funds to pay for testing from anyone who is willing. If you, your genealogy group, your family reunion members or whatever group would like to support this research you can make contributions directly to the Mexico DNA Project fund at the website.

Some final notes

Please go to and check the table on the bottom of the report for your ancestors. I will be posting reports for each of them as time allows. Let me know if you can have traced your mtDNA line 8 generations or more.

Crispin Rendon


mtDNA of Juana Robles by Crispin Rendon

This week I have a link below to a report with the details on the mtDNA of Juana Robles (rank 4 of our top twenty). Also find a link to last week's report which has updated information regarding the test results for myself and Maria Ines Rodriguez.

Juana Robles MtDNA Report 

2012 MtDNA Report 

Sent by Jose M. Pena


Jose Luis Cordeiro speaks on El genoma Humano, y la tecnologia del futuro

Series of youtube videos on DNA research, Spanish language

 Te recomiendo ver los vídeos en Youtube de Jose Luis Cordeiro Genoma Humano, Anti-Envejecimiento 4 Vídeos, Ciudad del Saber 13 Vídeos... Hay varios Vídeos... Es Venezolano... 

Sent by Roberto Guadarrama Perez


May 2: 13th Annual Newport Festival, Latino Film Day
May 6: Rancho Fiesta Day
May 12: SHHAR Monthly Meeting
El Maestro, Gabriel Zavala
El Toro CA, in 1940
May 12: Mother's Day Mass, Historic Yorba Cemetery
May 19: 23rd Annual Adelante, Young Women’s Conference
June 2: Heritage Museum of Orange County, Heritage Music & Arts Festival

The 13th annual Newport Beach Film Festival will run April 26th - May 3rd, 2012


May 2 is the Latino Showcase  
Here is the link to the page to buy tickets, and the full schedule of films :

Blue Bay (Bahia Azul) - Chile
Shuffled from one family member to another, an emotionally numb teenager visits his reclusive mother, who lives with an old friend on a windswept plot of land overlooking the South American Pacific. Their time together is fraught with misunderstanding and dysfunction, and the family is driven further and further apart. Will the cycle of disconnection end or is their past destined to dominate their future? 

Heleno - Brazil
Born into a wealthy family, handsome and intelligent, Heleno de Freitas had one boyhood dream: to play football. However, his chances of playing for his home country of Brazil in the World Cup soon faded, as the cups of 1942 and 1946 were cancelled during the War. When the next World Cup was held in 1950, his career was already waning and increasingly compromised by his overall health. Similar to the decreasing prosperity of Brazil and Rio during the 40s, Heleno saw the weight of real life crush great promise and dreams.

Here Between Us - (Aqui Entre Nos) - Mexico
Rodolfo Guerra is tired of being taken for granted by his wife and three daughters. They need the money he brings home, the safety he provides and the odd jobs he does around the house. One morning, Rodolfo wakes up and decides not to go to work. It just takes that one day to break the family routine and open Rodolfo's eyes and see he has become a stranger in his own home. Knowing that he is risking his job, Rodolfo takes action to address the deceit and lies with which he has been living, digging deeper and deeper into his family's secrets to discover the truth in this incisive and heartfelt drama.

Sent by Mary Behrens
Phone: 949.253.2880 x224
Fax: 949.253.2881


 Newport Beach, Calif. (April 12, 2012) – On Wednesday, May 2, 2012 the Newport Beach Film Festival will present its 13th annual Latino Showcase, an evening celebration of Latino cinema and culture. The event will feature premiere screenings of Latino films, followed by a festive post screening gala. With the countries of Brazil, Chile and Mexico represented, the Latino Showcase will give filmgoers an opportunity to experience Latino film and culture at its finest. 

“The Festival is exceptionally proud to showcase such strong Latino cinema,” stated Gregg Schwenk, CEO of the Newport Beach Film Festival. “We look forward to presenting compelling contemporary works of Latino filmmakers and hosting a sensational event that celebrates Latino art and culture.”  The films will screen on Wednesday, May 2nd at Edwards Big Newport (300 Newport Center Drive in Newport Beach, CA 92660).


Festival Will Spotlight Three Latino Films From Brazil, Chile, and Mexico Followed by a Gala Celebration of Latino Film, Food and Culture.   Attendees can choose one of the three Showcase films and participate in the after gala event.  

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

7:45 p.m.  – Heleno (2011, Brazil, 116 min)

8:00 p.m. – Blue Bay (2011, Chile, 90 min) (Bahia Azul)

8:15 p.m. – Between Us (2011, Mexico, 73 min) (Aquí Entre Nos)

10:00 p.m. – Post Screening Gala (Fashion Island)


   The post-screening celebration will take place at the Nordstrom Courtyard in the center of Fashion Island.The event will included select tastings from top Orange County restaurants, traditional entertainment as well as multiple DJs.  Hosted bar by Stella Artois and Absolut.

Fashion Island retail partners Athleta, Earnest Sewn and Johnny Was will offer special in-store promotions and entertainment. For ticket and information please visit:


About The Newport Beach Film Festival

Celebrated as one of the leading film festivals in the United States, the Newport Beach Film Festival has evolved into a prestigious multicultural event, attracting over 52,000 attendees to Southern California. Committed to enlightening the public with a first-class international film program, a forum for cultural understanding and enriching educational opportunities, the Festival focuses on showcasing a fresh and diverse collection of studio and independent films from around the globe. Located along the pristine Orange County coastline, the Newport Beach Film Festival offers attendees an optimal setting to experience filmmaking at its best. With its action packed slate of film screenings, red carpet galas, international spotlights, nightly receptions, compelling conversations with filmmakers, fashion shows, music performances and industry seminars, the Newport Beach Film Festival has quickly gained recognition among filmmakers and audiences worldwide. The 13th annual Newport Beach Film Festival runs April 26th -May 3rd, 2012 and will spotlight over 450 films from around the world.


Festival Contact: Cory Ceizler
Quartararo & Associates (Q&A)
(818) 497-7750  


Latino Showcase Event Contact
Name: Mary Behrens
Phone: 207.318.3004   



Sunday, May 6, 2012 -
11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

Heritage Hill Historical Park
25151 Serrano Road
Lake Forest, CA 92630

For more information, call: 949/923-2230
Join us for the day and experience the life of Orange County’s pioneers of the 19th Century Rancho Period. There will be dancing, music, food, crafts and games for the kids.

Be prepared to join the dancing on Rancho Fiesta Day Classes are free and open to the public; no dance experience necessary.  Teachers are Richard Duree, Guest performers, Dance Ethnologist and Historian, Ruth Levin, Historical Costume Specialist, Frances Rios, will be performing Old California Music in the Serrano Adobe all day at the Rancho Days Fiesta.

Catch a glimpse of California's past through dance, song, crafts and other activities. Come explore the rich history of Orange County's Ranchos and Native American tribes! Highlighting the historic Serrano Adobe, Rancho Days Fiesta explores what it was like in California in the mid-19th century. Experience the past through music, dance, crafts, food and first-person re-enactors. Enjoy performances of Mexican Rancho-era and Native American songs and dance. Learn the crafts of rope knotting, basket weaving and adobe brick making though interactive demonstrations. All the historic buildings will be open courtesy of Amigos de las Colina docents.  Refreshments will be available for a nominal cost. 
Admission: $4 per adult, $3 per child (3 to 12 years old) ages 2 and below are free.

Orange Family History Center
674 S. Yorba
Orange, CA 
Saturday, May 12, 2012


Retired teacher and with SHHAR since its first meeting, more than 25 years ago, Viola has considerable expertise and experience in reading colonial Spanish script, marriages, baptisms, deaths, and wills.  Marriage dispensations can reveal a few generations of your lineage  and why you are related to the same ancestors several times.  Learn to appreciate the phrase "Somos Primos: (we are cousins) more clearly, and understand the reasons our ancestors married cousins.

Morning schedule: 
9 am - 9:50     Hands-on Computer Assistance for Genealogical Research, concurrently 
                        Learning Traditional Spanish Language Songs
10 - 10:15       Welcome, and announcements 
10:15 - 11:30  Using Marriage Dispensations in Your Research
11:30- 12:00   Introductions and Networking

Visit Viola's blog and get acquainted . . . .

Gabriel Zavala was SHHAR's April speaker. It was a great meeting. Here is one attendees' comments. 

What an unexpected delight I had after listening to El Maestro on Sat. morning. Very informative and I really enjoyed it. I was certainly glad I attended.  I had read on the music brought by the Spaniards and the music instruments that the indians modified but I had never heard the story of how the "Mariachi" music had originated. Another thing Mexicans should be proud least I am. I am glad you invited the Maestro. Thanks.  ~  Jorge Ramirez

For more on El Maestro and R.H.Y.T.H.M.O. Inc. Mariachi Academy (stands for Reaching and Helping Youth Through our Heritage and Music Organization), go to:, 714-772-1185  and 
This picture was taken in El Toro CA, in 1940. On the right hand side, bottom corner, there are two kids, the taller one is me Eddie, and the other is my younger brother Butch Grijalva. I was 7, and Butch was 3 years old. 

This was one of the biggest event for me and my brother to see, it was real special. Living in El Toro was the best years of my life.

Eddie Grijalvet


Editor:  Lake Forest incorporated as a city on December 20, 1991. Prior to a vote of the residents in that year, the community had formerly been known as El Toro since the 1880s. The city has two-man-made "lakes" from which the city gets its name. Condominiums and custom homes ranging from large to small line their shores.

When: Saturday May 12, 2012
Where: Historic Yorba Cemetery

The Santa Ana Canyon Historical Council Cordially Invites you to the Mother's Day Blessing

Cemetery will open at 9:00 am  Mass will begin at 10:00am
Native American Blessing will follow Mass

We encourage you to bring flowers to decorate your loved ones graves. Everyone is invited, so bring
your family and friends for a beautiful morning at the cemetery. We look forward to seeing you all.
If you have any questions about this event or the cemetery, please feel free to call Diana Robles at 714-739-5716.
Historic Yorba Cemetery Location & Hours
Woodgate Park
Yorba Linda, CA 92886
(714)973-3190 or (714)973-3191

Locate Yorba Cemetery: Located in Woodgate Park in the city of Yorba Linda.
2012 Yorba Cemetery Tours: 11 a.m.-12 p.m., first Saturday January - December
Additional tour dates may be scheduled by reservation. Please call (714) 973-3190 for more information.

The mailing address for the Yorba Cemetery is: Historic Yorba Cemetery  c/o George Key Ranch Historical Park
625 W. Bastanchury Rd., Placentia, CA.  
Sent by Frances Rios 

23rd Annual Adelante
Young Women’s Conference
 May 19, 2012

MANA de Orange County and Santa Ana College invite high school students…
This is a Saturday conference for you to come have fun and bring your friends!

Continental Breakfast and Lunch, Workshops, Surprises provided…

All you need to do is SIGN UP & SHOWUP

You will spend the day participating infun hands-on experiments
 and workshops which will help you to choose your own career.

This event is supported by NASA to inspire the next generation of explorers!

Where:    Santa Ana College (17th at Bristol)
When:   Saturday, May 19, 2012
Time:     8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
WHO:     High School Students
Contact:  and request an Registration/Application Form.  Submit by May 7, 2012


1940 Census: 
A barrio's hardscrabble existence
2012-04-13, Orange County Register 

Norma Cardona Peralta grew up in the Logan Barrio, a segregated Latino neighborhood in Santa Ana.


Logan Barrio stood apart in 1940.  It was not just Latino and poor, though it was both. It was also crowded – one of the few neighborhoods in Orange County that had at least as many people 72 years ago as it does today.

Eight people lived in Elvira Cardona's house at 1018 Logan St., in Santa Ana, according to the 1940 census. Eight lived next door at 1016. Five lived at 1022.

But to Cardona's children, Logan was a warm and friendly community that sustained them through the Great Depression and personal disaster.

"We still get together with all these people we grew up with," Norma Cardona Peralta said.

Their father, divorced from their mother and gone by 1940, had built 1018 in brick and plastered its walls. An uncle had decorated the interior walls. The rooms were big. They had an indoor toilet – a rarity in Logan.

The piped water was hard, so "when it would rain, we would catch the water because it was soft water and we would rinse our hair with it," Peralta said.

On weekends, neighborhood kids would gather in the Cardona house's big rooms, Alicia Cardona Holscher recalled, and they would sing for hours.

Food was simple but nutritious – plenty of fresh oranges and cactus fruit, which they would eat like tomatoes.

"And then we would go to Newport Beach," said Holscher, 82, "and the men would trap for abalone."

The children attended Logan School, a Latino-only elementary school. Ben Peralta, Norma Peralta's future brother-in-law and, like the Cardona girls, an Orange County native, attended another Latino-only school, Fremont.

"The reason they gave us was we needed special attention with our English," said Ben Peralta, a retired high school teacher. "All they did was water down our education."

But there were dedicated teachers at Logan. At age 80, Norma Peralta still remembers Mrs. Hoffman, a Logan teacher who "got me interested in math." That led directly to a 37-year career at Beckman Instruments.

Her sister, Holscher, was at the top of her class, went to college and became a surgical nurse.

While raising her family, Elvira Cardona worked part time, washing dishes. She eventually scraped together a few thousand dollars, enough money to buy a house near Bristol and Third streets.

Then she got sick. Untreated peritonitis killed her in 1944. She was 42.

"There was no money," Holscher said. "She died young. But she left us two houses."

That, plus support from the Methodist church the family attended and the neighborhood, was enough. The young family survived.

Contact the writer: 714-796-5030 or

For more news out of the county's Latino communities, visit the Register's OC Latino Link blog at

© Copyright 2012 Freedom Communications. All Rights Reserved.

Sent by John Palacio


The 2nd Annual Heritage Music & Arts Festival will feature 6 Great Bands!

Gates open at 11 a.m. and close at 7 p.m.
General admission ticket prices: $20 for adults ($15 pre-sale) $10 for students with I.D. cards
Children under 12 are free.

Questions? Please call us at: (714) 540-0404

For updates, to go:


Miguel Chavez on the Chicana/o Movement in West L.A., 1963-1979
List of those buried at the Los Angeles Plaza Church Cemetery after 1820
43rd Annual Southern California Genealogy Jamboree
Sept 8th: 2 Annual Grand Marian Procession/Mass, Our Lady of the Angels
El Toro, now Lake Forest, Eddie Remembers
1940 Census: A barrio's hardscrabble existence

Miguel Chavez on the Chicana/o Movement in West L.A., 1963-1979

March 7, 2012:

Dr. Miguel Chavez, director of Chicana and Chicano Studies at St. Cloud State University, discusses his study "Las Cuatro Esquinas (The Four Corners): The Chicana and Chicano Movement in the West Side of Los Angeles, 1963--1979." His is the first study to examine the history and development of el movimiento in four historical Mexican barrios in West Los Angeles. According to Chavez's findings, the term "Las Cuatro Esquinas" was used by activists as a political slogan to politicize and unite Mexican working-class communities on the city's west side.

This event was co-sponsored by the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center (CSRC) and the UCLA César E. Chávez Department of Chicana and Chicano Studies.  Uploaded by on Mar 19, 2012

 Los Angeles Plaza Church Cemetery after 1820

Hello all, here is a short listing of those military, civilian, infants and foreigners who were buried at the Los Angeles Plaza Church Cemetery after 1820, with a question of those who were buried after 1848. This list is based on the military artifacts, the fact that atleast one mother and child were buried together in that time period. Of the military, they were mostly of Spanish, Catalonian origin, with possible changes of the countries of Spanish and Mexican control in 1822, with one Irishman, a few so called Americans, but in most cases, most were born under the Spanish Flag. A few of the artifacts included buttons, possible medals, coins, a rosary with beads, etc..., some of which included the Phoenix Eagle, some with 13 stars, but until we see a complete listing, a complete viewing of all of the artifacts, this is what both Alfred (Edward Moch) Cota and I came up with, and based on a US Coin Blue Book dated in 2004, edition 61. This leads to the conclusion that either some of the artifacts are of US origin, were traded with the Americans at one time or another, were used in the uniforms of the various soldiers. Then again, there was the one Irishman, and he would have been buried in his uniform as well.
Of the infants and the children, I included their basic data, and one individual who was buried with her infant child. The complete list includes about 680 individuals who were buried on both sides of the church during that time period. By 1925, the headstones were removed, some of those who were buried on the left side of the church, were removed, re-buried at the (old) Calvary Cemetery and then removed a second time, and re-buried at the new Calvary Cemetery in Whittier, Los Angeles. Of those whose remains that were removed, most likely were of the Dominguez, Sepulveda, Alvarado and others of some importance or those whose descendants were available to have them removed. But as of January 2011, there about 118 sets of bones discovered and removed to the Los Angeles County Natural Museum in Los Angeles, and currently being reconstructed, cleaned, and being preserved at the Los Angeles County Fairplex at Pomona, to be re-buried as early as late April 2012 by the county.
What many of us in January 2011 had requested, was that all of the remains, plus artifacts to be reburied in their original locations (if possible), with a plaque to be designated as to all of those who were buried there in the first place. That would include all of those of the Native American Nations, the Spanish, the Mexicans, the Irishman, the Americans and other foreigners. This in part may happen in the next few weeks, with hopes that there will be a display or photographs of the artifacts and a complete list of the process that the County of Los Angeles had done since it began this project in 2007 to present.
Bob Smith, past President of the Los Pobladores 200 and other Spanish and Anglo Associations.
Please forward this message and its attachments to others of interest. Bob Smith
downloaded file: 3/26/ meteryoflosangeles.militaryandcivilandburialls103


43rd Annual Southern California Genealogy Jamboree 

Spotlight on Family History
The 43rd Annual Southern California Genealogy Jamboree will be held Friday, June 8, through Sunday, June 10, 2012, at the Los Marriott Burbank Airport, 2500 Hollywood Way, Burbank, California.

The theme for this year's Jamboree is Lights, Camera, ANCESTORS! Spotlight on Family History. The event celebrates the search for ancestors and the journey to uncover a family's history.

The exhibit hall, home of nearly 70 companies, societies, online data providers, software and technology companies, will be open to the public throughout the weekend.  As is our tradition, we will offer several free sessions during our JamboFREE on Friday morning. "We are committed to making family history affordable. We don't want the economy to to be a roadblock in the search for our roots," Myers explained.

Co-chair Paula Hinkel added, "Interest in family history is growing with every episode of "Who do You Think You Are? on NBC." Jamboree wants to make genealogy accessible to everyone. We help newcomers avoid the mistakes that novice genealogists always 
make: (1) not keeping track of sources--where the information is found; and (2) waiting too long to talk to elderly family members. We want to help as many people along their journey as we can."

Special June 7th event
Family History Writers Conference
You've spent years collecting the family history facts and have gathered many family stories. It's time to immerse yourself in the process of writing your family history, from compiling the information to publishing it. Take advantage of this extraordinary opportunity to learn from the experts.

Visit the Jamboree website at for full details. 
For more information contact: Paula Hinkel
Southern California Genealogical Society

Second Annual Grand Marian Procession and Votive Mass 
for Our Lady of the  Angels 

Dear Los Pobladores and Los Soldados friends:

Reminder: the Second Annual Grand Marian Procession and Votive Mass for Our Lady of the Angels, Patroness and Protectress of City, County and Archdiocese of Los Angeles, will take place on September 8, 2012, starting at 3 p.m. at La Placita. If you wish to attend in uniform/period costume, as part of the formal Procession, please advise. We need to do assigned seating at the Cathedral for the Votive Mass, for the formal participants, because we think we’ll have a full house, or close to it. The Archdiocese and Cathedral have reserved the SECOND SATURDAY OF SEPTEMBER for this special observance for the next five years. We’re celebrating the birthday of the Pueblo (Sept. 4th) late, because of too many conflicts during Labor Day weekend, both on our Board and with volunteers and participants, and Catholic orders. Hope you all can make it. And please spread the word.

All my best,

Mark Anchor Albert, Chairman
The Queen Of Angels Foundation 

601 South Figueroa St., Ste. 2370
Los Angeles, California 90017
Tel: (213) 687-1515
Cell: (323) 422-8863
Fax: (213) 622-2144


A History Lesson, Barrio for Sale
By Rodolfo F. Acuña

Aside from the injustices in Arizona, i.e., the scraping of a highly successful education program, the evident war against Mexicans, and the nullification of the U.S Constitution, I was seduced to the struggle by David A. Morales’ “Three Sonoran” blogs in the Tucson Citizen. His crusade against the white business cabal that runs the City of Tucson resembled the epic battle of David and Goliath, making enemies of those in power. It was this fight that is the real reason that he was fired from the Citizen, forcing him to begin his own site. ( ).  Reading about the Southern Arizona Leadership Council (SALC) was Déjà vu. 

A 19th Century U.S and Mexico historian I got hooked on the issue of urban renewal (AKA people removal). I got interested in the subject in the late 1970s when I began to microfilming articles on Mexican Americans in the Eastside Sun (Boyle Heights). I was attracted to the Sun because I wanted to piece together the relations between the progressive Mexican and Jewish communities. 

Jewish Americans once the dominate group in the Heights did not become a minority there until the 1950s. Mexicans were greatly influenced by left leaning Jews and they joined organizations such as Henry Wallace’s American Independent Party (1948). 

Members of both groups graduated from Roosevelt High School where they formed friendships. Two prominent Roosevelt alumni are Judge Harry Pregerson who serves the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and former Ambassador to Mexico Dr. Julian Nava. 

The Jewish community left many landmarks. Hollenbeck Park was a replica of German Tiergartens – built by German Jews. Many former synagogues such as la Casa Del Mexicano have become public spaces.

While microfilming the Sun’s articles, I had long conversations with its publisher, Joe Kovner, who although he had moved to the Fairfax area had strong ties to Boyle Heights. Kovner led an incessant war to preserve Boyle Heights. He did not want it to meet the same fate as Bunker Hill and Chavez Ravine where the Committee of 25, the Los Angeles Times and their gaggle of elected officials joined to “develop” these areas for their own profit. Kovner called it a war on the poor. 

The articles opened up a new world for me; they inspired me to microfilm articles in the Belvedere Citizen that serviced the unincorporated area of East Los Angeles. I then made research notes on articles on 5 x 8 cards. They were included as a timeline in the second half of a manuscript. I synthesized the Citizen and Sun articles year by year beginning in 1934 and ending in 1975. 

UCLA published Community Under Siege: A Chronicle of Chicanos East of the Los Angeles River, 1945-1975, 560pp, in 1984. It was one of my least popular books; nevertheless heavily used by urban planners and graduate students studying the city. 

After this point, my research turned to urban spaces. I found that Los Angeles shared a history of real estate foreclosures and the bulldozing of entire communities. So-called elites under the leadership of the Los Angeles Times and other media sold the notion that they were “developing” the city much the same as Wall Street banks and the corporate elite today claim that they are “job creators.” 

I found similar patterns in Tucson, El Paso and Chicago. In L.A. they were led by the Committee of 25 that even today operate in a different form. Real Estate lawyers led by ex-mayor Richard Riordan have made fortunes in buying public real estate. Riordan along with developer Eli Broad control local politicos from the mayor to board members of the Los Angeles Unified Schools.

Riordan is the king of privatizers. As mayor he wanted to privatize the City’s main library. Today he is attempting to privatize the schools. In a heated exchange I asked him whether he wanted to make Olvera Street another MacDonald’s; he answered yes just so it went to the highest bidders. Broad, a billionaire is his closest ally. 

In Chicago the Daly Machine was the developers’ and bankers’ dream. In the windy city what was not being renewed was being gentrified. If it was not accomplished under the cover of the law, entire housing projects were burned out – all in the name of progress.

In the 1980s and 90s I wrote for the Los Angeles Herald Examiner and the Los Angeles Times. In the aftermath of Community Under Siege, I naturally wrote many articles about the notion of community and issues related to urban space, i.e., immigrants, the cultural pimping of Olvera Street and museums, racism and sexism on the campuses, the building of a prison in East Los Angeles, the building of a gas pipeline under Boyle Heights – events showing a profound disrespect for Latinos. 

The profits in development of urban space and the schools are humungous: service contracts, building of public utilities lines, roads, construction – all of which are approved by governing boards and commissions. 

In the 90s at Riordan’s behest Superintendent of Schools Ruben Zacarias was removed. Latino elected officials in their majority supported Zacarias. However, there were powerful Latinos who defected. 

On April 2, 1990 in an op-ed column in the Los Angeles Times titled “History Is People,” I wrote:
News that a small group of preservationists seeks to transform Olvera Street from a Mexican marketplace into a multi-ethnic museum should outrage Latinos. After all, the plaza area has been inhabited by Mexicans since 1781, when a dozen or so peasants, mostly from the Mexican states of Sinaloa and Sonora, founded the Pueblo of Los Angeles. Spending time on Olvera Street is thus a trip through tradition.

From 1900-1930, bulldozers virtually cleared the civic center of all else that was Mexican, mostly family homes. Then, Christine Sterling and members of the city's social and economic elite moved, in the late '20s, to save and preserve Olvera as a symbol of Los Angeles' Mexican heritage. The street was little more than an alley. Like the Avila adobe, which had been condemned, its days were numbered.

At first, Olvera was part of California's "Fantasy Heritage"-a tourist trap. But over the years, its people reintegrated it with the plaza and Our Lady Queen of the Angels, the city's oldest church. Mexicans and other Latinos began returning to Los Angeles' Bethlehem. Today, Olvera Street is where many of us go to celebrate our holidays or to enjoy the oldest remnant of the Mexican heritage in the center of the city.

Certainly, a tradition worth preserving, right?

Jeane Poole, curator of El Pueblo Historic Park, has embraced Olvera Street's dilapidated buildings-mostly stucco and red brick-rather than its traditions and people. It's no secret that she believes the Mexican presence on Olvera Street so overwhelming that the contributions of the Chinese, the Italians and other neighborhood ethnic groups to the city's development have been eclipsed. To dilute the Mexican presence, she has advocated that restoration of Olvera Street spotlight the architecture of its buildings. Toward this end, she has enlisted the support of architectural historians.

For 12 years, Poole and her gaggle of Anglo historians have been plotting to impose their Mexican-less vision of Olvera Street. Their opportunity for success came when administration of El Pueblo Park passed from state to the city Recreation and Parks Commission. Eager to renovate, the commissioners put together a proposal. Since they and the Recreation and Parks Dept. lack the expertise to make historical recommendations, Peter Snell, an architectural historian, was paid to make some. Snell is a close friend of Poole and has acted as a consultant for El Pueblo Park.

The commission's proposal calls for Olvera Street to be renovated and its history interpreted in conformity with the architecture of the "Prime Historic Period" of 1920-1932. Why 1920-1932? Why not 1880-1910? For one thing, the latter would involve tearing down what constitutes today's Chinatown to make way for reconstruction of Sonora Town.

In any case, historians will tell you that "Prime Historic Periods" are convenient covers for diluting the influence of unwanted groups. In the case of Olvera Street: No Mexicans Wanted.

What the commissioners and the building-oriented historians are forgetting is that, like it or not, if it had not been for the Mexican marketplace, there would be no preservation debate, since there would be no buildings to preserve. Before Mexican merchants moved in, many of Poole's "Prime Historic" buildings were slated for demolition-the preferred people-remover technique in the '30s. But when the alley became a thriving marketplace, those dilapidated stucco and red-brick buildings that Poole now waxes poetic over were saved.

History is made by people, not by buildings. The Latino hegemony in the plaza area is a reminder that Mexicans, here long before the Gringo, are not aliens. Put a plaque on those buildings to indicate that they are proud examples of the Poole's "Prime Historic Period." As for Olvera Street, the plaza area and its people, they are too alive to be turned into a musty museum built by Poole and Associates.

Without getting into too much detail, when I decided to support the effort to preserve Tucson’s Mexican American history, I encountered the same history of pillage as in LA. Where had the people gone that once lived in the adobes? Where were the communities?

I had reviewed University of Arizona Professor Lydia R, Otero’s book proposal “La Calle: Spatial Conflicts and Urban Renewal in a Southwest City,” for the UA Press. It was a major contribution to the field of study. 

It was, however, the Three Sonorans that took that history to the level of struggle. Morales’ passion reminded me of Joe Kovner as well as Ernesto Galarza’s applied scholarship. Galarza often spoke of his role in preserving Alviso in San Jose, California. For Galarza, Alviso represented the struggle of the Mexican American urban poor to preserve community, which to him meant the preservation of a historical memory which gave residents the knowledge to check the monopolistic tendencies of the urban elites. Galarza said that without a historical memory Mexicans were vulnerable to the robber barons, developers who manipulated the historical narrative. 

Observing and knowing the historical processes, I applied these experiences to Tucson. The parallels are obvious. They answered the question as to why SALC opposes Mexican American Studies. They explain the extreme measures that it is taking to wipe out the Mexcan’s historical memory. 

There is a lot of money involved; the stakes are high. It goes beyond real estate. It is racial in nature because it uses race to justify its actions. The cabal exploits the fact that Mexicans are the majority of the school population and that they are becoming the majority of Tucson residents to raise fears. 

This tactic depends on eliminating Sean Arce, the MAS teachers and Morales. They remember the words of Lalo Guerrero’s “Barrio Viejo:”

Viejo barrio, old neighborhood, 
There's only leveled spaces
where once there were houses,
where once people lived.

There are only ruins
of the happy homes
of the joyous families,
of these folks that I loved…

As Galarza once said, a people constantly on the move do not form communities. That is why historical memory is so important to preserving space. Barrios should not be for sale and when they are developed it should be for the benefit of the community and not elites such as the Committee of 25 or the Southern Arizona Leadership Council. 

Sent by Walter Herbeck

RESCUE Pio Pico State Historic Park

On Friday, May 13, 2011, the state of California announced the closure of 70 of its state parks. Tragically, Pio Pico State Historic Park was on that closure list and is scheduled to close its gates on July 1, 2012!

On Friday, March 16, 2012, the Friends of Pio Pico launched its "RESCUE PIO PICO" Campaign to raise $80,000 by July 1, 2012 to save the park. These funds will keep the park open for the next year. Please join us in our efforts to rescue the park by making a donation today! We must act now! Letting this park close means losing a valuable historic treasure in our own backyard. Don't wait until it is too late!

TAKE ACTION TODAY!!  Make a Donation to Help Save Pio Pico State Historic Park

Donations can be made via PayPal or with a credit card using the DONATE button below. Or
Click Here to download a donation form that you can fax, email or mail. Donations can be sent to Friends of Pio Pico - P.O. Box 5798 Whittier, CA 90607.

All proceeds to go to Rescue Pio Pico State Historic Park! Pesos for Pio Pico is sponsored by the Friends of Pio Pico and the San Gabriel Valley Conservation Corps. For more information on our efforts to Rescue Pio Pico, please go to our website: 

Sent by Tom Saenz


Puttin' the bite on the California Taxpayer Again by Sergio Hernandez
Prop 28 to extend term limits for legislators
Check out this tid-bit of California History
June 23rd: Third Annua Romero Family Reunion
Moraga Adobe Suffers More Vandalism
The Chumash as the Keepers of the Western Gate
May12, Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society 2012 Conference

Cartoon by Sergio Hernandez 

HEADS UP. .  California's Prop 28!

Prop 28 would lengthen term limits for legislators in California – a measure that has been tried before and rejected 3 times in California, most recently in 2008.

Prop. 28 increases the number of terms one can serve in the Assembly from three to six, and two to three in the State Senate. 
Check out this tid-bit of California History.
Thanks Eddie: I was hoping to see my great great grandmother, Susana Murrieta, also from that same part of Sonora. She was mother inlaw to Domingo Arvizu and was able to find her in the 1880 census of Azusa, California. I see your Grijalva family is well represented.   . . .  John Arvizu 

Sent by Eddie Grijalva 




Moraga Adobe Suffers More Vandalism 

Moraga Adobe Newsletter April 2012 
Moraga Adobe Suffers More Vandalism 

Sent by Lorri Frain
Cinco de Mayo Celebration
The Friends of the Joaquin Moraga Adobe will participate in the ‘Cinco de Mayo Fiesta’ at the Town of Moraga’s Hacienda de las Flores on Sunday May 6th. Activities will be from 3 pm to 7 pm. To build community awareness of the Moraga Adobe and to emphasize its historical significance, the FJMA will have an infor­mation booth dedicated to the Adobe plus various fun, kid-oriented activities. Thanks to FJMA member Lance Beeson, the National Park Service will be there with informational displays about the de Anza exhibition and reproductions of his­toric Presidio uniforms that kids can dress up in. We are also planning on having a roping activity. Admission is $2 per person or $5 per family. For more information go to


The Chumash as the Keepers of the Western Gate

Go to: an essay about Point Conception. The traditional name for Point Conception is HUMQAQ which means The Raven Comes. 

In this day and age, many of our children and grandchildren are unaware of the early history of the Spanish settlers and the Chumash Coastal Indians living in harmony in Spanish Town, located along East Valley Road, between Sycamore Canyon and Hot Springs Road, in Montecito. The Chumash called the area Shalawa.

Now, at last, I have an inkling as to what the life-style may have been like for my great grandmother and her children who were born and lived in Montecito and Santa Barbara in the 1800's. Also, at last, knowing about the significance and the fact that Lucrecia Ygnacio Garcia was married to my great grand uncle, Florentino Garcia. 
Maria Solares (1842-1923) and Lucrecia Ignacio Garcia were Christian Chumash informants to Dr. John Peabody Harrington, anthropologist and linguist. 

My sincere thanks to the many contributors and journalists who documented and recorded the early history of the Early California Chumash culture. 

Warm regards, Lorri Ruiz Frain 

Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society 2012 Conference, MAY 12
N u e v a  G a l i c i a  G e n e a l o g i c a l  S o c i e t y  N o r t h e r n  C a l i f o r n i a

The Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society will be hosting their Annual Conference on May 12, 2012. It will be held at the California State Archive, 1020 ” O ” Street, in Sacramento, Ca. Impressive speakers who are skillful in the genealogical area will present historic background and documentation to help further ones genealogical research.

As an added bonus the California State Archive will provide two guided tours of the archive, one in the morning and another in the afternoon. They will also provide a viewing of California Spanish land grant and California’s bilingual State Constitution material.

The Hyatt Regency, a AAA Four Diamond hotel, is available for participants attending the conference. Its located within walking distance from the California State Archive building.

Guest Speakers:

Claudia Casillas:
Dispensas of Guadalajara and will discuss the current status of the extraction project 

Marian Kile:
volunteers at the Sacramento Family History Center, will present valuable PC Genealogists tips and teach important writing techniques.

John M. Koelsch: moderator of the Yahoo Mexican Revolution Researchers Group will present information on the Mexican Revolution research resources.

Premier Mexican musical group Los Safir of Sacramento, CA. will provide a presentation on the historical origins and
characteristics of the typical music of Jalisco and Zacatecas.

If you are interested in attending the Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society conference, please contact: Anna Arellano Smith or Robert Hernandez You can obtain a registration form at the Nueva Galicia Genealogical Society website

Sent by Jaime Cader 



Russians in Baja California 

Lots of wonderful photos, old family and current.

Molokan children attended Mexican Public School but 
they also learned Russian formally in the home.

Lenny,  Here are some photos of where the Russians lived between Tijuana and Ensenada. A large colony lived there from 1905 till the early 1960s. A few Russians still live there. There was a smaller colony that lived south of Ensenada near the blow holes.   

From: John Metchikoff 
To: Leonard Trujillo


Before well-known Battle of Glorieta Pass, Texans captured Santa Fe
Blocked At The Pass By Jackie Jadrnak
Blocked At The Pass leaves out Hispanos Ttremendous Role in Victory
Frontera NorteSur

Before well-known Battle of Glorieta Pass, Texans captured Santa Fe 
Tom Sharpe | The New Mexican
Posted: Saturday, March 10, 2012 

Editor: Note, the article speaks of Texans, not Tejanos!!

The Confederates who briefly occupied Santa Fe 150 years ago this month found it an inhospitable city with Jewish merchants who refused their money, terrified nuns and a Hispanic majority neutral in the fight between Anglos. 

Much has been written about the Battle of Glorieta Pass, known as the Gettysburg of the West, which took place from March 26 to 28, 1862. But less is known about Santa Fe's few weeks as a Confederate territory. 

That is partly because just about anyone who openly sided with the Union had left Santa Fe -- heading either to Fort Craig, south of Socorro, where New Mexico's Union troops had hoped but failed to stop the advancing Rebels, or to Fort Union, north of Las Vegas, N.M., where the Union contingency awaited reinforcements from Colorado. 

One rare local perspective comes from the Santa Fe Weekly Gazette of April 26, 1862 -- the first edition the newspaper had published since being shut down by the Rebels. The issue is preserved on microfilm at the Museum of New Mexico's Fray Angélico Chávez History Library, but the original could be not located. 

According to the Gazette: 

On March 3, 188 wagons of supplies -- food, winter clothes and ammunition -- left Santa Fe. 

On March 8, the Gazette announced it would suspend publication due to "the disturbed condition of public affairs." 

On March 10, "eleven Texans made their appearance in the city." 

On March 13, Union supporters were offered amnesty. 

The newspaper reported 70 more Texans arrived March 14, followed by 200 Texans on March 20. 

"They were Texans in name but in reality they were men who had formerly lived here and had gone to Mesilla to join the enemy," explained the Gazette. 

Rebel Texans depicted as savage 

Union-leaning New Mexicans, hungry for statehood, often painted Southern sympathizers as disreputable characters, calling them "Texas Rangers," "Santa Fe Gamblers" or "Brigands" -- a now archaic term for thieves or bandits. 

John Lossing's 1868 Pictorial History of the Civil War depicts "one of [Gen. Henry H.] Sibley's Texas Rangers" with long, scraggly hair and a beard, a wide-brimmed hat, rifle, knives and sabers -- far from the modern image of that state's elite law-enforcement squad or the professional baseball team. 

"These Rangers who went into the rebellion were described as being, many of them, a desperate set of fellows, having no higher motive than plunder and adventure," a footnote says. "They were half savage, and each was mounted on a mustang horse. Each man carried a rifle, a tomahawk, a bowie knife, a pair of Colt's revolvers, and a lasso for catching and throwing the horses of a flying foe." 

But these "Texans" were a trusted advance guard for the 2,500 Confederate troops advancing to Santa Fe. Most of them were Texas residents who had marched up the Rio Grande, defeated New Mexico's Union volunteers at the Battle of Valverde on Feb. 21 and were now encamped near Albuquerque, awaiting orders to take Santa Fe. 

"The company of Santa Fe Gamblers ... fought gallantly," a Confederate lieutenant wrote in his journal. "They call themselves brigands and know everything about Santa Fe." 

Texas' earliest maps, upon independence from Mexico in 1836, had included within the new republic's boundaries parts of today's Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming and New Mexico, including Santa Fe. 

Twenty-six years later, Texas seemed poised to make good on its imperial dreams of capturing the terminus of the Santa Fe Trail, and the gold and silver mines of Colorado, and giving the Confederacy a window to the Pacific ports of California. 

Indeed, Capt. John G. Phillips, commander of the 11 Texans who entered Santa Fe on March 10, sounded a bit arrogant in his first communiqué to the Union commander of Fort Union. 

"As commander of the troops of the Confederate States of America now occupying Santa Fe, N.M., I have the honor to inform you that I have taken as prisoners of war Sergeant Wall and privates James Kessler and George Hogg, USA," he wrote. "I desire to exchange these prisoners for the same number taken by the U.S. troops [presumably in the Battle of Valverde] and if it be in conformity to the rules of civilized warfare as contended by the United States Government, I propose [to exchange them for] ... Long, William Perryman, [and] William Cappers, privates of the CSA." 

Rebels closed down newspapers 

The Santa Fe New Mexican is often the primary source on Santa Fe history, having been published for more than 162 years. But no copies are extant from 1862. Except for the prospectus from 1849, and two possible copies from 1850, the newspaper's files begin in 1863. 

The 14 years of missing issues could have been destroyed by the Confederates, who were known to attack Union-friendly publications. CSA Lt. Col. John Baylor (for whom the Southern Baptist university in Waco, Texas, is named) had shot an editor in Mesilla after taking over Southern New Mexico and Arizona in 1861. 

According to the Gazette, Confederate Maj. Charles Pyron ordered Gazette editor John Russell to relinquish the keys to the newspaper on March 22, 1862. But it's not clear if Russell was still in town. One account puts him at Fort Union. "The same day, the proprietor of the Fonda was arrested and placed in confinement," the Gazette reported. 

The fog of war kept New Mexicans uncertain of what would happen next. 

"From reliable sources, I am satisfied that the main body of the Texans are watching the movement of Col. [Edward R.S.] Canby [leader of the Union forces at Valverde and Glorieta] and that there is but about 400 between Albuquerque and Algodones ... [and] not one Texan in Santa Fe," Union Capt. G.W. Howland wrote to Fort Union from his advance surveillance post in Tecolote on March 9, the day before Phillips' squad arrived in Santa Fe. 

On the other side of that message is a plea to Canby from J.A. Whitall, possibly Howland's source: "For God's sake, send your troops down. You can hold Santa Fe. The main body of the enemy are near Fort Craig. I am almost certain of it. Do come!" 

The main Confederate force remained in Albuquerque, then began moving slowly east into Tijeras Canyon, across the eastern flank of Sandia Mountains and north through Galisteo in an effort to bypass Santa Fe and attack Fort Union first. By March 25, most of the 280 Rebels in Santa Fe began heading to Glorieta. 

Southern perspective on Santa Fe 

The Confederates had entered Santa Fe in early March as a conquering army, but returned later that month in virtual defeat. Although they technically won the Battle of Glorieta Pass, their supplies were burned, leaving the Texans with little food or winter clothing. 

A.B. Peticolas, a Virginia native who practiced law in Victoria, Texas, and referred to the Union troops as "abs," for "abolitionists," kept a diary and made sketches during the New Mexico campaign. 

The lieutenant had been among the main body of Rebels who remained in Albuquerque and then marched directly to Glorieta. When he walked into Santa Fe from the east on March 30, he liked what he saw. 

"I gazed down with feelings of curiosity and interest at this the oldest city in the territory, from the height of the hills on the south side of the city," Peticolas wrote. "The church spires glittered in the light of the morning sun, and the multitude of one-story adobe buildings looked neat and comfortable to us worn and footsore soldiers. ... 

"Women in long shawls wrapped about their heads and faces were filling their water jugs at the little canal that we first crossed as we entered town. A few copper-colored citizens were lounging on the corners, and one old fellow with a cane and cloak was walking briskly up the street, but these were all the persons that we saw stirring." 

Peticolas and his comrades were able to buy some bread, corn meal and whiskey. They "found quarters in a large old ruined building belonging to the government" [the Palace of the Governors], "slept in this house on hay from the Government Corralls [sic]," then moved to "a larger block of buildings belonging to the bishop, [Jean-Baptiste Lamy] who is very friendly to us." 

He was less impressed with the church when he attended Sunday Mass on April 6: "There are quite a number of pictures hanging upon the walls representing the sufferings and death, crucifixion and interment of Christ, very poorly done," he wrote. "One or two of the pictures are pretty good oil paintings. The furniture of the altar is very neat indeed and costly, but the seats are indifferent and scarce." 

Before departing Santa Fe on April 8 for the 1,000-mile walk back to Texas, Peticolas was able to obtain books and art supplies. But his dealings with Santa Fe's Jewish merchants -- the Seligman and Spiegelberg brothers were prominent at that time -- were tinged with anti-Semitism. 

"There are ... smooth-faced Jews, that are our bitter enemies and will not open their stores or sell on confederate paper," he wrote. "These ought to have all their property confiscated and ought to be run off from town themselves." 

Sibley seen as delusional drunk 

If there's a bad guy in the story of the Confederate campaign in New Mexico, it is the leader of the Rebel forces, Brig. Gen. Henry Hopkins Sibley. 

A native of Natchitoches, La., he graduated from the U.S. Military Academy and served in Florida, Mexico, Texas, Kansas, Utah and New Mexico. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he resigned his commission, was recommissioned in the Confederate Army and proposed a plan to take over the Southwest. 

Sibley's plan was accepted, and in late 1861, his forces left San Antonio, Texas, for New Mexico. He was initially successful, bypassing Fort Craig and enticing its defenders, led by Canby, his West Point classmate, to leave the fort to confront the Rebels a few miles away at Valverde. 

The Confederates defeated Canby in the field. But Sibley himself did not participate in the battle. He remained with the wagons, claiming he was ill. Some accused him of being drunk, calling him a "walking whiskey keg." During the Battle of Glorieta Pass, Sibley remained in Albuquerque's southeast valley at the ranch of a Southern sympathizer, a local judge. 

Sibley seemed to harbor delusions that New Mexicans might be persuaded to join the Confederacy if they understood how they had been deceived by the United States. 

"The Ricos or wealthy citizens of New Mexico had been completely drained by the Federal Government, and adhered to it, and became absolute followers of the Army for dear life, and their invested dollars," he wrote. "Politically they have no distinct sentiment or opinion on the vital question at issue. Power and interest alone controls free expression of their sympathies. One noble, notable exception was found in the brothers Armijo, Manuel and Rafael, the wealthiest and most respectable merchants in New Mexico." 

Sibley did not visit Santa Fe until April 3 -- nearly a week after the Battle of Glorieta Pass -- to congratulate his soldiers. He seemed pleased with the conditions in Santa Fe, even though within days the Confederates would begin their retreat back to Texas. 

"I found the whole exultant army assembled," he wrote. "The sick and wounded had been comfortably quartered and provided [for]. The loss of clothing and transportation had been made up from the enemy's stores and confiscation, and, indeed, everything done which should have been done. Many friends were found in Santa Fe. ... 

"My chief regret in making this retrograde movement was the necessity of leaving Hospitals in Santa Fe, Albuquerque and Socorro." 

Sibley continued drinking on the way back to San Antonio. He took minor assignments for the final years of the war, struggled with alcoholism, was court-martialed and censured, but acquitted of cowardice. After the Civil War, he was a military adviser to the Turkish viceroy to Egypt. 

Gathering supplies for retreat 

In the aftermath of Glorieta, the desperate Texans terrified many in Santa Fe. 

At Loretto Academy, Mother Magdalen Hayden began to hear men walking into town from the east late on March 29, "but we did not know to which side they belonged until morning when we saw by their clothes that they were Texans," she wrote. "All were in a most needy and destitute condition in regard to the commonest necessities of life." 

Several Texans got onto the roof of the girls school, and one climbed inside through a window facing the street. "He opened another window which opens on the courtyard, but as soon as he saw some Sisters he went out the street window," Hayden wrote. "I sent for the Bishop and he notified the commander and so they ceased to molest us." 

The Gazette recalled that Sibley had initially promised New Mexicans that "such forage and supplies as my army shall require will be purchased on the open market and paid for at fair prices." Yet, Sibley had seized the funds of the territorial treasury -- a "palpable violation of the rules of war," the newspaper contended. 

Public funds weren't the only things seized. The hungry, dirty, cold Texans scoured Santa Fe for supplies without much success until they found a warehouse of goods owned by Felipe B. Delgado, a prominent Santa Fe merchant. The Rebels had no money, so their quartermaster signed three notes acknowledging receipt of $2,336 worth of goods -- 25 boxes of candles, 25 boxes of soap, 103 coats, 100 pairs of pants, 640 pounds of coffee and 845 pounds of sugar. 

Those promissory notes were never redeemed and are now the possessions of Delgado's great-grandson, 81-year, mayor of Santa Fe from 1972 to 1976 and owner of Valdes Paint & Glass. 

In comparison with modern warfare, the Civil War seems remarkable in that civilians were seldom targeted. The wives of Union officers remained in Santa Fe during its Confederate occupation. Louise Hawkins Canby, the wife of the Union commander, visited both wounded Confederate and Union soldiers in the hospital. Even Peticolas noted the kindness of Mrs. Canby, known as "the Angel of Santa Fe." 

"In health the invalids were regarded as enemies; in sickness and suffering they were administered to with a kindness that might have been shown to friends," wrote the Gazette. "In the midst of the horrors attendant upon the war it is refreshing to have the bright feature like this to refer to." 

The Gazette ended its reportage by noting that the only things the Rebels left behind in the Palace of the Governors were "Sibley's proclamations and empty champagne bottles." 

Contact Tom Sharpe at 986-3080 or  

Blocked At The Pass by Jackie Jadrnak

Journal North Reporter on Sun, Mar 18, 2012
SANTA FE:  When you talk about the Civil War, most people think Gettysburg, Bull Run, Fort Sumter or maybe Antietam.
But New Mexico?

Sure enough, 150 years ago, troops of Texans marched their way from El Paso to Santa Fe on a grandiose expedition led by a Confederate general who many contend spent too much time with a bottle (or maybe a keg, in those days).

Brig. Gen. Henry Hopkins Sibley apparently convinced Confederate President Jefferson Davis that it would be a good idea to sweep though New Mexico and capture the Colorado gold fields, head west to take control of California ports, then maybe loop back through northern Mexico to grab some of that territory for good measure.

John Taylor, a retired nuclear engineer from Sandia National Laboratories who has written two books on the Civil War in the Southwest, calls the scheme an alcohol-infused vision.

But there was some rationale behind it, he said. Many of New Mexico's most experienced troops had been sent East, so Sibley figured what remained was a second string of recently recruited volunteers.

He planned to travel light and capture supplies along the way, and figured that the system of peonage – not too far removed from slavery in New Mexico would make at least the wealthier residents sympathetic to the Confederate cause, Taylor said.

But what Sibley didn't realize, Taylor said, is that New Mexicans didn't really like Texans very well.  When Texas became a state, it saw its boundaries reaching west to the Rio Grande, and its residents made frequent incursions in attempts to cement their claims to that land.

Local people (New Mexicans) didn't view the invaders so much as Confederates, but as Texans, Taylor said.

Why did Jefferson Davis go along with the plan?

Davis didn't put much at risk, Taylor said. And there was potential for a very big upside.

Sibley wasn't asking for much money, and he said he'd recruit the troops himself. Just taking control of New Mexico would close off an all-weather route to the West Coast, and getting access to California ports would help the Confederacy export its cotton, whose transport was being blockaded in the Atlantic, Taylor said.

Also, If they could establish a Western Confederacy, it could be impressive to Europeans, who were sitting on the fence on who they would support in the Civil War, he said.  

So Sibley left El Paso in early January 1862 with 3,500 Texans under his command.  By the time they hit Glorieta Pass in late March, only about 1,200 troops were left, and they never got any farther, according to Roger Clark, park ranger at Pecos National Historical Park.

He painted this picture of March 28, 1862, the day of the deciding battle at Glorieta Pass: The Texans had been through the most dismal conditions. They were ill-prepared, had no logistical support, were hungry, cold, sick. Yet here they are on the Santa Fe Trail, fighting for all it's worth, he said.

And they came close to winning. The front line of the troops was beating the Union forces back. They very well might have marched on to Fort Union on the other side of the Sangre de Cristos and engaged Union troops there, except for one problem.

A group of Colorado volunteers, who had marched 400 miles in less than two weeks to engage the approaching Texans, had been dispatched to harry the Confederates from the rear. In the process, they discovered a lightly guarded wagon train of supplies parked at Johnson's Ranch near Caoncito at Apache Canyon, east of Santa Fe. The Pike's Peakers wound their way down from Glorieta Mesa and destroyed all the Rebel's ammunition, food and other supplies, chasing off or killing their livestock.

The Confederates sought a cease-fire and pulled back to Santa Fe. After resting and re-supplying for about 10 days, Col. William Scurry, heading the Texans, contended he could go after them again,he felt he was going to try for Fort Union again, according to Taylor.

But that started to look like a bad idea. When they first headed north, the Texans had planned to capture Fort Craig. They lured out the Union troops commanded by Lt. Col. Edward Canby to fight at Valverde, about 100 miles south of Albuquerque. In what may have been a key decision of the campaign, Canby retreated to the fort after a spirited fight. The Texans won the battle at Valverde, but they failed to take the fort. Not only did they fail to capture the supplies they needed there, but they had their supply line from the south cut off, Taylor said.

Now, after Glorieta, Canby's replenished Union forces were heading north, and the Confederates found themselves between two armies, according to Taylor.

And there were even more Union troops heading in from California.  It was too much. The Confederates wound their way back to Texas.

Not watching the fort: The two major commanders of the troops fighting over New Mexico weren't even present at the battle east of Santa Fe, which involved two engagements on March 26 and 28.

And the story behind their absence goes to show how personalities can influence history.  Clark said Sibley was suspected of being drunk back in Albuquerque, which the Confederates had captured on their trek north.  Canby, based at Fort Craig, had a plan to bring troops to mass together at Fort Union north of Las Vegas, N.M., to take on the Rebels.

But he did't take into account Col. John P. Slough, who brought the Colorado Volunteers down to Fort Union. Slough pulled rank over Col. Gabriel Rene Paul, who was in charge of Fort Union and following orders to sit tight, waiting to engage the Confederates there.  But Slough says,˜I didn't come all this way just to stay here, Clark related. Slough found out he had been promoted to colonel a month or two before Paul, so Slough took command.

While Paul desperately sent messages to the New Mexico governor and Canby to try to get them to countermand this madman, Slough led about 1,300 troops off into the mountains, leaving Fort Union exposed with not enough men if a full force of Texans came raining down, Clark said.

Would the outcome had been different if things had gone according to plan, and major forces of both sides had faced off at Fort Union?

Taylor doesn't think so. The Confederates simply didn' have enough heavy artillery to take a fort, he said, and not enough supplies to carry them through a long siege.

As it was, the Confederates had a pretty short stay in Santa Fe. Dates differ on their arrival, but most agree that the Stars and Bars was officially raised over the Palace of the Governors without a fight on March 13.

By April 7, the Confederates left Santa Fe, and Union troops reoccupied the territorial capital on April 12, 1862.

Today's Albuquerque Journal article about the Civil War leaves out Hispanos tremendous role in victory!!

Mr. Jadrnak,

Your article in today's Albuquerque Journal entitled "Blocked at the Pass" (attached below) entirely leaves out New Mexico's Hispanos and it is totally inaccurate about who led the ambush to burn the Confederates 80 wagons of supplies and ammunition.  This attack was not led by the "Pikes Peak Volunteers" of Colorado as your article reads, it was lead by Lt Col Manuel Chavez and the lead Scout was Anastacio Duran of Chaperito, New Mexico!!

My entire family is originally from Chaperito, New Mexico. It was a small town just 14 miles east of Las Vegas, New Mexico.  Of course, Chaperito doesn't exist any more because our lands and land grants were eventually stolen by the Santa Fe Ring Operation even after we fought in support of the Union during the Civil war.

Your article does not give credit to the over 8,000 New Mexico Volunteers who fought in Civil War Battles here in New Mexico, most of whom were Spanish speaking Hispano and many Native American Volunteer  Soldiers. Your article doesn't even mention the leader of the New Mexico Volunteers, led by Lt. Colonel Manuel Chavez.

If you would have simply researched Wikipedia as I quickly did just before I wrote this message to you (See information below your very inaccurate article), you will see the truth of who led the ambush on the Confederates.

Included in my information from Wikipedia is a footnote about the family of Anastacio Duran being interviewed because almost all history and any credit about Hispanos or Native Americans is an oral history because White historians never wrote about us. Your article is a prime example of this practice.

I take this kind of inaccuracy very personal because my Maternal Great, Great Grand Father Albino Garcia, my Paternal Great Great Grandfather Innocencio Arellanes and many of my Great, Great uncles from Chaperito, New Mexico were Soldiers for the New Mexico Volunteers and many gave their lives for this cause. The Battle of Glorieta Pass was indeed a short Battle because we kicked their tails out of here quick!!

I don't know who this Mr. John Taylor, a retired nuclear engineer from Sandia National Labs is who has written 2 books on the Civil War in the Southwest is but if your article is based on his books, his books are inaccurate too!!  Did he ever interview New Mexico families and specifically Anastacio Duran's family in order to try and get some level of accuracy in his books??

We do not appreciate it when articles are written about tremendous historical events here in New Mexico and it leaves out Hispanics and Native Americans all together.  This reporting reminds me of our history books written back east somewhere and they always try to dictate to us about OUR history here.

Please be accurate when you write about OUR New Mexico history and be inclusive of all people who gave their lives during the Civil War and in every war for that matter.

Ralph Arellanes
New Mexico LULAC State Director
National LULAC Board Member
Chairman, Hispano Roundtable of New Mexico
Chairman & Founder, Hispanic Statement of Cooperation

Ralph, It was impressive to egad the very prompt response about the Sunday's Civil Rights exclusion of some of our antepasados and their role in defense of this homeland.  It will be good to see if there is a reply, and more wonderfully should the journal print your letter.

Keep up the good work.
Paz y Bien.
Dr. Henry J. Casso
Monday, March 19, 2012 9:20 AM


Frontera NorteSur

April 9, 2012, Education News, A Reminder to Teachers

For educators focused on New Mexico and borderlands history in general, Frontera NorteSur offers resources for the classroom. A trip to the FNS website will open a link to our special section on the New Mexico Centennial commemoration currently underway this year.

Located on the menu to the left of the page, the New Mexico Centennial section contains stories on farmworker history and struggles in southern New Mexico, community histories of Dona Ana County, African-American settlement, harvest festivals and the legacies of chile, pecan, onion and pumpkin farming in the development of the state.

In addition, viewers will find two radio documentaries that could be of use in the classroom. The half-hour programs include an English-language history of the Mesilla Valley community of Vado-Del Cerro, which grew as an African American community in the early 20th century, as well as a Spanish-language documentary on the largely unknown history of farmworkers in a region of the country that’s excelled in the production of cotton, chile, onions and more. Watch for upcoming programs and new postings during the course of 2012.  The FNS website can be accessed at: 

Educators and other readers can always check the website for new and old stories pertaining to a host of other issues as well. The website is organized into sections related to border regional news, politics in Mexico and the U.S., immigration, human rights and women’s issues, border security, economics, education, health, and the environment. And if you want new stories “hot off the press,” just sign up for the e-mail list by sending a message to the editor at the address listed below. Your e-mail address will not be shared with other parties.

Frontera NorteSur’s New Mexico Centennial of Statehood series was made possible in part by grants from the New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs, New Mexico Humanities Council, National Endowment for the Humanities and the McCune Charitable Foundation.

Kent Paterson, Frontera NorteSur Editor
Frontera NorteSur: on-line, U.S.-Mexico border news
Center for Latin American and Border Studies
New Mexico State University
Las Cruces, New Mexico
For a free electronic subscription: 

Sent by Walter Herbeck, Jr. 




Christians and Jews Rediscover Interracial Haven
Battle of Athens, Tennessee
200 Years ago Louisiana Became the 18th State in the Union
An Easter Reflection by Eddie Calderon, Ph.D.

Christians and Jews Rediscover Interracial Haven

INDIANAPOLIS — After the summons to worship, the Lord’s Prayer and the first hymn of the morning, the pastor of the South Calvary Missionary Baptist Church here asked the visitors to stand. Among the several hundred African-Americans in the pews on that Sunday last month, about a dozen elderly guests rose to introduce themselves as former neighbors, all of them Jewish.

“I lived at 1145 South Capitol, right behind the church,” said one woman.

“My name is Lee Mallah,” added another, “and I lived at 1015 Church Street.”

“My mother and father ran Terry’s Market,” said a third.

With each address, each detail, murmurs of recognition and sighs of “Amen” floated up from the worshipers. Then the pastor, the Rev. John W. Woodall Jr., called on a white-haired man with wire-rim glasses, a retired judge named William Levy.

“All my homes, unfortunately, are under that interstate,” Mr. Levy said, nodding in the direction of Interstate 70, two blocks north of the church. And now his listeners emitted a communal groan, the sound of lamentation.

In the service lay a story of black Christians and white Jews who once shared a kind of promised land, a peacefully integrated section of Indianapolis called Southside. Its decades of harmony were a rebuke to the Southern-style racial divisions that characterized Indiana for much of the 20th century, from the Ku Klux Klan’s heyday in the interwar years to George Wallace’s popularity with the state’s voters in the 1960s.

Upward mobility, Interstate 70 and the construction of a football stadium hollowed out the neighborhood starting in the late 1960s, scattering its residents and severing bonds of commerce and friendship. But in the last four years, an anthropology professor at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Susan B. Hyatt, has set about finding former Southsiders and restoring those ties through social events and reciprocal worship services at South Calvary and the Etz Chaim Sephardic synagogue.

At no time will her efforts be more meaningful than during this weekend’s convergence of Christianity’s holiest days, Good Friday and Easter, and the beginning of the Jewish Passover. Passover’s exodus narrative is arguably the central text for both Judaism and black Christianity. And Passover is one of Judaism’s pilgrimage holidays — which is why Jesus traveled to Jerusalem to visit the Temple and to share a Seder meal with his disciples, which would become known as the Last Supper.

A different kind of pilgrimage has reunited the former exiles of Southside. How else would Henry Dabney ever have bumped into Becky Profeta, the girl whose hair he pulled in grade school 70 years ago? How else would Anne Calderon have recalled the pastor of South Calvary asking her mother in the 1930s to please not hang laundry in a backyard next to the church during Sunday services?

“All I know is this neighborhood was full of nice people,” Mr. Levy, 82, told the congregation at South Calvary last month. “Something exceptional about this place and that time. Two totally different peoples, different color, different backgrounds, different language, coexisting beautifully. What I saw was acceptance of all of those differences, coupled with friendship. A perfect match.”

After the church service ended and the Southside alumni settled into a kosher lunch together, Jacqueline Bellamy, 62, added her assent. “Most times, people of two colors, two religions don’t come together,” she said. “To see how it’s blossomed to this is like ‘Wow!’ ”

The story of Southside begins with two epic exoduses. One brought thousands of Sephardic Jews — those expelled from Spain during the Inquisition — to safe harbors in the Ottoman Empire, like Salonika in what is now Greece and Monastir in present-day Macedonia. Early in the 20th century, their progeny arrived in Indianapolis, where many worked as tailors in a factory owned by German Jews and others were peddlers or opened shops. They all formed synagogues and social groups, including a Girl Scout troop.

The other exodus involved black Africans brought to America as slaves and emancipated years later. In the years after World War I, several thousand of their descendants made their way to Indianapolis, finding in Southside both access to industrial jobs and rare examples of integrated public schools. The black Christians and the Sephardic Jews, fellow outsiders, shared a kind of microclimate of tolerance. When one of the local movie theaters tried to enforce segregated seating, the white Jewish children would sneak their black Christian friends down from the Jim Crow balcony.

All of that history might have been lost to postwar prosperity and the construction boom’s wrecking ball had not Professor Hyatt attended an annual reunion of Southside’s black residents in August 2008 and heard for the first time about their former Sephardic neighbors. By pure coincidence the next year, she ran into Lee Mallah, one of those former neighbors, selling Sephardic pastries at a local greenmarket.

With students from her anthropology classes and $14,000 from Indiana-Purdue and other donors, Professor Hyatt set about locating former Southsiders. She and her students have by now taken about 40 oral histories and digitally scanned about 400 period photographs. Some of that material will become part of a book about Southside that is scheduled for publication this summer.

What was impossible to foresee was the depth of the individual connections that have been re-established. Ms. Profeta and Cleo Moore, for instance, discovered that their families had lived at different times in the same house at 1106 South Illinois Street. Beatrice Miller and Gladys Cohen renewed a friendship from their work at Head Start almost a half-century earlier. Henrietta Mervis, 92, met the long-ago customers of her parents’ grocery store. She was not even the oldest participant at the service. That honor went to John M. Calloway, 96, who let it be known that he still is a ballroom dancer.

During a bus tour of the old neighborhood — what is left of it, that is — Beatrice Miller said something that she probably meant in jest. But under the circumstances, it sounded profound. “On the Southside,” she said, “every key opened the same doors.”


Sent by Roberto Camp  



Battle of Athens

The Battle of Athens (sometimes called the McMinn County War) was a rebellion led by citizens in Athens and Etowah, Tennessee, United States, against the local government in August 1946. The citizens, including some World War II veterans, accused the local officials of political corruption and voter intimidation. The event is sometimes cited by firearms ownership advocates as an example of the value of the Second Amendment in combating tyranny.

A 1992 made-for-television movie An American Story (produced by the Hallmark Hall of Fame) was based upon the McMinn County War but set in a Texas town in 1945. It was nominated for two 1993 prime time Emmy Awards and one American Society of Cinematographers award.

Editor: View a really powerful 14 minute video segment reenacting the Battle of Athens:

Sent by Roy Archuleta

Editor: View a really powerful 14 minute video segment reenacting the Battle of Athens:




The proclamation was issued by Governor J.Y. Sanders when Louisiana celebrated the state's centennial. Courtesy, Les Amis des Archives de la Louisiane's excellent web-site:  (edited by Judy Riffel). For an image of the document, go to: 

Sent by

An Easter Reflection by Eddie Calderon, Ph.D.

I had an unusual experience today as I went to church for the Good Friday.  My two sons  and I joined this parade on Good Friday. Except for the Anglos (Americans) working for the St. Stephen'c Church, myself and my two sons and one Filipina (who lives in St. Stephen's neighborhood) were the only non-Mexicans and Ecuadorians among the crowd.
I took my two sons to St. Olaf for the Good Friday service at noon, only to find out that the parking lot was full and closed for the public. So I we went to the nearest catholic church and that is the Church of St. Stephens where I used to attend, where my folks got their golden anniversary renewal of vows, where I got married in 2002, and where my youngest son was baptized in the Fall of 2008.
There was no mass at the church but there were Hispanic parishioners there and they told me that they were waiting for the bus to take them to downtown Minneapolis where the stations of the cross procession would start at 1:00 p.m. I then decided to join the Hispanic parishioners from Mexico and Ecuador for the bus trip to downtown Minneapolis and I could not believe that I would be joining the procession from downtown Minneapolis to St. Stephen's parish which is more than a mile away. When the procession ended in St. Stephen's church the 3:00 p.m. mass started.
The procession was not like the procession I attended in Quezon City while growing up. The procession included a Hispanic man dressed like our Lord Jesus bearing the cross with two guards carrying a whip lash like what happened to our Lord. The procession was then re-enacting or reliving what happened to our Lord thousand of years ago. I have never seen this event personally in the RP though I saw them on newspapers.
This was an unusual Good Friday for me and my two sons.  
Happy Easter to you also and to everybody!  Eddie

More photos:



Cinco de Mayo Merienda, Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society
Searching by Abstracts or Surveys,
Early Images of Mission San Antonio de Valero— also known as El Álamo
This Day in History, April 6th, 1813. The First Texas Republic
Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize
Villa San Agustin de Laredo  Genealogical Society
Invites Members and Amigos to a Cinco de Mayo Merienda
Guest Speaker, Armando Hinojosa,  Sculptor of The Tejano Monument
May 5, 2012, 3:00 to 5:00 p.m.

3rd Floor, Falcon International Bank, 7718 McPherson, Laredo, Texas   (across the HEB Del Mar)
State Representative, Richard Pena Raymond
City Councilman, Juan Narvaez, District 4 Javier Santos, Fernando Salinas Trust Fund
Constable Rodolfo "Rudy" Rodriguez, Pct 1
Eduardo Garza, Uni-Trade
Falcon International Bank

$5.00 Donation at the Door Proceeds benefit VSALGS Scholarship Fund
Please R.S.V.P. by May 1, 2012 to Elisa Gutierrez  (956) 635-7172  or  Bibi Garza-Gongora (956) 723-8419


Searching by Abstracts or Surveys, provides online searches on several fields:
This is a great tool for locating instruments with common names or seeing the title history on a parcel of property. In most cases this search is only $0.25 per search.
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Enter the abstract or survey name in the "Legal" search field near the bottom of the search page and click search 
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If you have any questions about using this search field please contact us for assistance. 

520 Lawrence Street
Corpus Christi, Texas 78401
Tel: (214) 705-6400

Sent by Walter Herbeck Jr


This Day in History
April 6th, 1813
The First Texas Republic

Texas is the only state in the Union with bragging rights to the fact that we were a Republic before we became a state in this great United States of America. But truth has it that we also have bragging rights to having three Declarations of Independence and three written Constitutions along with seven flags that have flown over Texas, not 6 ; July 4th 1776, March 2nd 1836 and April 6th 1813 with it’s Emerald Green Flag.

On August 7th 1812 Augustus Magee and Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara crossed the Sabine River flying the Emerald Green Flag of Liberty and had reached San Antonio by April 1st 1813. Unfortunately Spain was still a super power and would send an army to quash the revolution in the disastrous “Battle of Medina,” on August 18th 1813.

Short lived it may have been, but it was a real Republic and it was a real revolution, a revolution of the people, by the people and for the people. 

Dan Arellano President 
Battle of Medina Society
PO Box 43012
Austin, Texas 78704

Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize

          The Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin (TGSA) initiated the Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize in 2006 with two goals: (1) to give Tejano Heritage books greater recognition from historians, scholars, academicians, film, television, and multimedia communities; and (2) to put such published books in the spotlight and bring attention to Tejano Heritage, history and contributions.  Each year since then, an author whose book focused on Tejano heritage, history, and contributions has been awarded $1,000.00, recognition at the annual State Hispanic Genealogical Conference and an advertised, book signing session.  The winning author is selected by a panel of three judges comprised of university professors,  historians, and / or authors.

          This year the winning author will be recognized at the 33rd  Annual Texas Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference, October, 13, 2012, at the Hilton Garden Inn in South Padre Island, Texas.  

History: Honoree Dr. Clotilde P. Garcia  

The Tejano Book Prize was named in honor and memory of Clotilde P. Garcia, M.D.   Born Jan. 11, 1917 to Jose Garcia and Faustina Perez Garcia, both school teachers, Dr. Garcia was a graduate of the University of Texas Medical School in Galveston, TX. (1954) and practiced medicine in Corpus Christi, Texas.   She was a civic leader, community advocate, historian, genealogist and author of numerous books on South

Texas history such as Captain Blas Maria de la Garza Falcon:Colonizer of South Texas

Captain Enrique Villarreal and Rincón del Oso Land Grant; and Padre Jose Nicolas Balli and Padre Island .  She contributed numerous articles to the Texas State Historical Association and many are now available online in the Handbook of Texas.  In 1984 she was inducted into the Texas Women’s Hall of Fame.  In 1987, recognizing a need to promote, collect and develop genealogical research, she founded the Spanish-American Genealogical Association (SAGA) and served as its president.  In 1990 she received Spain’s Royal American Order of Isabella the Catholic.  Dr. Garcia was the sister of civil rights leader Hector P. Garcia, M.D.,who founded the American G.I. Forum in 1948, as well as the sister of Dr. C.P. Garcia, Dr. Xico Garcia; Dr. Dalia Garcia and Emilia Garcia Garza.  Her son J.A. “Tony” Canales, Attorney-at-Law, resides in Corpus Christi, TX.  “Dr. Cleo”, as she was fondly known, retired in 1994 after delivering 10,000 babies.  She inspired and helped many Hispanics to research, study and preserve their ancestry.  She passed away May 27, 2003. 

Criteria: Each entry will be judged based on the following criteria:
1.  Originality?
2.  Is the book applicable to Tejano Heritage / History?
3.  Is the writing clear, precise, interesting and well organized? 
4.  Does the bibliography demonstrate wide research and are there footnotes and end-notes?
5.  Does the book contain substantial primary sources?
6.  Would the general public, genealogists  and professors find this book useful?
7. If applicable, are the illustrations and graphics helpful?
8.  Is the design, dust jacket, layout, chapter heading, paper and print attractive, legible, and easy to read.
9.  Is the author's thesis revealing and does it add important arguments to the literature?
10. Overall, did you enjoy reading the book?

Official Entry Form
2012 Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano BOOK PRIZE  

              One title per Entry Form, please.






Applicant’s Name:  


Mailing Address:  




How would you like to be notified of receipt of package?  


Phone Call  / E-mail

Would you be interested in having a booth to sell your book at the Genealogy Conference?  


Yes  /  No

Notification and Deadlines: Entrants will be notified of receipt of package.  Submissions must be postmarked by the close of business on May 31, 2012.   Judges will read and consider submissions on an ongoing basis, comparing early entries with later submissions.  The winner and two commendations will be presented at the Conference Banquet on Saturday, October 13, 2012.     

Information on this contest is sent to publishing companies in the United States.  Entries: (“Entry” in this instance is defined as 1 book title) / must be books dealing with Tejano heritage /history, and / must have been published in the years 2011-2012  

/ Each entry must be accompanied by the Official Entry Form
/ With an entry fee of $10 per entry (See definition above)
/ Shipping and handling costs must be paid by entrants.
/ Entry packets should include 3 copies of the book entered.
/ Submissions will not be returned
/ Deadline for submissions---by close of business day on May 31, 2012

(1)  Check---make check payable to Tejano Genealogy Society of  Austin.  Be sure to write “Tejano Book Entry”  at the bottom left.    Send check with books to address below:   (2)  PayPal         
Mail entries to:  Minnie Wilson, 4803 Ave. H  Austin, Texas    78751     



Mexican artist José de Páez
Libro de Defunciones de la Iglesia Parroquial de Monterrey, Anos de 1695 y 1696
por Tte. Cor. Ricardo Raul Palmerin Cordero
Libro de Matrimonios de la Iglesia Parroquial de Monterrey, Anos de 1670
por Tte. Cor. Ricardo Raul Palmerin Cordero
Personajes en la Historia de Mexico por Jose Leon Robles de la Torre
José López Portillo y Pacheco
Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado


A prolific painter of the generation following the baroque artist Miguel de Cabrera, the Mexican artist José de Páez worked in a variety of genres, including portraiture and casta paintings, but with a lighter, Rococo inspired touch. From his Mexico City studio, his works were commissioned from every corner of New Spain including present day California and the Southwest US as well as Oaxaca. Perhaps his best known work is the iconic 1759 portrait of Sor Ana Maria de San Francisco in the nun's church of Santa Rosa de Viterbo (Queretaro)

Páez' surviving works in Oaxaca, however, are confined to pictures of archangels, dating from the late 1750s and 1760s. Painted in a decorative, almost sentimental manner, these elegant, androgenous portraits were clearly executed to please the regional taste, most notably with the generous addition of gold and silver trim to the otherwise diaphanous, flowing draperies in the manner popularized by the Cuzco school of painting in Peru.

Although the paintings he completed for Oaxaca cathedral have been lost*, Páez' portraits of archangels can be found in the churches of Santo Domingo and San Felipe Neri and The Seven Princes **.

*An earlier painting on the same theme, by Oaxacan artist Marcial Santaella, hangs inside the west entry to the Cathedral, one of the few colonial artworks to survive there.

This portrait of the Archangel Gabriel is one of four individually framed paintings located in the transepts of the Oratorian church of San Felipe Neri in the city of Oaxaca 

Richard D. Perry. All rights reserved.Photography of Seven Princes courtesy of Felipe Falcón.Some of the information for this page is taken from Exploring Colonial Oaxaca, our colorful guidebook to the arts and architecture of colonial Oaxaca.



AÑOS DE 1695 Y 1696.

Fuentes. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días.

Hola amigas y amigos. Envío la imagenes de los registros de defunción de: Don Juan Baptista Chapa y de Don Juan de Leon hijo del Capitán y Cronista del Nuevo Reyno de León Don Alonso de León.  Investigó y paleografió.
Tte. Cor. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero
Márgen izq.

Juan Bapta. Chapa. Español.

En veinte de Abril de mil seiscientos y nobenta y cinco años murio Juan Baptista Chapa aviendo recivido los Santos Sacramentos. Y se enterro en la Parrochial de la Ciud. con vigilia y misa de cuerpo presente. y para que conste lo firme. Vt. Supra. Br. Lorenzo Perez de Leon.

Márgen izq. Juan de Leon Español.

En veinte y seis de Agosto de mil seiscientos y nobenta y seis años murio Juan de Leon testo ante Carlos Romero escrivano Real dexo por su albacea a Josepha Gonzalez su madre dexo un nobenario de misas cantadas a la caja Santa quatro Rs. y a las demas mandas forcosas a dos Rs. se enterro en la parrochial de la Ciud.con vigilia y misa cantada de cuerpo presente y para que conste lo firme. Vt. Supra. Br. Lorenzo Perez de Leon.

Márgen izq. Francisco de Salinas y Anastacia de Olivares.

En doze de Noviembre de mil y seiscientos y setenta años, despose y vele a Francisco de Salinas y Anastacia de Olivares Españoles, haviendo precedido las banas en diez, diez y siete y diez y ocho de Octubre fueron testigos el Capn. Alonso de Leon= Blas de Olivares y Juan Baptista Chapa y lo firme. Francisco de la Cruz.

Investigó y paleografió.
Tte. Cor. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero



Jose Lopez Portillo




Datos del Tomo IX de XII1, Libro No. 66 de mi obra inédita: "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México", relacionados con el Lic. don José López Portillo y Pacheco. Emilio, Presidente de México No. 60, del 1o. de diciembre de 1976 al 30 de noviembre de 1982. Total, 6 años.   


El Lic. D. José López Portillo y Pacheco, Asumo la Presidencia de la Republica Mexicana el primero de diciembre de 1976 hasta el 30 de noviembre de 1982.

Nació, el día 16 de junio de 1929 en la Ciudad de México, Distrito Federal, siendo hijo legítimo del licenciado don José López Portillo Weber y de doña Refugio Pacheco y Villa Gordoa.

Sus estudios primarios y secundarios los realizó en escuelas del Distrito Federal, y posteriormente, en 1935, ingresó a la UNAM de la ciudad de México con la matrícula número 10,191, donde poco tiempo después fue expulsado, según lo narra el propio López Portillo en su obra Memorias de mis Tiempos, ya que era muy inquieto y muy afecto al deporte.

Era López Portillo un trotamundos, pues le gustaba realizar caminatas junto con otro de sus compañeros inseparables, Luis Echeverría Álvarez; emprendieron una expedición por América del Sur hasta llegar a Chile, y de regreso a México nuevamente ingresó a la UNAM, y según el lo confiesa en sus memorias, fue expulsado por segunda vez. Pero al la tercera fue la vensida y por fin el 29 de noviembre de 1946 recibió su titulo de Licenciado en Derecho.

El 20 de octubre de 1951 contrajo matrimonio don doña Carmen Romano Nolk, que era hija de don Alfonso Romano y de su esposa doña Margarita Nolk.

El 28 de noviembre de 1970 fue nombrado subsecretario de la Secretaría de Patrimonio Nacional.

El 28 de mayo de 1973 fue nombrado Ministro de la Secretaria de Hacienda y Crédito Público por su amigo el licenciado Luis Echeverría, que era Presidente de México.

El 17 de enero de 1974 falleció su padre el señor licenciado don José Portillo y Weber.

El 22 de septiembre de 1975 el PRI nombró su candidato a la Presidencia de la República, recayendo el nombramiento en el licenciado José López y Pacheco. Hizo su campaña por la República Mexicana y habiendo salido triunfador subió a la Presidencia de la República, el dia primero de diciembre de 1976 y duró en el cargo seis años, hasta el día 30 de noviembre de 1982.

Durante su gobierno visitó muchos paises del mundo y recibió condecoraciones de todos ellos.

El 15 de noviembre de 1978, el presidente López Portillo recibió en Cancún, Quintana Roo, la visita del rey Juan Carlos y la reina Sofía de España.

El 20 de enero de 1979 llegó a la Ciudad de México el Papa Juan pablo II y fue recibido por el presidente Lópz Portillo y doña Carmen, su esposa.

El 3º de mayo de 1981 se casó Paulina, su hija del Presidente con el señor don Pascual Ortiz Rubio D., del que fuera Presidente de México, el general e ingeniero Don Pascual Ortiz Rubio.

El 31 de agosto de 1982 declaró el presidente de México, licenciado José López Portillo, que habían saqueado al país, sacando millones de dólares. Decía que no lo volverian a saquear y decretó la nacionalización de la banca mexicana. Entre otras cosas, decía que defendería los pesos como un perro.

Años después murió su esposa y él se casó con la artista Sasha Montenegro, ante la inconformidad de sus hijos.  



Miguel de la Madrid
12 diciembre 1935-
1 abril 2012

Descanse en Paz





Datos tomados del Tomo XIII, Libro 67 de mi obra inédita: "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México", relacionados con el Lic. don Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, Presidente de México No. 61, del 1o. de diciembre de 1982 al 30 de noviembre de 1988. Total seis años.


Nació, el día 12 de diciembre de 1934 en la Ciudad de Colima, siendo hijo legítimo del licenciado don Miguel de la Madrid y de su esposa doña Alicia Hurtado. Estudió la primaria y secundaria en las escuelas privadas de la ciudad de México y la profesional en la Universidad Áutonoma de México, hasta terminar los estudios y recibir el titulo de Licenciado en Derecho, y luego durante dos años, 1964 y 1965, estudió la Maestríía en Administaración Pública en Harvard en los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica.

Muy joven, en 1947 contrajo matrimonio don la señorita Paloma Cordero y procrearon los siguientes hijos: Margarita Guadalupe, Enrique, Federico, y Gerardo. En 1976 fue nombrado subsecretario de Hacienda y Crédito Público. En septiembre de 1981, el Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI, lo nombró su candidato a la Presidencia de la República y realizada so campaña por la República, obtuvo el triunfo que lo llevó a la silla presidencial el 1o. de diciembre de 1982, durante en el Carto hasta el 30 de noviembre de 1988. El 8 de octubre de 1982, siendo ya presidente electo, se entrevistó en san Diego, California, USA, con el Presidente Ronald Reagan.

Durante su administración realizó varios viajes a países de todo el mundo, recibiendo de parte de los mandatarios de los mismos, las condecoraciones que le otorgaron como Presidente visitante y él hizo otro tanto entregando las preseas mexicanas a los dignatarios extranjeros.

En septiembre de 1984, tubo un desagradable conflicto con la periodista Isabel Arvice, que fue muy comentado por algún tiempo, ya que el presidente se molestó mucho con la labor periodística de la mencionada dama. Por otra parte, la deuda externa de México se incrementaba dada año. Por ejemplo, en 1982, la deuda externa era de 82 mil millones y fracción; para 1984, 34ª de 95 mil millones de dólares. Al mismo tiempo, la devaluación del peso no se detenía.

Terminada su gestión como presidente, entregó el poder a su sucesor Lic. Carlos Salinas de Gortari y de la Madrid fue nombrado director general del Fondo de Cultura Económica, cargo que desempeña todavía al momento de escribir este articulo.

Source: El siglo de Torreon

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera



Russell Means: Welcome to the Reservation

The United States is one big reservation, and we are all in it. So says Russell Means, legendary actor, political activist and leader for the American Indian Movement. Means led the 1972 seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters in Washington, D.C., and in 1973 led a standoff at Wounded




Pre-Hispanic Ruins Found in Mexico
Published February 09, 2012
Fox News Latino Ancient Home Ruins Found in Mexico

The remnants being uncovered in the hills east of Mexico City at a spot known as Amecameca are from an ancient neighborhood — a home to regular folks. It's no Chichen Itza. But the nondescript ancient home made of stone and clay, which was found in Mexico recently, is so ordinary it has anthropologists excited.

The remnants uncovered in the hills east of Mexico City at a spot known as Amecameca are from an ancient neighborhood — a home to regular folks.

"What makes this important is that it is a residential area, not a ceremonial or religious site," said Felipe Echenique, a historian for the National Institute of Anthropology and History, or INAH, which is in charge of reviewing the site. Traveling the Mayan Riviera

"In Mexico, we really have very little evidence of how the cities really were, or how people lived," said Echenique, who was not involved in the dig but is familiar with preliminary findings.

Towering pyramids in Mexico like Chichen Itza or temple complexes like Uxmal are well known, but the vast urban centers that supported those ceremonial centers largely disappeared.

The housing compounds at Amecameca were apparently built by one of the still-unnamed cultures that populated the Valley of Mexico long before the Aztecs appeared in the area in 1325 and founded Tenochtitlan, the precursor to Mexico City.

Rebeca Lopez Reyes, an activist with the preservationist group Guardians of the Volcanos that helped stop roadwork that was damaging the site, said researchers for INAH have found ceramic pots and bones. And, she said, there is a stone serpent's head, suggesting that the god Quetzacoatl, "the Feathered Serpent," may have been worshipped there centuries before the Aztecs paid him homage. Cracked Mayan Code Leads Explorers to No Gold

The institute has not released a formal report on what was found, saying researchers need more time.

The few excavations of residential areas carried out so far in Mexico have yielded fascinating details.

In Teotihuacan, one of the biggest pre-Hispanic cities located northeast of Mexico City, some houses appear to have been illuminated by narrow doorways that opened onto central patios with shallow pools that acted as "water mirrors" to direct light inside the rooms. Techniques for building windows were apparently not yet known.

Investigators say similar discoveries could emerge from Amecameca, where so far only about 120 square yards (meters) of an estimated 5-acre (2-hectare) site have been excavated.

"In what has been excavated so far ... there some strange settlement patterns that are emerging," said Echenique. Must-See Ruins in Latin America

For example, between one housing compound and another, researchers found an empty area that contained no relics — something that would be unusual in a densely populated area unless it was a border between neighborhoods, a street, or the site of a long-vanished wood structure.

Perhaps the most unusual thing is that local residents were the ones who noted the relics and called in researchers — after setting up a protest camp to block backhoes from tearing up more of the area for a planned highway.

"The inhabitants of Amecameca were more or less following the work on the roadway, and when they saw that there were a lot of relics coming up, they notified the institute," Echenique said.

Progress has often trumped history in Mexico, where roads have regularly been pushed through ruins.

In Mexico City, the lava-buried remains of the ancient Cuicuilco culture, with its famed round pyramid, are crowded and partly covered by shopping malls, housing developments, a major freeway and even a college for archaeologists.

The Amecameca protesters now guard against construction workers and looters and to explain the ruins to passers-by. They are asking the road be rerouted.

"The planned route wouldn't have to be changed that much," Lopez Reyes said.

Authorities have not yet commented on the demands, and the builders of the road, known as the Mexican Beltway, did not respond to requests for comment. Both federal and state transportation officials declined to comment.

INAH spokesman Arturo Mendez said that "in almost every project of this type, there are going to be discoveries" of pre-Hispanic material." Thousands of years of settlement have left potentially interesting relics scattered across the region.

The institute normally sends in a team to excavate, recover any significant items, carefully rebury the site for possible future exploration, and then allow construction to continue.

The people of Amecameca say they want to prevent that from happening to them.

Maria de los Angeles Eusebio, 55, a retired anthropologist, is one of the residents who have camped out for the last week to prevent construction machinery from going through. Equipped with tents, coffee "and lots and lots of blankets," the protesters are staying day and night, through wind, rain and cold, to ensure the remains of their ancestors' city aren't destroyed.

"We don't want them to just bury this and run the highway over the top of it," said Eusebio. "We want them to return the artifacts, so we can display them in a museum for the community."

Based on reporting by the Associated Press.
Sent by John Inclan


Doreen Carvajal: A Reporter's Journey to "The Forgetting River" Part 1 of 4
Shared experiences connect Romney and Netanyahu

NEWS: Sephardic Horizons magazine now online

Doreen Carvajal: A Reporter's Journey to "The Forgetting River" 
Part 1 of 4

Every quest has a romantic origin. Mine started with the call of the bells of the basilica of Santa Maria that toll the rhythms of life in Arcos de la Frontera. It is an ancient, white pueblo on a yellow sandstone ridge on the southern frontier of Spain with two towering churches at the summit.

The oldest bell –nicknamed "La Nona" for grandmother –  has chimed hourly since 1437 and was forged by a Jewish bell maker who left a mysterious inscription of freedom and God that has lasted for centuries.

In turn, the message was eternally ignored. Generations of families live along the cobblestone lanes of Arcos, drilled in the curt commands of bells of bronze, copper and tin that are tolled by a family of live-in bell ringers. Pray. Run. Fire. Fiesta. But few people know anything about the bell founder, as the craftsman was called, or the town's legacy of the Inquisition.

When I visited Arcos de la Frontera on one of my early trips to Spain, I was struck by something deeply familiar in the timber of the bells of Santa Maria that seemed to speak directly to me. My own family history had been discarded and rewritten, relatives buried with memories of where we came, information about why we left and who we were tossed aside.

Arcos de la Frontera, Spain

The bells inspired me to pursue a story that had to be felt rather than told. I was a reporter for The New York Times and the International Herald Tribune, based in Paris, but I couldn't tell and didn't know the basic elements of my own family history.

With my byline of Carvajal, I was often startled when curious readers or sources would sometimes question me about my last name, which I spent a lifetime pronouncing for others in the United States.

"Did you know," a rabbi told me when I was a reporter at the Philadelphia Inquirer in the 1980's, "that you have a Sephardic Jewish name with roots in the Iberian Peninsula of Spain?"

Another reader contacted me when I was at The New York Times to inquire whether I had any connection to the Carvajal family who were burned at the  stake in a public execution by Inquisition authorities in Mexico in 1596.

Strangely, I scoffed at these questions because I had been raised Catholic, attending Catholic school and weekly Sunday Mass, which was part of the fabric of my large family of five brothers and sisters who grew up in the Bay Area in California.

Carvajal family, San Jose Costa Rica

The basic history of my family was sketchy.
 I knew that my ancestors on my father’s side must have left southern Spain in the province of Cadiz to get to Costa Rica. My parents had not told me much about my ancestry as I was growing up, probably because they didn’t have much information to share.  Some ancestors had moved years after the Spanish order of expulsion in 1492 from Spain to its colony in Costa Rica. A soldier named Antonio de Carvajal joined the voyage of Juan Vasquez de Coronado in 1562 and would become the acting governor of Costa Rica. In the same group of 100 soldiers was Alonso Fajardo, an ancestor of my grandmother, Angela Chacon.

When my grandmother left San Jose,Costa Rica for California in the 1940's with my father, Arnoldo, and my aunt,  Eugenia, she didn't speak English. But through sheer  stubbornness and determination she settled in San Francisco, comforted by her faith in the Catholic Church. Before she died, though, in her eighties, she left explicit instructions that she did not want a priest to preside over her funeral. My aunt did the same thing although in much more blunt terms.  In my grandmother's case, I simply ignored the symbol.

When September 11 happened –the bright blue Tuesday in 2001 of my cancelled goodbye party at a trendy Chelsea restaurant in New York to move to Europe for a new job – I think I was untethered by memories of that day. Only later I realized how profoundly it affected me and intensified a strange yearning for something indefinable –a sense of refuge, of belonging. It was what they call in Spanish, a feeling of "añoranza," a longing for home to be whole.

The puzzle of identity so nagged me that I tried to resolve it by collecting masses of information. Some of it was confusing, some of it banal, some useful.  My persistent, sometimes even frantic, digging stemmed from my desire to know the answer to a basic question: If we don't know the truth about our past, then who are we? 

To seek my answers, I shifted into standard investigative reporter mode. In my job I traffic in words. That’s the currency, my coin of the realm. I hunt for facts, chase down people to listen to what they have to say, absorb what their thoughts and distill it. Over the decades that I’ve been a journalist, I have grown confident that anything can be tracked, across distance and time, through people and places

So one summer I moved with my husband and young daughter to a former bordello on the cliffs of Arcos de la Frontera along a steep hill plunging toward the crumbling stone Tower of Treachery, the pueblo’s last surviving gate. We could hear the bells toll all day long and I suppose I was hoping for a conversation.

From the second story windows of our ancient, white house, we could see a lone farmhouse, surrounded by alfalfa, and bordered by the jade green Guadalete River. It flows, cool and swift, starting in the Sierras de Grazalema at an elevation of 1,000 meters and conquering Andalusia at its own pace for 100 miles, and then curling into the sparking blue Bay of Cadiz.

The Guadalete is named for the waters of the Greek underworld in Hades where ghosts of the dead sipped from the river Lethe to erase earthly memories to be reincarnated. And like the Guadalete, a quality of willful forgetting flows through the pueblo, where people have a habit of losing the meaning of all symbols and history that surround them.

Chacon family, San Jose Costa Rica

The town's old Jewish quarter, for example, does not merit a street sign. The landmarks in the rest of the historic center of Arcos de la Frontera are posted with blue ceramic tiles, but there is nothing to mark the old soul of this plunging slope of white washed houses named Calle Cuna. The neighboring synagogue was long ago transformed into a chapel.  Some inhabitants  refuse to believe it was a temple, ignoring the stars in its arched ceilings, painted over in the pale, green color of the Inquisition. It is as if the Jewish residents had died twice, once when they were banished, imprisoned or punished by the Inquisition and again when they were forgotten.

This forgetfulness is a trait that my family and ancestors also share. Of course, now I do not. I settled among the bleached houses of Arcos to find some broken spiritual shards of myself and my ancestors who I suspect were actually Sephardic Jews whose identity was stolen, hidden, disguised and then lost for centuries like some misplaced brass key.

Or at least the clues pointed me in that direction because I had doubts all the time that drove me. Who are we?  Doubt is my religion.

Sometimes as I walked through the labyrinth of the pueblo's winding streets and white arches, I felt the old houses were observing me. Past and present is an illusion. Places, like people, keep their scars and footprints. Once I heard a rustling movement, and crazy laughter drifting on the Solano wind, a dry blast of air from Africa that blows through the town in season. But I saw no one. The only comfort was La Nona. One beat. A pause. Another chime. Tolling for every hurried inhabitant.

Many of the people I could have turned to for answers in my family had long ago died. And when I was older I learned the lesson that I should have  treated my own family like a story, asking questions, writing, remembering the moment. SoI was left to piece together symbols and puzzles –such as customs of my family in Costa Rica. The men were by and large merchants, which freed them to travel. They were clannish, seeking dispensations from the Catholic Church through generations for fourth cousins to marry fourth cousins.

Much later I learned that it was my great aunt Luz, who was the keeper of our family history in Costa Rica. She died in 1998 of a stroke. Naturally, I never bothered to ask Tía Luz about our family when I visited her in San Jose, Costa Rica years ago  and we sat around a dining room table, eating traditional cuisine of gallo pinto, black beans mixed with rice and eggs.

One day I received a flimsy letter from Costa Rica from my great aunt's daughter, Cecilia Carvajal Valverde, “With respect to the question of the Carvajals,” she wrote in Spanish in her blocky printing. “It’s always complicated as usual with our family."

"Mama was the one who knew and she used to say that our origins were from ‘Sefarditas,’”Cecilia wrote, using the Costa Rican name for Sephardic Jews.

Along with the letter, Cecilia sent mea slender blue book. It was a history of Costa Rican crypto Jews. In a back section was a list of dozens of Costa Rican Sefardita families, including my own, Carvajal. I pored over the others, counting nine last names in our family tree, including the maiden name of my grandmother, Chacon, her grandmother, Solis, and the last name of my cousin Cecilia, Valverde.

It's not easy to shift identities especially for the Catholic school girl in a uniform that I was who longed to become a nun. So I decided to bet on history, which is carried in our genes .DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid - is a double stranded helical molecule in the cells of all organisms. It carries the genetic instructions to build an organism and controls cell functions. These biological heirlooms are passed down, unchanged, from parent to child with genetic markers on the Y chromosome passed by fathers and mitochondrial DNA passed by mothers.

It was just one clue in the kaleidoscope of family, a collection of shards: family memories, religious practices, talismans of Jewish faith, and adopted countries.

When my father's test results arrive from Family Tree DNA  –sent by email from California to Spain –I was baffled by mysterious codes within a series of 12 numbers. His initial test revealed that his haplogroup is a "G," which quick research reveals originated in India or Pakistan dispersing to central Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Its "G2" branch is commonly found in Europe or the Middle East. When I checked a Spanish study of a sample of the DNA of Sephardic Jews I saw that it was dominated by three haplogroups, J1, J2 and G.

With the growing collection of DNA samples through companies like Family Tree, I could check online for a potential bounty of distant cousins with email addresses and home countries included. I monitored this obsessively for a while, but nothing turned up. Every day the computer screen flickered with the same disappointing message: no matches.

I decided to call Bennet Greenspan, president of Family Tree. I told him my family gene pool seemed empty. Not one person had come close to my father's DNA signature of a series of 12 numbers.

"It means that the family tree has been pruned with a hatchet."

"What do you mean?"

"Lots of your ancestors were  killed."

This set me off on another quest, searching for a a defining clue that resolved all doubts. Perhaps that's why Iwas so attracted to the bells of Arcos de la Frontera. Bells are my anchor that tell me when to pray, celebrate and flee, revealing all.

Eventually, I knew, the bells would talk.

Doreen Carvajal is a journalist based in Paris for the International Herald Tribune and The New York Times. She is the author of a memoir about her search to recover her family's Sephardic Jewish roots. "The Forgetting River: A Modern Tale of Survival, Identity, and the Inquisition" will be published in August by Riverhead Books in New York.

Shared experiences connect Romney and Netanyahu
By Michael Barbaro 

New York Times 

Posted: 04/07/2012  April 8, 2012 

The two young men had woefully little in common: one was a wealthy Mormon from Michigan, the other a middle-class Jew from Israel. 

But in 1976, the lives of Mitt Romney and Benjamin Netanyahu intersected, briefly but indelibly, in the 16th-floor offices of the Boston Consulting Group, where both had been recruited as corporate advisers. At the most formative time of their careers, they sized each other up during the firm's weekly brainstorming sessions, absorbing the same profoundly analytical view of the world. 

That shared experience decades ago led to a warm friendship, little known to outsiders, that is now rich with political intrigue: Netanyahu, the prime minister of Israel, is making the case for military action against Iran; and Romney, the likely Republican presidential nominee, is attacking the Obama administration for not supporting Netanyahu more robustly. 

The relationship between Netanyahu and Romney -- nurtured over meals in Boston, New York and Jerusalem; strengthened by a network of mutual friends; and heightened by their conservative ideologies -- has resulted in an unusually frank exchange of advice and insights on topics like politics, economics and the Middle East. 

For the complete article, go to: 


Juan Latino
Juan Latino, born Juan de Sessa, (Baena, 1518 - Granada, 1596), was a Spanish black professor at Granada during the sixteenth century.
Son of black slaves of the second Duke consort of Sessa since 1520, Luis Fernández de Córdoba, deceased Rome, Italy, 1526, he went to Granada where he was educated together with his master's son and the grandson of another famous Gonzalo, Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba , El Gran Capitán. Juan Latino emphasized especially in classical languages and music. He attended together with Gonzalo, Gonzalo II Fernández de Córdoba (1520-1578), the son of Luis Fernández de Cordoba, named as his illustrious ancestor, to the subject of the famous grammarian Pedro de Mota, showing great abilities, the Duke himself commented on his dexterity: rara avis in terra corbo simillima nigro.
The University of Granada had been opened in 1526, five months after the coming of the emperor to the city, and after the papal bull, it began to confer degrees in 1533. In 1545, in the presence of the Archbishop, the listener of the Real Chancery, Conde de Tendilla, and many other gentlemen, Juan Latino received the degree of Bachiller. He was 28 years old in that time.
He was set free and received in Granada the Chair of grammar and latin language of the Cathedral, post that he held for twenty years. His literary and fiercest personal enemy, León Roque de Santiago, maintained that Juan Latino was born in Baena, son of a slave woman and the Duke of Sessa, Luis Fernández de Córdoba, father of his friend and protector Gonzalo II Fernández de Córdoba (1520-1578), third of the same title.
One the houses he frequented to teach his varied grammatical teachings was property of the Duke's administrator, Licenciado Carleval, whose daughter, famous in the city because of her extraordinary beauty and fiancée by her father to Don Fernando de Valor, future Abén Humeya, received classes. The playwright Diego Ximénez de Enciso (1585-1633) composed about him and his love-affairs with his student and future white wife, the young Ana Carleval, the comedy Juan Latino. The strange interracial relation was fruitful and the marriage took place between 1547 and 1548.

Sent by Rafael Minuesa


Cuba Rethinks the Revolution
After half century, Cubans again celebrate Good Friday
Libro de migrantes canarios a Puerto Rico


Cuba Rethinks the Revolution by Michelle Chase
Released: 20 Oct 2011

When Cuba held its Sixth Communist Party Congress in April -- the first since 1997 -- the rituals felt familiar. It kicked off with a mass military parade through the streets of Havana and closed with a rousing rendition of the “Internationale.” Raúl Castro, who in the past few years has assumed the reins of power from his ailing brother Fidel, praised the revolution and promised he would never permit the return of capitalism. Politics as usual? Yes and no. Despite appearances, major -- if gradual -- changes are afoot on the island.

Cuba is undergoing a kind of silent transition. A series of economic reforms are shrinking the size of the state-run economy and making room for a greatly expanded private sector. The socialist dream isn’t over, but it’s been sharply redrawn. That Cuba is becoming a mixed economy is no longer under debate. What is under debate is what exactly that new economy will look like, how widely the benefits will be spread and why the reforms are proceeding so slowly.

One year ago Raúl Castro announced twin initiatives: mass layoffs to relieve the state’s budget and a long list of newly approved categories in which people can start small private businesses. After a draft version of the reforms was released, massive assemblies were held throughout the country, organized in places of employment or neighborhood associations. In April the final draft of the reform package was passed in the Communist Party Congress.

Since the policy began, the government has granted some 330,000 licenses, and for the first time since the 1960s the newly self-employed (known as cuentapropista) are allowed to hire other Cubans, not just family members. The government’s stated goal is to have nearly half the populace working in the private sector by 2015. For a country where nearly 90 percent of the economy was once in state hands, that will be a major about-face.

For the full article, go to: 
Sent by Robert Robinson 



After half century, Cubans again celebrate Good Friday

p10a After half century, Cubans again celebrate Good Friday
HAVANA: Altar boys participate in a Holy Week procession 
on Good Friday in Havana. — AP

HAVANA: Bells rang from Roman Catholic churches throughout Havana on Friday to remember the death of Jesus Christ as Cubans celebrated a holiday on Good Friday for the first time in more than half a century. The day off, granted at the request of Pope Benedict on his recent visit to the communist island, translated into quieter streets than usual, but only sparse attendance at a Mass in the city’s main cathedral presided over by Cardinal Jaime Ortega.

About 100 people, a number of them tourists, showed up for the event, but many Cubans may have watched it on national television in a broadcast as rare for the Church and country as the holiday itself. The Cuban government ended religious holidays after the 1959 revolution that put Fidel Castro in power. He reinstated Christmas as a holiday in 1998 at the request of visiting Pope John Paul, and his successor and younger brother, President Raul Castro, declared Friday a free day following Benedict’s trip to Cuba last week. It was still to be decided if Good Friday will become a permanent holiday, the government said.

HAVANA: Bells rang from Roman Catholic churches throughout Havana on Friday to remember the death of Jesus Christ as Cubans celebrated a holiday on Good Friday for the first time in more than half a century. The day off, granted at the request of Pope Benedict on his recent visit to the communist island, translated into quieter streets than usual, but only sparse attendance at a Mass in the city’s main cathedral presided over by Cardinal Jaime Ortega.

About 100 people, a number of them tourists, showed up for the event, but many Cubans may have watched it on national television in a broadcast as rare for the Church and country as the holiday itself. The Cuban government ended religious holidays after the 1959 revolution that put Fidel Castro in power. He reinstated Christmas as a holiday in 1998 at the request of visiting Pope John Paul, and his successor and younger brother, President Raul Castro, declared Friday a free day following Benedict’s trip to Cuba last week. It was still to be decided if Good Friday will become a permanent holiday, the government said.

Ortega, who is Archbishop of Havana and the leader of Cuba’s Catholic Church, spoke about the crucifixion of Christ in a homily that was heavy on the importance of religion and devoid of obvious politics. Humanity had been pardoned by Christ for its many failings, but it still had not achieved “a kingdom of justice, peace, freedom and love among all human beings,” he said in the ornate, colonial-era cathedral in Old Havana. Christians, Ortega said, are still persecuted in many places around the world, including Latin America “for having fought for justice.” When bells began to toll, he said gravely, “It is three o’clock and they are ringing the bells of all our churches in Havana, the sign of mourning because it is the hour of the death of Jesus.”

Relations between the Church and Cuban government have warmed under Raul Castro, who since succeeding his brother in 2008 has undertaken economic reforms that could bring increased unemployment and attendant social problems as he tries to remake the island’s struggling Soviet-style system. Benedict, who was in Cuba March 26-28, asked that the Church be able to expand its education and social programs, which he said could help Cuba through its time of change.

The Church also wants more access to mass media, which is controlled by the state, and got it, at least on Friday, with the televised Mass. For years, the Church was shut out from television, radio and newspapers. People attending Ortega’s Mass said a renewal of religion is occurring in the country, which for 15 years starting in 1976 the government declared officially atheist. The Church says about 60 percent of Cubans are baptized Catholics, but only 5 percent regularly go to Mass. “I think that, thanks to the visit of the pope, many things are coming out in Cuba,” Ruben Perez, 26. “The religiosity of the people can be felt, a people that need it very much.”

Santeria priest Mario Gonzalez agreed. Dressed in the white clothing of the Afro-Cuban religion and surrounded by figures of its saints, many of which are shared with the Catholic Church, he intently watched the Mass on television in his home in Old Havana, the capital’s historic quarter. It was a happy moment for Cuba after years of religious suppression, he said. “I think all religious people are celebrating these moments,” said Gonzalez. “I view with much approval the decision of the Cuban government on the request of the pope.”

But elsewhere in Havana, people walked along the Malecon, Cuba’s seaside boulevard, worked on cars, swept off sidewalks and played baseball in the parks. Most said they appreciated the holiday, which are few in Cuba, but either were not religious or never went to church. A housewife, Alma Cabrera, said that while she knew the significance of Good Friday, it was mostly the older people in her central Havana neighborhood who were actively religious. “A lot of them said they were going to watch it on television, but I didn’t. I had clothes to wash and a house to clean,” she said.- Reuters 

Libro de migrantes canarios a Puerto Rico


La Sociedad Puertorriqueña de Genealogía presentará en su asamblea anual el próximo sábado, 29 de octubre, el primer libro de su serie sobre Genealogía e Historia, dedicada a los migrantes canarios y su aportación a la familia puertorriqueña.

Este libro tiene 3,025 mini biografías de inmigrantes canarios. Cubre desde el siglo XVI hasta el XIX, e incluye seis ensayos históricos.  
Invito a los interesados a contactar a la presidenta de la SPG, Dr. Norma Feliberti Aldebol, para solicitar su copia.

Gracias, Luis R.Burset  October 11, 2011
Source:  Gladys Mendez   4/10/2012
Sent: Paul Newfield III  4/11/2012




Editor:  Almost ten years ago, I enjoyed a special visit.  Antonio "Tony" Pascual traveling from the Philippines to visit a niece in Southern California arranged to spend a few hours with me.  He shared his plans for holding a Pascual Family Reunion in Manila.  His goal was to bring together the descendants of Pedro Pasqual (circa 1735) and Clemencia Josepha from all over the world.  His vision certainly came together.  

The first  Pascual Family Grand Reunion was held in 2006, the second, January 3, 2009, and the third, this year, it was held in the World Trade Center, Pasay City Metro Manila on January 7th, 2012.  The organizational strategies to put such an event together was facilitated by the great desire of many primos to learn about their heritage.  Each reunion has resulted in a beautifully compiled soft-bound book.  In addition, a DVD was created with a wealth of information, historical, genealogical, and showing the many major accomplishments of the Pascual family.  In the months ahead, I will be sharing information from these books, with the aim of sharing the history and connections of our colonial ancestors, who had a part in the colonizing of the Philippines.  ~  Mimi

2006 Organizing Committee
February 2005, Cravings Restaurant, Shangri-La Hotel

2009 Organizing Committee
November 2008, San Juan City

Editorial from the 3rd Reunion book


2012 Organizing Committee 
Antonino Roman and committee members during the planning sessions at North Greenhills

It is due to a strong attachment to one's family heritage that genealogists do the things they do. The search for ancestors' names actually commences with the cycle of life- birth, marriage and death with corresponding dates and places. Ancestral research at Spanish parish churches has the cutting edge; baptismal certificates include the baptized person's paternal and maternal grandparents. A collateral document like the last will and testament of Don Miguel Pasqual is also valuable because it contradicted assumptions that he was unmarried.  His three children Maria/ Catalina and Margarita did not survive the cholera epidemic that swept the country in the 1860s The 1890 will of Doroteo Pasqual's widow Dona Crisanta Gonzalez found at the National Archives increased the original five children t( ten. Extracted from "Tierras-Navotas", the will uncovered the roots of many families which also trace their lineage to Dorotheo Pasqual the Ferrers (from Pioquinta), the Antonios (from Maria and Feliciana), the Paezes (from Micaela Pasqual de Naval), and the Cuaderno and Pahatis (from Faustino Pasqual's daughter Francisca), all direct descendants of Dorotheo's ten children.                    

In the olden days, all the cousins knew each other regardless of the branch they belonged to. With the passage of the elders in the fifties the days of "primos and primas" seemed to come to an end. But with technological advances and the Salt Lake City microfilmed files researchers made more discoveries.The intensive preparations by the the organizing committees under Abe Pascual (Mariano) and Jur Alvendia (Dorotheo) generated attendance from as far away as Europe and mainland U.S.A. In 2009. the Dominga branch attended th( reunion for the first time. The year 2012 is the turn of the Salvador branch. Descendants of Bernardo Pasqual and his wife Marcelina now recognized as belonging to one big clan, will be reunited again.

When the genealogical chart or the family tree is finally printed, the fruits of the genealogist's labor will have been harvested. At two past grand reunions, it was not unusual to see a father or a mother explaining to the little ones ancestral names printed on the tarpaulin (all of 3 > 66 ft.long). Classmates, office mates, and residents of enclaves discovered their common roots despite disparate surnames. Juan, Melencic and Ronaldo -three successive generations of genealogists, with the active participation of Alex Pascual from the USA, accomplished a detailed listing of more than ten generations of the Pascual clan. If Crisolito Pascual were alive today, he would be delighted to know that the family tree which he had originally conceptualized in 1942 with his younger cousin Melencio is now one of the country's most organized compilation of members of a clan that go back to the 1700s. The descendants numbering thousands, bond not only every three years since 2006, 2009 and now 2012, but also through smaller reunions in between.                                          

Not even the sands of time can erase this tribute to the family. It was Jesus Larios, the Spanish genealogist who cited the mandate that echoes from Mt. Sinai, honoring our fathers (our ancestors). A mutual and reciprocal love eternally unites parents and children, grandparents and grandchildren, ancestors and descendants, and relatives from all over the world.                              

Information sent by Antonio Pascual 




Politics and the Influence of Movie, Media, and Sports Personalities
     By Eddie AAA Calderón, Ph.D.
Brain Drain or Brain Deluge/Surplus By Eddie AAA Calderón, Ph.D.

Brain Drain or Brain Deluge/Surplus
By Eddie AAA Calderón, Ph.D.

9 years ago, I wrote on this important subject matter as it became a popular topic of discussion among Filipinos in the email exchange all over the world.

While many welcome the emigration of Filipinos abroad because they are able to find employment which they sorely need back home, there are those who have criticized the Filipinos for leaving their country which they say further complicates the country's program for economic progress. This topic has become known as brain drain. At that time we were mostly concentrating on the mass departure of our educated elite but recently we have seen the upsurge of many Filipinos into the field of home/domestic aid and assistance which also include college graduates unable to find adequate employment at home. At present and viewing the statistics at the end of this article, there are millions of Filipinos living in foreign countries.*
It should be also noted that the migration of people from one country to the others is not unique; people have been migrating from one place to the other since time began. And for a particular example, the mass migration of people from all over the world to the USA has transformed this country to what it has been --an economic, social, and political giant-- since it became independent in 1776. Consider that the present President of the USA was born of a Kenyan father who came to USA to attend Yale University in particular and ended up marrying an American woman. Their son has now graced the number one spot in that nation's political, social and economic landscape.
As a starting point, the Philippines has produced many college educated citizens raised since birth to imbibe the value of having a college education which has then created a continuous proliferation of many universities and colleges in the country. Ironically, this scenario has created imbalance and that is the existence of many college and university institutions vis-a-vis the reality of a country facing economic problems with many college graduates having no opportunity to find adequate employment. The Philippines is not an affluent country despite its many good post secondary schools. But many Filipinos who cherish having college education continue to go to school in their belief that having an education is better than not having one in spite of the lack of adequate employment opportunities awaiting them after graduation.
Consequently, many of those with technical education or college education unable to find meaningful employment at home have decided to emigrate to other countries, especially the West where their educational callings are very much in demand. Among the most notables are M.Ds., nurses, other health related officers, school teachers, engineers, especially electrical engineers, computer technologies, and other highly sought educational degrees.
As I mentioned above, the migration to foreign countries is not only for those are in search of professional jobs and careers but for other employment opportunities in the field of domestic work and assistance. The name that became known for this type of job very popular in the Middle easter and the Third World countries is "DH" which stands for domestic help. Many of those seeking domestic work are college educated, and again the absence of adequate employment opportunities in our country has made them seek whatever employment opportunites offered abroad even though the job or jobs maybe below their educational attainment. We have called our oversea workers as Oversea Foreign Workers or OFWs. Many believed which is also told to them by their parents that companies seeking workers would have the unenviable choice of hiring educated people than their counterparts which have been happening in our country for quite some time.
The issue here is not only brain drain but also manpower drain for the Philippines. Brain drain has been an old predicament that has either plagued or graced our country and it may also occur in other countries too. The same is true with manpower drain.
Brain drain shows that we have a lot of college educated people in our country who have chosen to emigrate to other countries to find themselves a place in the sun, to assist their families at home, and perhaps peripherally or unintentionally to assist the countries' pursuit for economic advancement and development. This may initially show that we are draining our elite to the detriment of our country's resources, and that our institutions of higher learning have been non-stop in the program to effectuate college graduates. It has, however, produced an ironical twist. The fact that many Filipinos have chosen to leave the country, may indicate a sad commentary that our educational institutions are economically getting well off because the demand for college education continues to be very great among the Filipinos despite the stark reality of having little or less opportunities of getting themselves gainfully employed after graduation. This situation appears to be the reverse of that widely accepted "law of supply and demand."
Of course we can't lay the blame on those who chose to emigrate. Many of our e-mailers have correctly and logically countered that unless our country and business institutions can provide them with commensurate employment, they have the right to seek their pursuit of happiness elsewhere.
I remember one very active member of my email group almost a decade ago, and we can call him a venerable member who was a lawyer in the Philippines. Despite his age at that time --he is now in his 90's, living in Rochester, Minnesota, and no longer active in the email exchange, his intellectual acumen at that time was intact when he averred that the issue was not that of brain drain but of brain deluge. These two statements may show a definite contradiction in analysing our situation, but after laboriously pondering on this subject matter, I found out that brain drain and brain surplus (my substitute term for brain deluge) are indeed complimentary and therefore not necessarily contradictory.
The fact that we are producing continuously our intellectual elite groups shows that we have brain surplus. And it is this surplus which enable our country to export our brain power to many countries, especially Western countries that are looking for it. The emigration phenomenom does not drain our intellectual community but they continue to fill the void caused by the drainage as the citizenry continues to pursue college education replacing those who left abroad for employment. The irony, however, is our country's efforts to keep producing college educated people only to be used by other countries as it is unable to provide them with adequate and meaningful employment. Foreign countries have so far reaped the bonanza of this so called brain drain.
This in itself gets the schools busy and therefore make them stay in business which have become more lucrative over the years. The appearance of brain drain as the graduates found new place in the sun in foreign countries do not really drain our economy as they remit lots of money back to their relatives, loved ones, and closest friends in the country. In fact billions of dollars have been remitted by the foreign workers each year as shown below from Wikipedia.**
As one e-mail member, an M.D. living in Massachussets eloquently stated long time ago, "we live not only in a local but a global economy....why let your talents and skills not be fully exploited for mankind. I assume that there are not enough job openings in the Philippines to make full use of ...(our peoples' technological) training."
But sending money in the billions of dollars is not the only means to contribute to the economic well-being of the Philippines. We do have lots of Kababayans (countrymates/paisanos) who visit the country to do various types of volunteer work, including medical missions, which are very much needed by our people. We also have those who send books to our institutions of learnings and to their families. We also have Kababayans who retire or have retired in the Philippines from abroad and therefore using their much valued or appreciated foreign currencies to spend their money and live comfortably in the Philippines. And most importantly, we do have lots of our countrymates making substantial business investments in our country.
In short, if we speak of the movement our intellectual members to other countries and the beneficial results to our country in terms of remittance, commercial investment especially for those who have decided to return home, and others. The concept of brain drain is not necessarily a contradiction of brain surplus. We may not even even want to use these terms anymore. Even if we want to continue using them, their impact to our country is again very beneficial. The emigration exodus has provided the needed employment for our people who can't find them adequately at home. Again the exodus and the decision to return home have also graced and uplifted our country economically speaking. The exodus is therefore not an economic downgrade for the Philippines.

*Million of Filipinos in foreign countries from Wikipedia:
  • Canada. Only a small population of Filipinos resided in Canada until the late 20th century. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration has estimated that as of 2006 there were over 400,000 Canadians of Filipino origin.[16] Due to Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Western Canada and the Philippines; contracts in Atlantic Canada; consistent hiring of workers in Central Canada; and increased activity in Northern Canada, it is estimated that there will be some 500,000 Filipinos in Canada as of 2010. As of December 2008, Filipinos overtook China as Canada's leading source of immigrants.[17] See Filipino Canadians.


  • Hong Kong. There are approximately 140,000 Filipinos in Hong Kong, of whom most are domestic helpers (30,000 of them being members of the Filipino Migrant Workers Union). Filipino maids are known by the locals as amahs, or more often feiyungs (less politely, bun mui or bun bun), and face discrimination and maltreatment from the locals. A Hong Kong work visa requires some amount of higher education; and in some cases Filipino women with college degrees and perfect command of English are willing to work as maids and nannies for a salary higher than they could make at home in professions.[HKG]
  • India. Approximately 1,000 Filipinos reside in India. However, government's official figures show some 500 Filipinos.
  • Italy. There are about 131,000 Filipinos in Italy. This makes the country host to more Filipinos than any other countries in Europe except Great Britain.
  • Iraq. Despite the Philippine government's ban on OFWs working in Iraq, an estimated 1,000-3,000 Filipinos[citation needed] work there. Most work on US Military bases around the country as cooks and laundry service, sometimes as third-country national security guards. This is the only foreign country in which Filipino men outnumber Filipino women.
  • Iraq. Despite the Philippine government's ban on OFWs working in Iraq, an estimated 1,000-3,000 Filipinos[citation